Eaves, Awnings, and Home Exterior Weather-Resistance

Eaves and awnings with sufficient reach are features I see lacking far too often on homes. Granted, one can argue that it’s more often than not a matter of style or design. True, and I don’t want this to come across sounding like it’s a crime if your house doesn’t have a 1 meter awning on every window. But at times one must choose between fashion or style and durability when designing a structure. Ideally, a skilled architect will achieve an artistic and structurally sound balance.

We all at least vaguely understand the functions of eaves and awnings, but perhaps we don’t fully comprehend all their benefits. First of all, you should look at eaves and awnings as your first line of defense against rain and sun-induced rot and decay. This is true of all exterior walls of your home, as well as the interior sections of your house that are exposed via your windows and doors.

As tough as your exterior walls can be, they are never impervious to the power of the sun and rain! In truth, NOTHING you do to the exterior of your home will keep it from eventually succumbing to the sun and rain, but there are some things you can do to make it last significantly longer. And when I say significantly, I mean the potential difference between a house lasting 20 years and 100+ years!

I suppose it doesn’t take a genius to deduce that falling rain will first land on your roof, subsequently flow downward into your rain gutters and then continue on into your drainage system. But the one variable that we mustn’t forget is the wind! Rarely does rain fall at a completely vertical angle. The wind will to varying degrees, drive the rain – or snow – against your house. This is where your eaves and awnings play a large role!

In terms of durability, the further your eaves extend past your exterior walls the better! Obviously, there is a drawback to your eaves protruding too far in that it will block direct sunlight. Plus, once an eave extends past a certain point, it will begin to require vertical support posts, and will then become what is known as a canopy instead of an eave or awning. Aesthetics are another important factor as well.

Skillfully incorporating durable features into your design is tricky, but nothing is more important if you desire a long-lasting home. For me personally, there is something invitingly “homey” about extended eaves and awnings on a house. Perhaps I’m not alone in this perspective. I don’t know, but it just seems to scream warmth, a hot meal, and hospitable hosts.

Water Softener Resin Beads – Clean It or Bin It?

Water softener resin helps to make hard water soft by removing magnesium and calcium ions from the h2o which is piped in to the tank. It’s a plastic-like compound capable of swapping one ion with another. All the conventional cation water softener resin beads are engineered to reduce water hardness, but you’ll find anion resin that may well clean out tannin (produced by rotten vegetation) from the consuming water. Fine mesh resin removes former minerals most notably iron received from well water.

While the water passes through the resin, the sodium ions it contained are removed and mixed with the hydrogen ions in the system. In cases where you have a drinking water supply that contains high concentration of chlorine, then it is a lot harder for any water softener resin in your system. If you really want the chlorine away, get a backwash carbon filter with a few cu.ft. of carbon.

Softener resin needs to be regenerated or rinsed that allows you to keep its capabilities. Anytime you are deciding on a cleaning substance for that use, make it a point it is made clearly to get rid of mineral buildup. Usually you can find a resin cleaner that is targeted on a definite element – for example iron. Throughout this routine, resin is being back washed with the salt solution.

The fact is that a common cation resin can also clean out iron that is often wide-spread in a huge number of private wells across the country. Dissolved iron to as much as 6 mg/ltr could possibly be eliminated through softening. Standard softening in addition eliminates dissolved radium. In case you experience an iron water problem, you will want to look into an iron filtration system made precisely for your type of iron.

At the same time, this water softener component may end up being fouled by manganese and/or iron. The outcome of a fouling is going to be loss of performance of the system, requiring significantly more regeneration employing the same amount of salt, which will cause raised salt usage. To take out the aforementioned minerals out of the resin beads, resin cleaner is generally applied in the equipment to exchange the minerals for salt ions.

It’s a vital piece of many models however. Each resin found in a Fleck 5600 SXT water softener is effective in case of each of those magnesium and calcium. General Water Services offers water softener resin for short-term or long term installations. Rainsoft resin beads have proven to be of the top value which will never need change, and also the machine service is actually cost-free apart from supplying salt.

Ion exchange resins are generally made with a typical particle dimensions of around 0.5 milimeter, that has a particle dimensions distribution anywhere between 16 and 50 U. s. standard mesh. It’s a process popular at home (washing liquids and also water filters) for making soft water. In many instances the phrase ion exchange is used to refer to the methods concerning purification, separation, and also decontamination of fluids and also other ion-containing solutions.

Ion Exchange Resins are approved for treating water to drink in most of the states this includes Colorado, Washington and also California. Water softener resin beads won’t keep going eternally. That being said on average, resin life span should be 10-20 yrs but then that is also influenced by the actual quality of the resin.

Alternatives to Liebenzeller Gold I Rosin

Liebenzeller rosin has been around a long time. In fact, I still have a cake of it from the 1980s. This brand took rosin “upscale,” by adding trace amounts of gold, copper, silver, and other metals (along with lots of dollars) to the price of rosin.

After all these years, Liebenzeller has finally been discontinued. From what I understand, it is unlikely that it will ever be available again, unless it is produced and sold by a different company.

Liebenzeller’s “flagship” entry was its “Gold I” rosin. Designed to be exceptionally smooth and fine, this rosin contained trace amounts of pure gold and a high price tag. Violinists in search of a smooth, sweet, refined tone often sought out this extremely fine, light, rosin.

Although it may still be (temporarily) possible to find Gold II, I do believe that Gold I may be nearly impossible to find. I performed a thorough search of shops with an Internet presence both in the United States and abroad, as well as looking on eBay and craigslist, and I couldn’t come up with any Gold I. A couple of stores that still sold it about a year ago (one in Australia and one in England) are now out of stock too.

But not every shop advertises its products on the internet, and I suspect that if you called a few excellent string shops that don’t do the majority of their business online (such as Moenning in Philadelphia, Reuning in Boston, House of Note in Minneapolis, or John Waddle in St. Paul) you might find that somebody still has some supply left.

However, many different brands of rosin have come out since Liebenzeller first appeared on the market that are, in my opinion, just as good; and some (such as Andrea Paganini) have qualities similar to the refined nature of the Liebenzeller. I’d highly recommend looking into these options for fine and light (rather than coarse and dark) rosins that you might like just as much or even better. In my experience, Liebenzeller Gold I had a tendency to apply rather lightly and come off quickly. Because of this, even within a rehearsal or performance, one might feel that the bow already needs more rosin. In sum, a lot of new brands of rosin have entered the market that are excellent and worth trying that might perform even better than Liebenzeller.

Fireplace Screens: Safety and Beauty With Wood Burning or Gas Log Fireplaces, Vented and Ventless

Fireplace screens are beautiful accessories to enhance safety in wood burning and gas log fireplaces

Fireplace screens are some of the most useful and beautiful fireplace accessories available and can often include fire tools like a poker, tongs and clamps as a part of the fire-screen design. A fireplace is very often the focal point of any room it graces and the gentle warmth of the fireplace, flickering light and aromatic smoke are part of the attraction. However, gas log wood burning fireplaces also house an open flame and certain safety precautions are necessary to keep sparks contained within the fireplace and to keep young fingers and inquisitive pets safely away from heat.

Fireplace screens can serve as spark arrestors for the wood burning fireplace and as decorative items or they can help protect a hearth floor area from rolling logs moving around as flames burn off a wood stack in the case of sturdier types of screens. Most screens are made of metal such as brass or more commonly wrought iron or steel. Since fireplace screens are subjected to the full heat of the fireplace they must be made of durable materials.

Perhaps the most common type of fireplace screen is the mesh spark arrestor made of finely wrought interlinked chains, which are hung from a rod suspended from the lintel inside the fireplace opening. The screens can be drawn shut like a curtain when needed or opened when the fireplace is not in use. While these screens will not stop a rolling log they will protect areas outside the hearth from flying sparks from popping wood sap. One of the greatest advantages to mesh screens is that they require no extra space or braces and do not extend past the flush face of the fireplace.

Another very common type of fireplace screen is made of iron, brass or steel and mounts in front of or on the hearth free-standing in front of the firebox. These fireplace screens can be a simple flat screen, might be free standing on leg-brackets and could be the more common three-sided screen. Three-sided screens have a center section that spans the width of the fireplace. The two sides are hinged to turn at a thirty to forty-five degree angle thus holding the screen plum straight up. The fireplace screen can have fireplace tools, candles and all manner of artistic décor built into the design.

The flat screen fire-screen can be made of one, two, three or four panels. It might fold up neatly when not in use or may be so aesthetically pleasing that hiding it is undesirable. While a fire-screen serves a clearly defined use-value when used in conjunction with a wood-burning fireplace most homeowners who own gas log fireplaces also use fire-screens. The fire-screen serves as an obstruction to children and pets but is often purchased for its decorative qualities.

Fitting a fireplace screen such as the flat panel variety may be relatively easy, as they are not designed to fit flush to the fireplace and can easily over-lap the fireplace width and still look attractive and serve the function of containing sparks on one side and fingers on the other.

Not all older brick or cement fireplaces are of a consistent size because most of these fireplaces are built on site as custom designs. While newer fireplace designs are fitted around a standardized firebox, older fireplaces were built custom on site. Newer fireplaces that are customized inside the home use a steel firebox with insulation, heat shields and fire brick already installed. The fire box can be built into a mantle or into a wall of the home with little to no safety features necessary for full functionality. Even ventless gas fireplace fire boxes come with a spark arrestor curtain, chain-mail screen to add to the illusion of a wood burning fireplace with the convenience of a gas log installation and remote control use.

Custom fireplaces will have inconsistencies in width, height and fireplace depth. While fireplace screens are produced in standardized sizes, not all fireplaces will be that exact and the fire-screen may over-shoot the size. Spark arrestor curtains can be custom made for specific rods to fit inside any custom fireplace opening but free standing fireplace screens are available in standard finished and colors.

When selecting a fireplace screen most often the room décor, and style and fitting the size of the fireplace are primary considerations. A fireplace screen can be as ornate or as simple as the style of the room dictates. A fireplace screen can add to the beauty of a room while assuring that the unprotected floor or carpeting is safe from flying sparks and the fire itself kept apart from curious pets and small children.

Choosing the Correct Bricklayers’ Spirit Level

The Spirit Level is probably the most expensive part of the bricklayers tool kit, because keeping the work level (horizontal) and plumb (vertical) is the core to producing high quality brickwork job. These levels come in different sizes; with the main size for everyday work is nine hundred millimeters (3 feet) or twelve hundred millimeters (4 feet) in length. Two things affect the length of a bricklayers spirit level:

  • The longer the level, the greater the accuracy.
  • When working in cramped quarters a long level is useless. So it is also useful to have a nine-inch torpedo level in your kit to work in tight spaces.

Bricklayers spirit levels come in several different styles, materials, lengths, features and price ranges. Despite this, levels are not terribly expensive and a good one will last you a lifetime with proper care. However, a bad one will cause you real problems if you are producing work that is not straight, horizontal or vertical, so do not compromise on quality!

So what should you look for when choosing a level? The two most important factors to look for are the design and the material it is made of. The cheaper levels will have simple I-beam designs because they look like an “I” when viewed from the end. Cheaper designs are often made of hard plastic. Better quality levels are made of machined aluminum or hardwood bound with brass. These will have a more stable, box design that is less likely to warp and twist. Another factor to look for is a lifetime warranty on the vials.

Whilst they are similar in design and price to a standard carpenters level, bricklayers levels are designed to be more rugged for continual use around bricks, blocks, and mortar. Also, they are designed for repeated cleaning with a brush and water. Some levels have a reinforced edge that can be tapped with a trowel or hammer while the level is lying on the bricks – this simplifies checking and adjusting the brick courses as the work proceeds.

As well as being solid level, it is important that the bubble vial is accurate. These bubbles should set in clear resin/plastic and be protected by the body of the level. In some high quality levels, the vials are replaceable if they break, or even adjustable if they become inaccurate.

Hardwood Classics

Many traditionalists choose hardwood for spirit levels because they its look and feel. Also some bricklayers appreciate that the continual use of a protective linseed oil seal helps to keep the mortar from sticking to the sides.

Level in a Box

Box-shape levels resist twists and bends better than I-beam shaped levels of the same weight and length. Some levels have a built-in mirror that lets you check the vertical-testing plumb vial by looking through the levels edge rather than having to press the side of your head against a wall.

Why do some levels have more that two lines engraved on the vial bubble?

Many spirit-level vials have two sets of lines engraved on them. When the bubble is centered between the inside pair, it indicates level; but when it touches one of the outer lines, it means the level is sloping at a 2-percent gradient (about ¼ inch per foot of run), Why would this be useful, well this is the minimum slope needed for pipes, and rain gutters to drain properly.

Making sure a Level is level.

A must be accurate level if it is to do its job correctly. To check that a spirit level is accurate, place it on a flat surface and note where the bubble ends up. Then turn the level around, if the tool is accurate, the bubble should fall in exactly the same place. Levels with replaceable vials can be adjusted, but may also slip out of accuracy so they should be tested regularly. If the level is inaccurate and cannot be adjusted, throw it away as it will only cause you to deliver poor brickwork.

Common Mode Currents Vs Differential-Mode

In all circuits both common-mode (CM) and differential-mode (DM) currents are present. Both types of current determine the amount of RF energy propagated between circuits or radiated into free space. There is a significant difference between the two. Given a pair of transmission lines and a return path, one or the other mode will exist, usually both. Differential-mode signals carry data or a signal of interest (information). Common-mode is an undesired side effect from differential-mode transmission and is most troublesome for EMC. For purposes of this discussion, reference to differential (twisted) pair transmission lines is not presented. When using simulation software to predict emissions, DM analysis is usually the form of analysis used. It is impossible to predict radiated emissions based solely on DM (transmission line) currents.

Differential-Mode Currents

Differential-mode current is the component of RF energy present in both the signal and return paths that is equal and opposite to each other. If a 180° phase shift is established precisely, RF differential-mode currents will be canceled. Common-mode effects may, however, be developed because of ground bounce and power plane fluctuation caused by components drawing current from a power distribution network. Differential-mode signals will (1) convey desired information and (2) cause minimal interference as the fields generated oppose each other and cancel out if properly set up.

Common-Mode Currents

Common-mode current is the component of RF energy that is present in both signal and return paths, often in common phase to each other. The measured RF field due to CM currents will be the sum of the currents that exist in both the signal and return path. This summation could be substantial. Common-mode currents are generated by any imbalance in the circuit. Radiated emissions are the result of such imbalance. Poor flux cancellation may be caused by an imbalance between two transmitted signal paths or excessive impedance in the return path. If DM signals are not exactly opposite and in phase, magnetic flux will not cancel out. The portion of RF current that is not canceled is identified as “common-mode” current. Common-mode signals (1) are the major sources of cable and interconnect EMI and (2) contain no useful information.

Common-mode currents begin as the result of currents mixing in a shared conductive path such as power and return planes within a PCB, cable assemblies between systems, or the chassis enclosure. Typically this happens because RF currents flow through both intentional and unintentional paths. The key to preventing CM energy is to understand and manage RF return currents.

In any return path RF current will attempt to couple with RF current in the source path (magnetic flux traveling in opposite directions to each other). Flux that is coupled to each other (i.e., 180° out of phase) will cancel, permitting the total magnitude of flux to approach zero. However, if an RF current return path is not provided with symmetry to the source through a path of least impedance, residual common-mode RF currents will be developed across the source of impedance. There will always be some CM currents in any transmission line or system as a finite distant spacing must be present between the signal trace and return path (flux cancellation approaches 100%). The portion of DM return current that is “not” canceled becomes residual CM current.

To make a DM-CM comparison for both magnetic and electric field sources, consider a pair of parallel wires carrying a DM signal. Within this wire, RF currents flow in opposite directions. As a result, all RF fields are contained between the wire pair. This parallel set of wires will act as a balanced transmission line that delivers a clean differential (signal-ended) signal to a load.

Using this same wire pair, look at what happens when CM voltage is placed on this wire. No useful information is transmitted to the load since the wires carry the same voltage potential. This wire pair now functions as a driven dipole antenna with respect to ground. This antenna radiates unwanted CM fields with extreme efficiency. Common-mode currents are generally observed in I/O cables. This is why I/O cables radiate RF energy as well.

One Main Number and Multiple Incoming Lines

“We would like to have one main phone number and multiple phone lines for calling.” Can a request like this to your phone company, be simpler than that?

You would be surprised to know how many different ways a phone company can set up your lines. And each solution has its own set of pros and cons.

Over-lines,hunt-groups, roll-over lines,pilot number, real number are the common terms here to be aware of.

Over-lines – There is one main number or pilot number which is the first line, and then there are over-lines or additional lines. Each line physically connected to your phone system to be able to provide you with multiple lines to dial out.

For example, if you need three lines coming into your office, then the request would be for one main number or pilot line and 2 over-lines or you can call it a one plus two over-line system.

If you need 4 lines coming in, then the request would be for 1 main or pilot line and 3 over-lines, i.e one plus three over-line system.

Each of the over-lines are separate phone lines, with the same phone number attached to them i.e your main or pilot phone number of your business.

The over-line system ensures that when your first line is busy, the next incoming call will ring on the next over-line, till all your lines are busy.

AND, more importantly, it will ensure that each of them will display your MAIN phone number as caller ID when you call out.

This is not the case with the hunt-group or multi-line system.

Instructions Of Interior Painting

Interior painting requires as careful preparation of surfaces as does exterior painting. The advent of odorless paints now makes it possible to paint any time of the year. Formerly, most interior painting in the home was done in the fall or spring, when it was possible to leave the windows open to ventilate the room. But open windows brought dust into the room to mar the finished painted surface.

A good interior paint job is often 50% preparation and 50% painting. Do not rush in preparing the surfaces in your eagerness to get at the brush or roller. If you do not prepare the surfaces properly, you’ll be back with the paint brush or roller in a few months.

In this section you will find the necessary information on the application of different types of paints on various interior wall, ceiling and floor materials.


New dry plaster in good condition, which is to be finished with a paint other than water paint, should be given a coat of primer-sealer and allowed to dry thoroughly before being inspected for uniformity of appearance. Variations in gloss and color differences in the case of tinted primers indicate whether or not the whole surface has been completely sealed. If not, a second coat of primer-sealer should be applied. If only a few “suction spots” are apparent, a second coat over these areas may be sufficient.

A flat, semi-gloss, or high-gloss finish may be applied to the primed surface. For a flat finish, two coats of flat wall paint should follow the priming coat. For a semi-gloss finish, one coat of flat wall paint and one coat of semi-gloss paint should be applied to the primed surface. For a high-gloss finish, one coat of semi-gloss paint and one coat of high-gloss enamel should be used over the priming coat.

Before applying water paints of the calcimine type to new plastered walls they should be sized, using either a glue-water size or, if the plaster is dry, a thin varnish or primer-sealer.

Cold water paints of the casein type may be applied either directly to a plastered surface, or the surface may be first given a coat of primer-sealer to equalize uneven suction effects. The same is true of resin-emulsion paints, with the recommendations of the manufacturer of the product being given preference in case of doubt. Since resin-emulsion paints usually contain some oil in the binder, they should ordinarily be applied only to plaster which has dried thoroughly.

Texture wall paints may also be used on plaster surfaces. The advantages of this type of paint are that one coat economically produces a textured decoration and relieves the monotony of smooth flat paint. It also covers cracks or patches in the plaster more completely than ordinary wall paint. The disadvantages of texture wall paint are that they Collect dust and are difficult to restore to a smooth finish. These materials are available as water-or oil-based paints, are thicker than ordinary wall paints, and may be applied to wallboard as well as plaster to produce textured effects such as random, Spanish, mission, and multicolored.

Composition Wallboard

Composition wallboard usually presents no particular painting difficulties if the ordinary precautions are observed, such as making certain that the surface is dry and free from grease and oil. The painting procedure for wallboard is the same as for plaster; it requires a priming and sealing coat followed by whatever finishes coats are desired, or may be given one-coat flat or resin-emulsion type paint.


Water-thinned paint may be applied to wallpaper that is well- bonded to the wall and does not contain dyes which may bleed into the paint. One thickness of wallpaper is preferable for paint application. Paints other than those of the water-thinned type may also be applied to wallpaper by following the directions given for painting plaster. However, wallpaper coated with such a paint is difficult to remove without injury to the plaster.

Wood Walls and Trim

New interior walls and wood trim should be smoothed with sand-paper and dusted before painting or varnishing. To preserve the grain of the wood, the surface may be rubbed with linseed oil, varnished or shellacked, and waxed. If an opaque finish is desired, semi-gloss paint thinned with 1 pint of turpen-tine per gallon of paint or the primer-sealer previously described for walls may be used as a priming coat on wood. One or two coats of semi-gloss paint should then be applied over the thoroughly dry prime coat, or if a full-gloss finish is desired, the last coat should be a high-gloss enamel.

Masonry Walls and Ceilings

Interior masonry walls and ceilings above grade may, in general, be painted in much the same manner as plaster surfaces. Here again, it is necessary to allow adequate time for the masonry to dry before applying paint and, in addition, attention should be given to the preparation of the surface. When decorating a wall containing Portland cement (concrete, for example), it is essential to take precautions against the attack of alkali. For this purpose, alkali-resistant primers such as rubber-base paints may be used when oil paints are to follow.

Cement-water paints are best suited for application to basement walls which are damp as a result of leakage or condensation. To apply these paints, the same procedure should be followed as is described here for painting exterior masonry walls.

Concrete Floors

Two general types of paints for concrete floors are varnish and rubber-base paint. Each has its limitations and the finish cannot be patched without the patched area showing through. Floor and deck enamel of the varnish type gives good service on concrete floors above grade where there is no moisture present.

Rubber-base paints, which dry to a hard semi-gloss finish, may be used on concrete floors below grade, providing the floor is not continually damp from seepage and condensation.

Paint should not be applied to a concrete basement floor until the concrete has aged for at least a year. The floor should be dry when painted, the best time for application being during the winter or early spring (assuming there is some heating apparatus in the basement), when the humidity in the basement is low. In general, three coats of paint are required on an unpainted floor, and the first coat should be thin to secure good penetration. After the paint is dry, it should be protected with a coat of floor wax.

In repainting concrete floors, where the existing paint has been waxed and is in good condition except for some worn areas, the surface should be scrubbed with cloths saturated with turpentine or petroleum spirits and rubbed with steel wool while wet, to remove all wax before repainting. If this is not done, the paint will not adhere and dry satisfactorily, if the old paint is badly worn, it should be removed by treating with a solution of 2 lbs. of caustic soda (household lye) to 1 gallon of hot water. This may be mopped on the surface and allowed to remain for 30 minutes after which the floor can be washed with hot water and scraped with a wide steel scraper. Another method of application is to spread a thin layer of sawdust, which has been soaked in caustic solution over the floor and allow it to stand overnight. The following morning, the floor can be washed with hot water and the paint scraped off. The surface should then be rinsed thoroughly with clean water.

If rubber-base paint has been used, the caustic soda treatment may not be effective and it may be necessary to use an organic solvent type of paint remover.

Caution: – When using caustic soda or lye, avoid splashing eyes, skin, and clothing.

Interior Metal

Interior metal, such as heating grilles, radiators, and exposed water pipes, should be painted to prevent rust and to make them as inconspicuous as possible. New metal should be cleaned of grease and dirt by washing with mineral spirits, and any rust should be removed by sanding, after which a metal primer should be applied. The finish coat may be either a flat wall paint or a semi-gloss enamel.

If you are not sure of the primer to use on metal, the paint dealer or manufacturer will give you this information, dependent on the type of metal to be painted.

Usually on exposed air ducts of galvanized metal a primer coat of zinc dust-zinc oxide paint is used, before the finish coat is applied.

The paints may be applied by brush or spray; the small spray attachment for vacuum cleaners is very convenient, especially for painting radiators.

Brass lighting fixtures and andirons may be polished and kept bright by coating with metal lacquers. The lacquers, held in cans under pressure, may be sprayed directly from the container. Old-fashioned or unattractive lighting fixtures may be painted with ceiling or wall paint to harmonize with the surrounding surfaces.

Special Surfaces


Whitewashes and lime paints must be thin when applied. In fact, best results will be obtained if the application is so thin that the surface to which it is applied may easily be seen through the film while it is wet. The coating will dry opaque, but two thin Coats will give better results than one thick coat.

A large whitewash brush is best for applying the wash. One should not attempt to brush out the coating, as in applying oil paint, but simply spread the whitewash on as evenly and quickly as possible.

The principal ingredient in whitewash is lime paste. A satisfactory paste can be made with hydrated lime, but better results are obtained by using quicklime paste that has been slaked with enough water to make it moderately stiff. The lime paste should be kept in a loosely covered container for at least several days. Eight gallons of stiff lime paste can be made by slaking 25 lbs. of quicklime in 10 gallons of water, or by soaking 50 lbs. of hydrated lime in 6 gallons of water. After soaking, the paste should be strained through a fine screen to remove lumps or foreign matter.

Whitewash can be made from various combinations of lime paste and other ingredients. The following two formulas are satisfactory.

The casein, which serves as the glue binder, should be soaked in 2 gallons of hot water until thoroughly softened, which should be approximately 2 hours. After dissolving the trisodium phosphate in 1 gallon of water it should be added to the casein, stirring the mixture until the casein dissolves. This solution should be mixed with the lime paste and 3 gallons of water.

The salt and alum should be dis-solved in 4 gallons of hot water, after which the molasses may be added to the mixture. The resulting clear solution is then added to the lime paste, stirred vigorously, and thinned with water to the desired consistency. This whitewash has a yellow tinge when first applied, but the color disappears in a few days leaving a white film.

Another satisfactory whitewash can be made by diluting a moderately heavy cold lime paste (about 33 lbs. of hydrated lime and 8 gallons of water) with 5 gallons of skim-milk.

The area covered by a gallon of whitewash depends upon the nature of the surface, but ordinarily a gallon will cover about 225 sq. ft. on wood, about 180 sq. ft. on brick, and about 270 sq. ft. on plaster. The formulas mentioned will make from 10 to 14 gallons of whitewash. If a smaller quantity is desired, the amount of each ingredient should be reduced proportionately.


Whether you desire the effect of stippling (tiny paint dots) as a decorative effect, or if you have a wall which has an uneven surface and you feel you can hide the defect by stippling it, you may accomplish this result very simply.

For stippling you need a special brush; get one that is flat, and has short, stiff bristles.

The first step is to cover the surface with a coat of paint, using your regular paint brush, or spray, or roller. Then, while the surface is still wet, take the dry stipple brush and energetically with short strokes drive the ends or the bristles into the wet paint. Be sure not to brush across. The result will be clusters of dots. Every few minutes wipe the brush with a cloth, to keep the bristle ends clean and dry.


You may want designs on the walls, or perhaps even on floors and ceilings, in some of the rooms or hallway. You may buy or make your own stencils, which should be on heavy paper, stencil board, plastic, or metal. Avoid stencils made of lightweight paper which will get soaked when touched by wet paint. Your paint dealer will suggest the best paint for you to use, as it will depend a great deal on the surface over which you want to put the stenciled designs. Generally a heavy paint is used, so that it will not spread under the stencil while you are applying it.

The stencil must be held very firmly against the surface with one hand, and the stencil brush worked over it quickly with the other hand. Or, if you have an assistant, it is best for one person to keep the stencil steady, while the other does the painting. In removing the stencil, make sure you pick it up without smudging.

Engineering Degree Difficulty – Is It Really The Hardest Degree To Pass?

Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Engineering. These are the some Engineering degrees. Is it really the hardest course to pass?

High school graduates today want an easy pass in life. Sorry to tell you, if you want to earn money, you have to work hard for it. In order for you to be given the opportunity to earn money, you have to pick a college degree that you will excel in.

To get eng’g. course students should work hard. Engineering degree is not so hard if the student works hard to pass it.

Engineering course have a reputation of being the most difficult major to pass. Because of this, many students do not include engineering in their list of courses to take. On the other hand, there are still those students who are up for the challenge and there are those that have dreamed to become engineers someday. No amount of intimidating words will stop these people from getting their engineering degree.

It is true that Engineering courses are difficult. Nevertheless, nothing comes easy in life nowadays. Learning to play an instrument is hard and excelling in a sport is difficult too. Ask yourself, why not invest on a course that can prove to be rewarding throughout your life? It will just take you 4 years to get your bachelor’s and you can start earning big money for yourself already.

If you are determined to pursue an engineering degree, do not let anyone talk you out of it. Your first days in college will be intimidating. People will tell you that the engineering course will be very difficult and you should switch. These are the words of cowards and you should know better.

You should know that the more difficult the course is, the more rewarding it will be at the end. Look at med students who take at least 8-10 years to become doctors. Once they become doctors, it is just an easy walk in the park for them. Preparation is key to go through the engineering course. Prepare yourself mentally and emotionally. Dedicate yourself and be committed. If you have all of these, you will pass the engineering course with flying colors.

While you are at it, strive to excel even if it is difficult. Do not be someone who studies just for the sake of passing. Nonetheless, enrolling in an engineering degree does not mean that you have to cut down on your social life. Your classmates will prove to be very helpful to you to surviving this degree. Don’t be scared about this degree. You will also learn more about teamwork as engineers always work with a team. Good luck and have fun becoming an engineer.

Engineering degree is not so difficult if the students know itself what kind of engineer degree he wants and he is interested. In short students should be hard working.

UFFI: Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation – What is UFFI?

Q. I’m considering purchasing an older home in the Trenton area, and the listing indicates UFFI (Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation). What is UFFI, and should I be concerned? I’ve heard that UFFI is a health hazard.

A. Formaldehyde is a relatively inexpensive chemical which is used in many manufacturing processes. It is an acrid, colorless gas, which, at concentrations lower than 0.05 ppm, may have no detectable odor. Sources of formaldehyde in a house could be numerous, and include particle board, tobacco smoke, gas appliances, new fabrics and aerosol products. Is is also a by-product of combustion and is produced by the operation of furnaces, fireplaces and wood stoves. Formaldehyde is common in the outside air; it is found in automobile exhaust fumes and is produced by various industrial and manufacturing operations.

UFFI was a low-density foam prepared at the site, and pumped into wall cavities, where it expanded and looked and felt like shaving cream until it hardened. It is usually white or cream colored, although it was sometimes tinted blue. UUFI releases formaldehyde as it cures, and with age and degradation.

More than 100,000 Candian homes were insulated with UFFI in the 1970’s, as a retrofit insulation, primarily in response to the preceived energy crisis. Better insulation meant less air exchange between the chemically laden inside and the fresh outside, which aggravated the situation. Still, incidences of fatigue, eye, nose and throat irritations were ONLY SLIGHTLY HIGHER in homes with UFFI than those without, but the fear and suspicion was enough to cause Ottawa to ban the use of the insulation.

It became known that levels of formaldehyde decrease rapidly after installation, especially in properly ventilated homes. Subsequent testing has shown that the highest levels of formaldehyde exist in homes with brand new carpeting, with or without UFFI!

Following a short curing period, the presence of UFFI does NOT affect the amount of formaldehyde in the indoor air. While not statistically significant, the homes tested were found on average to have formaldehyde levels slightly BELOW that of homes of similar ages without UFFI!

UFFI was only temporarily banned in the US, and has been used in Europe over the last 30 years, where it was never banned and is considered one of the better retrofit insulations.

CONCLUSION: No correlation has been found between formaldehyde gas and health problems, however it is difficult to draw definative conclusions concerning the exposure-response relationship for formaldehyde irritancy, due to the scarcity of information available from reliable clinical studies.

The greater concern for most enlightened buyers has been, that with the stigma attached to a “UFFI house”, resale value might be affected; but the concern is quickly diminishing as recollections of “UFFI-mania” fade into history…

Mexican Lime Pie – Very Easy and Cheap to Make

In my cooking club we have a different theme each month. In June it was all about desserts. My husband recommended that I make a Mexican lime pie because it is one of his favorite desserts and the last time he ate this dessert was about 15 years ago. He calls it the poor’s people dessert because it is cheap to make and many poor people in Mexico make this dessert. You’ll need:

5 to 8 limes

2 12oz cans of condensed milk

1 pack of maria cookies

1 medium size vanilla cookie crust pie pan

Pour the 2 cans of condensed milk into a medium bowl. Squeeze 5 to 8 medium size limes into the condensed milk and mix well. Use more or less limes depending on how tart you like it.

You are going to layer the mix and the cookies in the vanilla cookie crust pie pan.

Pour about a third cup of mix into the vanilla cookie pie pan then place the maria cookies evenly over the mix. Pour another layer of mix over the cookies then add another layer of cookies over the mix.

Finish the pie off by pouring one more layer of mix over the cookies and spread evenly, then place the pie in the refrigerator overnight. If you like, place thin slices of limes around the pie to decorate.

The pie taste similar to a key lime pie. As you can see, there is very little ingredients, really easy to make and taste like you really put some time into it. Instead of buying a store bought pie, impress people by making your own dessert. Enjoy!

Top Ten Bar Movies

Considering that a lot of us spend a large amount of time in bars, it is amazing how few movies feature bars as a central element of the story. There are classic bar scenes (Star Wars Cantina for example or the saloon in High Noon) but few movies feature a bar as a character unto itself. Bars are usually plot devices thrown in as shorthand. Depressed or lonely? Then the seedy run-down bar on the bad side of town reflects the character’s inner angst. Happy? The trendy martini bar with its neon and bright colors is front and center. Mysterious, jaded or edgy? Then the characters are sitting up at the hotel bar drinking scotch.

For all the evidence out there and spots for solid research, few movies actually capture the atmosphere of a real bar. Bartenders rarely respond to “hey barkeep,” and “gimme whiskey” is usually met with a blank stare. Capturing the essence, smells, sounds and feel of a real drinking hole is apparently hard. Here are ten movies set in a bar. Not necessarily realistic representations, but interesting nonetheless.

10. Coyote Ugly. (2000) A ridiculous bar movie that follows a young girl trying to make it big in New York as a songwriter but ends up working at an all girl bar named Coyote Ugly. This film featured lots of dancing on bars and scantily clad women tossing bottles around. The bar was modeled after an infamous Greenwich Village watering hole and spawned a whole raft of copy-cat bars across America.

9. Road House. (1989) Either the finest bouncer genre movie of all time or one of the worst pieces of drivel ever committed to film. But you can’t resist anything with Patrick Swayze, who hung up the dancing shoes to play a tai chi practicing bouncer. Swayze plays our pec-flexing hero who is given the impossible task or cooling down the violence at the Double Deuce, a rowdy honky tonk bar. He must also learn the secret ways of the bouncer guru and then confront the most evil man in Jasper, Wyoming — Ben Gazarra.

8. Cocktail. (1988) The trend of “flair bartending” reached its nadir or apex depending on your point of view with this fromage from 1988. A youngish Tom Cruise is the hot shot young bartender who is shown the ropes by the older wiser Brian Brown. They become partners then fall out over a woman and become rivals. Rivals at throwing bottles in the air and shaking girl drinks. Imagine John Wayne ordering a drink from these guys.

7. Robin and the Seven Hoods. (1964) Ocean’s Eleven is the most famous rat pack movie and probably the worst. Much better is this stylish retelling of the Robin Hood legend. This movie mostly took place in prohibition era Chicago speakeasies, where the hard drinking, crooning and partying band of Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis Jr and Bing Crosby take on the evil sheriff and Guy Gisborne (Peter Falk). The band sign, swap zingers and spend most of their time downing anything they can brew up.

6. Swingers. (1996) Technically this movie does not take place in one bar, but its grand tour of Los Angeles and Las Vegas drinking holes is money baby. This movie launched the career of Jon Favreau and Vince Vaughn and made swing bars and tiki-lamped cocktail lounges hip again.

5. 54. (1998) Studio 54 was the most famous nightclub in late 1970s New York. It was the quintessential disco and was the party place of the famous and wannabe famous. Mike Myers steals the show as the gay club owner Steve Rubell, while Ryan Phillipe, Salma Hayek and Neve Campbell play the beautiful people who made the nightclub home. Perfectly captures the disco era and the exuberance of the 70s nightclub.

5. BarFly. (1987) On one level depressing, on another a great expression of the joy of life. Mickey Rourke plays Henry Chinaski, a poet and alcoholic (loosely based on the real poet Charles Bukowski). He spends his life in LA bars drinking every night. One day he meets and falls for Wanda (played by Faye Dunaway). She’s an alcoholic too but she sees the true Charles. She helps him get his poems published and for a short time he becomes famous. But in the end they are both happier as anonymous barflies.

3. Trees Lounge. (1996) Indie star Steve Buscemi directed this small picture imagining what would have happened to him had he stayed in his small hometown on Long Island and not moved to Manhattan to pursue acting. His film centres around, and perfectly captures, a neighborhood bar full of colorful eccentrics who can’t seem to move on. Also starring Anthony LePaglia, Samuel L. Jackson and Chloe Sevingny, Buscemi plays Tommy Basilio a drunk who wanders through his life desperate for some sort of meaning beyond the bar that is his only home.

2. Lost in Translation. (2003) Sofia Coppola’s gem of a movie mostly takes place in a hotel bar in Tokyo. Disillusioned, weary and bored actor Bill Murray meets neglected newlywed Scarlett Johansson and the two create an unlikely bond as they try to discover or rediscover themselves while in a foreign and confusing land. They end up at a Japanese nightclub which is a great counterpoint to the austere bar. While they don’t form a traditional romantic attachment they find something that awakens each other.

1. Casablanca. (1942) Perhaps the perfect movie. Bogart and Bergman shine is this classic romance drama. Originally named “Everybody Comes to Rick’s,” Casablanca regularly tops best of lists. It’s World War II and Rick Blaine, exiled American and former freedom fighter, runs the most popular bar in Casablanca. It’s filled with thieves, spies, Nazis, partisans, refugees and piano players. The Nazis and their puppet Captain Renault are after underground leader Victor Laszlo who is supposed to be somewhere in Casablanca. Lazslo secretly arrives at Ricks, only not alone. With him is Ilsa, Rick’s one time love and the breaker of his heart. “Of all the bars in all the world she walks into mine.” The rest is cinematic magic.

How to Keep Your Penis Hard Longer for Absolute Sexual Pleasure

If your concern is how to keep your penis hard longer during your sexual activities, you do not have to worry anymore because several breakthrough products can help you address this concern. There are several products in the form of oral pills, topical oils and transdermal patches that are proven to be safe and effective in helping men sustain a rock-solid erection and achieve better performance in bed.

It is every man’s desire to make his partner happy in bed. Optimum sexual performance is sometimes hard to achieve for some men due to several factors. Stress, anxiety, lack of confidence and premature ejaculation are just some of the factors that hinder them from getting the most out of their sexual experience. Situations that keep men from keeping a hard penis for a long time can be humiliating and, in a way, it can also be degrading.

Using male enhancement products does not make you less of a man. In fact, they can take your sex life to new heights, beyond your imagination. Imagine making your partner happy in bed and sexually satisfied. It does not only give you immense pleasure, it also boosts your confidence in bed making you a man of self-esteem. Sustained erection, better stamina and intense orgasms can be achieved by using the right products. You can even be discrete about how to keep your penis hard longer.

Male enhancement pills such as VigRx Plus, ProSolution Pills and Magna Rx provide a solution. These pills are taken orally as directed just like other oral supplements. They promise the amazing benefits of better sexual performance. These pills are made from all-natural ingredients with high safety profiles. Prescription is not necessary to be able to purchase them. So if you want to keep your penis hard longer during sex, consider the benefits you can get out of male enhancement pills.

Another safe, effective and fast acting option comes in the form of topical erection oils like Maxoderm, VigRx and Vivaxa. Erection oils are applied directly to the area of the penis to maximize and sustain erection. The potent ingredients are absorbed by the skin of the penis and reach the bloodstream to increase circulation around the penile area which results to rock-hard erection and a pleasurable sensation. You will absolutely experience optimum sexual pleasure and satisfaction instantly.

Maximize your sexual potential and boost your confidence in bed. Provide an effective solution to your personal concerns on how to keep your penis hard longer by using products that are safe, effective and clinically tested.

Burettes, Laboratory Glassware


A burette is a uniform-bore glass tube with fine graduations and a stopcock at the bottom. It is used in volumetric analysis to measure the volume of a liquid, especially of one of the reagents in a titration. Burettes are used when it is necessary to dispense a small measured volume of a liquid, as for titration. Burettes may be used to calibrate the volumes of other pieces of glassware, such as graduated cylinders. Most burettes are made of borosilicate glass with PTFE (Teflon) stopcocks. Burettes are extremely accurate – a 50 cm3 burette has a tolerance of 0.1 cm3 (class B) or 0.06 cm3 (class A).The name Of apparatus used to hold burette is dropper clip.

Types of burettes:

1. Acid burette

2. Base burette

Difference between the both burette is that ACID burette can only take acid,and BASE burette can only take base.


Burettes measure from the top since they are used to measure liquids dispensed out the bottom. The difference between starting and final volume is the amount dispensed Also used for buretting are buretting syringes. These are calibrated to Volumetric A grade tolerances which are equal to or better than the traditional burette tolerance. The graduated buretting tube is provided with a thumb operated piston and PTFE seal which slide within the tube in a positive displacement operation. This arrangement is provided to achieve improvements in reliability, by removing problems of bubble entrapment while filling, leaks and blockages in stopcock mechanisms. The design also addresses handling safety, economy, and versatility when handling volumes between 0.5 and 25mL. The buretting syringe is set up in a traditional burette holder or used freehand. The positive displacement action enables it to handle any laboratory fluid – viscous and volatile, hydrocarbons, essential oils and mixtures, with great accuracy. Other features of the buretting syringe are the provision of a red line on the sliding seal which may be read instead of the meniscus, thus virtually eliminating parallax error, and its robust form which makes it more resistant to breakage and easier to clean.


1. It is used to to dispense a small measured volume of a liquid.

2. It is used for measuring liquid.

3. It is commonly used in titration.

4. It is used especially in laboratory procedures for accurate fluid dispensing and measurement.

Some burette manufacturers in India are:

1. Kshitij Innovations

2. Labtech International

3. Labtech International

4. Nexus Enterprises

5. Naugra Exports

6. Popular scientific

Reference sites:

How to Make Girls Putty in Your Hands

What are the 25 Do’s and Dont’s of What Women Really Want?

In this article I will tell you what most of your ladies are dying for you to do, but more often that not are too shy to tell you.

Also, don’t be fooled that your wife or girlfriend is not one for romance, she might say it but definitely doesn’t mean it. We are just built for that kind of mushy stuff. (We might just think that we are not worthy of, or will ever get it)

So here goes – are you paying attention?

1. Always hold her hand when walking in public

2. Always pull her chair out or open the door for her

3. Always side with her instead of your friends ( you can always tell her otherwise when they have left)

4. Show your family and friends how much you love and respect her

5. Comfort her when she cries (even if you do not understand it)

6. Be there for her when she needs you

7. Do things with her that you do not necessarily like, but know is important to her

8. Cradle her face with your hands when kissing her passionately

9. Don’t lie and cheat – rather tell her as it is, at least you can be respectful

10. Tell her she is beautiful – not always just sexy

11. Share your secrets with her

12. Hold and hug her often, and don’t let go first

13. Don’t ever fight with her in front of others

14. Pull her closer by her waist

15. When you are both minding your own business – grab her unexpectedly

16. Take some interest in how her day was

17. Ask her advice

18. Write her a heartfelt note, instead of just buying something

19. Tell her how important she is to you

20. Invite her to join you or take part in your activities

21. Be kind and understanding, most of the times we just need a patient ear

22. Sometimes be playful with love making

23. Always let her climax first, and don’t give up until she does

24. Don’t get irritated by her constant opinions, it is how she is made

25. Look deep into her eyes when saying something meaningful

That is it for now, should take you quite some time to perfect the above (giving you are a novice).