Plate Discipline

How important is it to have a good eye at the plate? That is to have an acute ability to know a ball from a strike and to offer mostly at strikes and much fewer times at pitches out of the strike zone. Unless you are Vladimir Guerrero, it can most certainly have an effect on your overall success in hitting. Okay, it affects Vlad too, but to a much lesser extent. The previous statement is a major league understatement. ­čÖé

There’s a statistic in baseball called O-Swing%(outside swing percentage). This statistic measures the percentage of pitches a batter swings at outside of the strike zone. It’s significance is important because when a batter swings at a pitch thrown outside the strike zone, the chances of success are severely decreased. A hitters O-Swing% is a good measure of true plate discipline.

On the flip side is a Pitcher’s O-Swing%. A high O-Swing% is good for a pitcher because it shows how adept a pitcher is at tricking batters into swinging at pitches outside the strike zone.

Major League hitters average O-Swing% changes slightly from year to year, but generally is in the 23-25% range. For example, the average major league hitter who sees 4 pitches outside the strike zone will swing at 1 of those 4 on average.

Texas Ranger fans are painfully familiar with the struggles of Josh Hamilton had this season. Prior to August 2nd, Josh’s O-Swing% was nearly 44%. Swinging at this high of a percentage of pitches outside the strikezone points in the direction of why Hamilton struggled so much in 2009. Most people wondered what’s wrong with Josh’s swing. No doubt the Rangers have been working with Josh for an extended period of time on minor swing adjustments, but a quick look at this number would indicate a problem of more of a mental nature than physical.

In Josh’s most recent hot streak, his O-Swing% dropped near the Major League average of 23%. And AMAZINGLY, his swing has “returned”. My assertion is that Hamilton’s swing never really deserted him. It was his approach at the plate that was the major culprit not a mechanical issue. Since he improved his O-Swing%, Josh hit nearly .500 with multiple extra base hits.

Sometimes you have to look deeper into your struggles at the plate than just to say I must be doing something mechanically wrong so I should go get a lesson. Having a professional hitting instructor work with you and look at your swing is never a bad idea, but if that’s all you look at for solving hitting problems and you never consider what may be ailing you in your mental game(or lack thereof), then frustration may follow you when your instructor says your swing looks good.

Do you have a plan going to the plate? Get one. Do you have a solid pre-pitch routine that you follow before every pitch to help you be focused, relaxed, composed, and confident? Develop one. Having a solid mental approach is a huge advantage and can lift any given player closer to his/her true potential. BUT you must have the desire to win at the mental game. Most don’t. Do You?

Different Outdoor Cookers

Cooking food outdoors is a welcome change away from the confines of your kitchen. The basic kitchen utensils can still be used but there are cookers made specifically for outdoors.

There are several kinds of outdoor cookers available to make outdoor cooking comfortable and fun at the same time. The tasty recipes which may be set off in the open field seem helpless without proper cooking tools.

Barbeques and grilled food are the most common food cooked outdoors. Take a look at the different equipment you bring outside for your cooking session with friends and family.

Single Burner Cooker

This kind of cooker is appropriate for small groups and families. This is a basic cooker that contains a hose, a burner, and a regulator. The regulator is responsible for fast and comfortable adjustments. The burner section is big to allow users to put huge pans and pots.

Single burner cookers are generally small and portable so that they can be carried to any place. it can be brought along in hunting and fishing trips. You could immediately cook your catch to capture the freshness of your food. It can also be brought in the backyard to camp overnight with your family.

Double Burner Cooker

This type of outdoor cookers is perfect for a bigger group of people and many families. The cookers are provided with one hose, two large burners, and a regulator for simple adjustment. The benefit of two burners permits the user to cook huge meals in less time. Two different meals can be cooked simultaneously. The huge pots and pans can be placed on the big burners. These cookers are handy which can be brought on weekend hangouts or week long fishing tours.

Triple Burner Cooker

It has three burners, and this means that it can prepare three different meals at the same time. This is very useful when cooking for a big group or large gathering. It is often used in parties or any social gathering.

These cookers come conveniently with brass regulators. This makes simple and fast alterations. The same with the usual outdoor cookers, these equipments may also be brought along hangouts or can be utilized for cooking in the backyard. It may be a bit bulky but it can be loaded on a truck or big car.

In addition, the outdoor cookers are offered with handy burners. These are truly perfect for almost all kinds of cookers. These involve crawfish boiling cookers, fish cookers, fish frying rigs, and seafood boiling burners.

The equipments utilized in outdoor cooking are the suitable medium for tailgaters. The basic ones are created of strong steel with settled designs, high pressure regulators and hoses, cast iron burners, movable flame switches and the most significant point is that they are simple to prepare. Outdoor cookers with folded stands may also be acquired by a person for comfortable storage.

Great features of outdoor cookers supplement the outdoor dishes. These adaptable cookers will also assist the cookers to fry, grill, barbeque, boil, and smoke the meal while putting a special ingredient to each dish.

Having a camping or an excursion outside is one of the favorite past time of many people. So, different outdoor cookers are purchased depending on the largeness of the family members or friends that will eat the dishes. These cookers really benefit all especially when cooking outside. Therefore, it is better to choose a burner that is heavy duty to last for a long time.

Keku Fixings Systems – The Number 1 Hidden, Easy Access Wall Cladding System

The Keku fixing system uses a series of polycarbonate brackets that fix together to join various panels together. The joints that are produced by this system are remarkably strong and this strength can be improved by increasing the number of brackets fitted into any joint system.

The application of a wall cladding to any prospective wall has been made very easy by the use of the Keku system. In each case the brackets can be fixed onto the board with a series of Hospa composite screws or Varianta screws usually 2 screws per bracket. The wall cladding system will usually consist of a frame and panel design and the whole thing has the advantage that it can be generally made in a factory environment or in the final situation.

There has to be enough room to fit the brackets to the frame and so there will have to be enough space to enable this to be carried out. The general rule however is that there is an advantage to have a sufficiently large air gap behind the cladding. The bracket dimensions are usually fairly small being around 16 mm or 25 mm in width and some 48mm in length. Other brackets may be larger depending on their application.

The advantage with this system is that the brackets for a normal wall cladding system are usually such that they are used in a complete screwed system but the Keku system can be a hidden fixing system that is made with a series of plastic fixings made from Makrolon. The system is ideal for a hidden fixing system in places where occasional access may be required to equipment or services hidden behind the partitioned wall.

The partitioning can be held in position by a series of male and female type clamps. In this case the female fixing is fixed to the wall and the male to the partitioning. The panel is then lowered into position so that it locks into its final place. If access is required behind the partition then the panel can be lifted out and then replaced after the work is completed.

This is an ideal system in a bathroom or in a kitchen where access can be required when a problem occurs or equipment is changed or replaced. The system is simple and the costs are similar to the more permanent fixing systems that are on offer which require a series of screws to be removed to gain access to the back of the panel.

Vinyl Plank Flooring Redefines Flooring Restrictions

When you find yourself remodeling a room in your home there are many decisions to make while considering the flooring direction you are planning to take. It is important prior to deciding on the type of flooring you want, to look at the various elements that will be impacting the flooring. If you are remodeling a room that will receive a high level of foot traffic and regularly be exposed to water like in the kitchen, bath or laundry room, then wood flooring is not ideal for you. However, what if wood flooring is the exact look you are hoping to obtain in these rooms, what are your options then? While wood is never recommended in these environments, one option that can be pursued is found with vinyl plank flooring.

Vinyl plank flooring provides home buyers with the protection and durability associated with vinyl floor covering. In addition, vinyl plank flooring provides the appearance of wood flooring in rooms that are traditionally unable to support wood flooring. When most consumers first look at vinyl plank flooring they immediately jump to the conclusion that it is flat rolled vinyl floor covering but this will be disproved with only a small amount of research. With vinyl plank flooring you will discover that the design is meant to represent wood flooring, coming in the same blank size and patterns found with real wood. In addition when you invest in allure vinyl plank flooring you receive a product that has the color and texture commonly found in wooden floors.

When you find yourself remodeling an environment that is exposed to a great deal of conditions it has been historically demanded that you install ceramic or stone tiles regardless of the flow of the home. With allure vinyl plank flooring you can complement any existing wood floors with a surface that matches the real thing. Along with its fantastic durability and wood like appearance one of the best features found with allure vinyl plank flooring is in regards to its vinyl flooring prices. Vinyl flooring prices are traditionally a lower cost flooring option and this is not different from plank based vinyl floor covering.

With price, options and durability, all features that appeal to plank based vinyl floor covering, the only concern remaining is in regards to installation. Fortunately, plank based vinyl floor covering can be installed over most existing flooring and can feature a glued down installation process or a floating floor installation process. Either process is simple to install and still features the low cost associated with vinyl flooring prices.

6 Keys To Deck Railings – Finishing Your Deck With Style And Strength

Getting outdoors… enjoying the sun, a barbeque, an after-work moment of relaxation on your deck also includes the notion that you, your kids, pets and friends are safely enclosed by way of engineered and stylish railings. No longer the province of plain pressure treated timber, contemporary rails express style through cool designs, modern engineered materials, and an artist’s color palette of tonal choices.

Deck Railing Ideas To Know About. Any deck railing plan is only as good as your creativity and anticipation of the many ways that you might use your deck… from quiet lounging and book reading… to barbeque meals… to 3-season use where you might need weather and bug protection. All these “potential uses” should be built-in to your final railing design. What sort of look balances with what sort of structural support you’ll need in order to meet your town’s building code, as well as give you future expandability.

Metal Deck Railing. If you’re looking for a modern finish… light weight… structural strength… and longevity, then examine the range of aluminum systems currently available. Easy to install. No sharp edges. Hardware adapts easily to deck posts. Colors and finish run the spectrum. Aluminum rails are produced in standard lengths, and your contractor can quickly and safely cut these metal rails to a custom length in order to reach a post.

Composite Railing. Long life, low maintenance, earth-tone coloring but higher “front end” costs characterize the current breed of composite systems. Composite deck rails… manufactured utilizing polymers, resins and synthetic blends… provide safety to keep people, pets and object on the “safe” side of your deck. However, composite rails are not considered “structural” or intensively load-bearing, so installation is limited strictly to railing and horizontal plane containment.

Glass Railing. Impact resistant… transparent… clear or subtly toned glass systems are perfect ultra-modern design finishes for a deck. Glass railing is typically manufactured from polymer resins, such as Lexan, in order to provide high levels of safety and impact resistance, rather than pure “glass”, which would pose safety risk issues. Glass deck rails are produced in long, wide “runs” and accept most common fastener hardware set-ups, for easy installation and long low maintenance outdoors life.

Cable Railing. Everyone has seen “suspension bridges”… with structural cables providing support and flex. Outdoor decks have attracted the same design attention, with a range of steel-strong cable designs. Benefits? Cable deck rails are easy for a professional to install. Torque or tightening tools accompany the cable system, so it’s relatively simple to obtain the correct tensioning, in order to meet local building code specifications for safety. Cable lengths and “gauge” diameters vary, so pricing should be quoted in advance.

Cedar Rail. Amongst the wooden deck railing choices, the cedar deck rail may be Nature’s best choice. Cedar, rich in resins and dense by nature, is perfectly adapted to withstand the elements… weather and burrowing bugs… for many years. A true “natural” look, wood railings may rank #1 in clean outdoor aesthetics. Plus, a cedar deck railing system can be stained-finished to marry with both wooden decks as well as the earth tone colored composite deck finishes now available.

Deck Planters. While deck railing systems are all about “keeping people and stuff” inside and safe, home owners inevitably “decorate” decks with plants, chairs and other stuff in order to create a relaxing outdoor experience. Deck planters are another design element, easy to install with clips to “hang” flower trays… or utilize decking material to custom-build planters, which can be secured onto the railing system.

How to Install Deck Railing

A deck without railing is both unsightly and dangerous. Well, let us say that it does not look finished and in some cases it is unsafe.

The idea behind installing deck railing ( balustrades ) is, safety and appearance. Remember to follow your local building codes.

Side Note:

If the deck rise is 30 inches or higher high off the ground (61 cm in Canada) the code requires a deck railing(balustrades).

The deck railing must be high enough to make it difficult for a child to fall off the deck but low enough to be comfortable to lean on.

The spindles or balustrades must be no more then 4 inches apart from each other.

Tools For The Job

An air compressor capable of putting out a minimum of 80 to 95 psi for the brad or finishing air nail er. (You can substitute with a hammer and 3inches finishing nails).

A screw gun or screw driver.

A spirit level to level and plumb the posts and railing.

A powered miter saw to cut the stock to measure. (you can substitute with a hand saw)

A tape-measure.

A drill and 3/8” drill bit


2”x 4″ spruce

2″ x 2″ spruce

2″x 6″ spruce

4″x 4″ posts (treated).

3″and 3-┬Ż” screws and nails.

Installing The Railing.

If the railing posts are already in place. Measure the distance between the first two posts. This is where the balustrades or spindles will be fitted once built.

If the deck has no posts you will want to locate the location where the posts will be installed.

Set the posts at same distance. Example: If the deck is 12 feet long, use three posts with the same interval between posts.

Once the post location is marked, cut a hole for each post to attach them to the deck boundary joists. (The deck rim) or perimeter boards.

You can apply either lug bolts or 3-┬Ż ” deck screws to fasten the posts.

Now it’s time to build and fasten the balustrades to the deck posts.

Measure the length of the deck and make a mark at the middle of each post placement.

Cut a 2″ thick of 4×4 scrap to use as a guide and mark the placement of the holes where the posts will mount against the boundary joists. Drill holes in each corner of the squares and cut on the lines with a jig saw. Make sure to cut the holes so that the posts will go tight in the holes and against the boundary joists(deck rim) or deck perimeter boards.

Cut the 4×4 posts at 43-┬Ż inches long.

Make a mark at 37-┬Ż” from the top of the post. This line will be at the same height with finished deck floor.

Insert the post trough the post hole and make sure that the mark on the post is flush with the finished deck floor.

Level the post from all sides and fasten it to the deck boundary joists with four lug bolts or six-3-┬Ż” deck screws.

Repeat the above steps for all posts.


If the holes are too big, you can use pieces of wood to shim them during the fastening process.


Decorating With Stained Glass

Decorating with stained glass may at first seem to be a daunting task. It may be difficult just to find that perfect table lamp for your newly decorated living room. Once you see the beauty of stained glass, you will want to add stained glass to other rooms.

You have to pick out light fixtures and portable lighting for the rest of your home to compliment your original piece. The choices of colors and styles are almost unlimited. Your choice depends on your likes, tastes, and uses. Of course, there are many lighting fixtures from lamps to sconces to pendants. There are also window hangings and fireplace screens.

Tiffany style lamps are the most popular and least expensive way to add the beauty and atmosphere of stained glass to your home or office. These lamps endure for lifetimes and become family heirlooms.

Stained glass lamps are both beautiful and functional. These lamps can be purchased with table or floor length bases, which are usually made of sturdy metal such as brass or pewter so the lamp is not likely to tip over and break the shade.

Made of Favrile or iridescent glass, invented by Louis Comfort Tiffany in the late 19th Century, the iridescence causes the surface to shimmer, but causes some opacity. This iridescent effect of the glass is obtained by mixing different colors of glass together while hot. The sheets are hand cut to the desired shapes and sizes, the edges wrapped in thin copper and soldered together. Many bubbles and irregular surfaces make each piece unique.

This Is Why Decorating With Stained Glass Is So Awesome

A Tiffany style lights provides soft, diffused light that takes on the hues of each color used in a design. When turned on the colors are striking, and when turned off, the shade adds interest and color to the room.

Stained glass lighting accents complement any décor. A Tiffany pattern may have floral, geometric, whimsical or animal designs. You are no longer limited to Traditional choices. There are many different styles from which to choose. There is the Mission or Prairie style made famous by another 19th Century artist Frank Lloyd Wright. There is Victorian style. Today Rustic and Rustic Lodge are becoming very popular styles.

Types of Stained Glass Fixtures

Tiffany style table, accent lamps or desk lamps can enhance an end table, your desk or nightstand. Used for reading or lighting a small area, these are the workhorses of home lighting. Tiffany floor lamps, floor lamp torchieres and bridge arm floor lamps are an interesting addition to any room. They add height, drama, and create an interesting focal point. They can be moved from place to place as ambient (background) lighting, or add task lighting as needed.

Decorating your kitchen with Tiffany Style Island ceiling fixtures or pendants will increase your available light. They will create a smashing colorful effect to your kitchen island.

Billiard table lights with a whimsical, sports, or outdoor theme add interest to any billiard or pool table.

Stained glass wall mounted sconces accent your fireplace or light and dramatize your hallway. Vanity as well as wall mounted sconces will provide excellent bathroom lighting.

Welcome your guests with a beautiful Tiffany or Lodge style chandelier in your entry foyer or hallway. Contemporary glass pendant lights add stunning beauty to your entry, dining room, kitchen, bath, or any room in your home. Some of these pendants are definitely not your grandmother’s stained glass.

Points to Consider When Decorating with Stained Glass

1. Think about the mood or ambiance you want to create. 2. Consider the decorative elements you want to accent. 3. Identify what activities will be done in each room (reading, hobby, home work, cooking, bathing, etc) 4. Dark colors need more light. So add brighter background light to darker areas. 5. Identify area of multiple uses, and use more than one type of lighting.

Although many people think of decorating only with lamps when referring to stained glass, there are many other interesting uses.

Of course, you can use stained glass window panels in your decorating scheme. These beautiful panels hang in a window. They add a smashing effect to any room. These panels can be used to hide a not so nice view, thus enhancing a room’s atmosphere.

Several artists became famous for their stained glass creations. The two most famous are Louis Comfort Tiffany, whose creations are often inspired by nature. His dragonfly, peacock and cherry blossom motifs are still much sought after today. The other artist is Frank Lloyd Wright, who created in the Mission or Prairie style.

There are stained glass fireplace screens. With candles lit behind them, these screens add charm and warmth to any fireplace setting. These fireplace screens are meant for decorative purposes only as the heat from a fire could melt the solder.

Buy high quality stained glass from reputable manufacturers such as Meyda Tiffany or Dale Tiffany. The glass design and workmanship are among the best, and the bases and electrical components are of the highest quality for long life.

How to Write Winning Blogs

The Internet unites people, markets and businesses around the world instantly. Thanks to the Internet, buyers and sellers, as well as groups of like-minded people from all over the world can interact in real time for free. One way to achieve this is to use blogs. A blog can get a message to the public at very low cost, and used wisely can bring in lots of cash

A blog is created like an internet magazine article or diary of events, where people can express their ideas and let other people know about it through the web portal. Today, blogging is one of the most popular ways for people to communicate and exchange views on all topics.

Since the rise in blogging the amount of regular people sharing their experiences, providing unbiased reviews of products or just sharing their thoughts is phenomenal, blogs can make you money and even make you a star.

So, as you become known, the use of blogs and how you can use your blog so she could earn income?

First, you have to remember that blogging is writing. And a writer needs to captivate their audience. The good thing about blogging is that once people start to enjoy what they read, they will often recommend it to friends and so on. This is the easiest way to build a following and get a fan base available to all for free.

You can link posts in forums and on article sites where at the end of each message, you can place a link in the resource box to your blog.

Once you have gathered fans, you can use them to start earning money. Depending on the subject of your blog can become an affiliate where the affiliate relationship offers items or information products. In addition, you can make money selling products. For example, jewelry, clothing or even a tattoo.

If your desire to become famous, you should create compelling blogs that people want to read and comment on. If you’re going to talk about real life experience, you’ll need to have a story good enough to be repeated. It is no use repeating your his experiences if they are mundane, that’s what people flee from when surfing the blogs for interesting content. Do not be afraid to mix some reality and fiction.

The key to good writing of blogs is to grab people’s attention. Once you have their attention you can direct them to another blog post or an affiliate offer. And never jump from one topic to another. When you write a blog should be consistent and write everything that should be important.

If you can get these ordinary people to read your blog, and if they really like what they read, they often recommend it to friends. Then you can watch it grow and viral spread. However, you must remember that once they are readers, they will keep demanding more from you. Try updating the blog regularly so you can keep your readers interested.

A blog can bring fame and fortune, but it is not easy work, it is necessary to have discipline and put in some effort. If you want to be famous on the Internet, the blog is the best way to attract people’s attention. But remember that you must write the blog and provide high-quality content to get fans to return regularly.

Once people feel that they know you and begin to trust you, or even think that you are the authority on the subject at hand. It is at this stage that they will buy from you and will return as regular customers.

Duodenal Switch Cost – What is the Price of Duodenal Switch Surgery?

A duodenal switch reduces the stomach and bypasses the major part of the small intestine, thereby restricting the absorption of food calories and fat. This helps in reducing the weight of the patient. As obese people are the ones opting for this type of surgery, it is a good method of reduction.

It is a fairly long operation but can also be done laproscopically. The cost of the operation varies a great deal. Different countries have different rates. The operation needs an expert surgeon and the cost of the surgery will depend a lot on the surgeon’s fees. The more experienced he is, the higher his charges will be. This operation also needs hospital stay of four to five days. The charges will depend on the hospital also. The operating room charges, the recovery room charges, the anesthetics charges, medicines, check ups, pre and post consultations all cost money. Hence mentioning a correct figure is not possible.

However, on an average one can say that a duodenal switch operation costs $20,000 and above. The rates are lower in Spain and other places on the continent but may be higher in the US. However air fare, hotel charges, will be included as well. There are patients who have shelled out $ 50,000 for this type of surgery.

The duodenal switch is covered by most health insurance companies. But this has to be discussed in advance. Duodenal switch is considered to be a health related operation and hence there is insurance cover for it. People who are grossly overweight, who cannot control their weight through exercise and diet, go in for this surgery almost as a last resort.

People can tolerate this procedure better than the other similar operations. Here there is not much restriction of food, though the patient will not be able to eat more without vomiting. This is because the stomach has shortened and the patient will take a longer time to adjust to it. Once this is adjusted, the aim of reducing weight can be achieved. Calories and fat are not absorbed so even if they are eaten, there is no fear.

This method has other advantages. It brings down the blood pressure, controls diabetes and arthritis which are relieved in a short time after the surgery. Hence even if the cost is slightly higher than in other methods, the advantages are worth paying. The operating doctors are also confident of this surgery and most would recommend it. The patient will have no complaints.

What is the Relationship Between Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Glutamate, and ADHD?

It does not seem that long ago that most ADHD research was looking primarily at the roles of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in focus, concentration, self-control, and ADHD. But since one-third of the neurotransmitters in the brain are glutamate, and brain research is now looking at the intricate relationships between glutamate, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the functioning of the pre-frontal cortex.

Research is revealing that the glutamate network neurotransmissions from the pre-frontal cortex to other areas of the brain are more important than previously thought, and that they are enhanced by dopamine and norepinephrine. Too little dopamine or norepinephrine is a problem, and too much is a problem. The importance of glutamate in PFC functioning is beginning to come to the forefront in research.

Neuro-science is beginning to move away from seeing ADHD as just a problem with dopamine and/or norepinephrine, and is moving toward a better understanding of the brain as a network with networks of relationships such as the relationship between dopamine, norepinephrine, the glutamate excitatory neurotransmitters which are about 30-35% of all neurotransmitters in the brain, and their relationship to ADHD.

In this newer framework of understanding the PFC and ADHD, the new medication Intuniv from Shire has caused a bit of a buzz. It seems that Intuniv enhances the glutamate in the PFC. This is a new approach to ADHD treatment.

Amy Arnsten, Ph.D., is the Director of the Arnsten Lab, Dept or Neurobiology at Yale University. According to its website, the Arnsten Lab “studies molecular influences on the higher cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with the overarching goal of developing rational treatments for cognitive disorders and mental illness… Research has focused on how the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), powerfully and dynamically modulate PFC cognitive function and physiology through intracellular signaling mechanisms.” The lab helped Shire Pharmaceuticals in the development of Intuniv for ADHD treatment.

The Arnsten Lab has been able show how the relationship between dopamine and norepinephrine and the ratios of dopamine to norepinephrine, can impact and improve cognitive functions such as focus, memory, and attention. Too much or too little of either neurotransmitter decrease cognitive functions, both in terms of the performance of brain cells, and in real world behaviors and performance. But when the ratios and relationships are just right, performance is improved.

Their work, along with the work of many others, is often focused on the a2-receptor sites in the pre-frontal cortex. These researchers have reported on the benefits of norepinephrine at these PFC receptor sites, and have also shown the benefits of stimulating these receptor sites with the medication guanfacine (intuniv). It appears that guanfacine improved cognitive functioning in the pre-frontal cortex.

In addition, the research of Craig Berridge and his team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has focused on the effects of stimulants on the brain. He has shown that the main effects of stimulants are on the frontal lobes of the brain, and that small doses of methylphenidate actually impact the effects of norepinephrine in the pre-frontal cortex more than they impact the effects of dopamine in the PFC, though both are enhanced. This research has also shown that when the a2 receptors in the pre-fronatal cortex are blocked that the symptoms of ADHD can be created in a subject, including lack of self-control, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Berridg et al, 2006).

All of this new understanding of the effects of neurotransmitters in the pre-frontal cortex, and the impact of medications on the PFC, will help future research on new medication treatments to help children and adults who suffer from ADHD.

What’s the Load Factor for My Commercial Building?

When you get involved with purchasing or leasing commercial real estate, you will begin hearing about a “load factor.” It’s a term that is integral to commercial real estate investing, and one that you must know if you want to be a successful investor. So what exactly is it?

The load factor, simply put, is the difference-usually expressed in a percentage-between the usable and the rentable square footage in a building. That is, how much of the space accounts for common areas such as restrooms, mechanical rooms, hallways, stairwells, and the like, versus how much is actually rentable to tenants.

Here is how to calculate this important cost for a commercial real estate property:

1. You will need the total rentable square footage of the building.

2. You will need the total usable square footage of the property.

3. Now, subtract the usable square footage (this is always the smaller number) from the rentable square footage.

4. Take that total and divide it by the usable square footage.

5. The resulting number is the load factor.

Here is an example: These are the numbers on a building in Gainesville, Florida, that we recently looked at. The total rentable square footage was 35,938. The total usable square footage was 29,461. So the equation looks like this: 35,938-29,461 = 6,477. Then take 6,477 ├Ě 29,461 (usable sq. ft.) =.219 or nearly 22%.

What does this mean? It means that the property owner is adding almost 22 cents to every dollar he charges his tenants per usable square foot. The higher this number, the more the tenant will be paying for space he or she can’t use.

Buildings with a high load factor may indicate inefficient design, and if, as a tenant, you are negotiating to sign a lease for a commercial space, you will definitely want to know the load factor.

If you are an investor considering the purchase of a commercial property, check comparable properties in the area to help you determine what the average cost is. If your potential property is above the average load factor, you may have difficulty attracting the interest of tenants because they will be paying for per square feet than they would in other properties near yours.

I hope this quick tutorial has been useful in helping you understand the importance of knowing the load factor for a commercial property.

What Are the 3 Most Common Types of Electronic Components?

Each of those tiny components has a unique and highly specific job to perform. Without even one of those components the circuit would not function properly. The circuit boards you see in computers and other electronics devices take a team of dedicated electrical engineers to design and build. They select and solder the appropriate electronic component to the printed circuit board that controls how the device operates.

If you are interested in learning more about electronic components and how you can use them in your own projects, it’s best to start educating yourself as to the purpose each component serves. Here are the three most common types of electronic components.

1. Resistors and Variable Resistors

A circuit board works by routing voltage through its various electronic components in a specific way to produce a desired outcome. Some components require a greater or lesser voltage in order to operate. Resistors are the component that regulate voltage or limit the current flowing in part of a circuit. Essentially a resistor is a component that is designed to be a poor conductor of electricity. There are varying types of electronic resistance, but each component’s ability to resist a current is measured in Ohms.

Compare this to a Variable Resistor, also known as a Potentiometer. You are probably most familiar with variable resistors in their function as a volume control knob on your stereo. It simply moves the point of contact on the resistive material, varying the level of resistance.

2. Capacitor

A capacitor is simply an energy storage component. It is constructed of two metal plates separated by an insulator such as ceramic, mylar or electrolytic. A capacitor’s capacitance, which is measured in Farads, and the voltage across it determines the amount of energy that can be stored.

A capacitor charges when a current of electrons flows from one plate to another. As the capacitor becomes more and more charged, naturally the current diminishes as the plate can hold no more electrons. When it reaches that limit it is considered charged because the voltage across the capacitor is now the same as that of the source.

3. Inductors

DC currents move in one direction, like a stream or a river. AC currents however, alternate the direction they flow indefinitely. An inductor resists changes in current flow, allowing DC or low-frequency currents to pass through it more easily. In its most simple form an inductor is a coil of wire similar to a solenoid. As current flows through the coil, a magnetic field is created around it where potential energy is stored. Should the power supply be cut, the magnetic field will collapse on itself and release the potential energy.

Stained Glass Techniques For Beginners

The first step in making something out of stained glass is deciding what to make. Some of the items that can be made from stained glass are windows, lampshades, and pictures. Artists can create their own patterns. Patterns can also be found online or in books.

Equipment that is needed may depend on the project. Pieces of glass, a cutting tool, foil tape, a soldering iron, and solder will probably be needed for every project. All equipment needed to make glass art will need to be purchased for the first project. For subsequent projects only what is required for each project will have to be bought. Equipment can be purchased at craft stores or online. It is a good idea to make sure that everything that may be needed is available before starting any project. Extra glass, extra blades, extra oil for the cutting tool, and extra solder should be on hand.

Different stained glass techniques will be needed for different items. A simple project is the best choice for someone is who is beginning to work with glass. Starting with the pattern is a good way to begin any glass project. Make two copies of the pattern. It is helpful to number the pattern pieces on one copy and then cut them out. Leave one copy uncut. The next step is tracing the pattern on to the glass. Then the glass should be scored with a glass cutter. The scored pieces can then be broken out by hand or with pliers. It may be a good idea to practice on clear glass before scoring and cutting colored glass.

Make sure each piece of glass is clean. The pieces should be arranged on the uncut copy of the pattern to make sure they are all there and that they fit. Laying the pieces out will give the artist an idea of how the finished project will look. Use a grinder to carefully grind the edges of any pieces that do not fit. Then wrap the edges of each glass piece with foil tape. Lay them on the pattern again to make sure they fit. Then use the soldering iron to cover the foil on each piece of glass. The solder will hold the project together.

It is important to keep safety in mind when using different stained glass techniques. A work area that is secure from children and pets should be used when working with stained glass. The glass should be handled very carefully. Glass pieces should be stored in a secure area where they will not be easily broken. Stained glass pieces that are drying should be laid in a place where they will not be disturbed. Tools should be kept in good repair and the work surface should be kept clean. Glass cutters and soldering irons should be stored in a place that children cannot reach.

Using the proper stained glass techniques will enable people to create beautiful pieces of glass art.

A Guide to Opening a Restaurant in Mexico

Authorization of the name of your restaurant

Choose 3 names for your business. Submit them with the Mexican Foreign Affairs Office.

Out of the three, the name that does not exist elsewhere, will receive an authorization for using it. It takes not more than 2 days to complete this process.

Incorporation of your business

Once you have an authorized name for your establishment, you should decide upon its business structure.

There are numerous options for you like Corporation, Persons Corporation, etc. Your restaurant will be taxed according to the business structure you choose for it. Hence, you should read the tax implications for every business structure before selecting one for your establishment.

For the incorporation of your restaurant, there will be an incorporation deed. The deed will disclose the business structure and other important details of your venture.

Now, you should choose a notary public (Notario P├║blico or Corredor P├║blico), who will notarize it at the Mexican Department of Treasury. You should also collect your Tax registration number from the department.

Registration of the deed of incorporation

After notarization, you need to register the deed at the Public Registry of Commerce (Registro P├║blico De Commercio) of the locality where your business is situated.

Registration of the deed takes about 17 days.

Registration with IMSS and INFONAVIT

For the benefit of your employees, you have to register with a social security institute, which is known as Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. This institute is responsible for ensuring social security, pension, and good health of the employees.

You will also have to register with Instituto del Fondo Nacional de la Vivienda para los Trabajadores (INFONAVIT). INFONAVIT monetarily helps employees buy homes. As an employer, you will have to contribute a certain percentage towards it.

These two registrations will not cost you anything and take 1-2 days to be over.

Informing the Delegaci├│n

Before opening your restaurant, you will have to inform the local Delegaci├│n.

Prepare a notice that mentions your aim to start a business in the area. The notice should include your tax registration number.

Registration with the tax administration

As an entrepreneur in Mexico, you will be required to pay payroll tax. For this, you will have to register your venture with Secretaria de Finanzes Gobierno del Distrito Federal.

You will need to furnish the tax registration number and the postal code of your restaurant.

Informing the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information

As a business owner, it is your responsibility to notify the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informática.

The notice that you will prepare for this matter should mention the type of your venture, its name, number of employees, etc.

This step will not take more than a day.

Registration with the National Business Information Registry

Every new business has to register itself with Sistema de Information Empresarial. The costs differ with each type of business. Hence, you will have to check the cost for running a restaurant.

Hole In One Plaques

A hole-in-one is such a rare feat that everybody wants to make the moment memorable. Making a hole-in-one is a proud moment in every golfer’s life. And hole-in-one plaques will capture the moment forever. That’s why the demand for hole-in-one plaques is going up. You will find several online stores selling personalized hole-in-one plaques. The plaques contain the name of the golfer, the golf course where the record has been made, the distance and the date. You will definitely feel proud to show off hole-in-one plaques to your family and friends. Hole-in-one plaques are a symbol of recognition. So, the plaques must be of high quality. The design should highlight the special achievement.

Some hole-in-one plaques preserve the ball with which the rare feat was achieved. As a golfer, you will definitely prefer to keep the ball with you always. Thanks to hole-in-one plaques, you will be able to show off the ball to your close ones. They will just keep on praising your golfing prowess. To professional and amateur golfers, hole-in-one plaques are more precious than prize money. That’s why golf organizers offer fabulous hole-in-one plaques to the winners. Those who make a hole-in-one have exceptional golf talent. So, their exceptional talent should be recognized with a hole-in-one plaque.

If you are planning to launch a hole-in-one tournament, or you are a golfer who wants to make your achievement unforgettable, you can go for hole-in-one plaques. Everybody wants to have personalized hole-in-one plaques. The plaques are capable of catching the true spirit of the achievement. Hole-in-one plaques are the most sought-after memento in the golfing circuit.