Did You Know a Sinus Infection Can Be Life Threatening?

Everyone at one time or another has a sinus infection, also known as sinusitis, or knows someone that has a sinus infection. There are two types of sinus infections; acute and chronic.

Usually an acute sinusitis is caused by the harmless bacteria that live in most peoples upper respiratory tracts. If you catch a cold and get the sniffles and then you nose clogs up and your face hurts, then most likely the cold has gone into a sinusitis. It can last up to two weeks and responds quite nicely to medical therapy.

You may not know that the chronic form of sinusitis is the most common form. Hard to believe but estimates show that almost 40 million people will suffer with chronic sinus infection this year and it will last each of them up to 3 months and even when they think it is gone it might flare back up and last another 3 months.

Of course for both acute and chronic sinusitis the symptoms are the same:

  • Facial pain
  • Teeth hurt
  • Bad breath
  • Nasal congestion
  • Nausea
  • Erythema
  • Hard to breath through your nose
  • Fever
  • Tenderness and pain in the eyes, cheeks, nose and forehead
  • Sore throat

It is important at this point to talk about the complications of sinusitis. First off if you get a bad sinus infection you should see your doctor. He is the only one that can really tell you if everything is alright and to help you get better. The days of staying home and self medicating should be over when it comes to this illness. If left undiagnosed and untreated sinus infections can create severe medical problems and even death.


Pott’s Puffy Tumor– If you have fever, headache and soft tissue swelling over the frontal sinus you just may have this disease. Pott’s puffy tumor is a serious complication of bacterial frontal sinusitis and consists of a subperiosteal abscess and Osteomylitis of the frontal bone and can lead to death

Ethmoid sinusitis-Ethmoid sinuses are between the eye sockets and above the nose and drain into the nose. Symptoms of Ethmoiditis are: Pain inside of the eye, pain down one side of the nose, headache by eye or temple, fever, drooping eyelid, loss of eye movement, bad breath, and changes in vision, fixed or dilated pupils

Brain Infection-A sinus infection can become so bad that the infection leaks through the barrier into the brain. If you notice personality changes or altered awareness, then see a doctor immediately, because a brain infection that started out as a sinus infection is one thing that can lead to coma or death.

If you have any concerns or worries when you get a sinus infection then see your doctor. He will then have the time to diagnose the problem and get you started on the right treatment. Given that there is always the outside chance of something going badly without having treatment, what do you have to lose?

Commercial Property – What Is My Commercial Property Worth?

As a property investment company, which offers its clients a full estate agency service that is backed by professional advice and personal attention, we are often called upon to answer questions like …

“What is my commercial property worth?”

This is by no means an easy question to answer and to be perfectly honest it’s only worth what someone is willing to pay. Having said this, we do however use a number of basic formulas so as to calculate the value of commercial property.

The first method

We will measure the land and determine the square meterage. We will then determine the market value per square meter which is dependent on the area in question. We then multiply the square meterage by the price per square meter. This will give us a rough indication of the value of the land. The price per square meter normally decreases as the size of the land increases. The price per square meter will also be affected by factors such as the proximity to road and rail networks as well as by shop frontage, foot traffic and so on …

After we have evaluated the land, we will evaluate the improvements such as the height, size and general condition of the buildings. It is normally quiet simple to determine the replacement value of the facilities by keeping your finger on the local building costs. You can then compare the price of new build and marginally discount the price depending on the current state of the buildings. The ratio between the cost of new build and existing stock will vary depending on a number of economic factors. These factors are cyclical in nature but can be determined by an understanding of where in the property cycle we are at. (This will however unfortunately go beyond the scope of this article.) Finally, if you then add the value of the improvements to the value of the land, you will have the results of the first method.

The second method

This is more often than not the preferred method of evaluating what commercial property is worth. It is also favoured by the vast majority of property investors. Using this method, we will simply evaluate the rental yield that the property can produce. The rule is simple: the higher the rent, the higher the value of the property. What most investors do, when contemplating their acquisitions, is to divide the annual rent that they will receive by the purchase price that they will have to pay. They will then compare one property with the next and will usually settle on the one that offers them the higher yield.

They will however also take into account the strength of the tenancy agreements. If they are buying A-Grade office space with a Blue Chip tenant, a long term lease and favourable escalation clauses they will normally accept a lower yield as there is less risk to worry about. If however there are any concerns as to the integrity of the tenant, or if the lease is about to expire, then the potential risk increases. The only way to compensate for increased risk and potential void periods is to lower the purchase price and offer a higher yield.

The third method

This involves a healthy mix of the above two mentioned methods. Firstly we will evaluate the yields, this being the easiest method to compare apples with apples. We will then discount or add on to the value depending on the strength of the tenant and their lease agreement. Finally we will take a look at the value of the land and add to that the value of the improvements. That way, regardless of how the tenancy runs we will at least know that there is good value in the physical asset.

Having demonstrated to you the various methods of evaluating commercial property, please remember that at the end of the day, these methods and formulas only serve as a guideline. We always advise our clients that we can estimate the value but that only the market will determine the true selling price. Commercial property, like all property, is only worth what a willing buyer is prepared to pay for it!

Severing Relationships With Your Narcissistic Family

Growing up in a family surrounded by narcissists is chaotic, confusing, anxiety provoking and causes psychological wounding to its non narcissistic members. The narcissistic parent(s) sets the tone for the family. Everything in the external environment revolves around image–how one appears to others. Children are expected to project a facade of perfection and success that is admired and envied by everyone. Viewing these families from a distance, they appear to be loyal and caring toward one another, dedicated to educational and professional success presenting a family facade that is fabricated to be admired.

In private the reality is the opposite. The narcissistic parent (mother and/or father) is the absolute dictator in this home. He or she decides the role that each child will play. Children who are constitutionally stronger and intellectually more gifted are often selected to be the chosen, the golden ones that the parents use as models of perfection that all the other siblings must learn to emulate and admire. Children who are less attractive, are not as intellectually bright or athletically weaker, are put down and openly humiliated as worthless and defective. The narcissistic parent makes it clear by word and behavior which children he/she favors and those who don’t make the grade. These children are often completely ignored as if they didn’t exist or constantly picked on and attacked for being perceived as inferior and weak.

It is very difficult for many adult children of a narcissistic parent and narcissistic siblings to disengage and exit from the family portrait. Many believe that their narcissistic family members will change if the non narcissistic child or sibling makes one more effort to communicate, understand, show more compassion. Narcissists don’t change. Their personality structure is as hard as steel. They are constantly rewarded by displaying overwhelming confidence and drive, creating mountains of monetary and societal success. Current society applauds narcissists who “have it all” despite their ruthless and treacherous acts that dissemble and destroy the lives of many, including family members.

At some point in their psychological development and growing sense of self, members of these narcissistic families have had enough. They draw the line in indelible ink-they will take the abuse no longer. With great resolve and courage, they sever the ties from their narcissistic families. Awaiting them is a renewed life of hope, creativity,vitality,psychological and emotional healing and inner peace.

Boat Plumbing

Boat Plumbing

Boat Plumbing can be a bit of a nightmare. To avoid mismatches between equipment and pipes or hoses, and untoward plumbing failures, it is necessary to understand how pipes and hoses are specified, the suitability of different pipes and hoses for different applications, and proper installation practices.

The nominal sizes of most pipes, hoses, and fittings do not correspond to their actual sizes, either the outside diameter (OD) or the inside diameter (ID). In addition, there is no universal standard governing sizes. Given two items that are nominally the same size (e.g., 3/4 inch or 20 mm) it is quite likely that neither will actually be this size, and, what is more, that they will not be the same size as each other!

Pipes and fittings are commonly copper, metal (black or galvanized), or plastic (PVC or CPVC). Copper pipe in the USA is subdivided into water pipe or tubing and refrigeration pipe or tubing (pipe comes in straight lengths; tubing in coils).

Copper Pipe or Tubing

Water pipe in the USA has a purely nominal size. In other words, its nominal size does not correspond to either its ID or its OD. Refrigeration pipe or tubing, on the other hand, is measured by its outside diameter (OD)-1/inch (13-mm) refrigeration tubing really has a 1/-inch (13-mm) outside diameter. Copper fittings (connectors, elbows, tees, etc.) are made mostly to water pipe sizes. Since water pipe of any given nominal size is actually one size larger than refrigeration pipe of the same nominal size, when buying fittings for use with refrigeration pipe or tubing, generally you must buy the next smaller size of fitting down (e.g., 3/8-inch fittings for 1/2-inch refrigeration pipe or tubing).

Copper pipe and tubing is further defined by its wall thickness. In the USA it is given a K, L, or M rating, with the K having the thickest wall. Type L is generally used for household and refrigeration plumbing. In the UK copper pipe and fittings are all standardized according to the outside diameter of the pipe or tubing (8-, 10-, 15-, 22-, 28-mm, etc.).

Specific refrigeration tubing or pipe should always be bought for refrigeration purposes – it is specially cleaned, dehydrated, and capped to keep out moisture. For water systems, either refrigeration or water tubing or pipe can be bought from any hardware store. Tubing has the advantage that it can be worked around the awkward shapes of a boat with very few joints. It generally comes in 50-foot rolls. When making tubing runs, the copper should be bent as little as possible; with constant flexing it work-hardens and then is prone to kink or crack. If tubing does become hard, it can be resoftened by heating to a cherry red color with a propane torch and then dousing with cold water (annealing – copper is annealed the opposite way to other metals, which are heated and then cooled slowly).

Tight bends are liable to flatten out, kink, or both, unless made with proper bending tools or springs. Bending springs, which simply slip over the outside of the tubing and are then removed when the bend is complete, are quite cheap, and available from plumbing suppliers.

If possible, tubing and pipe should always be cut with tubing cutters since this is the only way to ensure a smooth and square cut (especially important for making flare connections-see below). To make a cut, clamp the cutters lightly around the tube or pipe and make a full turn. Tighten the handle a half turn after each turn until the cut is complete. On the back of the cutters will be a hinged arrowhead fitting-use this to clean any burr on the inside of the cut.

In both the USA and the UK, copper pipe and tubing can be joined with compression fittings, flare fittings, and solder fittings.

Boat plumbing fittings

Compression fittings. Boat plumbing compression fittings are in many ways the easiest to make but the least reliable in service.

Flare fittings.

Flares are made with a special tool. There are a number of relatively inexpensive flaring kits on the market. The cheaper kits consist of a clamp that fits around the tube or pipe and has a machined bevel in its face. A horseshoe-shaped bracket with a threaded bolt in its centre fits over the clamp. On the base of this bolt is a spinner-a block of metal cut to the same taper as the bevel in the clamp. The spinner is screwed into the mouth of the tube or pipe and forces its sides out against the bevel. The flare is complete.

Here are some tips:

1. The nut must be put on the line before making the flare! If possible use long-nosed flare nuts (as opposed to the more common short ones), since they provide more support to the joint and reduce the chances of cracking due to vibration.

2. The end of the tube or pipe must be cut square and cleaned of all burrs inside and out.

3. Warming the tube or pipe before screwing down the spinner will help prevent cracking (ideally, the tube should be annealed).

4. Depending on clamp configuration, the tube or pipe may need to protrude above the face of the clamp by one-third to one-half the depth of the bevel to permit an adequate flare. If it is set flush with the face of the clamp, the resulting flare will be skimpy and prone to leak. When made, the flare should just fit into, but not hang up on, the sides of the flare nut.

5. The spinner should be oiled when making the flare.

6. The spinner should not be screwed down too tightly-it will weaken the flare. When the joint is done up, the flare nut will pull the flare snugly onto the flared fitting.

7. If the flare looks uneven or in any other way unsatisfactory, it must be cut off and remade. Doing so right away will be a lot easier than doing so later.


Solder fittings (sweat fittings) can be used on both copper tubing and pipe. A wide range of fittings is readily available. Some fittings are presoldered, but most are not.

1. Clean both surfaces to be soldered with fine (400- to 600-grit) wet-or-dry sandpaper until the entire surface to be soldered is shiny. Do not use emery cloth-oils in the cloth backing will spoil the soldering.

2. Apply soldering flux immediately but sparingly to both surfaces. Push the fitting onto the tube or pipe and twist to spread the flux evenly. The flux is there to keep out oxygen and contaminants once the joint is clean. Flux is no substitute for cleaning.

3. Heat the joint evenly with a propane torch.

4. Touch solid solder to the joint periodically until the tube or pipe and fittings are hot enough to melt the solder. The solder itself is not heated by the torch-if the metal in the joint is not hot enough to melt the solder, it will not flow properly.

5. Let solder flow into the joint. Apply only enough heat to keep the solder melting; more will overheat the joint. Generally the flame can be held at some distance or turned away from the joint and passed over it quickly a couple of times.

6. When solder shows all around the fitting, the joint is complete. Remove the heat. Any more solder added to the joint will merely flow out the other side and into the tube or pipe, causing a partial blockage.

7. When the joint is cool, thoroughly clean away the excess flux.

If you experience problems in getting leakproof joints, the most likely culprit is contamination of the soldering surface on the pipe or in the fitting. To be certain of making successful joints, the surfaces to be soldered can be tinned (i.e., given a thin film of solder) prior to being mated. If the solder will not spread out evenly, the copper is not clean enough. Once tinned, the pipe may not push into the fitting, in which case you need a little heat to melt the solder while seating the pipe.

Open a Coffee Shop – Three More Tips on How to Start a Coffee Shop and Make it a Big Success

Do you love the idea of opening your own coffee shop? Imagine being able to hang out in your favorite espresso place all day, every day, and pass it off as “work.” If that sounds appealing to you, read on to discover three tips on how you can get there.

Opening a coffee shop is hot these days. People may not have a lot of extra money, but a good cup of coffee is a simple luxury that even the tightest budget can make room for. Most people treat themselves to a simple pleasure here and there even if a new pair of shoes might be a stretch. It’s an upper and helps them keep going until things get better again.

And coffee shops have also become community gathering places. People use them as their home away from home, or even their home office away from home or even the office. And you can get in on that.

And here are three additional tips to give you a running start:

1) Open the right kind of coffee shop

You know that different coffee shops draw different customers. Which one you want to open will depend on two factors — your market and your own preferences. Ideally, the two are in alignment as to which one of the two major models will work best:

Some people like the laid back variety, with vintage sofas, home-made cookies, and 60s music playing in the background. You could make it so authentic-looking that people almost expect some of their favorite Woodstock legends to walk in the door.

Other people love the sleek and elegant look. Those kinds of places feature the finest coffee drinks, expensive beans, and maybe gourmet food as well. The sleek coffee shops draw business people — and they’re perfect for making deals.

They definitely need to feature wireless internet access as well. Sure, you should consider that in any case, but for this particular type it’s a must.

As long as your market allows, go with what you love best.

2) Find something that will make your coffee shop unique

If you’ve done your research, you know what the competition has to offer. Now spend some quality time thinking about what YOU would like to offer that makes your place stand out. Make it something that no one else offers and especially something they won’t be able to replicate too easily.

Maybe you could come up with a phenomenal brownie or cookie recipe, or a drink to die for. You might even look into a license that allows you to serve up “adult” coffee drinks! Now that would make you stand out from the crowd, although it might come with some drawbacks too.

3) Make your coffee shop a destination

Offer something that will make people show up for events. Whether it’s live music or poetry readings, or even workshops on topics your audience is interested in, from how to promote your business online to astrology. Events like these will benefit you in two big ways:

a) They will make you stand out and draw a growing crowd.

b) They will give you a legitimate excuse to be listed in all kinds of event calendars. They also allow you to send out announcements to your customers, post fliers, and use other ways to publicize your event — and bring people into your coffee shop.

But first things first — you need to have a coffee shop business plan to get it all off the ground. You also need a guide to hold your hand, preferably written by someone who has done it all before successfully, so you can avoid the most common mistakes and can get on the fast track to your own coffee shop success.

History Of The Lighting Tower

Who invented the first portable lighting tower?

This depends largely on your definition of a lighting tower. A broad definition could include something as simple as a candle or primitive torch placed on a tall mast to cast light over a large area, such a device has probably been in use since the Stone Age.

In more recent history it’s un-clear as to when the modern lighting tower was invented. Researching patent applications indicates that machines not dissimilar to today’s lighting towers were being designed in the 1930s.

A patent from 1932 shows what might be the first machine of its kind filed in US patent 1934576 and is named as a “Portable floodlighting unit for airports”.

The patent describes a chassis with 4 wheels at each corner (allowing the machine to be towed), a generator powered by an engine and one large electric lamp at each end of the vehicle. The machine is designed to be used to provide on-demand lighting of alternative landing sites at airports on occasions when the main landing areas are out of use because of adverse weather conditions.

More recently in 1980 a US patent 4181929 was filed for a Portable illuminating tower that illustrates a much closer resemblance to modern day lighting towers.

The US patent 4181929 describes a portable lighting tower consisting of a base frame (which contains an engine and generator) and a vertical, extending, hydraulic mast with two electric lamps at the upper end. The unit does not permit towing but instead is lightweight and compact enough to be easily transported. The design also includes jack legs that are now common place on all lighting towers to ensure stability in high winds.

This is quite a significant development in the history of the lighting tower as this patent largely forms the basis of most modern day lighting towers which contain similar elements such as a base that stores the engine and generator along with an extending hydraulic mast that supports the luminaries.

The next patent was filed later in the same year of 1980 but was for a solution to provide more extensive illumination. The US patent 4220981 describes a chassis with 4 wheels to hold the generator and engine and two folding telescopic masts at opposite corners of the chassis that each hold a cluster of electric lamps. The design also allows for the masts to be rotated enabling finer control of the area of illumination. By offering two masts the light tower also allows for illumination over nearly all sides of the machine. This is unlike previous light towers which generally offer illumination on only one side of the machine.

Since 1980 considerable progress has been made by lighting tower manufacturers. Although the overall design has varied little from those seen in the 1980s many improvements have been made to make lighting towers easier to use and more environmentally friendly.

The Hylite lighting tower from Taylor Construction Plant includes Adjustabeam© technology which allows the user to adjust the direction of each lamp from the ground. The TCP Hylite also has a flexible chassis design which allows almost any generator to be used to power the light heads.

The TCP Ecolite lighting tower has also broken new ground by utilising extremely economical lamps to reduce fuel consumption dramatically, which is particularly timely seeing as global warming is becoming a more and more prevalent concern.

Wiring Methods For Landscape Lighting

The processes that are used when adding landscape lighting to your home are vital to the functionality and longevity of the product. Quality installation means that your lighting will not falter either in the short term or the long term.

One important aspect of landscape lighting installation is the wiring method. Understanding the different wiring options available will give you greater insight into your outdoor lighting project.

Daisy Chain

The daisy chain configuration is one of the most common wiring methods, due to its simplicity. However, with greater ease comes diminished voltage. On a daisy chain, the first light receives more energy and is therefore brighter than the last light. This can lead to a home that has brighter lights on one side, say by the front door, than on the other side, in front of the garage. If you are running a daisy chain a short distance, the difference in brightness is not very noticeable, if at all. But the longer the wire runs the more pronounced the difference becomes. In addition, the daisy chain method uses more connections, which increases the number of “weak points” or spots on the wire where you can encounter a future burnout or problem. A daisy chain configuration can be useful for certain types of landscape lighting, but it is important to be aware of its drawbacks.

T-wiring System

The T-wiring system gets its name because of its appearance, which looks like a “T.” It is formed this way because the main wire is run to the middle of the fixture it powers, in hopes of balancing the voltage drop. This allows for more consistent brightness than the daisy chain wiring method. However, the T-wiring system adds one connection for each main wire and more weak points, increasing the likelihood of maintenance issues down the road.

Hub System

The hub system is widely accepted as the best combination of efficiency, longevity, and brightness. With the hub system, every fixture comes with fifteen to twenty inches of wire, and then the main wire is run to the center of the fixture. All the wires on the fixtures run to the main wire, similar to the spokes on a bicycle tire. For each “hub” there are two to four fixtures attached. This system reduces the number of connections and thus the number of problems you might encounter. The additional wires used in this method can be run through pipes or hidden below the ground.

Keep these three wiring methods in mind when you are planning a lighting project or choosing a professional landscape lighting company. Knowing which approach to use and how it will affect your lighting over time will insure a sound investment in your home’s appearance.

Radiant Barrier: The Insulation Worth Adding To Your House

Do you have a newer home with a high R-Value insulation installed? Good for you! But there is still one more thing you can do to improve the energy efficiency of your home. A step that will actually decrease your bills even further: installing radiant barrier reflective foil insulation in your attic.

Once your home is completed by a builder there are still two to three places in your home that may possibly be leaking your energy resources: attic, garage and windows. Since the attic covers the entire home, I recommend it as the place to start if you want to further energy-proof your home.

Installing radiant barrier insulation in your attic can keep your home cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. It is a type of foil insulation that works with your existing cellulose or fiberglass materials to deflect the heat or cold and help with your home’s temperature control. It is easy to install. You can tack it up with nails, staples or glue right over the studs in your attic. It is very affordable on the front end and you could see the return in full of your initial outlay via your heating and cooling bill within months.

How does reflective foil enhance your existing insulation? Cellulose and fiberglass simply absorb the heat so the more of it you have, the better. This depth is what your R-Value refers to. Radiant barrier, which is not measured by R-Value, is a thin sheet with aluminum foil on each side that reflects the heat or cold so it does not pass through into your house. When it is cold, it sends the cold air back outside. When it is hot, it sends the hot air back outside. Thus your furnace and air conditioner are not working as hard to keep your house at a pleasant temperature.

It is best to use perforated radiant barrier insulation when installing in an attic. This allows the material to breathe and prevents unwanted moisture and condensation from developing.

Aircraft Fire Testing Explained

Aircraft fire testing

Often, on-site test labs are fully equipped and qualified to perform multiple types of aircraft fire testing required to demonstrate compliance with aircraft flammability regulations.

There is frequently confusion between the different categories of fire testing basically defined as follows

• Fireproof is the capacity to withstand the heat associated with fire to the highest level, to withstand at least as well as steel in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used.

• Fire resistant is the capacity to withstand the heat associated with fire at least as well as aluminium alloy in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used.

• Flame resistant means not susceptible to combustion to the point of propagating a flame, beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is removed.

• Flash resistant means not susceptible to burning violently when ignited.

These are general terms used to define tests. Some of these definitions allow for variations. For example, flame resistant refers to safe limits.

These limits vary depending on the material, or where and how a material is used, and this is reflected in the regulations, for example, aircraft interiors fire performance FAA 14 CFR:Part 25 or Resistance to Fire in Designated Zones ISO 2685:1998. Some tests are quite specific.

As steel is considered to be fireproof and aluminium to be fire resistant, unfinished metal parts could already be assumed to meet the flame resistance and flash resistance tests. However, parts containing alloys for example, do require testing.

Companies who do this are approved to perform the following types of fire testing:

• Vertical and horizontal Bunsen burner tests

• 45 degree Bunsen burner test

• 60 degree Bunsen burner tests for wires and cables

• Oil burner tests for aircraft seat cushions

• Fire containment testing for waste compartments

Fire testing of fuselage burnthrough resistance

Fire testing has shown us that burning aviation fuel can penetrate into an aircraft cabin through air return grilles, seams, joints or window reveals. Even aluminium sidewall panels offer minimal burnnthrough resistance. FAA researchers are focusing on the thermal acoustical insulation as the most potentially effective and practical means of achieving a burnthrough barrier.

Airborne equipment environmental testing.

All materials used in an aircraft cabin or cargo compartment must meet the applicable flammability requirements for that aircraft type. Such materials include, but are not limited to, interior panelling, floor coverings, seat cushions and upholstery, seat belts, curtains, decorative furnishings, padding, galley structure and furnishings, transparencies, stowage and baggage compartment structures, thermoformed parts, cargo liners, and insulation materials.

When repairing or replacing the interior material in an aircraft, compliance with the applicable material flammability requirements must be certified.

The organisation carrying out the repair or refurbishment needs to ensure compliance with the appropriate standards for the aircraft being refurbished.

Minimum requirements for aircraft are dependent on the airworthiness category of the aircraft. Standards are periodically revised due to inadequate service history or new technologies. EASA FAR & JAR all provide certification standards.

Whilst these standards are mostly harmonised, not all flammability requirements are the same and harmonising of changes to standards have occurred at different dates.

The certification basis of an aircraft is defined in the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS).

Occasionally retroactive action is warranted to correct identified unsafe conditions in the flammability standard of the aircraft fleet. This retroactive action can be aircraft type specific but for flammability issues tends to be more generalised and applicable by aircraft weight or passenger capacity.

For new aircraft types since 1984, there has been a steady increase in the number of tests required for various aircraft interior components. These address specific tests for critical areas of the cabin and are in addition to the general Bunsen burner test for most cabin materials. There are additional tests for seat cushions, ceiling and wall panels, cargo compartment liners, and insulation materials. This increase in the number of tests will continue with new standards for electrical wiring and air conditioning ducts likely in the future.

Additional to these new flammability standards for new aircraft designs, the same requirements were made retroactive for some existing aircraft, mainly based on passenger capacity. The outcome of this action is many flammability requirements for older transport category designs are no longer entirely defined by their certification basis. Specific tests include:

• Oil burner tests for seat cushions

• Radiant heat release and smoke criteria for interior ceiling and side-wall panels

• Burnthrough criteria for cargo compartment liners

• Flame propagation of thermal/acoustic materials

• Flame penetration of thermal/acoustic materials

Cabin material in aircraft must meet the applicable flammability standard. There are three ways to ensure this:

1. Carry out all component replacements or repairs in accordance with approved material and data (e.g. aircraft manufacturer’s parts and instructions, STCs, etc),

2. Obtain material which has been tested to the appropriate standard from an approved supplier, or

3. Obtain commercial material and organise samples to be tested for their flammability.

An aviation materials supplier should supply batch test certificates for the materials, ensuring that these certificates cover the required flammability standard adequately.

Fire retardant chemicals

If fire retardant chemicals are used to provide the required flammability properties of the material, the long term performance must be taken into consideration to ensure the material in service continues to meet the certification standard.

Fire retardant performance deteriorates with wear and, particularly, cleaning. Therefore, the service life of material treated with the fire retardant must be established and appropriate maintenance instructions provided to ensure continuing airworthiness of the cabin interior.

An aircraft which has been refurbished with material treated with fire retardant may no longer meet the flammability requirements after time in service. If a service life or instructions for reapplication of the retardant have not been established, then the effectiveness of the retardant should be treated with suspicion.

Even adhesives and laminates used in repairs require flammability tests assembled in a representative manner. Amongst other issues, research has shown that the increase in heat released from the addition of a new surface finish or laminate is variable and dependant on the underlying substrate material, thus showing an indirect relationship between the flammability of individual materials and the laminated assembly.

However, families of materials with similar construction methods but varying thickness may only require testing of the critical configurations. The FAA is developing methods to qualify adhesives independently.

Aircraft seat covers flammability testing

Seat covers are substantial in size, and have the potential to increase the fuel load and ignitability of the interior. They must therefore be an approved modification that meets the requirements of the certification basis of the aircraft to which they will be fitted.

There are certain items of an operational nature that are not required to undergo a flammability test. Blankets, pillows, headrest protectors, and items that are not part of the aircraft type design are not required to meet the flammability certification standard. However, incidents have occurred with fires starting and propagating in airline comfort blankets. The FAA have a specifically designed flammability test for blankets that is recommended.

A recent problem for the major aircraft manufacturers occured when a seat supplier was accused of falsifying records on its flammability tests, an issue that Airbus and Boeing investigated and believed was rectified.

The deception delayed aircraft deliveries.

How to Repair Your Damaged Wallpaper

If you have wallpaper in your home then there is a good chance that at some point you will have to repair a damaged or ripped section of the wallpaper. If this is the case, then you will need a remnant of your original wallpaper in order to complete this project. If you wallpaper is not very old then there is a good chance that they still make your wallpaper pattern and you should be able to order a roll from wherever you purchased your original wallpaper.

First you will need a few tools to get started. You will need a utility knife, a putty knife, a pair of scissors, a damp rag or sponge, painters tape, a drop cloth or some newspaper, a ruler, wallpaper adhesive and a piece of wallpaper remnant.

Begin by covering the floor with a drop cloth or newspaper so that you can protect the flooring from any damage. Next, cut a section of your remnant that is slightly larger then the damaged area and secure it to the wall with painters tape. Make certain that your pattern lines up properly.

Next, using your utility knife, cut through both the wallpaper remnant and the original wallpaper that is on the wall. This will help to ensure that your replacement piece is the exact same size as your opening.

Remove the patch and wet the damaged area with hot water using your cloth. Peel away the damaged piece but be very careful not to damage the surrounding areas of wallpaper. If the damaged area does not come off easily, you can add a small amount to dishwashing detergent to help loosen the wallpaper.

Once the damaged wallpaper has been removed, you will need to remove any excess glue residue before proceeding. Use your hot water and cloth again for this step. You may need to add a bit of dishwashing detergent to your hot water to completely remove all of the old adhesive. Make certain the wall is fully dry before going to the next step.

Next, apply the wallpaper glue to the back of your patch and put it in the area which you have already cut out. If you used pre pasted wallpaper, dip the wallpaper in water and then place it over the the prepared opening. Again, be sure that the pattern lines up with the surrounding wallpaper. Smooth the patch out using a ruler removing any bubbles that may form.

Wipe away any adhesive which oozes out with a clean sponge or cloth. Allow the patch to dry.

Its always a good idea whenever you hang new wallpaper to always order a extra roll or two so that you always have some in case of any mishaps. Most wallpaper patterns will go out of production after a couple of years and it will be very difficult to find your pattern after this time period.

This is a fairly simple project that most homeowner can complete in a short time with very little cost

Steel Kit Home With Complete Instruction Guide

Construction of kit homes or steel kit homes is an innovative idea introduced by its. This totally a new concept offering some of the best construction technology to construct your dream house within very short span of time. You don’t have to wait for any longer to start living into your cozy and comfortable kit houses, just approve the estimate and design of the house and consider your job is done. Their expert engineers have mastered the art of constructing the fastest kit houses using the superior quality Blue Scope steel; the best manufactured steel in the country.

The frame of house is made using the light weight but most sturdy steel offering lasting durability of fifty years. The steel frame is coated with special rust proof and termite proof chemicals. Even the windows, doors, floors and roofs are made from special materials that offer a protection against pest attack, bore and other germs.

The steel kit home is non-combustible and eliminates every possibility of catching fire from the flammable materials in the home. The kit houses are highly protective against any harsh natural climatic condition and always offer clean, cozy and comfortable atmosphere in the house. The owner of the house doesn’t have to wait like constructing a conventional house using various construction materials.

The kit houses are normally free from any shrinkage, twist, wrap, cracking and jamming of doors and windows during unfavorable weather conditions. Even the walls, roofs and floors are also free from shacking and offer robust sturdy living space. The kit house offers enough ventilation everywhere and that is why it is considered as an ideal house for those who are suffering from asthma.

The most advantageous aspect of the kit house is that it offers the never before flexibility of living. It is now greatly possible to change the front elevation of the kit house or to change the internal living space. The outside landscaping could be covered by a beautiful patio and an unused, uneven spare piece of land could easily be converted into a beautiful decking that adds a lot into the living space of the house.

It is also possible to change the inner shape of the house or expand the living area covering the large open space. It offers great flexibility to shift the living area, toiletries and kitchen facilities. You can also add an extra space to the house with an additional construction. It is easy to add any extra floor to the house or change the design of the house the way you desire.

Acoustic Ceiling Removal – A Task Any Homeowner Can Tackle

Do you dread the thought of acoustic ceiling removal and all that it entails? Many people do as this is a very messy job. With the right tools and preparation, the job can be completed and your house won’t be a disaster. You can also save a great deal of money by doing the work yourself. Although the job can be rather time consuming, the money you save will make your effort worthwhile.

Getting Set Up

Gather all supplies together to remove a popcorn ceiling. Goggles are the most important item as you need to protect your eyes from the ceiling components. A ladder is a necessity as are drop clothes and thin plastic to cover the walls. Water must also be brought in when scraping acoustic ceiling materials. Either a spray bottle or a garden hose with a misting nozzle is needed. A scraper, tape, drywall primer and ceiling paint will complete your purchases.

Before You Begin

Furniture must be removed from the room before you undertake popcorn ceiling removal. If you have pieces that are just too heavy to take out of a room, cover them completely with drop clothes. This will protect your furnishings from damage. Cover the walls with thin plastic at this point. Tape the plastic right along the seam between the ceiling and the wall. Once this is complete, lay drop clothes across your floor. Overlap these so the floor is completely covered. Once the drop clothes are laid, you may wish to slide the edges under the plastic on the walls and tape them down. This ensures no gaps are present. The more gaps, the more you will have to clean up. Remove light fixtures and tape electrical wires so they do not interfere with your work. It is recommended that you cut the circuit breaker for the room off also.

Removing the Actual Texture

Start by putting your eye protection on and then wet the ceiling. Removing popcorn ceiling textures requires that you completely saturate the section to be removed. Use the garden hose or the spray bottle, whichever you are more comfortable with. When the area is drenched, you may begin the scraping process. Some just allow the materials to fall on the drop cloth. It is better to place them in a plastic bag or bucket, but the choice is up to you. Once you finish removing texture ceiling from an area, wipe it down with a damp sponge or rag and move on to the next area. Complete this until the entire project is done.

The Final Touches

Now that removing texture ceiling is complete, it is time to finish the job. The drywall must be primed before you continue. Finish up with two coats of premium paint. This will ensure you don’t have to paint again anytime in the near future. Once the ceiling is dry, it is time to clean up. Remove all plastic from the walls and drop clothes from the floor. Try to keep all materials inside and throw them away. Your acoustic ceiling removal is complete and you have a room to be proud of.

Can I Reuse and Relay Laminate Flooring?

Removing tongue and groove laminate flooring is not a hard project. Homeowners who need to remove the laminate will find the process simple to do. The lifetime of a floor goes through repairs, reuse and general upkeep that will require a laminate floor to be removed at some stage.

There are many reasons why someone might have to lift the laminate up to get to floor underneath, whether it is damp, water spillage or the need to access pipes. Simple tools and a gentle hand will lift the laminate planks with minimal damage, so they may be reused. Not having to replace the planks or reusing them saves money, helps out the environment all while retaining their beauty.

Reuse of a Laminate Floor

A room with beautiful flooring provides more than eye pleasing livability. Sometimes this foundation has to be removed to repair possible water damage or to figure out why one spot is buckling under pressure. Installers usually do not glue a tongue and groove laminate floor, and it can be lifted in pieces. The flexibility of this flooring allows the homeowner to relay the planks or even recycle it in a different room.

A homeowner that wants to remove laminate flooring has to be extremely careful while lifting the planks. Applying too much pressure can break off the tongue portion of the laminate. If the tongue breaks off in the removal process, the plank has to be scrapped because it will no longer fit its mate properly. Since the tongue of the plank can break off easily, it is sensible to keep a spare box of planks handy (or certainly to not throw away any excess planks from when you purchased them).

How to Remove the Planks

Tongue and groove laminate flooring fits together like a puzzle. The planks fit together snugly and do require a gentle hand when pulling them apart. The puzzle like configuration makes removal of the planks an easy project. Often you may find that it floats on a base instead of having glue secure it down, so you need not be too aggressive.

The removal and replacement of a laminate floor requires a rubber mallet and a crow bar with a 90 degree angle. It is imperative to lift the first plank that sits nearest to a wall. With the crowbar, gently pry the plank up off the floor. If the floor is glued, use caution during the removal, and be prepared to use new planks. As the planks are at a 45 degree angle gently slide and wiggle the plank away from its mate without damaging the tongue. Number each plank as during the removal to ensure a painless replacement process.

Benefits of Reusing Flooring

The reasons for removing laminate flooring can vary from owner to owner. Not only does reusing this floor save money but it also helps to save the environment. Recycling and upcycling material helps to keep them unnecessary trash out of landfills and doing so is a responsible effort towards the environment. Accessing the base floor and reusing the planks is an uncomplicated process that saves money and is environmentally responsible.

What is the Best Surface For My Patio? Block Paving Or Paving Stones (Flagging)

Summer time is here and many people are thinking of having their patio surface renewed. The two most popular options in the UK are block paving and flagstones. Here we will compare the differences of both materials. We will also look at which one is the better choice for your home.

Which option looks best?

Block paving comes in a variety of styles. The blocks are small and make an attractive surface. It is usually used on driveways because it gives a lot of detail over a large area. There are 2 types of block paving, the standard blocks are all one size and laid in a herringbone pattern. These blocks are most common in brindle colour with a charcoal border. They look good with most properties. Older or more traditional style houses look better with cobble style block paving which is laid in rows usually in 3 sizes.

Paving comes in many varieties from standard pavement style flags, to ornamental concrete flagstones from companies like Marshalls, to natural stone flagging like Indian Stone. There is an option for every budget and every desired look. The most popular option at the moment is Indian Stone as it comes in different shades and colours. This provides a cost effective natural look.

Which option is easiest to maintain?

Block paving is laid with a thin layer of sand in the joints. This attracts moss and weeds. Depending on where you live the surface will need cleaning once a year or so. If you choose to pressure wash the surface you will need to brush new kiln dried sand into the joints. It is best to apply a sealer afterwards too which will keep the surface clear for longer.

Paving is fixed together with concrete in the joints. This means that no weeds or moss will come from the joints making it an easier surface to maintain. However it will still need some attention when dirt sticks to it. Smoother flags will attract less dirt.

Home Assembly Jobs – How to Choose the Right Products to Assemble

Home assembly jobs have practically all kinds of home accessory products that you can think of. Thus, a worker, once he has gotten himself working on a particular product, can always decide on another one if he desires to do so, so long as he first finishes his or her assignment with another company. But it is always recommended that before you go into a certain company with its own kind of product, always think about what you would prefer to work on. This will preclude you from having to change from one company to another just because the kinds of product you are working on do not suit your taste.

You see, it is never good to hop from one company to another for the simple reason that you do not like working on a particular product and you will try another one because it might be the kind of work suited to your taste. Home assembly jobs companies do not look kindly to individuals who hop from one company to another. Before you select what kind of home assembly jobs you will work on, you have to think first if you will be interested and happy in the kind of work that you will select.

Your interest in the kind of work you do is important because it will make you more focused in your work and because you are happy doing such kind of works, naturally, it will show on the quality of your assembled product. A worker who is interested in his chosen home assembly jobs will surely produce a better kind of work compared to a person without any interest in his work. You yourself will of course know what interest you most.

Here is a tip in how to find out if what will interest you most before you choose the home assembly jobs that you will work on. Let us say electronics, jewelry and wood craft are the three items that seemed to interest you, but you are not still sure if what among these three products you would like to work on. To determine what would interest you most, log on or surf the internet sites of the three companies and browse the products that they are offering for work at home people.

Here, you will be able to take a good look at what you will be doing in case you decide on a company or a product. Home assembly jobs that these companies will be offering are posted prominently on their sites some even with a slide show of the home assembly jobs that recruits will be assigned to work on.

An electronic company site can have a presentation about their Printed Circuit Board assembly, where you can see an actual demo on how easy it is to assemble resistors, transistors and capacitors to the board. There is also a short demo on how to use the electronic soldering gun and how to solder. You can also visit the site of a jewelry company and view their home assembly jobs section where you can see how easy it is for home workers in stringing together jewelry stones and beads. The same is true for wood craft company sites where you may also be able see sample videos of their home assembly jobs. You can now decide on what product you will choose to assemble. Will it be electronics, jewelry or wood craft? Of course, the choice is yours!