Stained Glass – Basic Skills You Need To Make Stained Glass Art

Making stained glass crafts is a wonderful hobby for almost anyone. There’s just something magical about the unique beauty of these wonderful objects, but you don’t have to be a magician to create stained glass art. Anyone can do it!

Making beautiful stained glass objects requires very little initial investment, and even if you have only a basic skill level, the results of your efforts will amaze you.

Read the following overview of the skills needed, and I’m sure you’ll agree there’s no reason you can’t jump right in and make a success of your new hobby:

Cutting stained glass

Cutting is probably the most demanding skill you’ll need to develop. But don’t worry. Over the years, plenty of clever people have refined the glass cutting procedure to get it just right. Cutting is now safe, predictable, and easy.

If you follow standard glass-cutting procedure, use good equipment, and put safety first, you’ll find yourself easily cutting the shapes you need with very little waste or breakage.

Grinding pieces of stained glass until they’re just the right shape

Glass cutting is an inexact art. When you cut glass, you get the pieces close, but they’re never exactly the shape you need them to be to fit your design. And that’s where glass grinding comes in.

A good glass grinder resembles a miniature router table, and it makes it a snap to easily shape your rough-cut glass however you want. Any misshapen or jagged edges are easily ground away, and you’re left with a perfectly shaped piece that’s ready to take its place in the pattern.

Foiling the edges of the cut pieces of glass

As you probably know, solder doesn’t adhere to glass very well. In fact, if you tried to solder directly to glass, your creation would fall apart like a loose puzzle. That’s where foiling saves the day.

By wrapping copper foil around the cut edges of your pieces of stained glass, you give the solder something to stick to. Foil ties everything together so your stained glass creation becomes a single unit rather than a collection of separate pieces.

You can foil by hand, or use an inexpensive foiling tools to help you along. Either way, it’s an enjoyable task that’s almost impossible to get wrong.

Soldering stained glass

This is the one you’ve been waiting for, right? Soldering turns your glass pieces into a single, beautiful creation. And with the right equipment, it’s not as difficult as you might think.

Although clean, even soldering takes a bit of practice, even an absolute beginner can get the hang of it very quickly. And if you get some stray blobs of solder where they don’t really belong, there’s no reason to worry about it. After all, it adds character to your artwork. Anyway, you’ll almost always start soldering the back of your artwork first. So when it comes time to do the front, you’ll be up to speed and soldering like a pro!

With a good soldering station, you’ll always know if your soldering iron is heated up and ready to produce an even bead of solder.

Finishing and framing stained glass creations

Once your artwork is soldered to your satisfaction, there’s nothing left but to finish and frame your masterpiece. Finishing is an optional step that removes any imperfections in the solder joints, but lots of folks like to leave things unfinished for a more natural, hand-crafted look.

Framing is easy too, assuming your art is a standard size. If you made your artwork from a kit, it’s almost certain that you’ll easily find a frame to that fits. But if you’re the do it yourself type who designs his or her own stained glass, you’ll want to design it to fit a frame.

PVC Wire is Different Than Irradiated Hookup Wire

Hookup wire may all look the same but each time has specific differences that are needed for certain applications. There are insulation thicknesses, temperature changes and flexibility of copper strands. It is a good idea to specify exactly what you need to your sales person in order for them to set you up with the right type of wire for your specific application. There are many different situations and someone who has been in the business for 20 years might offer something to better fit your needs.

PVC Wire

PVC wire is the most basic type of lead wire usually coming in UL styles 1007 and 1015. UL1007 wire is a 300 volt wire and UL1015 is a 600 volt wire with PVC insulation. You might normally see PVC in an assembly in your appliances or car stereo wire harness. The voltage and gauge sizes depends on the amount of power in the application. WesBell offers 10 different color options and a valued added spiral stripe. The stripe is just another way to add more colors to assemblies and harnesses that may need more than 10 colors.

Irradiated Hookup Wire

Irradiated wire is solder iron resistant. Common UL styles are 1429, 1430 and 1431 which differ in voltage in order; 150 Volts, 300 Volts and 1000 Volts. Coil winding and other types of coil manufacturing companies use irradiated hookup wire because it constantly comes in contact with the soldering iron. PVC insulation would melt immediately if on contact with a soldering iron.

Teflon wire has a high temperature insulation so that wires exposed in ovens and other hot areas will not melt the insulation. PVC wire cannot handle high heat applications but it’s much cheaper for the applications it’s called for. Each type of hookup wire is also made into cables if you need to run more than one wire at a time. Teflon cables and hookup wire cables are both readily available at most wire and cable distributors.

Gear Wrench Set – What It Is and Where to Use It

If you’re working on a motorcycle or other engine, then you’re probably familiar with a gear wrench set.

But if this is something new to you, or if you have a sweetheart who needs tools to work on a project in very tight quarters, then this article is going to explain some of the uses and benefits of gear wrenches.

What Is It?

A gear wrench is basically a closed end, hand held wrench. Picture a metal wrench, with a closed end on one side and an open end wrench on the other. The difference between this type of wrench and a gear wrench is that the gear wrench has a “ratchet” inside the closed end.

The closed ratchet end of the wrench allows someone to tighten or loosen a bolt or nut when space is limited. For example, when working on a motorcycle engine where there isn’t a lot of room to move, a gear wrench tool will allow you to loosen a nut even though you may only be able to move your hand a few degrees.

The ratchet lets you turn the wrench, then holds the position while you back up the wrench to take another turn. It’s just like a ratcheting socket set, only without the sockets.

Gear wrench sets come in groups, usually in metric or SAE (inches) sizes. There are generally about 10 or 12 wrenches per set in various sizes. This allows you to have a number of wrenches to choose from, since most engines and projects will require bolts, nuts and screws of differing sizes.

An additional benefit to these type of wrenches is that the ratchet prevents “rounding” of the fastener you’re working on. That means that the edges of the bolt or nut will stay sharp, allowing the wrench to grab well long into the future.

So Where Do You Use These Wrenches?

In a nutshell, anywhere!

You can use this type of wrench anyplace that you would need to use a regular wrench. Gear wrenches are typically used in places where space is tight, for example, motorcycle engines, lawnmower engines, auto and bus engine repair, and so on. One reviewer stated that he used the wrenches to change the convertible top on his Volkswagon and found them to be exactly what he needed.

Have you ever found that you needed a socket to loosen or tighten a bolt, but couldn’t fit the socket inside the space? This is precisely where a gear wrench shines!


The only caveat worth mentioning about gear wrench sets is that you don’t want to rely on these to remove rusted bolts or nuts.

These wrenches are designed to work in tight spaces, but not to torque or “whale” on fasteners that have been sitting untouched for decades. The good news, though, is that most engines and equipment are worked on regularly and so there will not usually be any occasion to have to yank on anything.

If you do find that you have a stubborn bolt or nut, you might try spraying some WD-40 or other penetrating oil on the offending part. Allow it to work its way into the threads for 15-30 minutes and then try to remove it.

Cost and Availability

Gear wrench sets can be found online and at some home improvement stores. It’s not a bad idea to look at these tools in person at a home improvement store and then shop online to get the best price. Don’t be afraid to compare prices and quality, and always check online reviews. These will give you a good idea as to what others have found after using the tools themselves.

Prices can range from about $85 to more than $180 for a good tool set.

However, it’s very likely that this will be a one-time purchase and your gear wrench set can last a lifetime.

Opening a Retail Store: Five Secrets to Success

If you’ve dreamed of becoming a store owner and are thinking about making

the transition from working for someone to working for yourself, there are

a few things you need to consider before making the move.

The allure of “being your own boss” is very powerful, but actually succeeding

at doing so can be elusive. To increase your chances of being successful you need

to do your homework and really think about what you’re about to undertake. Running a business can be rewarding, but it is takes hard work. Below are some of the things you need to ask consider before you go any further.

1.Get the Facts

Do you know anything about the type of store you want to open? In other words,

what kind of experience do you have? Have you worked in retail before? Or do you want to have a store because you like to “shop” or because you love “antiques”?

Be realistic. If you’re lacking knowledge, educate yourself. Talk to people; read everything you can get your hands on about the type of store you want to open and the products you want to carry. Is there a demand for what you want to offer or is the market already flooded with like businesses?

Know your competition. Who are they? What products do they sell? Who are they targeting? What would you offer that they don’t? How and where will you advertise? If you’re dreaming of your grand opening with masses of customers waiting in line because of your terrific location and great prices, think again. Although location is a big factor and lower pricing can help, those factors are not enough to sustain you. You need to have a plan. This brings us to the dreaded, yet necessary, business plan.

2. It’s All in the Details…

Everyone hates to do a business plan, but you should at least make an attempt.

Even if you “guess” at your projections, it’s a starting point. More importantly, it forces you to put on paper all the expenses you will incur before actually opening the doors. For sales projections, a visit to your local library or researching the internet will give you a wealth of information about average sales for every type of business imaginable.

As for start-up costs for a retail store, here are a few things you need to include: rent, phone, electric, credit card processing, signage, business cards, sales invoices, phone book ads, any fixtures like sales counters, shelving, employees, etc. And then there’s product; you want to open the doors with the shelves full. Do your homework! When you’re estimating, round up for expenses and down for income; that way you’re prepared for the worst.

3. Show Me The Money…

Now that you know how much money it’s going to take to get the doors open and how much you think you can bring in, where’s the money coming to sustain you until the store takes off? Your own savings? Family and friends? Bank loan?

Whatever the source, make sure you have enough to cover your opening and operating expenses plus enough to live on for a minimum of one year, preferably two. Make sure you’ve factored in funds for re-stocking your inventory until sales climb so you won’t have a cash flow crunch early in the game. More businesses go under because of lack of funding than any other factor. Don’t be a statistic.

4. Against All Odds…

Speaking of statistics, the second biggest reason that businesses fail is poor management. Maybe you’re great at sales, but lousy at accounting, advertising or store layout. Most entrepreneurs wear all the hats in the beginning; from scrubbing floors to doing the books; running a store requires a number of skills.

You don’t have to be an accountant, but you do have to have some basic bookkeeping skills; without them, you may be getting calls from the State wanting to know what happened to the sales tax report you forgot to file. If you know you’re terrible at paperwork, or sales or whatever, get some help. If you can’t find a family member to help out, then be prepared to hire someone to do the jobs you can’t do.

5. The Long Haul

Passion and a love for what you’re doing are important, but not a guarantee you will succeed. Many people open businesses that started off as a hobby. They loved making widgets and started selling them. The next thing they knew they had a business. And after that the business had them. They could no longer take vacations because they hadn’t planned that far ahead. After a few years the business they loved turned out to be the thing they hated and they wondered what happened.

This typical scenario happens all the time with small business. Unless you plan for growth, you face certain burn out. Think big. Plan before you open your doors to structure it as if you were going to franchise.

Stop and think about the many management positions that would be required if you were running a large corporation. From CEO to Customer Service, start thinking in terms of personnel, policies and procedures. Being a small business is no excuse for being unstructured and sloppy.

The goal is for your business to be able to run without you. Plan every facet of your business and prepare for growth. Hiring the right people when sales begin to soar, frees you up to start planning the next step for your store or maybe just a long deserved vacation. Planned business growth means financial success and freedom! And creative freedom is the reason you chose the crazy world of retail in the first place.

Cutting and Drilling Holes in Glass

How to Cut Holes

Different type of glass cutters are used to cut the pane of a glass. If you are willing to cut a large circle in a pane of glass, you may need a beam compass cutter or a beam circle cutter. A beam compass cutters contains a pivot with a rubber suction pad, a cutter on the end of the beam and an adjustable beam.

1- Scoring is the first step to cut any glass piece. So, for cutting a hole in a pane of glass, you need to score the glass. Adjust the radius of the cutter and hold the pivot with its sucker in one hand and use the other hand to make smooth score with one continuous stroke. Now you have to score a second circle inside the first larger circle. Score some straight lines with this relatively smaller circle right to the edge. Then you need to score some radial lines to the outer circle. What you need to do now is to tap the glass gently at the center of the circle on the back. This will help you drop the pieces of glass from the hole. Take breaker rack and remove the left over pieces of the glass. Take a line glass paper wrapped around the handle of the screwdriver to smooth the edges.

2- If you are going to cut a hole near the edge of the pane of glass, it is better to cut the circle before cutting the size of a pane of glass.

3- It is also convenient to use circular glass cutters for cutting the discs. While using these circular glass cutters, you need to score tangential lines onto the second circle. These scored lines will help to break the pieces off from the glass. Don’t forget to smooth the edges of the disc. Properly smoothed edges will give a good finish to that disc.

How to Drill Holes

A spear like special glass bit is used to drill holes in a glass. Masonry drill should not be used in any case as it shatters the glass immediately.

1- First settle on the position of the hole on the glass. Place it on the flat surface with a good generous amount of old newspapers. Take putty or plasticine and put it around the space chosen for a hole. Fill this with white spirit, lubricant water or paraffin.

2- You will have to be very careful in starting drilling the hole at exact point. It is better to mount the drill in drill stand and start drilling slowly. Don’t exert too much pressure; proceed with slight pressure with slow speed to prevent the drill bit from overheating. When you reach at the end of the hole lessen the pressure.

3- If you are working on mirror, it is important to drill a pinhole from the back. This will protect the silvering on the front of the mirror. After drilling a hole, you can resume your drilling task from the front.

4- For bottles, fill it with sand and rest it on the sand bed for proper support. Keep lubricating the hole and the drill bit in between.

If you ever feel like, you will not be able to do this task, do not hesitate to contact glass merchant. He will do this task for you in quite a reasonable cost.

Safes – The Secret To Protecting Your Small Valuables

A home security safe can be a great addition to your home security. Most times we have several small items that will easily and conveniently fit into a safe.

Even though computers are very popular and can be useful with home security, a home security safe can still be very useful. You can use one for legal documents like a will, car titles, old pictures or smaller collectibles like jewelry or stamps. A samller security safe is a much better place for these type of items than just leaving them out around the house or in a dresser drawer.

Home security safes can be found in a variety of sizes to suit most any need or purpose and for a price that will not destroy your budget.

Small wall safes not only look good, they can easily be hidden as well. There are even smaller safes that you can put in a closet that are fire proof too. Smaller wall safes can be hidden behind paintings or other locations in your house that are hidden, but easy to get to. Some wall safes can be be turned sideways so they can be put into a floor, too.

Other options range from small safes that are small enough to fit into a desk drawer, to ones that are large enough to fill a room. The ones that are large enough to fill rooms are not only found in banks, they are also used as panic rooms or safe rooms. Larger safes are great for storing items such as rifles, where the smaller ones are good for items like jewelry, disks and papers.

The range of materials is equally impressive. Some are just hard plastic with a simple combination dial or key lock. Others are made from inch-thick walls of titanium alloy. The latter provide not only increased intrusion prevention, but may offer fire protection. Remember, though, it isn’t enough simply to have thick walls. If they heat up readily, the interior can get hot enough to melt jewelry or plastic, or combust paper.

Several styles depend as much on stealth and disguise as they do on strength. So-called ‘can safes’ look like ordinary household products, such as deodorant cans or coffee pots. They could be easily broken, but because they look just like household items no one would think to look inside. For those on a tight budget these are often no more than a few dollars. But don’t be tempted to brag too widely about your clever ‘safe’. Word can get around.

Electronic or computer-integrated models are all the rage now, since they can be programmed. Just as banks do, you can program them to only allow access at certain times of the day. That’s handy if you have curious kids who might easily discover the combination.

Electronic models have other forms of protection, too. They can be equipped with fingerprint sensors so they can only be opened by authorized persons. That’s also handy because it eliminates the need to remember a combination or password.

Regardless of the type of home security safe you decide to buy, just taking a little time to research the different safes available will help you find the right one for your purposes.

Fireproof File Cabinet – Choosing One That Suits Your Needs

I still remember it. The flames, the smoke, my neighbor’s wife sobbing, tears streaming down her face. Fortunately this family got out safe, they had good insurance to pay for their losses, and close friends to help them recover. However, they lost several irreplaceable photos and difficult to replace documents. Richard, my neighbor, later lamented about the hassles he and Eleanor experienced getting official copies of birth certificates, a new drivers’ license, passports and the title to one of his vehicles. He stated that having one form of ID would have helped him immensely.

One of the saddest parts of Richards’ experience is that if he would have invested in a fireproof file cabinet, he probably would have had a safe storage place for those documents, photos and other digital media. I had the opportunity to learn from his oversight and chose to do so.

Fireproof storage doesn’t have to be inconvenient or expensive. Not everybody needs a $1,500, 4 drawer lateral file cabinet rated at 6 hours to protect their documents and small valuables. Here are a few economical and practical options that will fit most people’s needs and budget.

The most basic is the fireproof file box. This system is ideal for those who only have a handful of documents and perhaps a little jewelry that they want to protect. The file boxes that range in price from $50 up to $200 are rated up to a half hour at 1550 degrees F, which is sufficient in most house fires. The advantage of these is that they are easily stored and moved. Amazon is a good place to look for these, or if you prefer the retail shopping experience, you can pick one up at Office Depot or Office Max.

The next step up will be the 1 or 2 drawer file cabinet. These are a good choice and may be the answer for those that work from home and need to store several files, or if tax documents are extensive. Unfortunately, there are some low quality products made by some big names. Sentry in particular makes a 1 drawer fireproof cabinet with a poor slide mechanism for the drawer. However, Sentry’s 2 drawer 1 hour rated cabinet gets great reviews, including the smooth operation of the drawers. A 1 drawer model will set you back somewhere between $150 and $300 while 2 drawer models run $400 to $600.

FireKing is one of the leading names in fireproof document storage and produces UL listed, high quality products. The smallest cabinet they offer is a 2 drawer model. Those interested in enterprise level safe document storage should seriously consider the FireKing line.

While the vast majority of us will not personally experience our place of residence burning down, it is still a possibility. The cost of a fireproof file cabinet is a bargain compared to the loss of those documents that can help you get your life back in order after experiencing such a devastating event.

Scissor Lift Designs and Their Functions

Engineering lifts have been quite conventional in the field of industrialization and manufacturing location to lift up work pieces, people and necessary equipments. To make it easy for you to understand, scissor lift is just a raised podium attached with wheels that acts like a forklift. The scissor lift can also come mightily handy in a non-industrial location where it injects more mobility, speed and people and things off the ground.

When the arms of the scissor lift are extended, it takes up the platform from the ground and can reach to a height anywhere between 21 to 62 feet and along with that the utmost load it can raise is close to 10000 pounds. The modern scissor lifts which are available now comes with outstanding features like rotate, movement in a straight line and incline. The incline characteristic of a scissor lift permits the worker to choose an angle of the raised podium and the rotating feature of the machine allows the platform to revolve. There are few scissor lifts that includes a platform which is free to move in a straight line.

Although there is a wide variety of scissor lifts available but most of these lifts include more or less indistinguishable mode of construction.

These can be further separated out in to two categories which is the manually driven and the automatically driven lifts where the self-driven lift moves upward and downward with the assistance of motors and the physically driven lifts just moves up and gets down manually.

Major types

The Hydraulic lifts – In case of Hydraulic lifts, a liquid is put into use to initiate the advancements of the lift. If you look at the mechanism, when the liquid is released, the subdivision of the lift stretches itself and slowly the lift will climb up. The amount of fluid which is needed to be released solely is dependent upon the height up to which the lift is fixed to be lifted and the mechanism is controlled with the help of a controlling device.

The Pneumatic lifts – This procedure of elevation makes use of air bags that forces the arms of the scissor lift to go up and down. Taking into consideration the supply of power, it can be separated further into gas driven lifts and electric driven lifts. But most importantly, the gas driven lifts are generally utilized in an outdoor execution of work whereas the electric lifts are more often than not used for the indoor operations.

Important mechanical factors

• The scissor lift includes outsized raised area or the platforms that can be expanded as well as stretched out up to some extra yards of space.
• The modern lifts are associated with the platforms with beveled ends which add up to the average platform size on each of its side.
• There are pit mounted components of scissor lifts which makes use of the electromechanical safeguards needed by the toe or the beveled edge raised area along with the lifting area which is required for setting up.
• The transportable lifts includes steel wheels at the side or even at the end attached with wheeled dolly.
• The turntables used by the scissor lifts are all of traditional dimensions and shape and available for the revolving lifts.
• The ball relocation platforms, conveyor split ends and other special fittings are also available to enhance the resourcefulness of the lift.
• Most modern lifts uses non-compulsory best materials like stainless diamond plate and steel skin.
• For the progressing burdened units the portable packages available involve two unchanged and the other two with revolve casters.

Few other significant features that influences the versatility

• The accordion skirts which stands as a protector which would safeguard the lifting arms and at the same time stop any sort of human intervention during the work in progress.
• The use of both the lower temperature as well as the non-combustible hydraulic fluid is a very good option to lessen the chances of catching fire in some of the scenarios.
• The platform of the scissor lift should be cleaned on a regular basis for hygienic.
• The modern scissor comes with a control valve which helps to regulate the flow of the liquid.
• The lifts also makes use of the fork pockets which eases the job of moving the lift on a fork truck.

Ceiling Secrets – Tips For a Beautiful Ceilings

Have you ever seen a beautiful ceiling and wonder how they did it? You can do it yourself in your own home! Here are some secrets you can consider:

1. An old trick that adds height to a room is mirrors, especially when applied to a dark ceiling. Buy inexpensive, easy-to-install mirror tiles and secure them with the recommended adhesive.

2. Create a constellation on the ceiling of a child’s bedroom. Buy reflective vinyl and cut it into star shapes. Arrange them on the ceiling in the configuration of the Big Dipper or some other group of stars. When the lights are out at night, it will seem just like the outdoors. An extra bonus: the stars will function as a night light.

3. A skylight dramatically increases the sense of extra space and lets in five times more light than a window of the same size. It will transform a dark room into a brightly lit living area.

4. Ventilating skylights (those that open) allow odors, smoke and heat to be exhausted to the outdoors. An added plus: skylights save on electricity bills.

5. Hide exposed plumbing, wiring or joists with a dropped ceiling, a suspended metal grid in which acoustical panels rest.

6. For a neat-looking job, always make border tiles on facing sides of the room the same width.

7. Apply ceiling tiles with adhesive or cement only if the ceiling is sound and even. If a ceiling has exposed joists, cracked plaster, or an un-even surface, nail furring strips to the ceiling before applying the tiles.

The Working and Effectiveness of Penis Pumps and Extenders

Penis enlargement products such as pills, extenders and penis pumps are available on the market and claim to give you a considerable increase in your penis size. This is true to some extent but there are some firms, which sell fake drugs and are a scam. You need to be aware of these scams and buy products only from genuine sources. Penis extenders and pumps are very much in demand these days and the reason for this is their efficiency.

Are they better than pills?

Talking about the growth factor, yes. They are definitely better than pills as they give you quick results whilst penile pills take a lot of time before notable results can be seen. The next best thing about penis extenders and pumps is that some of the extenders can also help treat Peyronie’s disease or what is commonly known as a curved penis. A curved penis cannot be corrected by a pill. Sometimes, some ingredients in pills might be harmful to you, or you might be allergic to some ingredients while there is no such risk in penis extenders. Also, penile extenders can be worn for long periods of time without discomfort or pain. It becomes rather cumbersome to take pills, you can even forget to take them; penis extenders can be kept worn-on even while sleeping (only if you do not have the habit of turning and twisting during sleep).

Penis pumps and its working

The working of penis pumps is based on vacuum suction technique. A penis pump comprises of a cylindrical container, a plastic ring, two metal rods, a silicone ring and a vacuum pump, which is either manually or battery operated. You need to place your penis inside the container in such a way that the plastic ring attaches to the base of your penis, near the pelvic bone, the metal rods run along the length of your penis shaft and the silicone ring holds the penis head in place. With the help of the pump, you need to pump air out of the cylinder, which creates a vacuum. This suction enables blood to pump in to your penis. An enhanced blood circulation can help you get long lasting erections and a bigger sized penis in some months.

Penis extenders and its working

Penis extenders employ the traction technique to multiply the tissues of the penis, which lead to the increase in the length and the girth of the penis. The traction or stretching of the penis leads to the increase in the size over a period of few months. Penis extenders comprise of a plastic ring, two supporting metal rods and a silicon ring. You need to fit your penis in the device in such a way that the plastic ring is attached to your pelvic bone, the metal supporting rods run up to the length of your penis shaft and the silicone ring keeps your glans (penis head) in place. The device exerts traction pressure to your penis, stretching it and this leads to an increase in its size in a few months.

Now remains the question of pain or gain, it is definitely a gain for you. Though initially, you may feel some discomfort because of the traction but it would not last for long. You can see an increase of up to 3 inches in your penis length and girth with the use of penile extenders. Now finally, the verdict – they are efficient, safe and easy.

Examples of Lean Manufacturing Success in Biopharmaceuticals

Since its full-blown development by Toyota beginning in the 1950s, lean manufacturing has been successfully implemented in various other manufacturing industries. Despite demonstrable success across several sectors, lean manufacturing solutions have been slow to take hold in the biopharmaceuticals field, and where they have, it has been just a tenuous hold. Some analysts and consultants think it’s time for that to change.

In an article titled “Harvesting the Benefits of LEAN in Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing” (BioPharm International 22.10, October 2009), Thibaud S. Stoll and Jean-Francois Guilland state early on that “direct applications [of lean manufacturing solutions] in the field of biopharmaceutical manufacturing have been quite limited to date because of concerns about the complexity of the associated technology and stringent regulatory requirements.” But they also maintain that “implementing LEAN the proper way in biopharmaceutical manufacturing can bring huge benefits and help the industry to deal with increasing pressure on development and manufacturing costs, as well as with challenges in compliance quality.” Then these authors adduce two case studies to support their case.

One of these involves a lean manufacturing implementation in a “large-scale cell-culture facility, with three independent manufacturing lines using 3,000-L and 10,000-L bioreactors. The facility is used to produce clinical active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) material, primarily for Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials, of various biopharmaceuticals in development.” This plant also conducts technical development in adjacent labs.

After an initial assessment by lean manufacturing consultants to determine the primary problem areas where improvements could be made, specific projects were clearly defined and steps delineated. Two of the major goals, along with practicable metrics, in this implementation were increasing throughput rate and decreasing throughput time. The results in increasing throughput rate alone were very impressive.

Throughput, naturally, can be influenced by a host of factors. In this facility, however, it was determined that changeover activities had the greatest (negative) influence, and so the job was to improve both batch-to-batch and product-to-product changeover times. Nearly “27% of the total yearly plant capacity was lost as a result of changeover activities.” So a goal was established to reduce this capacity loss to less than 10%. And, ultimately, that goal was far surpassed, with yearly capacity loss owing to changeover activities reduced to less than 3%.

“To achieve this result, each individual task performed during the changeovers was evaluated, focusing on possibilities and consequences to shorten them, cancel them, or schedule them differently.” The tasks and changes were then sorted into categories, and those that would allow the “most significant improvement” in changeover time were concentrated on. The chief Lean changes implemented to improve changeover times involved radically optimizing “cleaning-in-place and steaming-in-place operations,” accelerating some testing procedures, and accelerating probe calibration.

Waste in the form of waiting (lost capacity) resulting from changeovers was thus largely eliminated. Changeover times were shortened, maintenance activities were streamlined, and “the proportion of the yearly plant capacity available for production was raised from 68.4% to 94.9%”

Here is remarkable proof, then, that eliminating waste and improving productivity is possible even in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. With qualified lean manufacturing consultants to assess and guide the implementation of Lean solutions, companies can look forward to improving profitability and gaining a keener competitive edge.

The Truth Behind the Full Tilt RNG Flaw

Ever since the popularity of online poker, numerous debates have arisen concerning the fairness and validity of the game. While one side argues that the deal is fair because online poker sites use a RNG (Random Number Generator), others argue that there exists many flaws in the RNG. This article will examine the specifics of the Full Tilt RNG flaw known to exist.

Although, claims by the online poker sites that their RNG is fair are backed by independent audits performed by well-known and reputable auditors, experts in the field contend it is not the RNG that possess the flaws, rather the associated algorithms and subroutines that actually control the deal. These algorithms unwittingly create what is known as the Full Tilt RNG flaw.

Although unintentional, the Full Tilt RNG flaw does exist and is evident in the fact that constant bad beats in poker online will be experienced. The flaw is an ancillary result of the attempt by the online poker sites to ensure a fair and even game between players. However, in the execution of the algorithms, the RNG does not take into account the realistic statistics and true odds or an outcome of dominant hands over inferior hands.

This has resulted in the undesirable effect of inferior hands winning in an unusually higher percentage than they statistically should. When audits are performed on the RNG to test their accuracy and fairness, those auditors do not examine the associated algorithms and subroutines. Which actually are creating the constant bad beats in poker online and therefore, it is these algorithms that need to be examined and studied to ensure a fair game.

However, online poker sites would never readily admit that RNG flaws exists and often explain the bad beats as part of the game. Nevertheless, a solution to the Full Tilt RNG flaw does exist and that solution is to learn how the algorithms work and then apply that pattern to your game. If you understand the RNG flaw and are able to see the pattern while you are playing, you can successfully emulate the flaw and use it to your advantage in avoiding bad beats and ensuring your dominant hands win.

The concrete and definitive answer to resolving the Full Tilt RNG flaw is to simply apply the knowledge of the algorithms to your game and witness the results for yourself. Numerous professional poker players have already recognized the flaws and used that flaw to their advantage to win at online poker.

Lutes For Asphalt Work – 5 Tips For Choosing the Right One

Asphalt work requires an entire set of specialized skills and tools. In order to keep roads, driveways, and parking lots safe, attractive, and lasting, asphalt crews have to have what they need to do their jobs well. One of those most important pieces of asphalt equipment is the paving lute. In terms of asphalt work, a lute is a long, metal instrument rather like a rake, used to smooth out the surface of the asphalt after it’s poured. The lute is often a straight edge on one side and a serrated edge on the other, and the sides are used alternatively to spread and smooth the asphalt while it’s still malleable.

Lutes are simple tools, but it takes some know-how to discern which lute is best for which job, and how to use them right once you’ve chosen. Here are 5 tips for how to choose a lute for asphalt work.

1. Aluminum is fine, but magnesium is better. Although lutes have traditionally been made out of aluminum, some companies have recently gone to making them from magnesium. Magnesium is a slightly heavier, more durable, and somewhat more expensive choice for a paving lute, but most people now think that it’s worth the extra investment. Magensium lutes won’t turn your ands black over long periods of use like aluminum lutes will, and they seem to last longer and break less than their counterparts do.

2. Handle length is important. Your crew should really have several paving lutes of different lengths to choose from. Your skilled lute men won’t all be the same height, and will need lutes of different lengths. Also, different projects will require different reaches-that is, the distance a lute man has to reach across the pavement in order to smooth it properly. Some will require longer, some shorter, handle lengths on the lutes.

3. Handle weight matters. Lute men have to smooth out thick, viscous material made from rocks and rubber. They do this through repetitive casting of the lute and drawing it back, an action that works the muscles of the shoulders, arms, and back. A heavy handle can cause more strain on the lute man than is necessary. However, a heavier handle might be exactly what you need for certain types of surface material, especially if it’s very thick or requires a very long reach. You should stock several weights of handle and head for your lutes.

4. Width. For broad expanses of paving, a wider head on the lute will get more smoothing done in less time. However, for corners or tight areas of parking lots or driveways, a smaller lute with a narrower head might be the more appropriate tool.

5. Flexibility. Paving lutes often get twisted, turned, and pulled during asphalt work, with great amounts of pressure put on them due to the sticky nature of the asphalt. A flexible but strong lute can bend with the pressure so that it doesn’t break, yet still be solid enough to push against resistant material.

For such a simple, straightforward tool, a lute used for asphalt work has to be well-made, strong, and fitted for the job it does. If you have a seal coating business or asphalt crew, it’s a good idea to have several good lutes on hand, so your lute men always have what they need to get the job done.

Assembly Jobs at Home – How to Do Them the Right Way

If you are one of the many individuals who are now facing the prospect of choosing what kind of assembly jobs at home product you would like to work on for yourself, I think it is well worth mentioning that every kind of assembly job is good for so long as you assemble it according to instruction. There are several hundred kinds of products that you can assemble, actually. Each of these products has its own instruction guide for you to follow in its assembly.

You are not required to know about something in order to know how to assemble that something. The only thing required is that you read the instructions carefully, and follow it in assembling the product. As simple as that, really. Whatever kind of assembly jobs at home products you may choose, you can be sure that the product to be assembled will come equipped with the needed assembly guide and instructions so that you will know how to assemble the product properly.

Take the case of assembling a shell craft lamp shade. This kind of a lamp shade is made out of shells popularly known as Capiz shells. You will be made to assemble this lamp shade by stringing together the shells in a pattern that you will follow from the instruction guide. After properly stringing the shells together, your next step will be to assemble the stringed shells to the frame of the lamp shade. There will now be another set of instructions on how to assemble this to the frame.

As such, the assembly instructions will be a two part guide in which you will learn how to do the assembly of the shell craft properly. Your tools needed for this assembly will all be provided by the company, since they are specialized tools for the assembly of said product. This shell craft lampshade has several designs and style. For each design, an assembly jobs at home worker will be assigned and will be furnished his or her instruction guide in how to properly assemble this kind of shell craft lampshade design.

New assembly jobs at home worker, once they still have not read the instruction guide in how to assemble the product, will usually feel not to be able to do the assembly, the moment they see the picture of the finished product attached to the merchandise to be assembled. They do not realize that all that is needed is the right way of doing the assembly and for sure they can do it as easy as counting 123. And that actually is the purpose of why they are being furnished the assembly guide so that they may learn the process of assembling the product.

New assembly jobs at home workers are advised however, to be careful in learning the steps in going about the assembly of shell craft lamp shades during their first attempt in assembling the products. It is advised that they should take their time in learning how it is done, based on the accompanying instructions, illustrations and pictures.

Mounting Rifle Scopes With Weaver and Picatinny Style Bases

Mounting Rifle Scopes can become confusing when navigating through the world of available riflescope rings and bases. Two common questions when it comes to mounting rifle scopes are; “Will my Weaver style rings fit a Picatinny rail/base?” and “Will my Picatinny rings fit a Weaver style base?” The short answer to these questions is “Maybe” and to understand this answer, you must first understand the differences.

Historically, Rifle Scopes and accessories manufacturers developed their own systems for attaching to firearms. Everyone had their own idea of how best to mount their optics. In the mid 90s, there was an explosion of optical technology and the military was looking for a standard mounting system to attach accessories to weapons quickly and easily while maintaining accuracy. They wanted to be able to remove and reattach accessories without going through the time consuming process of re zeroing the equipment.

For this, they tasked the Picatinny Arsenal. The Arsenal was asked to develop a standardized system for mounting optics and other accessories. In doing so, they gathered various popular mounting systems available at the time, measured them, and averaged the measurements. They added some tweaks and modifications, tested, retweaked, remodified, and the MIL-STD 1913 rail was born. This Mil standard is typically called the Picatinny rail.

So what does this have to do with mounting rifle scopes? The dimensions that were settled on are very similar to that of Weaver. Principally, the width is nearly exactly the same. The primary difference between the two style mounts is in the recoil lug. The recoil lug is the crossways slots in the mounts which keep the devices from sliding forward during the recoil of a firing event. The recoil lug is larger, more frequent, and more evenly spaced in the MIL-STD 1913 rail offering a greater flexibility for rifle scopes, tactical sights and other accessories. So, generally, Weaver style rings will fit on a Picatinny style base whereas the converse is less likely to hold true. Where this does not hold true is with rings that straddle the base and do not lock within the recoil lug and there are some Picatinny rings that are thin enough to fit within the recoil lug. Also, many shooting accessories are now designed to fit both Style Bases.

When ordering rings and bases to mount your rifle scopes and other shooting accessories, the safe choice is to, where possible, remain consistent. Choose Weaver Style Rings matched with Weaver and the same with Picatinny style rail. Otherwise you run the risk returning to get bits and pieces trying to fit a miss matched system.

As a little helpful hint, be sure to use a medium strength thread locking material when securing those pieces of your mounting system that you won’t be frequently undoing. This will help keep the rifle scopes from vibrating loose during shooting and transit.