All About Elevators

Having taken the world by storm when they were first introduced, elevators have come a long way from being novelties to being bare necessities. Imagining life in this world without elevators is an improbability in modern times. Big cities would not have been what they are without elevators. They can be found everywhere — taking workers up to their offices in high rise buildings through several floors and also deep into the ground to subway stations. Another extremely common location to find elevators is residential buildings. With residential elevators becoming cheaper and cheaper with each passing day and people seeking to add convenience to their lives in larger numbers, residential elevators are now an intrinsic part of every home’s d├ęcor. Home owners nowadays seek to add elevators to their dwelling places not only for convenience but also for the increased resale value of the property.

Many people want to make a style statement and as such they go about installing elevators in the very own home. No matter where they are placed, elevators are divided into three different categories depending on the type of motion they execute and the way they do it — hydraulic, cable lift, and pneumatic. Out of these, hydraulic and pneumatic elevators are best for smaller buildings and homes. A hydraulic model pushes the cab up through the hoist way from below and is regulated by hydraulic oil that fills up a chamber. Pneumatic elevators, on the other hand, operate much like a vacuum, and a cab is sucked up through a hoist way to different floors, where it is locked in place. In addition to this, pneumatic elevators work on suction. Hence they do not require machine rooms. This absence of machine rooms severely cuts down the cost of installing a pneumatic elevator and makes installing one a much cheaper option than installing a hydraulic model.

Cable elevators, on the other hand, consist of traction drive and winding drum models. The latter is more common for homes and the former is more of a commercial model. But, in either instance, the cab is lifted up through the hoist way by a series of pulleys and cable. They work on the principle of counterweights and hence the cab remains suspended in the air. For this reason, experts advise against using this type of elevators in earthquake prone areas.

There are also many different types of commercial editors that operate in the same way. The only difference between a home-based elevator and a commercial area to is in the number of people they can hold. Remember the then you want to go about installing residential elevator, it is vital that there is enough of space in your home so that you can have that you can have the right type of designing needed. Unlike a typical residential elevator, commercial elevators have the capacity of holding a minimum of 10 people. When installing a residential elevator, a space should be available in your home for a hoist way or consider a pneumatic design, in which the hoist way is part of the setup.

Sushi Plates – An Important Part of Sushi Presentation

Japanese sushi has its own way of presenting in front of the purchasers. As you can see many of the food around the world, give much value to the way it is represented. So if you are a regular maker of sushi at home, it will be a good thought on put in some money on sushi plates so that you can also present it in a lovely way.

Most of the sushi chef equally consider the preparation and represent of sushi foods. So they definitely find time to select suitable utensil to present their food. To keep up the custom of sushi represent, you should also take care while selecting sushi plate set.

Along with sushi plates, you should also buy some more accessories which will then support the sushi plate set. matching chopsticks holders should be selected for the chop sticks, which is used to eat the sushi. It will be %attractive % and more fitting if the chopsticks can be kept on the chopstick holders, rather than keeping them on the plate. For keeping your soy sauce and wasabi, some appealing thin bowl should also be purchased. You can eat sushi after dipping the sushi in these side dishes which will give a appealing good flavor.

It is important that you take care of some points while eating the sushi. An additional use of soy sauce or wasabi will spoil the original flavor of sushi. Pouring these items more in to your sushi food is considered as insulting the sushi chef. Hence you should take very small amount of soy sauce in to your plate and do not wasting it. Too much use of soy sauce and wasabi or wastage of these items is considered as rude behavior in sushi custom.

Along with the sushi plate, you should also buy a good quality tea set. It is traditional to serve green tea with sushi. Hence the use of an %attractive % and similar tea set will give a enjoyable look to the entire represent. At some places in Japan, a rice wine called sake is seved instead of green tea.

Whatever be the drink along with the sushi, the selection of proper cups have an impact on the overall represent of the sushi. That is an important aspect in sushi food represent.

If you do not have the time to sit and have the sushi food, rather than using the chop sticks, you can use your hands. This is not considered as a bad manner. While you are sitting alone to have your sushi food , you don’t need to make use of the chopsticks.

You can take sushi foods when you are on a trip just like you are in a restaurant. Some take out restaurants provide fitting dipping cups for the soy sauce.

Gas Stoves – Pros and Cons

Gas stoves are those preferred by professionals. The heat distribution is more even than that of electric stoves, and heat precision is more accurate. For example, if you turn down the heat on a gas stove, the heat change is immediate and precise, where as on an electric, the heat change is more gradual. A gas stove also creates less overall heat. This doesn’t mean that it won’t cook your food as fast, it just means that you will have a cooler kitchen. Since it produces less heat, you’re stove top will also be cooler which will prevent unnecessary burns. Since the flatness of the stove top must be very precise in order to have even heat distribution, you have to be very careful when purchasing an electric or smooth top stove. Whereas with gas stoves, the flatness is not important, because the heat is coming from a flame and not the pot’s direct contact with the stove. Gas stoves also produce a moist heat, which can be good for when you are cooking roasts or casseroles and don’t want them to dry out.

On the other hand, the cons of owning a Gas stove [] include that these types of oven are hotter on the top that the bottom, so in order to cook foods evenly, you will have to rotate them. Gas stoves do not have any direct heat coming from the top, so it is not ideal for cooking something that needs to brown and crisp on the top. There is also the chance of having a gas leak. While this chance is very small it does exist, so you will want to be extra careful if you have children using you’re stove. Electric stoves also have more options, such as fans, and top and bottom grillers, so they can be more functional that gas ovens. Gas ovens are often more expensive and not as common, giving you less options when choosing your stove.

Electric Cookers – Higher-End Models

Electric cookers have been around for a long time. Professional chefs prefer these cooker because it is non reactive. Different brands are making programmable electric pressure cooker. These have push-button controls and digital display making it an attractive package. They can be programmed for high or low pressure cooking, browning, simmering, sautéing or warming. You can feel that an electronic thermostat is more foolproof than setting a stove-top control to a precise position. They give flexibility, however, because you can’t open the lid until the cooker says you can. In the stove top models you can instantly drop the pressure and open the lid by putting the unit under cold water.

These electric cookers are now the simple cooking utensils with countless safety features. They are also aesthetically and eye pleasing plus user friendly, not to mention their functionality and utility. Today, they are commanding kitchens across the globe. These appliances come in a huge variety of designs like Chrome range, Chrome solid door range and many more. The different electric cookers sport the smart tag of not consuming any power at all.

It is best to stick with a name brand manufacturer even when price is your primary consideration. Quality control is likely to be better and you can easily get replacement parts when you need them five or ten years from now. The different models come with useful accessories. Nonstick interiors are a less of a potential problem with these appliances.

The higher temperature helps in cooking food faster and it is about three times faster than regular stove top cooking methods. All foods, vegetables in particular, are cooked with the colour and flavor. Nutrients stay trapped inside instead of dissolving in a cloud of steam. These equipments have single inside containers while old one comes with multi-deck containers. Another distinguishing feature of the cooker is that they have relatively thinner construction.

Preparing and Installing High Gloss Acrylic Kitchen Splashbacks

The latest trend in interior design, high gloss kitchen splashbacks are a colourful and modern alternative to glass splashbacks offering a flawless and long lasting finish.

The high gloss is created by a layer of clear acrylic which is coextruded over a layer of coloured acrylic. The remarkable light admittance of the clear acrylic allows the colour to show through, resulting in a vibrancy and depth of colour not seen in other acrylic sheets.

Plexiglas Hi-Gloss acrylic can be mounted as a splashback around the kitchen behinds sinks and work surfaces, though it should not be used behind a hob or other heat source. Exposure to high temperatures can warp acrylic over time, so if the high gloss is to be installed behind a hob a heat-shielding material such as toughened glass should also be used to protect the acrylic.

High gloss acrylic sheets are fastened to a wall or supporting structure with a high-strength double-sided tape along with crosslinking silicone to ensure a flawless and long lasting finish with no distortion to the surface of the sheet. However before the sheet is installed there are a number of preparations to make to both the sheet and the substrate to ensure the splashback looks its best.

Top Tip: High gloss acrylic sheet will be delivered with a masking film on the surface to protect from scratches and marks – don’t remove this film until the sheet is installed!

You may wish to drill and cut the acrylic sheet before installing to make holes for plug sockets, pipes or other wall features which will interrupt your splashback. To do this extreme care must be taken to prevent the sheet from cracking or breaking, so it is recommended that only pre-ground twist drill bits that are designed for use with acrylic sheet are used. When drilling the sheet, the drill bit should be positioned slowly and carefully pushed through. Slow the feed as the bit reaches the other side to prevent chipping of the coloured layer, and it may be beneficial to use a piece of wood as a supporting material. To cool the acrylic simply apply tap water to the area that has been drilled.

To saw the sheet, non-vibrating high speed machine should be used to achieve the cleanest-cut edges which may then be polished to restore the high gloss lustre. Circular hand and table saws may be used, but should only protrude slightly beyond the surface of the sheet to minimise vibration and movement. Jigsaws are also suitable for cutting high gloss acrylic sheets, and will effectively and neatly saw the plastic if only straight-tooth blades are used and if care is taken to place the shoe firmly on the masking film. This will safeguard the acrylic from unwanted chipping, preserving the edge for the most professional finish to the splashback. Once again, tap water may be used to cool the acrylic after cutting.

Top Tip: Measure twice, cut once!

Once your colourful high gloss acrylic sheet has been shaped to fit your kitchen, you may wish to finish the edges and restore that crystal-clear lustre to the splashback. This is particularly important where the edge may be visible and it will give the splashback an almost glass-like effect and the high transparency of the plastic will allow the layer of colour to be seen.

To smooth off and buff the edges of high gloss acrylic, wet sanding should first be carried out in three stages with three grades of sandpaper:

• First, coarse sandpaper of 80-240 grit

• Then, medium sandpaper of 400 grit

• And finally, fine sandpaper of 600-1000 grit

Once the sanding process has been finished and the rough edges of the plastic caused by sawing or cutting have been smoothed out, the shine can be restored to the acrylic with the use of a polishing wax, paste or even a commercially available car polish. Many cut plastic sheeting suppliers will recommend a brand of polishing wax or paste, and this product will prove useful later on as a means of removing scratches from the surface of the plastic which may incur through years of use. For edge finishing, apply the polishing product and buff with a soft material. A buffing wheel will deliver extremely satisfying results for edge finishing.

Top Tip: Concealed edges may be finished by simply deburring with a scraper or a file.

Once the sheet is fully prepared, it’s time to prepare the wall or substrate for installing the high gloss splashback. High gloss acrylic sheeting may be installed on a number of surfaces including:

• Waterproof gypsum wall board

• Coated moisture-resistant chipboard

• Coated MDF

• Firmly installed mirror tiles

• Stone or concrete coated with latex paint

• And many more

The key requirements of a suitable substrate for a high gloss acrylic kitchen splashback are that it is water resistant, flat and uniform in profile, and free from loose material. Preparation of the substrate is a key part of installing a splashback, and the better the substrate the better the surface of the acrylic will look once it is installed. All walls and substrates must be clean, flat, dry, free from grease and dust, solid and load bearing.

Once the sheet and the wall have been prepared and properly finished, the splashback is ready for installation. Here we will discuss the recommended method for permanent wall installation of high gloss acrylic, such as in a kitchen as a splashback surface.

Top Tip: Before final installation, perform some ‘dry runs’ to ensure the sheet is cut correctly and the substrate is properly prepared. Once bonded there’s no going back!

Before applying the bonding materials to the wall, clean the reverse of the acrylic sheet with isopropyl alcohol or petroleum ether, this will remove any traces of dust or grease which may undermine the adhesive. Then we are ready to apply the adhesive to the substrate. I would recommend 19mm double-sided mirror tape and crosslinking silicone strips positioned between the tape. The silicone beads should be between 3 and 4mm in height, and the strips of tape and silicone should be evenly distributed with just enough space to prevent the silicone from coming into contact with the tape once it spreads out.

Once you think the sheet is ready to go on the wall, position it at a 45o angle before straightening it against the wall and pressing it firmly and evenly. Using a spirit level helps to improve the evenness of the spread, resulting in the even distribution of the silicone and the surface of the acrylic being absolutely flat. When you are happy that the sheet is firmly bonded to the wall, leave it to set for twenty-four hours.

Once the silicone has set, finish off the edges and joins in the splashback with a waterproofing silicone seal and remove the masking film from the surface. After allowing the seals to dry for a further twenty-four hours the splashback will be finished and ready to enjoy!

Top Tip: Don’t remove the protective film until you have finished work in your kitchen!

Once installed, many years of flawless performance can be expected from a high gloss acrylic kitchen splashback, but nevertheless care should be taken to protect the surface of the sheet.

Acrylic is a fantastic and hygienic material for use in food preparation areas, and it is very easily maintained. All that is needed to remove dirt from the surface of high gloss acrylic is a soft cloth, a little detergent and some warm water. The warm water softens the deposits while the soap creates a lubricating layer which protects the plastic from any damage. Once wiped away with a soft cloth, the acrylic will be restored to its best condition.

There is no need to use scourers, abrasive cleaning products or harsh chemicals when cleaning high gloss acrylic. Using any of these methods will very likely scratch and damage the surface of acrylic leaving it susceptible to bacteria and mould growth, and leading to the rapid deterioration of the high gloss shine.

Inevitably, with years of use it is probable that a high gloss kitchen splashback will become scratched. Thankfully, removing the scratches from the surface of acrylic is easy and it is simple to keep a splashback in ‘as new’ condition. Small hairline scratches and marks can be removed with the use of a polishing paste or wax. If you used such a product to finish off the edges of the sheet prior to installation the same can be used to buff fine scratches out of the sheet. Simply employ the same technique used in buffing the edges of the sheet with a soft cloth and a great amount of care.

If the scratches are larger, for example if they can be felt by lightly running a fingernail over them, use a fine sandpaper of 600-1000 grit to gently smooth out the scratch and then buff with the polishing product. If proper care and gentle cleaning methods are carried out, there’s no reason why a plastic kitchen splashback shouldn’t provide years of unblemished high gloss and a modern finish for your kitchen.

Top Tip: Regular cleaning with warm water, a little soap and a soft cloth will keep an acrylic kitchen splashback at its best.

High gloss acrylic is available in a number of colour options to suit all interior design tastes and styles of kitchen from cut to size plastic suppliers. Many stockists of high gloss acrylic offer to drill, cut and polish the edges of the sheet for you to deliver it ready for installation! Installing a high gloss acrylic kitchen splashback is a fantastic way to modernise an interior and introduce a startling colour scheme, and as we have seen they are very easy to install and maintain.

I do hope you have found this little ‘how-to’ guide useful!

Hardie Plank Siding – A Longer Lasting Exterior Siding Option

Over the years, many homeowners have fought to keep their home’s exterior siding looking good, but in many cases no matter how hard they try, their home just keeps looking worse. This perpetual deterioration is precisely why Hardie Plank siding was developed.

The T-111 and vinyl siding problems

Many homes built between the late seventies and into the late nineties had what is known as T-111 siding installed on the exterior. This simple plywood siding looked good for the first year or two, but unfortunately it was never designed to last more than a few years.

The most obvious problem with T-111 was that it was made from plywood. Over time no matter how often you painted it or treated it, the plywood would still separate. All of those separations in the plywood became a breeding ground for bugs and fungus.

These issues were at one point thought to have been addressed with the advent of vinyl siding, but vinyl ended up trapping moisture between the sub-siding and the vinyl sheets over time, which also created a place for bugs to live and for rot to develop. Another issue unique to vinyl siding was that, when subjected to extreme temperatures, it would sag or become brittle.

No matter what some homeowners did to prolong the life of their home’s exterior siding the final solution really had to be the installation of a siding product that was better designed.

Today there is a better option with Hardie Plank siding

Hardie Plank siding was designed to withstand the test of time and resist impact, fire, and even all types if bug and rot damage. The reason is that this siding is not made out of materials prone to deterioration.

Hardie Plank siding is made with a variety of materials all specifically designed to work together to protect the home and keep it looking beautiful for years. Best of all, the siding is available in a plethora of different looks, styles and colors.

Once installed, the siding will look the same year in and year out; you will never have to paint your home again. If your home’s Hardie Plank siding ever looks dirty, all you have to do is power wash it and it will look just as good as new; just like it did when it was first installed.

What kind of Hardie Plank siding is best for your home?

Each home is different so if you are considering replacing your siding you should talk to the right person in your area so you find the perfect siding solution to meet your needs. You should contact an area contractor who has experience with the installation of Hardie Plank siding, as well as all other types of siding.

With just a few quick clicks of the mouse, you will soon find the right contractor in your area, whether you are living in Houston, Los Angeles, or even New York. So what are you waiting for? Start asking around and you’ll see that the best choice in exterior siding is Hardie Plank siding.

Retirement Savings – 401(k) Plan Advantages and Disadvantages

What is a 401(k) Plan?

A 401(k) plan is a retirement savings plan that is funded by employee contributions with matching contributions from the employer. The major attraction of these plans is that they are taken from pre-tax salary, and the funds grow tax-free until withdrawn.

Advantages of 401(k) Plans

Following are advantages of 401(k) plans:

  • Since the employee is allowed to contribute to his/her 401(k) with pre-tax money, it reduces the amount of tax paid out of each paycheck.
  • All employer contributions and any growth in the capital grow tax-free until withdrawal. There is a compounding effect of consistent periodic contributions which is quite dramatic over a 20- or 30-year period.
  • The employee can decide where to direct future contributions and/or current savings, giving much control over the investments to the employee.
  • If your company matches yours, it’s like getting extra money on top of your salary.
  • Unlike a pension, all contributions can be moved from one company’s plan to the next company’s plan (or to an IRA) if a participant changes jobs.
  • Since the program is a personal investment program for your retirement, it is protected by pension (ERISA) laws. This includes the additional protection of the funds from garnishment or attachment by creditors or assigned to anyone else, except in the case of domestic relations court cases dealing with divorce decree or child support orders.
  • While the 401(k) is similar in nature to an IRA, an IRA won’t enjoy any matching company contributions, and personal IRA ones are subject to much lower limits.

Disadvantages of 401(k) Plans

Following are disadvantages of 401(k) plans:

  • It is difficult and expensive to access your 401(k) savings before age 59 1/2.
  • 401(k) plans don’t have the luxury of being insured by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC).
  • Employer matching them are usually not vested (i.e., do not become the property of the employee) until a number of years have passed. The rules say that employer matching contributions must vest according to one of two schedules, either a 3-year “cliff” plan (100% after 3 years) or a 6-year “graded” plan (20% per year in years 2 through 6).

401(k) plans have proven to be popular with employees for several reasons, being the tax deferral, the increased portability of this plan, employer matching contributions, and the increased control associated with self-direction of investments.

Suspended Shoe Rail on Balcony Railing and Newel


I am replacing on old iron railing that was not up to code with wooden balustrade.  The length of the railing is about 100 inches.  I was planning on using a half newel against the wall and a 3 inch newel on the open end.  For stability should I install a third newel post in the middle of the span?  Also, I need to suspend the shoe rail a couple of inches off the floor to accommodate the stair nosing.  What is the best way to attach the shoe rail to the newel posts?  I’ve seen some people suggest toe nailing, but is there a better way to get a more secure connection?  Thanks.


I wouldn’t install a post in the middle if at all possible.  In such a short section it could also serve as a hinge point.  I’ve reviewed many achritectural calculations which show that the load compliance work for 8′ and some report on 10′, even 12′ spans.  It all depends on how secure you make the newel posts.  Traditionally, we’ve avoided newels in runs 10′ or less.  The starting newel is at its greatest strength if mounted down into the framing.  Otherwise, if flush mounting is the option, a Sure-tite newel fastener would be the best means of attaching (as long as there is backing under the floor).

For suspended shoerails in wood, it doesn’t work well to simply toe-nail into the newels.  A child can jump on the shoerail and break it out of its attachment.  I learned long ago to take an S4S block (we called these “shoe blocks”) and attached them to both ends to the newels and one in the center.  These are usually in 4/4 or 5/4 in thickness, slightly less wide than the bottom width of the shoerail; and about 2-1/2″ or 3″ high depending how high we want the shoerail set.  The blocks, in your case, would be nailed to the newels on both ends.  You can then cut the shoerail tight to fit and set it on the blocks, nailing or screwing to the blocks before installing the fillet.  Keep the additional block in the center which just keeps a pressure for the center sagging or breaking own if stepped upon.  The blocks are not large and will not draw attention.

Terracotta Gargoyles – History, Challenges, and Restoration

Gargoyles are undoubtedly one of the most notable features of Gothic architecture. These winged beasts and frightening monsters are found on the outside of many structures, particularly Gothic cathedrals. But why would religious buildings display evil-looking creatures? Why do gargoyles crafted from terracotta seem to be so much more susceptible to damage than other terracotta elements? What terracotta restoration process is used to bring back the frightening beauty of gargoyles crafted from architectural terracotta? This article will answer these three important questions.

A Brief History of Terracotta Gargoyles

Gargoyles crafted from terracotta and other materials began appearing on the sides of Gothic cathedrals during the Middle Ages. Exactly what these monsters represented is still a matter of debate. Some believe terracotta gargoyles were biblical creatures, while others think they were symbols of evil. There is also contention about whether terracotta gargoyles were recreations of creatures that once roamed the earth or depictions of mythological dragons. Although scholars disagree about the actual inspiration behind these elements, most agree on the purpose of gargoyles. They were placed on cathedral exteriors to serve as guards and protect against evil forces.

Gargoyles Crafted from Architectural Terracotta: Why They are so Vulnerable

On historic structures, gargoyles crafted from architectural terracotta are often the first elements to deteriorate. There are a couple of reasons for this. First, because gargoyles protrude from the facades of buildings, they are simply more exposed to the elements. The raw steel angles and bronze rods used to anchor gargoyles crafted from architectural terracotta to buildings are another reason why they are so prone to corrosion and wear. When water penetrates these terracotta elements, rusting and swelling can quickly cause damage to the terracotta.

Terracotta Restoration: The Process for Gargoyles

One of the top goals of terracotta restoration is to produce a finished product that is as similar to the original architectural terracotta element as possible. When terracotta gargoyles are being restored, replacements can often be cast using the existing gargoyle. In cases where the gargoyle has been completely destroyed, a replacement may have to be sculpted from drawings or photos. Effective terracotta restoration for these particular elements also involves anchoring replacement gargoyles with frames crafted from stainless or galvanized steel. Replacement terracotta gargoyles are then bolted or epoxied to the cathedral or other building. This terracotta restoration process ensures that gargoyles will be able to resist the elements and serve as sentries and conversation pieces for many years.

Advice on Taking Natural Remedies

People have been using natural remedies for thousands of years to treat a huge variety of ailments. In fact many of the well known conventional medicines in use today have originated or are extracted from common garden herbs and other natural products.

For example digoxin which is an effective treatment for disorders of heart rhythm comes from the digitalis plant which was used to treat a weak heart for hundreds of years before the discovery of digoxin. Penicillin which is arguably the most remarkable discovery by modern medicine originates from penicillium, a naturally occurring fungus.

There are many examples of commonly used natural remedies which later prove to contain useful active ingredients. So the question we ask is: Why should I take a natural remedy if modern medicine can provide the concentrated active ingredients? Well, there are two main reasons to choose a natural remedy over a modern ‘drug’.

Firstly, although modern medicines do contain the concentrated known active ingredient , some hold the theory that a natural remedy provides a more complete and balanced cure. That is that within the plant nature has provided other less known ingredients which act to balance the effects of the medicine. The second is that natural remedies are often gentler in effect than modern medicines and tend to produce less side effects.

Some caution is still required with herbal and other natural remedies. Although generally well tolerated many herbal products may still have serious side effects if taken inappropriately or carelessly. I recall an incident where several patients taking a ‘cure-all’ Fijian herbal remedy which contained 18 different plant types needed hospital treatment for gastric problems.

My advice in choosing a good natural remedy is to seek the advice of a qualified naturopath or other practitioner first. This way a specific remedy can be chosen for your illness.

While modern medicine certainly has its place in the treatment of acute and life threatening illness, in the treatment of chronic diseases natural remedies often provide gentle and effective treatment with significantly less side effects.

Emergency Power Switch Gear Controls: How Do They Work?

Switch gear controls-also referred to as switchgear-are a combination of fuses, circuit breakers, and/or electrical disconnects that isolate electrical equipment within a power system. Concerning emergency back up generators, discussion of switchgear centers mainly on electrical disconnects and circuit breakers, as they allow buildings to switch from commercial power to generator power when an onsite computer detects signs of an impending power outage in the commercial power supply. When a problem is perceived, switchgear usually switches a building’s power supply to generator power under one of two scenarios: break before make, or make before break.

Switch Gear Controls: Break Before Make Vs. Make Before Break

Whether a back up generator’s transfer switch operates in a break before make or a make before break scenario depends mainly on a building’s power needs, although both types of switches usually operate automatically when an entity doesn’t employ maintenance staff familiar with generators. Below, we examine the differences between break before make and break before make switches.

Break Before Make Switches

This type of switchgear is most common in residential generators and generators at businesses and organizations that don’t require uninterrupted power supply to preserve critical functions. In a break before make scenario, a generator disengages from commercial power before switching to generator power. When break before make switches are manual instead of automatic, it brings the advantage of generator fuel not being wasted due to false detections of commercial power supply problems, which sometimes occurs with automatic switches.

Make Before Break Switches

This type of switchgear is most common in entities that require uninterrupted power supply to preserve critical functions. In a make before break scenario, a building switches to generator power when an onsite computer detects signs of an impending power outage in the commercial power supply, thus avoiding a power outage. Some common types of businesses and organizations that require make before break switches on their back up generators are hospitals, data centers, laboratories, and defense organizations.

The Importance of Transfer Switch Maintenance

Because backup generators are seldom used, the tendency to view their maintenance as dispensable is more common than with other machines, especially due to the misconception that, because the generators are seldom used, they therefore require less maintenance. The upkeep of emergency generators requires a regular maintenance schedule the same as other machinery, with a primary maintenance concern being transfer switch servicing. Over time, transfer switches can fall prey to inner oxidization, wear due to testing, and accretions of dirt and grime that could penetrate sensitive parts, potentially causing them to malfunction during a real world switchover. For companies and organizations that don’t employ maintenance staff familiar with generator operation, contracting with a supplier of emergency power solutions to perform regular transfer switch maintenance is the best idea.

The Pentacles Court Cards of a Tarot Deck

The Page of Pentacles represents a youthfulness that can bear the weight of responsibility on his grounded shoulders. He can manage wealth better than almost anyone else. If this card comes in a tarot reading about an event, he is referring to a material or occupation oriented matter. Good fortune awaits you in one of these areas. If the card refers to a person, it is someone who would be considered an “old soul” or wise beyond their years. They work hard, apply common sense and would never be considered a risk taker. He is the master of seeing an opportunity in the weeds and reaching for it. If there is a team project or a large responsibility around the corner, the Page will provide the strength, energy and insight needed to deal with it effectively.

The Knight of Pentacles is a man of action- but thoughtful action, which isn’t the case with the other knights in the deck. He considers a situation thoroughly before acting but when it comes time to charge forward, he does so with tremendous force. Dedicated, loyal and true to his word this Knight is willing and able to shoulder any amount of responsibility. Persistence could be his middle name. He is a man of tradition and logic and may find himself annoyed by those who would be considered dreamers. He always achieves success with his ethical approach and strength of character.

The Queen of Pentacles is maternal and fertile. Whatever wealth she has was gained through her kind and generous nature. This card can either represent an aspect of self or another person in a tarot reading. Intuition, dedication, love and happiness are what she is devoted to. The weak spot in her facade is that she clings to notions of security. Trust and security are hallmark to her. Material wealth is not a priority. The Queen is often portrayed as a mother, whether she actually has children or not, due to her caring nature and dedication to the home and family.

The King of Pentacles has enough wealth to spread around and does so. This card is representative of another person or a part of the self in a tarot reading. The King encourages others to behave as he has since it obviously turned out well for him. He is true to his word but unlike the Knight doesn’t take on responsibility just because he wants to. The King wants a profit. Intelligence and experience make him a responsible businessman who gets what he wants in a respectable fashion. Like the Queen, he is concerned with security but finds it in the material world. He is dutiful, traditional but adaptable and normally not prone to bouts of temper. If someone deceives him, the punishment will be great. The King is the endpoint of a stage of success, a sign that effort can be suspended and wealth enjoyed for the time being. There is no negativity bogging this success down and the freedom of generosity can be expressed.

Homemade Solar Panels – The Tools to Get You Started

People are often surprised when I tell then that it can be really simple to build your own homemade solar panel. You do not need specialist tools to construct your project. In many cases you will have the tools required already in your garage or toolbox! Even if you do not already own these tools, you can pick them up cheaply.

You will only need two manual skills for your entire DIY solar panel construction. The first is a bit of woodwork knowledge to build the panel enclosure and mount the actual cells. The second skill is the electrical part which will require you to connect the mounted cells together. This really is simply wiring and connecting the cells in the correct way. Do not fear though any good renewable energy guide will have full instructions on both skills.

To make the panel enclosure you will need a wood saw, drill and screwdriver. The method is pretty easy once you get started and requires some cutting, gluing and bolting the wood together.

To connect the mounted sides together you will require wirecutters and strippers and a soldering iron for the cell connections. Be careful when using a soldering iron, make sure you follow the instructions and I would suggest that any soldering is either done outside or in your garage.

I believe it is possible with some prior planning to build efficient homemade solar cells. To get the best possible results use good quality plans taken from a proven guide.

How To Put Your Table Lamp Back Together

Have you ever needed to pull your table lamp apart, perhaps to replace a globe or a damaged socket, only to discover that you have no idea how to put it back together again? Whilst they may look terribly complicated, these sorts of lamps can actually be quite simple to piece back together.

Step 1: Place the base onto a flat work surface followed by the body; the base often features a hole in the centre, which is for the power cord to travel out of, whilst the body should have a hole at either end.

Step 2: Slide the rod into the top hole of the body, out there the bottom hole and into the base. Put a washer over the end of the rod and screw into place. Then, thread the cord into the bottom of the rod and out through the top. Screw in the neck (if the table lamp has one) and the harp.

Step 3: Place the socket cap over the bottom of the harp and screw to the rod, making sure it is the right way up. Wrap the ‘hot’ wire around the gold screw on the socket and wrap the ‘neutral’ wire around the silver screw.

Step 4: Place the socket shell over the bulb socket, making sure that you tuck the cords inside. Squeeze the ends of the harp and slide them into the bottom of the shell, then screw a bulb in.

When putting your table lamp together, it is important to keep in mind that there may be additional or even less steps depending on the type. If you become stuck when trying to put your lamp back together, you should contact a lighting specialist or even the manufacturer to ask for their advice.

How to Make a Door Opening

So you want to make a door opening into a room. But how do you go about it.


A standard door opening in the UK is 916mm clear opening. This allows for a wheel chair to access the property and is a compulsory requirement.

First things first, mark out an opening 916 wide on your sole and head plate ensuring that you keep everything plumb and level. Next mark out the position of your cripple studs, (two number to either side of the opening) and your king stud, (to either side of the cripple studs).

Make a beam 1068 long. Cut two king studs at 2301 long. Cut 4 cripple studs at 2076 long. Now we have the materials to make the door opening.

But first rewind, I can hear you asking. Where did all those figures come from? OK let me explain.

The beam length came from the width of the door opening 916 + the number of cripples 4 x 38 (width of cripple) = 152. So 916 +152 = 1068.

The wall is load bearing and needs to be full height. So we take the full height of the wall 2.453 less the top and bottom plates 152mm to get the height of the stud, which is 2301mm.

Are you with me so far? OK then.

The cripple studs are set to carry the beam, which will be placed into the wall at the top directly under the top plate. The beam depth is 38+ 225 + 38 = 301 mm deep. So to find the length of the cripple we take the height of the wall 2.453 – 76 (depth of the bottom plate) = 2.377 less the depth of the beam 301 = 2076mm for the cripple stud.

Now we can start to put it all together. First nail two cripples together making sure that all edges are flush together. It is best to use a side stitching technique to prevent the nails from penetrating through to the other side. Once you have this done for both sets of cripples nail them to the king stud keep the bottom of the stud and cripples flush and plumb.

Now take your stud and cripple pack and fix it into the wall, once again taking care to keep everything plumb and level. Repeat for the second pack. Once you have these fixed into place and are satisfied they are secure take your beam and fit it into place over the cripples, nailing with a side stitch pattern and face nailing through the king stud to secure the beam in place.

Finally place a cross rail at 2050mm from the finished floor across the door opening to finish the door opening. And that is how to frame a door opening.