How Do Vibration Plates Work and What Are the Advantages?

A new technique to develop muscle and enhance the strength of the bones is in vogue and uses vibration plates in an innovative way to achieve this. So, how does it operate?

Basically, these vibration plates as the name suggests, are made up of vibrating and moving plates. When an individual takes a standing or sitting position on them, he is required to use the energy generated by the movement of these vibration plates and complete his workout. The moving vibration plates lead to swift muscle tightening events of close to fifty times every second and this helps in lending a total workout to the entire body. This workout therefore helps you burn calories, builds flexibility, boosts the oxygen content within cells and speeds up efficient blood circulation. The mechanical energy is caused due to the subtle drop of the vibration plates by two to four meters. This drop is a gentle one and not harmful to the body.

Here’s how it actually works. Suppose you are in a standing position on the vibrating plate with slightly bent knees, the drop of the platform leads to the immediate stretching of your muscle and as a natural reaction, your body contracts the muscle. However, the time that it takes for the body to do this is utilized by the vibrating plate to go back to its original position and your body has to respond again. This cycle is repeated pretty rapidly about 50 times per second and that is how the swift contractions are brought about. You can thus experience close to 3000 such contractions in a minute and that corresponds to the effect of about 3000 knee bends. Doing this without the aid of such vibrating plates is obviously not possible and this involuntary body reaction of contracting the muscles progressively leads to the tautness of all the muscles in the body over a period of time. This compares very well with the 45% of muscle contractions achieved during traditional exercise and that is why it is becoming very popular.

The difference between the traditional training and vibration plate training is in the manner your body reacts. In the former, it responds to the extra resistance brought about by the weights, while in the latter, it is reacting to the forced and quick pressure caused by the vibrating plates. Since the speed is far greater, the body is also compelled to make the adjustments quicker and you will be able to achieve results much more rapidly. The best part of this is that you need not spend a great deal of time and can achieve more with less.

To summarize, there are five solid reasons as to why you should opt for this kind of a workout:

a) It is a revolutionary new technique to develop muscle and strengthen the bones

b) You can burn calories, achieve flexibility in your muscles and improve blood circulation in a relatively short period of time.

c) The contractions induced in the muscles make them taut and toned

d) It is a safe and quick method to get results that you desire when compared to conventional exercising.

e) As compared to the conventional work outs, the reaction of the body is swifter and this makes you feel more lively and healthier.

Modern Contemporary Steel Convector Wood Burning and Multifuel Stoves

Many of today’s contemporary style stoves are mostly wood burning stoves yet several manufacturers have designed them also to burn smokeless fuel. This is due to the thickness and grade of steel along with high temperature internal linings. The designs are mostly taller than the traditional multifuel stove mostly seen in the UK. An advantage of the taller wood burning stove is that it has a much bigger burning chamber than the traditional cast-iron stove. The bigger burning chamber leads to a better fuel combustion, cleaner burning with less emissions and a high efficiency.

The wood burning stoves are cleverly designed with inner and outer steel sides. Air rises from inside the base of the stove heats up in the cavity and is expelled from the top. This is known as convection and as well as heating a room quickly it helps keep the side walls of the woodburning stove cooler as the convection is continually dissipating the heat. Radiant heat is mainly from the front of the stove. The best of these woodburning stoves not only will have a primary burning system which is necessary for solid fuel burning but a preheated air system for a cleaner glass. The result of the larger burner chamber and preheated airwash is a log burning fire that is stunning to look at with a great heat output. Primary, secondary and tertiary air are discussed in more depth in another article. Many modern wood burning stoves are used as stand alone features and add to the ambience of a room like a well designed piece of furniture. The stoves look equally good when placed in a fireplace opening as long as a minimum of 300 to 400 mm is left clear above the wood burner so as not to impede the air convection.

Many of these contemporary wood burning stoves are supplied with an upper chamber in the outer design of the stove which can be used for keeping plates, coffee or food warm .Some of the stove designs have even a pyroceramic glass oven door on the front with a glass mounted temperature gauge. I have used this type in our showroom to successfully cook bread, small chickens and pizzas all to the delight of our customers.

A large number of our customers who started their stove experience with a traditional style wood or multifuel stove have since moved on to the more contemporary, modern wood burning or multifuel stove.

I recommend that you always look for a Din or Din+ kite mark with your contemporary wood burning stove which shows it has been produced to high German standards for quality and emissions.

Pressure Cookers, Their Care and Feeding, or Is That My Dinner Hanging From the Ceiling

No more than a generation or two ago, at the most, the words pressure cooker could cause a grown man to suddenly need to run an errand blocks away from his house. The kids had a burning urge to do their homework, real or imagined, at the far end of the house, preferably outside. Poor Mom was deserted to deal with THE CREATURE, which had the terrifying ability to spew forth chunks and splats of dinner on every conceivable surface of the kitchen, from the pristine white ceiling to the sparkling linoleum floor. Cooking dinner “under pressure” had turned into hand-to-cooker combat with mops, rags, and sponges against dripping walls and puddles from stem to stern of the kitchen. Sigh…What an enticing prospect!

But lo and behold! The pressure cookers of the early 21st century present no injury to life or limb and are easy to use, too. These modern-day marvels are thought to be descended from Denis Papin’s jewel of engineering. Papin, a French physicist living in London, designed the prototype of today’s pressure cooker, which was alternately called a pressure resister, digester or digestor, or retort while serving as a laboratory assistant to Robert Boyle, a chemist best remembered for Boyle’s Law, a physical law which proposed that the pressure and volume of a gas are dependent upon one another.

Papin demonstrated his device by cooking turkey bones in it before the Royal Society in 1679. This pressure digester included a very tight lid on a vessel; provided with sufficient pressure, it enabled the contents of the vessel to be raised to a very high temperature. It was given a safety valve as protection against an exorbitant rise in the pressure, thus releasing the excessive steam.

Let’s jump down the time some two hundred and fifty years to the first modern use of the pressure cooker. The 1939 New York World’s Fair was the showcase for the first commercially made aluminum pressure cooker, made by the National Pressure Cooker Company, later to become the Presto Company, which today is known internationally. The Baby Boom in the late 1940s was a significant force in the manufacture of the new-style pressure cookers. Unfortunately, many of these cookers had hidden flaws contributing to the high rate of explosive accidents and general mistrust of them.

By now, “modern” pressure cookers were appearing in homes all across America. In the beginning, there was an issue of mistrust (and justifiably so). However, as we go trippingly along the timeline, we find ourselves over the boundary into the 21st century where pressure cookers are items of sheer delight in the ease of use. No more spaghetti à la spaghetti…

Basically, the modern pressure cooker is a kitchen pot with an elaborate lid making a tight, complete seal so that the explosions of yore are not even a condition that might present itself to an absentminded chef. In order for the pressure to work, a sealed pot or vessel, adjusted to a predetermined pressure will not allow liquids or steam to spurt forth from the cooker.

The boiling point of water will increase as the pressure in the cooker climbs higher, in search of the precalculated pressure. Because of this increase, the escalating pressure causes the liquid to reach a temperature in excess of 100ºC (212ºF) before it boils. In 1917, the USDA elected to make the internal pressure setting 15 psi (pounds per square inch), where upon water will boil at 125ºC (257ºF). As the temperature rises, the more quickly the food will cook. The fibers in the food begin to fall apart, causing the entire process to speed up appreciably.

How It All Works or Welcome to Elementary Physics:

Let’s start at sea level, with a pot that has no lid but contains water which boils at 100ºC (212ºF). The escaping steam from this pot will also be 100ºC (212ºF). The water will retain the 100ºC reading,irregardless of how much heat is directed at it. But, the pressure inside the pot can rise precipitously if the water evaporation is trapped by a well-sealed lid.

The rising pressure, as well as the temperature of the steam and water inside the pressure cooker, will rise above the normal 100ºC boiling point temperature.

Food inside the cooker cooks extremely rapidly, anywhere from 3 to 4 times faster, due to the steam pressure. The steam causes the intense intermingling of flavors, as well as giving the pressure-cooked food enhanced moistness and succulence. Many more vitamins and nutrients remain behind than with conventionally boiled food. And remember, the higher the pressure, the more quickly (up to 70%) the food will cook, giving you time to enjoy your family and friends.

Take care not to add different foods all at once. They will turn to mush if steamed too long. Put in longer-cooking foods first, release the pressure, and then add the final shorter-cooking foods last.

Watch the pressure on your cooker. Have no qualms about lowering the heat from the stove; this needs to be done immediately so that the pressure will reduce itself.

When the cooker reaches the full predetermined pressure, it is time to start cooking times. Until you learn to predict how slowly or rapidly your pressure cooker functions, it is best to estimate cooking times on the low side.

High altitudes mean increased cooking times. There is no need to make any adjustments for elevations from sea level to 2000 ft. but for every 1000 ft. beyond the 2000 ft. base, cooking time should be increased by 5%.

Simply the mere thought of an old pressure cooker shooting off its mouth (so to speak) was cause for the cold sweats. Rejoice! Today’s pressure cookers are built for safety. Until the pressure is released from the pot, it is virtually impossible to open a modern cooker.

There are two choices by which to release the steam: the Natural Release method and the Quick Release method. The Natural Release is extremely simple. Remove the pot from the heat source and allow the pressure to slowly release itself while the pot’s temperature decreases. This method of release enables tough cuts of meat and such to remain in a steam chamber which helps to tenderize the food. The other method, the Quick Release, uses an automatic release. It is not a problem if your pressure cooker does not have an automatic release. Merely move the pot from the stove to the sink. Turn the cold water tap on the pressure cooker, allowing the difference in temperatures to bring about a quick release of pressure.

Pay attention to the gasket and valves. The gasket must remain flexible to do its job properly. Be sure to keep food debris and residue from lodging in the valves. Most importantly, do not immerse the lid in water and use dishwashing liquid to hand wash the pot.

Take good care of your pressure cooker and it will take good care of you.

How to Insulate the Sunroom Walls

Insulate walls and ceilings:

The foundation of the sunroom wall itself is one of the most proven and dependable methods of insulating sunroom options. So that there is no escape of heat, the sunroom walls should be insulated from the ceiling till the frost line. Those staying in colder climates should get the western and eastern walls insulated instead of getting them glazed as this is beneficial for maintaining the temperature within the room.

As part of the home improvement plan you can also have the ceiling insulated along with the walls. To prevent heat loss, a sliding glass door or panel can be kept between the other rooms and the sunroom. In comparison to your sunroom, the inner rooms remain much cooler. You need to look into extremely efficient and cost effective solutions for sunroom wall insulation.


Heat can be trapped for the maximum amount of time with the popular method of glass wall glazing. Besides having a classy appearance it provides greater clarity and is most durable. You can opt for either double glass glazing or single glass glazing for the sunroom. Double glazing can be a costly affair so many people opt for plastic glazing which is easy to handle and work with, and cheaper in comparison. To keep the room warm you can also opt for plastic glazing. Keep in mind though that in summer plastic expands rapidly and hence could be less durable.

With different ideas for the sunroom wall you can plan accordingly and then consult a contractor to make the sunroom cozier and warmer. While considering the home improvement plan, understand that the cost of construction increases in a four room insulation sunroom as it requires superior properties. It is possible to install batt roll insulation within the walls, floor and ceiling of four room sunrooms. As batt insulation rock, wool, fiberglass or processed mineral fiber are used. This is the cheapest type of insulation. For effective performance it needs to be installed well and ingrained within the structure.

The Popularity Of Hardy Plank Siding

Tens of thousands of homes in both South and North America are making use of the next generation of engineered home siding this revolution is known as hardy plank siding. Hardy plank siding is gaining strength as real alternative to traditional wood and vinyl siding due to its unmatched durability and strength.

Hardy plank siding is sometimes referenced as “hardy siding”. It gets this unique nickname not because of its your ability and strength, but because its inventor was a man named James Hardie. James Hardie developed Hardy plank siding as an alternative for wood and vinyl in Australia’s home market. Nowadays however hard he plank siding is not limited to Australian homes, but indeed it is now a worldwide phenomenon in the home siding industry.

Visually Hardy plank siding bears more than a passing resemblance to real wood. In fact, it is manufactured to imitate both the texture and grain of real wood siding. Many people claim that Hardy would siding is resistance to all extreme weather conditions making it a perfect option in extreme climate areas. This siding is resistant to fire and water, never warps or rots, and is unaffected by termites and other insects that cause damage to more traditional sidings.

Another popular characteristic of this siding is the fact that it retains paint much better than would. In fact this type of siding rarely ever peels or chips when painted. However many homeowners choose to not paint their Hardy plank siding because its natural appearance is quite attractive and appealing.

As with all siding proper maintenance and installation is key to the longevity of Hardy plank siding. For the homeowner installation of Hardy plank siding is exceedingly easy. It requires basic tools that most homeowners have on hand, and no special prep work that requires years of training or guidance. Maintenance is also a breeze, Hardy plank siding can easily be washed off with a common garden hose.

The world has caught on to Australia’s secret, and this type of siding is here to stay. It comes in a variety of colors and styles to fit anybody’s needs, and offered at very attractive price points. Of course, all of this is backed up by an excellent manufacturer’s warranty. So if you are in market for new siding definitely look into purchasing Hardy plank siding, it is unmatched in strength, durability, and beauty.

What Does Medicare Supplement Plan F Cost?

Once people turn 65 and qualify for Medicare, they begin to consider Medicare supplement insurance plans or medigap plans, and the services these plans offers, and its cost. Medigap covers and pays for a portion of the total healthcare expenses that the actual Medicare plan doesn’t. Like any other insurance plans and policies, deciding on which plan best suits your needs and situation can be difficult. There are several factors which have an effect on the supplement’s monthly or yearly premium. Based on Weiss ratings, a reliable and independent strength ratings provider for banks and insurance companies, the most common medigap plan for 65 year old individuals and retirees which is Plan F, approximately costs $1,813.00 per year. In North Carolina, rates can be as low as $1,090 per year. That breaks down to about $90 per month. But you may ask what affects the rates for Plan F?

Medigap Insurance Policies: Ratings

Medigap insurance policies are rated in three different ways, issue-age rating, community rating and attained-age rating respectively.

  1. Issue-age ratingmeans that the Medigap cost is dependent on the age at the start insurance. The rate won’t increase as the policy holder ages but it can possibly go up depending on factors like inflation and the economy.
  2. Community ratingdoesn’t consider age but the insurance company still holds the right to make any adjustments on the cost due to claims over a period of time.
  3. Attained-agerating the cost of the policy is based on the age and start date of the senior.

Medigap Insurance Policies – Comparing Prices

Prices may vary depending on the insurance company selling the Medigap policy. When choosing the right policy there’s two important things to consider. First is the coverage included in the quote comparison. The second important factor is rating structure; this is where monthly premiums are based. The medigap policy rate is better in non-smokers compared to smokers. It is also better for females and married individuals (due to partner discounts). In some instances, allowing bank drafts can offer additional savings.

Medigap Insurance Policies – Cost sharing with High Deductible Plan F

Some companies now offer the high deductible plan F. This cost sharing option makes a significant difference in the over-all insurance premium. These plans offer lower premium in exchange for the client taking more risk in potential out of pocket costs (high deductible). With high deductible plans, deductibles reset each year.

Medigap Insurance Policies – Open Enrollment

When applying for a Medigap insurance policy for the first time, it should be done during the open-enrollment period which is the first 3 months before, the month of, and 3 months after your 65th birthday. The open-enrollment period guarantees the enrollment regardless of medical condition and health status. During this period your premium will not be affected by any health issues.

Deck Railing Installation

Railing materials vary in their design and style, but you will find that most of the materials available go with many different home and deck styles. You want your deck to enhance your home, so you will want to choose a beautiful deck railing material that is both beautiful and will be durable enough to last for many years.

Iron railings are a very popular choice that many people purchase for their home. These railings are very beautiful, but they will need some care because they are rust, decay, and corrosion prone. Weather is rough on iron railings, so you will want to make sure that you clean and cover them with a waterproof coating so that they will last as long as possible.

Wood railings are a choice that many people turn to because wood offers you many advantages over metals, stone, or brick railings. Wooden railings are also easy to build and install if you want to do it yourself. You will be able to create a beautiful wood railing in just a few hours if it is not too intricate.

Wrought iron railings are very popular due to their durability and strength. They are also very easy to maintain and take care of. The beauty and strength of wrought iron railings are unmatched by any other material.

Cedar railings are a wonderful choice for a low maintenance railing. It is practical, functional, and is naturally resistant to many of the things that destroy other kinds of railings. You can even add cedar furniture to enhance your railings. Cedar is lightweight and it offers you the natural look and character of wood. If you are looking for a wonderful way to add beauty to your deck that will not be a lot of work for you, then you will want to choose cedar railings for your deck.

Deck Railing Installation

There are a few things that you will need to have to make sure that you install your deck railing professionally. The things that you need include balusters, posts, measuring tape, finials, a saw, drill, and finishing nails. Most of the supplies are simple to find at your local home improvement store or online. If you want to build your own deck railings, you will have no problem finding the materials.

How to Clean Stainless Steel – What Every Homeowner Needs to Know

What kitchen is not overflowing in stainless steel today? From large and small appliances to sinks to utensils to cookware, it’s all around us. Although we may think we know how to clean stainless steel, it’s the spots and dull-looking finish that we really want to be able to get rid of.

There is no need to use expensive or specialty store-bought cleaners or any toxic chemicals for this type of cleaning. Simply use items you already have in your cleaning cabinet.

Here are several inexpensive ways you can clean the stainless steel items around your home, even those outside such as grills or even your trash cans (if you wanted to bother cleaning them!)

To clean your kitchen sink, put some olive oil on a cloth and rub the entire sink as well as the fixtures. Then clean with a dry cloth. This will also get rid of water spots.

To clean your electric skillet or roaster, just use club soda. Vinegar can be used to remove spots and stains from your utensils and flatware.

To get rid of grease on your appliances, rub with a mixture of ammonia and warm water. Large areas such as refrigerators or counter tops can be cleaned with glass cleaner or ammonia. If you have a rust problem, just use ordinary household cleaner as often as needed.

To avoid damage to your stainless steel items, never use steel wool as this will scratch the finish. Also, cookware should not be left on a high heat burner for a long period of time as this will cause discoloration which is not a “stain” that can be removed.

While you can find any number of products that give instructions on how to clean stainless steel, you can achieve the same sparkle without the use of abrasives and toxic chemicals.

Go natural and help your family breathe healthy.

Can Business to Business Telemarketing Really Work?

Yes it can.

You can achieve great results if you do the right things. From protecting your customers from your competitors, strengthening the relationship with existing customers by offering them the right products and services, to winning new business.

If you don’t do things well, then there is a price to pay, you can upset and demotivate your employees, and really hack off your customers.

I’ve just been called by two telemarketers.

The first had a very strong accent which made it difficult to understand, and launched into reading a script which lasted for 2 minutes 27 seconds before I stopped her. She had been economic with the truth in her opening line to lead me to believe she was phoning from a UK government body, who wanted me to be involved in a project with them, she was in fact selling advertising space.

Now the second company, well, they knew how to do it right. The guy calling, had a conversation with me, was interested in me and my business rather than pushing product at me, and was very clear with his “what’s in it for the customer statement” While I didn’t buy, I do have a positive impression of him / his company, he didn’t annoy me and I was in the middle of writing this article, and more importantly, if I did come to a point where I wanted to change my suppliers I would call him.

So how can b2b telemarketing work?

o Be clear about the purpose of your call

Is it to gain new business?

To retain or regenerate existing business?

To grow the spend of your existing customers?

o Why are you calling? What do you want to achieve from the call?

o What’s in it for the person you are calling?

o What do you want them to do as a result of your call?

o Is that really achievable in one phone call?

o Understand where this call fits in your sales / business process

o Know your customers – understand their point of view

o Do not script – it’s too rigid, try having a conversation instead, one with genuine interest

in their business and the person you are speaking to. A script prevents you from doing this.

o Have a call map. This isn’t a script but it’s a path to follow helping you confidently lead the

call and get to your most wanted response.

o Most people will buy after a minimum of seven contacts with your business, so locate your call(s) within a marketing process that keeps in touch with your customers and prospects.

The telephone provides a really cost effective way of contacting customers and prospects, but as with all things sales related, you need to make sure you do the right things to ensure you get the payoff you deserve from that activity.

Improving Your Personal Best – How to Improve Your 5K Time

First time finishers used to be chided by a running buddy of mine for establishing both a PB and a PW (personal best and personal worst) at the same 5K race. She got away with this because she knew that most improvements in race times occur when a runner is brand new to long distance running. Additional training for newcomers is more likely to result in a new all-time PB than another PW.

The idea of a PW might help explain the slight distinction between a personal record (PR) and a personal best (PB). Suppose your first race was on a course as flat as a pancake and the second one was a hilly rollercoaster. In all likelihood the first race is still your PB while the rollercoaster race might actually be a new PW. Subsequent attempts at the rollercoaster course will probably improve your PR for that course, but not PB. In other words a PR refers to an official race result on a particular certified course whereas a PB or PW only relates to a given distance of racing.

Targeting 5K races with little or no change in elevation throughout the course is a valid strategy to obtain a PB for most casual or recreational runners. For those competing with a club or on a team however the course and date has been set well in advance. Choice of course aside it becomes a matter of working with a plan that will take you to the next level: If you have been using a beginner plan to train, switch to an intermediate plan, likewise if you have trained using an intermediate plan then consider a more advanced plan.

Distance and endurance athletes are notoriously lean and lightweight. Body weight and performance are inversely proportional up to a point. A runner weighing 160 pounds must exert 6.5% more energy to maintain the same pace as a runner weighing 150 pounds. Body composition is more important than body weight. The good news is that training will naturally over time lead to optimal body composition. For more advice on this subject read Racing Weight by Matt Fitzgerald (2009).

Have your 5K times hit a plateau? What could be the barrier to better performance? In pursuit of better performance the “four-minute barrier” for the mile was broken nearly 60 years ago by Rodger Bannister. If a 5K race were to be run at a four minute per mile pace today it would break the current world record of 12:37 by 12 seconds. A personal best in human performance requires a concerted effort from the mind as well as the body.

It may seem at this point that your options to improve 5K performance are rather limited. The ‘final frontier’ is mind over matter. Remember that both mental and physical training are essential to surpass and break through any preconceived wall. Consider then a holistic approach to your assault on your 5K PB keeping in mind the following qualities to infuse in your training regimen:


5K is an endurance race. Do more training, more duration of ‘long runs,’ and gradually build weekly volume and aerobic endurance. Add a ‘training race’ at longer distance 10K, 15K, or half marathon. Longer races will get you fitter, more efficient, and give you a different perspective on 5K.


To get faster in running you have to run faster. Add more speed to workouts with intervals and repeats. It is harder to ‘screw up’ the shorter intervals because the longer the repetition the harder it is to maintain the pace needed. Neuromuscular training is key to fast twitch response and recruitment. Ever notice how twins seem to make fast runners? That is because they have someone of similar ability right there to push them harder and faster. If you are not part of a running club, team or group then join one. If you like to run to music then make playlist with faster tempo songs, ones that could push your stride cadence up to 180 steps per minute.


The definition of insanity may be doing the same thing over and over again but expecting a different result. There is a suggestion that members of the San Diego Track Club created a multisport workout known as triathlon to break up the monotony of running. Perhaps they were onto something in terms of cross training. The idea is to increase general fitness without pounding the same joints and risking repetitive use injuries. In addition there are other methods of cross training and resistance strength training to benefit core stability.


Running economy is the ability to use oxygen efficiently. Maximize the output of energy that propels you in the desired direction and minimize any leakage of energy. Work on form with drills. Improve your core stability. Practice around others so they may provide feedback on your technique.


Find your motivation. How will you overcome the challenge of the course? What mental imagery will you use to create an uphill surge? You could imagine there is a huge rubber band attached to you and the trees on the top of the hill or you could play “Run To The Hills” by Iron Maiden in your head. If you run with a team or club then shout encouragements for each other.


Replenish lost glycogen stores after each training session. Rest and recuperate fully. Make sure you have adequate rest in between workouts to allow body muscles time to adapt. Several 5K training plans will include a taper period.

Best 5K efforts result from a combination of durability, quickness, economy and adequate recovery developed with training that is supported by variety and inspiration. To improve your 5k times your training must adapt as your fitness improves. More advanced runners might adjust the frequency of workout session with intensity while allowing for adequate recovery. Aging runners may not be able to improve all-time PB due to physical decline. There are formulas to convert age-graded performance and perhaps then it is appropriate to consider age-group PRs rather than all-time PBs.

Fan and Heat Relays in the Air Handler

The relay between the air handler control unit and the blower motor is called a fan or heat relay. If the thermostat fan setting is “on” then the relays do nothing but keep the fan running. Otherwise, when the air handler controller asks for heating or cooling the relay switches the fan on.

The relay allows the fan a short delay to spool up before it starts heating or cooling. This increases efficiency by allowing th blower to push already conditioned air in the ducts through before additional heating or cooling takes place. Instead of that air being wasted in the handler it is used for cooling your house.

Cool evaporator coils work best, so when the cooling cycle starts you will be operating at maximum efficiency. The cool coils can absorb more heat, according to Denver air conditioning services. Some controls use a fan limit switch to set when the unit turns on or off. The fan limit switch is used on furnaces where the fan control circuit is mounted on the heat exchanger.

The fan limit switch on these gas and oil furnaces energizes the fan when the heat exchanger reaches a certain temperature. For most thermostats, the white wire runs to the fan limit switch. It acts as a safety device, because if the burner gets too hot, the white wire will shut it off and keep the fan running to dissipate heat.

The heating relay is separate from the fan relay. The control board has several safety switches before it goes to the furnace to keep it from overheating. Electrical heaters should have a thermal safety fuse installed by a Denver furnace repair company that will physically melt and break the electrical connection if the furnace gets too hot.

Because furnaces are so dangerous, they have numerous fail safe controls, some of which may be manual reset. This means it will stop your house from burning down, but you may have to call a Denver HVAC technician to come reset the fuses. If the switch was tripped for no apparent reason, ask the technician which switch was tripped so that you will know where the problem is if it happens again. Most fuse and breaker switches can be replaced at a minimum cost.

Brain Injuries and Lack of Empathy

The dictionary lists empathy as being able to identify with and understand another person’s situation, feelings and motive. The state of being selfish, self-absorbed and self-centered indicates concern only with oneself. Lack of empathy and self-centeredness are often deficits of brain injury. These deficits can cause difficulties within the family structure as well as with getting along with friends.

Damage to the frontal lobe can affect feelings of not only empathy but also of lack of compassion. And in most cases there are few feelings of guilt as a result of their behavior. This deficit can alter decisions that most likely would have been handled very differently pre-injury.

My partner has shown this deficit many times – when he has been unable to comprehend my feelings of not wishing him to smoke in the bedroom/ensuite; his inability to see the hurt on the faces of small grandchildren when he has been playing with them and then suddenly becomes angry; and when I asked him if he realized that I had been upset about something he had been planning to do and he answered that he had realized it. ‘And you did it anyway?’ I asked. He answered that he had because he wanted to. These are only a few of the ways that lack of empathy can be shown but there are many. This lack of feeling and caring on behalf of those with brain injuries hurt family members whether it is their spouse, children or grandchildren.

Because empathy depends on seeing yourself as being similar to another person, having a brain injury precludes this ability. They are no longer the same as someone else, even someone with a brain injury since no two brain injuries are alike. Empathy also is the ability to understand another’s perspective and to be able to see and appreciate that the other person’s values and feelings will be different. Having empathy for others includes being onterested in them but many brain injury survivors also have the deficit of being self-centered and self-absorbed so interest in others is difficult. When someone has empathy for another, it shows that they care about the other person’s needs also. This is not the case when someone has the deficit of lack of empathy.

According to my research, it is felt that people can learn to have empathy if they want to make the effort. They can attempt to distinguish their feelings from someone else’s; they can try to see the other person’s perspective about a situation, and they can listen to what someone else is really saying. Although it can be done with effort, for those who have sustained a brain injury, it is a much more difficult task.

Kitchen Design Tips & Updates – Space Requirements & Recommendations

Kitchen design can be as simple as a straight countertop with minimalist appliances, or as sophisticated as multiple sinks, dishwashers, cooktops & ovens in islands, under islands, over islands and more. Wine coolers can fit in the space of a dishwasher or be as tall as a pantry. Sinks can be troughs to be filled with ice to cool bottles, little for an entertainment center, double or triple bowls and an infinite variety of materials. Materials vary enormously, you can go green with countertops made of compressed recycled paper, clear glass, concrete, granite, limestone or the old standbys. Even within materials, such as granite, prices vary enormously depending on the exact stone chosen, and you can find some very reasonable and beautiful stone if you look around. There’s an infinite world of possibilities in the kitchen.

First we can start with some design basics. How much room do I need for a kitchen? Well, that depends on what you want in it. At it’s most mini, you could fit a kitchen into a space 5′-4″ x 7′-5″, but there wouldn’t be much beyond some very small appliances without a dishwasher. Let’s look at some standard appliance and fixtures size ranges.

  • Sinks: sinks come in many sizes, depths, materials and prices.  You can get them as narrow as 11″ wide, but you probably want to plan at least a 30″ – 36″ cabinet, which can accommodate a wide range of standard size kitchen sinks from 25″ to 33″ in a variety of styles (drop-in, undercounter, or exposed front cut out).  You will also need to decide if you like a single, double or triple basin sink, as that will impact available sizes. There is also the option of putting the sink in an island, or putting an entertainment sink or trough sink in a secondary location.


  • Dishwashers: dishwashers are pretty easy because they are pretty standard at 24″.


  • Cooking: again we have multiple choices, but sizes are a little easier.  You have a choice of a free-standing or slide-in, in which the unit fits in between two cabinets, which is generally 30″ wide; a cooktop with separate ovens, (either below or in a separate cabinet), which comes standard in 30″ or 36″ sizes and fit into that size cabinet (although you can get professional style rangetops up to 48″); or a professional style range made by companies such as Viking, Wolfe or GE Monogram which range from 24″ all the way up to 60″, and require significant ventilation. If you choose a separate oven in some kind of wall oven arrangement, standard oven widths are generally 27″ and 30″, although they can be found up to 36″.


  • Refrigerators: Choices, choices! Refrigerators are kind of two basic style decisions. Do you want one which is shallow (around 2′) and is known as built-in or counter-depth, or do you want the slightly deeper traditional style where some of refrigerator sides are exposed. The shallower built-in’s generally come in 36″, 42″ & 48″, while the deeper styles can be found just below 30″ wide and up.


  • Faucets: Kitchen faucets, besides an almost infinite variety of styles, materials and colors, also have evolved. Faucets are now available just to fill the pots on your stove, have a choice of pull-out sprayer heads or separate sprayer, single or multiple handles, they are available with remote two button controls for a prep sink which allows for a quick sink rinse or a more complete cleansing flow, and can fit any decor from ultra modern to renaissance.

How much countertop is enough? According to the National Kitchen and Bath Association (NKBA) a total of 158 inches (13′-2″) of countertop frontage (not in corners) is needed to accommodate all kitchen uses. Try to allow a continuous section of countertop of at least 36 inches wide by 24 inches deep next to your primary work area.  The NKBA recommends that you allow at least a 15 inch countertop area next to your oven and on the handle side of your refrigerator.  

When talking about storage,  the NKBA recommends a total shelf/drawer frontage of 1400 inches for a small kitchen (less then 150sf), 1700 inches for a medium kitchen (151 to 350sf) and 2000 inches for a large kitchen (over 350sf). What does this mean? Does this mean that I need over 100′ of shelves for a little kitchen? Well, yes, but, each drawer or each individual shelf should be counted towards the total. So if you have a 24″ wide cabinet, 30″ high with 3 shelves, you already have 6′ of shelving. And if there were a 24″ base cabinet with 4 drawers, there’s another 8′, so this one 24″ area of your kitchen already has 14′ of shelving.  

What is “the work triangle”? The work triangle represents the three major work stations of the kitchen: the cooking area, the refrigerator and the sink. Measuring from the center of each, the maximum total length of the triangle should not be greater then 26 feet with the maximum leg no greater then 9 feet and the minimum not less then 4 feet. At 3D Home Decorator, there are actually 9ft and 4ft arrows that you can place in your floor plans to test distances.  

Eating areas are not limited to tables! Islands can accommodate eating areas, cooking areas, washing up areas, or just prep areas. A typical kitchen counter is 34 inches to 36 inches high. A table is typically 30 inches high. So in planning kitchen eating areas, part of an island eating area can be dropped to table height or a table can be built as an extension of an island, left at counter height with stools, or raised to 42 inches for a high countertop eating area, which is often used to hide the work surface of the counter behind it when viewed from the rest of the room.  

How much space is ideal between a table and the wall? The NKBA  (National Kitchen & Bath Assoc.) recommends a minimum of 32 inches if no traffic needs to pass. 36 inches will let someone squeeze by, and 44 inches will let a person walk by. If a wheelchair needs to pass, allow 60 inches.  

It is best to vent your stove to the outside if possible, but there are recirculating fans which will draw odors from the air if outside venting is not available Do not put cooking surfaces under operable windows. If you are lucky enough to have an operable window above countertop height in your kitchen, place your sink under it instead of your stove. You can put a microwave with a fan combination over your stove, either exhausting to the outside, or recirculating the air.  

Do not waste your kitchen corners. Upper cabinets can be decorative open shelving or have a two part door which opens both sides of the cabinets. Blind base cabinets can have lazy susans, which rotate for access, or base cabinets can have shelves which pull out, swing to the side and allow deeper shelves to be pulled out into accessible locations. While it is the hardest to access, the least expensive solution is just to have deep shelves or a simple lazy-susan (the rotating shelves). If you have an L shaped kitchen or island with a peninsula setup, doors can be placed on both sides for accessibility.  

Don’t forget the space between the upper and lower cabinets. If you have more then enough countertop, the space between the upper and lower cabinets  (even in the corners) can have tambour doors (rollup doors) which can hide appliances or the space can be filled with open wine racks, leaving half the countertop exposed for the usual purposes.

 Cabinets come in all sizes. Base cabinets come in every width from 3 inches up, and depths from 12 inches to 24 inches and larger, so they can fill all kinds of needs. 9 inch and 12 inch base pullouts for soda bottles and cans are wonderful and efficient for filling in narrower spaces. There are  base cabinets with pullouts for garbage and/or recycling, or with shelves that lift up for a Kitchenaid Mixmaster type of appliance. A 12 inch deep cabinet at the end of an island can be used for cookbooks or designed for wine storage. Don’t forget full height pantries, which can have shelves, roll-out drawers, door attachments for spices or other specialty storage. Both lower and upper cabinets can be decoratively open for wine, books, glassware, and more. An 18″ or 24″ base could have a small wine or soda refrigerator built in. There are 6″ high drawer cabinets or open shelves which can fit under your upper cabinets to provide storage for smaller items.  Base cabinets too can have glass doors and fancy faces, which can be used to display special dishes.  With storage at a premium, kitchen cabinets have become very clever about offering maximum efficiency in minimum space.

New York City Local Law 11 Inspections

Local Law 11 of 1998 was passed by the City Council of New York as a response to the highly publicized exterior wall failures that took place in the city in 1997 and 1998.

Before the Local Law 11 Inspections, New York City was under Local Law 10 of 1980. This particular law was enacted after a pedestrian was killed when a piece of masonry fell from the façade of a building on Manhattan’s Upper West Side. An NYC building code was amended by the City council in order to minimize the chances of such accidents from happening again. Under the law, buildings with at least six stories above the basement were subjected to periodic inspection by licensed professional engineers.

Despite the mandate of Law 10, many accidents and exterior wall failures still occurred in the city. These events lead to the passing of Local Law 11 Inspections in March 1998.

Local Law 11 Inspections are done to assess the soundness of all facades of buildings except those which are less than 12 inches from an adjacent building. All building that have six stories or more are subject to this inspection, even if only a portion of the building is more than six stories tall.

According to the law, a licensed engineer or architect must inspect the building’s façade using binoculars and at least a scaffold drop on a street façade. This drop should be from the base of the building to the top.

The reports for Local Law 11 Inspections are to be filed with the City once every five-year cycle.

The cost for this inspection differs from each firm of engineers, architects and service providers. It also depends on the type of rig used. If the demands for rigs, sidewalk sheds and labor increase, the cost would most probably be high has well.

How to Choose the Best SLI Motherboards For Intel Core I7 Socket 1366

Today’s latest breakthrough in computer gaming is the SLI (Scalable Link Interface).This technology is developed by NVidia and it uses only an NVidia video cards. It allows multi GPU that performs in parallel so that the work load of each video card is divided, thus producing twice or more the quality on the single output.

There’s another technology same as the SLI which is the CrossFireX. This one is developed by ATI and can only be use with ATI cards. The only difference between this two is that NVidia can be use only with identical card this means that they must have the same GPU, clock speed and memory. The ATI can be used with different GPU card with the same memory and speed that both support the CrossFireX.

In order to use the SLI or the CrossFireX configuration your motherboard must be a certified NVidia SLI or ATI CrossFireX. And also you must have at least 2 PCI-E 16X slots for 2-way and 3 PCI-E slots for 3-way. And lastly, your video card must be capable with SLI or CrossFireX. Most of the latest release of video card today is an SLI and a CrossFireX ready.

The best choice for LSI motherboard is socket 1366 with X58 chipset because this supports the intel core i7 quad core and the new Bloomfield hex core for your future upgrade. The best thing about this chipset is that it both supports the SLI and the CrossFireX. The X58 also supports the DDR3 triple channel memory that uses 3 memory sticks but you can also use 2.