Laying Vinyl Flooring Over Vinyl Flooring

This week we took on a small two day job. We spent the day laying vinyl flooring over vinyl flooring. Which can be tricky to get right but with the right information and procedures, any do-it-yourself-er and home owner can take on a job like this with confidence. As always I will list all tools and materials you will need to lay vinyl flooring over vinyl flooring.


Your new vinyl flooring

Vinyl flooring adhesive (we used a releasable pressure sensitive adhesive from Chap-co)

Skim coat

Finish nails

caulking(try and match the color of your flooring)

Blue painters tape

If not reusing old baseboard and thresholds your will need to purchase new


Razor blade (hook blade and standard blade)

Hammer & flat bar

Masonry Trowel


Finish nail gun(hammer and nail set will also work)

Miter Saw(not necessary if reusing old moulding)

Paint brush & roller(if using releasable pressure sensitive adhesive, with some adhesives you will need a 1/8 notched tile trowel to spread your glue, always make sure to read and follow the manufacturers instructions on container)

Caulking gun

2×4 wrapped in carpet or a towel

Being a homeowner you will most likely own these tools. If not, you can pick them up at your local hardware store and not have to worry as you will be able to use any of these listed tools time and time again.

1. Firstly and most obviously you will need to clear out the area. If its your kitchen it is always best to remove your refrigerator and stove to run the flooring under them.

2. Using your hammer and flat bar, it’s time to remove any base board moulding or quarter round trim from around the edges of your floor. If you are going to simply reuse your old moulding make sure not to break any of your pieces as your removing them. Seeing as your going with a brand new floor I would suggest replacing all the moulding. It depends how beat up the old moulding is and your budget.

3. Inspect your floor. Look for bubbles and loose areas. Using your razor blade, w/ a standard blade, cut out and remove these bad areas.

4. Vacuum the floor of all dirt and debris to keep it out of your skim coat.

5. Now it’s time to skim coat the floor. We used a Henry 547 Universal Patch & Skim Coat. This skim coat simply gets mixed with water. Follow the instructions on the package of whatever skim coat you choose to use. If you are filling in areas where it will be thicker you will want to fill those areas with a thicker mix. Using your masonry trowel, spread the skim coat across the entire floor. This will fill in the areas you needed to remove as well as any texture in the existing vinyl. Even if you don’t need to cut any areas out, your new vinyl will suck up tight to the old flooring so much that you will see the texture of the old floor come through to your new floor. This is a necessary step and is what makes laying vinyl flooring over vinyl flooring possible.

6. Wrap it up, you’re done for about 14-18 hours depending on how long your skim coat product needs to set and dry.

7. Now that your skim coat has dried. Inspect the surface. Using your trowel scrape off any drips or any lines you left. The key to the skim coat is to get it perfectly flat as possible.

8. Vacuum the entire floor very thoroughly. Any debris you leave on your floor will be seen through the new vinyl.

9. Now it is time to cut out your new vinyl flooring. There are a couple ways you might want to tackle this. You can simply take measurements and draw a diagram for yourself to follow. Another way is to get a roll of construction paper, lay it out and cut yourself a pattern. Either way you choose to do this you need to make sure to leave a good 2 inches all the way around. The hook blade works great for cutting out your new floor. If you are using a felt backed vinyl you will need to make relief cuts in the inside corners of your new flooring. You will also need to tape these corners with blue painters tape to reinforce them. Felt backed vinyl is brittle. It will crack and tear on you especially in those corners. If you are using a sheet vinyl product you will not have to worry about this.

10. Carry your new flooring into the area and carefully spread it and lay it down where it goes. Using your standard blade push the excess you left into the corners and cut off the excess around the entire floor. If you are using a floor that has straight lines running through it you will want to make sure you have those lines lined up how you want them before you cut your floor. You may need to shift it over and if you have already cut it you might not be big enough to fit up to the wall.

11. Once you have your floor all cut out and ready to go, it’s time for glue. with the releasable pressure sensitive adhesive you will be able to simply paint it on the floor. Other glues may require a notched trowel. Read and follow the directions on the glue you are using. The releasable adhesive is recommended, by the manufacturer, for sheet vinyl product. Fold back one side of your flooring about halfway back. Spread your glue. If you want a permanent bond with the releasable adhesive you won’t want to let it dry completely. Once the glue is ready, carefully lay your vinyl back where it was on the floor. Using a length of 2×4 covered in carpet(or wrapped in a towel) press and slide out the flooring towards the outside edges. This is going to force out bubbles and wrinkles, ensuring a tight bond. Repeat this for the other side of your floor.

12. Now you can replace your old moulding and thresholds. If you choose to replace your moulding, make sure your measurements are correct and angles are correct. If you try using the old pieces as templates they will all run slightly larger and won’t fit in their places. If you weren’t able to get your floor perfect and there are some areas that aren’t completely covered, either by the base board or new flooring (i.e. around doorways and their trim), you can use caulking to fill in these areas.

13. Some glues require waiting a while to dry, before moving any furniture or appliances on top of it. A good rule of thumb would be to wait a couple hours before moving things back, but just see what the product your using recommends and follow that.

It is a fairly simple process for any homeowner or do-it-yourself-er. The key is your skim coat. This is what makes laying vinyl flooring over vinyl flooring possible. The texture of your old floor WILL show through on your new vinyl if you do not skim coat it.

I mentioned felt back/paper back vinyl and whats called sheet vinyl. Vinyl itself is a very inexpensive material for a great looking brand new floor. The price range between your cheaper(felt backed, cracks and tears VERY easily) and your higher quality(sheet vinyl, won’t crack, tear or crease) vinyls isn’t a big difference. Sheet vinyl is so much easier to work with and lay. The difference in price will be well worth the frustration of installing it. Not to mention if you buy the cheaper vinyl and it tears, your going to need to either purchase a vinyl seam bonding product or go out and buy another piece of vinyl. We highly recommend using a sheet vinyl product with a releasable pressure sensitive adhesive for best results.

Famous Paintings – The Arts, the Painters, and the Controversies

In 2005, the Today Program of Radio 4 and National Gallery summer scheme were in the search of Britain’s greatest painting. Controversy loomed around this scheme, which was seen as a great way of celebrating art. At first, it was the competition for the famous painting and later it turned out to be for Britain’s greatest painting. Artist Jack Vettriano, whose paintings adorned numerous greeting cards, was not in the top 10 list. An arts work by Rembrandt, voted for the most popular painting, was unable to find a spot in the top 10. A panel of three, including a critic, an artist, and a BBC Governor, decided the fate of these paintings in the list. The famous painters, Francis Bacon, Pablo Picasso, and Lucian Freud were not given their due artwork credit. No painter from the 21st century was included in the list. The work of David Hockney’s Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy (1970-71) was the only painting of the 20th century to be enlisted. The oldest painting in the list was Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, which dates back to 1434. Half of the paintings were of the 19th century.

The painter of “The Marx Brothers” (1980), Andy Warhol, was amidst arts controversy quite recently. Warhol became rich and famous when his painting, “Ten Portraits” was exhibited in the Jewish Museum. Warhol accumulated a lot of money through painting portraits. He would produce portraits for people who offered him more than $37,000 for a print. The crème of the celebrity society of approximately 1,600 people were willing to pay him for a portrait. In 1979, when his artworks were exhibited in the Whitney Museum of American Art, the judges accused him of exploiting the Jewish community for money.

Artist Andy Warhol’s ‘The Marx Brothers’ (1980) made a re-entry in the Jewish Museum on March 16 as ‘Warhol’s Jews: Ten Portraits Reconsidered’. Other portraits that appeared in the exhibition were the works of artists Albert Einstein, Franz Kafka, George Gershwin, Gertrude Stein, Golda Meir, Louis Brandeis, Martin Buber, the Marx Brothers, Sarah Bernhardt, and Sigmund Freud.

Another latest controversy troubling the arts is the work of Adam Cullen in Australia’s top prize for religious art. The controversial painting has the line “only women bleed,” engraved on the Cross with Christ. The line is inspired from an Alice Cooper song. One of the Blake Prize judges had quit the panel, strongly condemning this painting. Painters are relying on religious images to obtain a top position in the list. Another controversial religious image was that of Melbourne party boy, Corey Worthington as Jesus. The last thing the prize organizers wanted was any controversy after the last year’s provoking works of the statue of Virgin Mary in a burqa and a hologram of Christ resembling Osama bin Laden. The Prime Minister John Howard and the Archbishop of Sidney were aghast over the artworks.

Sometimes I wonder if artists create paintings out of an inherent need to express themselves or do they create paintings to shock and stir up controversy. Perhaps it is a little of both; the artist’s form of expression is controversial.

Crystal Chandeliers – How Clean Is Yours?

Do you have a cleaning regimen for your house? Are there a certain number of times a year you have your carpet or tile cleaned? Do you have professional cleanings for those brocade curtains? Well you need to remember to put one more item on that cleaning list, your chandeliers. Crystal chandeliers are just as prone as other pieces of furniture to collect dust, and they need proper care to keep them shining.

Just like everything else in the house, chandeliers collect dirt and dust. Think about your fireplace mantle or other piece of furniture if you left it month after month without a good dusting. It would be a mess. Well, your chandeliers need the same attention the rest of your furniture gets.

The first thing you should do is preventative dusting. As regularly as you dust other portions of your home, you should use a feather duster on the chandeliers. If you have chandeliers installed on a vaulted ceiling, you may need to get a long extension for your duster to accomplish this job. If you are doing a whole house cleaning, you may want to do this part first, so the dust that falls to the ground will be picked up when you vacuum or mop later. When dusting, take your time and make sure you dust off each of the crystal components. The better this is done in dusting, the easier the pieces will be to clean down the road.

Eventually, dusting will not be enough. Your chandeliers will need a real cleaning. The recommendation is to clean chandeliers every three to six months, but this really depends more on where the chandelier is located than the calendar month. For example, if the chandelier is in a room that gets little use, and is a decorative piece that you dust regularly, it can get away with a cleaning every six months or so. Meanwhile, if you have a chandelier over the table in the kitchen, you will likely need to clean it every two to three months as it will be collecting the grease and other food and dust particles that are more prevalent in a kitchen space.

Another consideration to make, in deciding how often to clean chandeliers, is size. If a chandelier in your home is excessively large and very difficult to get to, you may push those numbers around a little bit and call in a professional to clean them once a year.

For do-it-yourself chandelier cleanings, many people use hot soapy water. It is recommended to use a mild soap, such as a dish soap, to make sure it has no ill effects on the metal components that make up the framework of the chandeliers. Not all metals react well to the chemicals in stronger soaps.

There are two ways to go about this cleaning. If the chandelier is not too inconvenient to get to, you may want to do the cleaning job standing on a chair or ladder. Just make sure not to get too complacent about being off the ground while you are cleaning.

If you would rather not risk falling, or have a dirtier chandelier, you may also remove the crystal pieces and bring them down to a level where you are more comfortable working with them.

Make sure to go over each piece of crystal with the cleaning solution, then a clean white cotton rag. If the metal is dirty, it too can have a quick wipe down. If you have a metal that could use a good polish, this would be the time to apply it. Just make sure to keep the polish on the metal, and off of the crystal.

Double Digging Your Garden Soil – Is it Worth It?

Double digging garden soil is a practice that goes back hundreds of years. Gardeners with limited gardening space developed many ways to increase their yields of crops. Double digging the soil in a garden bed is one of those ways.

Essentially, you dig down twice the depth of a garden spade, set aside the removed soil, and loosen the soil at the bottom of the trench. You then replace the soil, removing rocks and adding soil amendments such as peat moss, compost and manure.

Sure, it sounds like a lot of work because it is a lot of work. But the increased yields you reap are phenomenal. Really. If you doubt it, double dig a small portion of your garden. Plant a selection of herbs, flowers and vegetables in that area. Plant the same crops in a nearby area that you did not double dig. Compare the yields and health of the plants. Their health, vigor and increased yield will speak for themselves.

One way to double dig your garden soil is to do it in stages. The very nature of double digging makes this easy to do. Double dig one or two trenches, take a break and then resume digging.

Here’s the instructions for double digging a garden bed:

  1. Place a wheelbarrow near the spot where you will begin digging. Mark out a trench about a foot wide the full width of your garden bed (it doesn’t have to be exact).
  2. Using your garden spade, dig out the trench to twice the depth of the spade (about 18 inches) and place the soil you remove into the wheelbarrow.
  3. Using a pitchfork or regular garden fork, loosen the soil at the bottom of the trench. Stab the ground with the pitchfork and wiggle it back and forth until the soil at the bottom of the trench is loosened.
  4. Mark off a second trench the same size as the first one. Dig down about 18 inches (just like before), but this time put the removed soil into the first trench you dug. Add peat moss, compost, and manure (if you have it) in the following ratio: 3 to 4 shovels full of garden soil, 1 shovel full of peat moss, 1 shovel full of compost and 1/2 shovel full of well-rotted manure. Stop every once in awhile and mix them together with the spade.
  5. Remove any large rocks at the same time that you’re moving the garden soil from the second trench into the already-dug first trench. If you want to be really thorough, sift out any rocks with a soil sifter fitted with a screen with 1/2 inch holes.
  6. Continue working in this manner, digging out a one foot wide trench and putting the dirt into the previously dug trench. Don’t forget to loosen the soil in the just-dug trench before replacing the soil and its amendments from the newly-dug trench right next to it.
  7. When you reach the last trench, replace its soil with the soil you dug out of the first trench and placed into the wheelbarrow.

This last point is the most important: Do not walk on soil that has been double dug. It will compact the soil and negate many of the benefits that your hard work has produced.

It is recommended that you double dig the soil in vegetable gardens every 5 years.

Relax, it’s much easier the second time around, especially if you don’t ever walk on the growing area.

Copyright Sharon Sweeny, 2009. All rights reserved. 

Is the Toro 1800 Snow Thrower the Best Electric Snow Thrower Out There?

If you live in a place where it snows frequently during the winter months, then investing in a snow thrower can make a lot of sense. Say for example you live in Chicago, how many times will you use the shovel to clear out the driveway? But before you get to the driveway you need to shovel out the steps! This article will look at whether the Toro 1800 Snow Thrower is indeed the best electric snow thrower and how it compares to others in the market.

Gas or Electric Snow Remover?

First of all it is important to decide whether you want to purchase a gas or electric snow remover. Both type have their advantage and disadvantage but the main differences are that gasoline engines are used for much larger jobs, do create more noise and cause increased pollution. But they are designed for heavy snow removal. Electric throwers are designed for home use, create less noise and are designed to be lightweight. Generally speaking if you have more than a 20 inches of snow, then electric snow throwers like the Toro 1800 will not be for you.

The Toro 1800 snow thrower is very impressive. When first used, it is simple to start up. It comes with a 2 year warranty for added peace of mind. The machine uses a patented power curve motion, curved rotor with a funnel shaped housing that allows you to clean right down to the pavement. Because it is an electric machine there is no need to lubricate, no spark plugs are required and no dreaded tune ups. It can remove up to 700 pounds of snow within a minute which is impressive.

It would be unfair to compare the Toro 1800 snow thrower to other big rig gas machines, frankly it is not designed to compete. But you will find the electric blower to match some of the heavier gas machines with it’s snow removal capabilities. This machine comes with plenty of power and high RPM’s than some gas throwers!

When comparing to other electrical snow cleaners, the Toro wins hands down. More powerful, lightweight, easy to use at a very reasonable purchase price are it’s main attractions. On the flip side it does not work well on icy or wet snow. Make sure you use it when the snow is dry and powdery.

For such a light machine it has a powerful, durable motor. Toro are renowned at manufacturing quality snow removal machinery. So whether it is the driveway or side steps you can now clear the snow without the dreaded shovel.

Scissor Lift Safety

Scissor Lift Safety is one of the most important precautions that each and every engineer must take note of. It can be considered as one of the most dangerous tools that could hurt people especially engineers if they were not careful while handling it. Therefore, as an engineer in the society, being extra careful and taking extra care of their health is really important. Now, let us take a look at all those safety considerations while dealing with Scissor, Lift.

Here’s the question. What kind of Scissor Lift can you find in the market now? Well, to answer that question, Scissor, Lift comes in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. The cost would also be different depending on the different sizes and shapes purchased. It is very important for engineers to choose the correct one which best suits their needs and requirements for the project they are working on. One most important key is the compliance of it. Complying with the standards on site where the lift is installed should always be fulfilled. The British Standard of Scissor Lift compliance is BS EN1570:1999 in full form.

After we’ve decided on the Scissor Lift that was required, now it’s the loading capacity issue. The average loading capacity of the lift can range from 450kg up to 9,500kg. So now the question is, How to avoid injuries and be safe while handling with such heavy load capacity? The answer to it is very easy and simple. First of all, the location of the lift should be assured by the individual Lift Supplier Company that it’s the correct and safe location for installation. Then of course, the compliance of the British standard should be checked on spot and all issues regarding the safety measures of the installation should be clarified too. One example would be including of burst valves while locking of the lift.

Simple and good Scissor Lift can have some obvious differences. We all know that all lifts can do work such as lifting objects but the problem now is on the reliability and dependency of it. These two factors are equally important as it will determine the whole life span of the lift. Therefore, choosing the correct lift involves a combination of quality building and professional advice from experienced people such as engineers or Lift Supplier. The user manual handling, correct height and position or even the capacity of loading should be the main considerations when choosing the right Scissor Lift for your individual requirements.

There’s not been an exact height regulation in Asia yet, but in New York, the height regulation which was taken effect since 2005 had exist. It was implemented to improve the safety of various engineering industries including various Lift industries. Instructions of the height regulation were that training should be given to all staffs that are authorized to use the machines. Through training, people get to know and understand more on the Safety measures while handling the machines and therefore, Safety intentions are increased. With the increased knowledge of Safety, operators of various machines could now select the best and appropriate Scissor Lift for the job.

Through this article, Scissor Lift Safety is introduced and educated to all. The author also hopes to bring help to those who had doubts in Scissor Lift Safety.

ADA Compliant Commercial Elevators

Commercial elevators that have the features and safety standards specified by Americans with Disability Act (ADA) are referred to as ADA compliant commercial elevators. The law is enforced by the United States Department of Justice and defines the codes and specifications for all types of commercial elevators including stair lifts. This law was created for the comfort of physically disabled people and is mandatory for all types of commercial buildings. Most elevator manufacturers have now revised their elevator specifications to meet the standards of ADA.

Standard Features Required by ADA

ADA compliant elevators need to be automatic and the elevator car should have self-leveling features. For hall call buttons certain standards are specified; all lanterns, raised and Braille characters should be provided for the convenience of blind people. Reopening and door protection devices, door and signal timing for hall calls, floor plan of elevator calls, switch control for lights, indicator to know the position of the car, door delay for car calls, provision for communication during emergency are some other standards. In addition to that elevators should be on an accessible route and follow 4.10 and the ASME A17.1 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators.

Exemptions in the ADA Standard

As per the act, elevator exemption is given for buildings having less than 3 stories, or those having less than 3000 square feet per storey. However, for such business buildings, installing low cost elevators will be a great service they can provide for their customers.

Best Companion for Your Clients

As ADA compliant commercial elevators are provided with all required features and safety measures, they are ideal for regular day to day use. These elevators are affordable for small and medium enterprises including schools, lodges, hospitals and other commercial buildings.

Established companies including Savaria Concord, ThyssenKrupp Access and Federal Elevator provide different models of ADA compliant commercial elevators. These dealers provide all assistance for quality installation and maintenance of the elevators. On analyzing the features of ADA compliant commercial elevators, it is evident that they are the best suited models for modern commercial needs.

Disposable Paper Plates – One of the World’s Greatest Inventions

In trying to discover the history of paper plates, I came across an amazing amount of information about how to use the product in a myriad of new and inventive ways. Just so you know, paper plates were first used in 1904, as a food service product. Paper plates are made from plant fibers. After these fibers, which usually come from trees, are separated and washed, the mixture is forced through screens making a liquid pulp. It is then made into thick sheets of paper called paperboard. It can either be used to make boxes or paper plates. There is even a machine called the “Intelligent Paper Plate Machine” that makes the plates various sizes. Obviously, the most conventional uses for disposable plates is in food service. They make the job of clean-up so much more efficient. They are relatively inexpensive, and most people have them as a staple in their pantry.

One of the next, most common uses for them is in crafts. There is something so enjoyable for kids to use these round discs to create anything from clocks to windsocks. Kids seem to be content just to color the fluted edges. Figuring out how to cut a perfect hole in the center without damaging the sides of the plates is an excellent challenge for children, and adults as well.

Have you ever considered using a smaller sized one as a “flash” plates instead of flash cards? If you are teacher or a parent with a child who is struggling to recall some basic addition, subtraction, or multiplication facts, put a new twist on the old standby of flashcards. Do addition facts on one side, and subtraction on the other side of a plate, to save money. Make a stack of multiplication flash plates, and see what your results are after a few weeks of practice. Some research suggests that our brains identify best with something round. I know mine does. Cookies, doughnuts, cake and the list goes on.

Anyway, here are just a few suggestions on how to use these round inventions that you may not have thought of before. Get a stack of them, and enjoy the meal and easy cleanup, or start using them in some new, inventive ways.

Gas Heating Stoves Provide Instant Heat

Zone Heating means putting the heat in your home where it is needed when it is needed, this reduces household fuel consumption, conserving energy and saves you money! Gas heating stoves are a great choice to bring Zone Heating into your home! They bring instant heat; they are clean burning, reliable and trouble free. By using a gas hearth appliance to heat only the rooms your family is using allows you to turn down the thermostat of your central furnace…decreasing your fuel bill.

The possibilities are endless when you choose gas heating stoves to add warmth and character to your living spaces. They come in many different styles and finishes from which to choose. Ultra modern with a European feel boasting contemporary lines to traditional old world charm, there is a model out there for you to match to your décor.

Gas heating stoves offer the look of real wood burning stoves without the work. No more bringing wood in from the shed and making sure it is cut to fit your stove. With a flick of a switch you have instant fire and heat radiating from your stove. These stoves also function during power outages giving you the peace of mind that your family will be warm and safe in case of an emergency. All that is needed to maintain your stove is getting it checked every year by a qualified technician.

These stoves are thermostatically controlled so the heat if completely adjustable. Set the temperature with the controls on the unit or with a wall thermostat. The heat is as steady and consistent as your furnace. Some units feature built in fans to help distribute the warmed air from the stove. One of the popular accessories for gas heating stoves is a remote control that lets you operate your stove from the comfort of your easy chair!

There are many different models of stoves on the market today, they range in price depending on features and size. Once you have determined what your specific needs are you will be able to find a wide variety of styles to choose from to fit your budget. Somethings to consider when investing in a wood stove is the size of the room or rooms you want to heat and what type of ventilation will be required for the unit. Many of the gas heating stoves today have different BTU ranges to handle the square footage you have. They also have different venting options from the traditional stove pipe to venting right out the back of the unit so you never see the pipe. It is all up to you to decide what you would like to see in your space.

Today’s gas heating stoves are efficient, beautiful to look at and add charm and style to your home. Whether you have a new home or renovating your existing home you will have no trouble placing one of these units in your home to bring you warmth and comfort.

What Are Good Cookers For Hiking?

There is a massive market when it comes to cookers for camping. Each cooker is designed for a specific purpose. You can get cookers which are able to cater for a big family, that are cheap to run but at the cost of something that is heavy and big. When you are hiking, there are a few things that you want to look for in a cooker. The first is that it needs to be compact. The average hiking backpack isn’t very big at all, and lugging a huge cooker around simply isn’t a good idea because it takes up too much space. The next thing that you need to consider is the weight. It’s recommended that you don’t ever take more than a third of your body weight when you go hiking, and having a heavy cooker will easily put you over that.

The best cookers that I have come across for camping are known as trangia cookers. They are basically a selection of pots and pans that are made of aluminum. They include a burner (usually metho spirits) which comes with a small bottle of fuel. You simply unpack it all, and with the windbreak that is provided you can easily cook your meals. These come in a range of difference sizes; ranging from ones for cooking small meals right through to 3 or 4 person cookers.

Make sure that you get something that is going to suit your needs; too small or too big will cause you to have issues. A portable Gas Cooker might also be another option, but you want to find something that is light weight and small. You can actually buy small propane gas canisters which screw onto small gas cookers, which are good too. These can also be used with trangia’s, which is handy.

Benefits of Plastic Roofing Sheets

Plastic Roofing Sheets are a perfect choice if you are looking for durable and flexible sheets that provide resistance towards weathering elements and UV radiation. These sheets are used in roofing of buildings in domestic and industrial areas, pool enclosures and sky lights. You can also get these sheets customized according to your specifications from the manufacturer.

An extruded Plastic Roofing Sheets developed from a special formula that offer resistance towards UV radiation is PolyRoof Sheet. These roofing sheets are available in various non fading colors like Frosted Green, Smoke Brown, Frosted Orange etc. These sheets come in various designs like Leaf, Bubbles, and Flowers etc, which add to the beauty of your roof. Moreover, these sheets are available in surfaces finishes such as mate (Semi and Plain) and Self-emboss.

PolyRoof Sheets are ideal for Cladding of farmhouses, bungalows, parking areas and terrace garden. These sheets are available in widths – 3 feet, 4 feet or 5 feet and the length can be customized according to the needs that generally come like – 15 meters or 25 meters.

Some of the features of these Plastic Roofing Sheets are:

· Provides good clarity allowing transmission of Natural Light

· Cost effective

· Aesthetic of the roof increased by Self-Emboss Finishing

· Stabilization from UV radiations

· Insulation from heat and sound

· Resistant towards weathering conditions (Only 0.08% absorption of moisture)

· Facilitates Easy Installation and light-weighted

· Can be easily cut with garden scissors or tooth saw

· Conventional Fixing

As it is apparent, plastic roofing materials provide a lot of advantages over the traditional roofing materials.

Advantages of Wide Plank Laminate Wood Flooring – On the Roll

No matter what phase of living situation you are in, wide plank flooring for your home is not at all bad to suit you. It provides flexible opportunities as to design, space and economic state of the person preferring to use it. Laminate wood flooring even looks better and is proven to be more durable for use both at home or even for commercial establishments.

Some well known advantages of wide plank laminate wood flooring occupy the design and installation factors. The design advantage is rooted in the general wide appearance of these plank floorings. They are free of gaps and imperfections usually found in non-laminated plank floorings. As floor covering, they make the extra boost of space in the area that they occupy. Naturally, the proportionate illusion against the furniture sitting on top of the flooring is created. It’s always a wider space, which most of the time creates breathing interior.

As to the installation plus factor, the use of plank laminate wood flooring is in keeping with the modern house building construction or renovation. The process is normally sped up because of the wide planks that consist the entire flooring during assembly. The planks consist of massive pieces to be put together, and just a few of them will already make up the entire flooring of a house. In addition, with the help of professional that come with the expertise to do the job, the process is even expedited the more.

Now that the idea is on the use of plank laminate wood flooring, consider some things important next to knowing their advantages. Check out the finish and the wood grain. These two factors can make or break your choice of the floor. Never go by word of mouth or some sales talk by an agent. Go to the showroom yourself for an actual visual of the wooden planks. It is always a pro to the merchandise for yourself and talk to the seller or agent before they get delivered to you. That way you will be saving time, effort and money, in case any mishaps or misunderstanding happens. If you are inclined to deal over the internet, be sure to make it with a company already known to you. Browse some pictures that will feature how the plank woods will look when assembled.

Lastly, consider the warranty that the flooring provides. Most sellers provide good service or replacement warranty. Be sure that you buy from one of these sellers.

Sample Vending Machine Business Plan

The preparation of a vending machine business plan is one of the most important first steps for your new venture. A business plan will be crucial in guiding your business in a successful direction. A business plan sets out what has to happen in order for you to reach your goals, outlines how you will do it and sets out alternative plans in the case that things change further down the line.

It may be necessary to have a plan written in a formal, professional style if your aim is to use it to convince bankers or investors to support your idea and you may need to seek help with this. But even if you don’t have anything to prove to anyone your vending business plan will help to confirm the viability of your idea in your own mind.

Keep a copy of your plan on your PC as well as in files or in a binder in case of emergency. Don’t forget about your business plan once you have opened your doors for business. Refer to it regularly to make sure that you are on track to meet targets and don’t be afraid to make changes to where necessary.

Every entrepreneur or business consultant will have different ideas about how a business plan should be structured. Below we offer a sample vending machine business plan which is a basic outline with sections that you may consider including.

Cover and Contents Page

Start of with a cover page with a heading to let people know what the report is about, who the author is and when it was written. This should be followed immediately by a table of contents so that readers can easily find their way around the report.

Executive Summary

Summarize the other sections of your business plan. Present some detailed information on the opportunities that you see in the market and summarize what it is that you intend to do with your business to capitalize on these opportunities. Try to entice readers into reading the whole report.


Offer the reader some background information on yourself and your reasons for starting a vending business. Provide details of any relevant experience or competitive advantages that you have.

You can also include a vending industry background showing national industry data as well as information about the local industry that you plan on entering.

Mission Statement

A mission statement is usually a phrase or a couple of short sentences that summarises what your business is all about, what it does and how well it does it. It is a good way to remember the basic goals or philosophy of your company. A good mission statement could mention something about the standard of your products and service or how you strive to be better than your competitors.

Goals and Objectives

State the goals that you wish to achieve in the short and medium terms. Goals could include placing a certain number a vending machines or reaching a certain income level per machine.

Startup Requirements

Set out a list of vending machine business startup costs and calculate the total amount of capital that will be needed for the company to get started. Report on some of the funding options that are available to the owners.

In this section of the report you can also mention some of the other things that must happen in order for the business to commence trading legally and professionally. Mention the processes and the fees involved with applying for licenses, permits and other paperwork under the laws of the region where the business will be operating.

Ownership and Management Structure

Note who the founders of the company are and note the particular ownership interest that each has in the business. For those who will be active in the management of the business it is important to outline what role they will play and their responsibilities.

Will the business be registered as a sole proprietorship, a partnership or a corporation?

Business Operations

This section of a business plan should outline the details of how you plan on running your vending business. Include information on where your business will be based, administration, any plans that you have to hire employees and how your business will run on a day to day basis.

Include details on your vending machines, maintenance, products, distributors, route planning and how you will record and manage sales data.

Try to come up with solid reasons why are choosing a certain vending machine, product line or system. Wherever possible include some supporting evidence from research that you have done.

Market Analysis

Using data from your market research you can report on the current state of your target market and identify opportunities. Here you can include demographic data as well as information that you have gathered from surveys and other investigations.

Marketing Plan

Outline a strategy for creating a brand that will meet market needs. Based on the market opportunities that you see, set out a strategy for meeting these needs in terms of locations, vending machines, the product lines that you will stock and your pricing.

Provide details on how you plan on getting new locations, arranging appointments with ‘decision makers’ and selling your services to them. Your marketing could mostly be done by approaching decision makers directly or you could rely on advertising to generate some enquiries.

Also outline your plan for marketing directly to your customers or end users. These could include promotions on the machine front or how you or your staff will build relationships with customers when you visit the premises.

You should also mention how you plan on maintaining vending accounts and customer satisfaction in the long term.

Competitive Analysis

Provide information on the competition in your target area and examine their strengths and weaknesses. Look at ways of delivering products and service that are distinctly different from what competitors are offering. Get ideas from them about what is working well and what isn’t. Look for a competitive edge.

Don’t forget to also mention indirect competitors such as convenience stores, in house cafeterias or food vans.

Financial Planning

Use a spreadsheet program to set out forecasts of cash flows in and out of your vending business over a hypothetical two year time period. If you have done your research you should be able to anticipate monthly income and expenses going forward. You will thus be able to determine future levels of profitability and a break even point.

Run a variety of different scenarios that consider a conservative growth rate, an expected growth rate and an optimistic growth rate. Things don’t always happen like you expect so it is important that you plan for a variety of scenarios.


Lastly, you should attach an appendix to the report that includes any reference letters, documents, charts, diagrams or supporting material that have been referred to in the contents of your business plan.

There are many sample vending machine business plans and templates available online for free if you look around.

Bricks & Sticks: Staircases

Staircases offer style as well as functional appeal to a home. Many home owners and buyers don’t always understand staircase options available. Knowing the parts of a staircase, configurations and basic code requirements can help you find the best staircase for your remodeling or new-construction project.

Parts of a staircase. Balusters are the vertical posts that support the handrail. Balustrade include the balusters, handrail and newel posts. The landing is a break in a set of stairs. Newel posts are a vertical support post at the end of a handrail. The riser is the vertical section of a step from one tread to the next and the rounded front edge of the riser that protrudes beyond the stair is the nosing. A tread is the horizontal part of a step and the surface you walk on. The height of the whole staircase is called the total rise. The stringer is the structural foundation that risers and treads are nailed to.

Configurations of staircases. The most common and economical configuration is the straight-run. U and L shaped work for in difficult design situations and take up more square footage because they require a landing. In extremely tight spaces a l shaped winder is used, the winder replaces the landing with triangular steps. The spiral is the last resort for a staircase in tight floor plans, home buyers are not fond of this style.

Residential building code requirements for staircases. Treads are required to be a minimum of ten inches deep, risers must be a maximum of seven and three-quarters tall. The minimum width of a staircase is thirty-six inches and if a landing is used it must be a minimum of three feet by three feet. The three foot square rule also applies to the landing space at the top and bottom of any staircase.

Enjoy more Bricks & Sticks by Mark Nash. Topics include Ceiling options, Interior Lighting and Staircases.

© Copyright 2006 Mark Nash

Crepe Paper Streamers – Awesome Ways to Decorate With Crepe Paper

Looking for ways to decorate you next party with streamers? Well you’re in luck because there are loads of different ideas and ways to decorate with paper streamers. This little article is going to show you different techniques and ways to decorate as well as elaborate on the colors and types you can choose from.

Ways to Decorate Using Streamers

Crepe paper streamers are great to add a lot of color and vibrancy to any room without spending a lot of money to do it. By simply adding a few twists and ties you will have yourself a party room that will glow. One of the most popular ways to use it is by putting two colors together and twisting the streamers before you hang them. This will add another brilliant color and give your party a three dimensional appearance which will allow you to see more than one color from every angle of the room.

Before you get started you will need to choose a central point in the room, then take your streamers and attach them to that point. You can even make the birthday chair the center of the party if you desire. Just take the ends of each streamer and connect them to random corners or random places in your room and this will automatically draw attention to that special someone on their special day.

You can hang party streamers anywhere you would like, though there are a few places that are exceptionally fun and brilliant. For example: the banister, chandelier, wall-to-wall, from the special guests chair, over the door way, around light fixtures, and from doorways. The list could go on and on because when it comes to party streamers you can’t go wrong.

Colors of Party Streamers to Choose From

Trying to decide on the colors or theme of the party? Maybe you already know the theme and colors you want to decorate with but you would like to coordinate other colors with the one’s you already have chosen. Either way you will find there is a long list of regular to unique colors to choose from when it comes to party streams. Some of these colors include blue, purple, pink, red, peach, yellow, green, metallic and more. To help widen the depiction on how many colors there are to choose from, you can also choose hot colors, bright colors, flat colors, shiny, and even foil crepe paper, the list can go on and on. So by simply buying party streamers your party is already starting to come to life.