What’s So Important About the Guitar Bridge?

As one of the most important aspects of a guitar, the bridge is a device that supports the strings on a guitar. It works by transmitting the vibration of the strings which in turn transfers the sound to the air so that you can hear when a guitar is played. Any instrument that is stringed produces their sound through energy to the strings which sets them into vibratory motion. However, the strings by themselves only produce a weak sound because they only send out a low volume as they vibrate. The strings need the ability for the sound to be transmitted to a larger surface area that then sounds the volume into the air which in turn produces louder sounds. A bridge is how this is done.

The positioning of the bridge is of the utmost importance. Typically it is placed perpendicular to the strings and larger surface. The tension of the strings pushes down on the bridge and therefore the larger surface underneath it. The surface is usually coupled to a sound chamber such as an enclosure like the body of the guitar. This works to assist in the sound amplification. The bridge can be made of wood as the top plate of the guitar or in other instruments it can be made of plastic, metal or even calfskin. Any material that vibrates with the strings can be used.

Bridges are usually made of a single piece of material that fits between the strings and the surface but in some cases the bridge can consist of multiple parts. One common bridge that can be found is one that incorporates a separate bearing surface which the strings rest on called a saddle. The saddle is usually made of a material harder than the bridge itself such as ivory, metal or bone. A classical style guitar uses a saddle that sits very loosely in the bridge and is only kept there by the tension in the strings. The saddle then has shallow grooves in it to prevent the treble strings from moving during playing.

Electric guitars in particular have two main groups of bridges. There is the tremolo and the non-tremolo, sometimes called the hardtail. The tremolo bridges have an arm sometimes called the whammy bar, which extends from below the securing point of the string. It works by acting as a lever that the player can pull or push to change up the tension in the strings which results in the changing of the pitch. The non-tremolo bridge supplies a secure point for the strings but don’t give any real control over the pitch or tension of the strings. There are a small group of tremolo bridges that have an extended tail which gives more reverb in the sound because of the string resonance found behind the bridge. Fender makes a guitar with this longtail called the Fender Jaguar.

All bridges have pros and cons, depending on who is playing it and what style they play, but in general the non-tremolo bridge provides the best tuning stability. It also gives solid contact between the body and strings making it one of the best bridges to have.

Right to Assembly

The city of New York has agreed to pay 2 million U.S. dollars to end a lawsuit filed by 53 New Yorkers who were arrested for blocking pedestrians in 2003 during a non-violent protest against the Iraq War. Also present at the time of the protest was the Republican Convention whose main agenda was trumpeting the falsified reasons behind an invasion of Iraq.

The First Amendment of the United States Constitution states that Congress shall not interfere with the right of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. That right however has been systematically undermined throughout the last 20 years. The arrest of persons protesting against the decision to invade Iraq, a decision that has as of 20 August 2008 cost the United States over 4,000 dead military personnel and over $500 billion dollars, is direct empirical evidence that the current administration holds no respect for the rights and liberties of Americans.

Only two persons were ultimately charged with a crime. In both cases the accused were found not guilty. Were the arrests merely an isolated incident of overzealous police, or an organized strike against those with the courage to speak up against our government and it’s reckless decisions by members present for the  Republican Convention? Dissenting voices have the power to motivate a populous and inspire citizens to demand change from it’s leadership.

The current administration and its power hungry, war mongering leadership has displayed its fascist tendencies throughout the last 8 years. An organized group of dissenting voices calling for accountability on the part of the government can be an especially dangerous opponent. An opponent made even more dangerous by the large amounts of mainstream media present for the Republican Convention.

It is time for the American public to rediscover their rights guaranteed to them by the constitution.  It is time for us to act as our founding fathers would expect us to when faced with a corrupt government.

“Government is not reason; it is not eloquence. It is force. And force, like fire, is a dangerous servant and a fearful master.” – George Washington

Kitchen Sink Mounting Styles and What They Are

The choice for kitchen sink mounting styles have not changed much over time but it is not something that most people have to deal with on a normal basis so most people do not really know what options are out there today. Rushing into this choice, just like any other choice in the kitchen, can lead to wasted money and possible years of living with something you do not really want.

An under-mount kitchen sink, also called bottom-mount, is called that because they are installed below the countertop surface. The installation method is also the cause of the biggest strength and weakness of this mounting style.

The biggest advantage of an under-mount sink is how easy they are to clean up the kitchen with. Because the sink is mounted under the countertop it makes cleaning as easy as just brushing the countertops off into the sink which is great for most families now-a-day because most families are always on the go.

The fact that is mounts under the countertop leads to it’s biggest drawback as well which is it is harder to install and not really recommended for the wide variety of countertop materials like a self-rimming sink. In general, installing an under-mount sink is not something a normal do-it-yourself will be able to do on his or her own. The ideal material to make the countertops out of to make best use of an under-mount kitchen sink is some sort of stone: granite, marble, or an engineered stone (granite typically being considered the best). Some of the cheaper countertop materials are not really ideally suited for this type of sink.

Under-mount sinks start a little bit higher than a self-rimming sink and are also going to be more expensive to install but they are a little bit more hassle free then the more commonly used self-rimming sink. The biggest resellers of under-mount sinks are Kohler and Blanco and they can be found in all of the common sizes of other types of sinks.

A self-rimming sink, or top-mounted, is again as it’s name implies mounted on top of the countertop. This type of sink is basically the exact opposite as the bottom-mounted sink and again leads to it’s strengths and weaknesses. The weaknesses that under-mount sinks have are the top-mounted sinks strengths and likewise it’s strengths are a top-mounted sinks biggest weakness.

The two other types of mounting styles that you can find are apron-front and tiled-in. Apron-front sink is often called a farmhouse sink and is popular in country style kitchens because of it’s rustic look and feel.

Tiled-in sinks are also called flush mounted and are built integrated with the countertop material to form a seamless transition from countertop to sink.

Guitar Lessons – Hammer-on, Pull-offs

One of the primary legato techniques all guitarists must learn is the hammer-on, pull-off. This technique is important because it allows for nuances in tone and expression, and it allows the picking hand a “break” since it does not have to pick the notes on the hammer-on or the pull-off. This results in a faster progression of notes, sometimes called licks.

The hammer-on is accomplished when you pick a note and then using another finger hammer down on the same string. The sound of the hammered note is less pronounced than the picked note. For example place your first finger on the 5th fret of the 3rd string, and the hammer down your third finger on the 7th fret of the 3rd string. Don’t use your just quickly strike the second fret position with the tip of your 3rd finger. This would be described in guitar tab as 5h7 or 5 hammer 7. Keep your first finger on the 5th fret because you are going to pull-off of the 7th fret in the next example.

The pull-off results when you release a plucked note with enough force such that the second fretted note rings. This may require a slight side way motion to create enough friction to cause the string to ring out. The sound of the pulled-off note is less pronounced since you aren’t using your pick to create it. This would be illustrated in guitar tab 7p5 or 7 pull 5.

If you combine these techniques you can create very fast note runs or licks. Imagine how this sequence of hammer-on, pull-off’s would sound when played very quickly 5h7p5h7p5. In deed the hammer-on, pull-off technique is the cornerstone for legato and most speed playing techniques.

It takes time to perfect the technique but it is worth the effort.

How To Install A Broken Tile Mosaic Floor

One of the most unique designs I have ever seen is broken tile mosaic. I decided to install this type of design on my kitchen floor.

Installing this type of floor takes time so make sure you plan ahead. It took me about 2 days to install the entire floor.

First thing you want to do is find the tile you like. I used a terra cotta colored tile. I installed this tile over my existing vinyl floor. Some people will tell you not to do that and some people say it is okay. It made to sense to me because the vinyl floor is a perfect moisture barrier and it is already in place. If you prefer to take up your existing floor that is fine.

When purchasing your adhesive, make sure the adhesive is right for the type of floor you are putting it on and the tile you are using. Read the back of the adhesive, that will give you the information you need. I used a thin set mortar for vinyl flooring and ceramic tile.

I purchased 12 inch tile, wrapped each piece in a towel and broke with a hammer. I then put the adhesive down. I only did about 3 feet at a time as the adhesive does try pretty quickly. After putting the adhesive down, lay your tile down like you would a puzzle with the flat ends towards the wall space. I put the big pieces down first, and then inlaid the little pieces.

Continue to do this until you have your pieces down the way you like it. You really can’t make a mistake here as the tile is already broken and your puzzle design is pretty much the way you want it.

After the tile is down, grout the tile. It may take more grout than a usual tile floor because of the larger spaces between the tile pieces. I used Dorian Gray for my grout color. I thought it would look nice with the terra cotta color tile.

Let the grout dry for about 30 minutes, then sponge off the excess grout. A slight haze will appear on the tile but keep sponging off until the grout is not on the tile anymore. Let harden for another 30 minutes, then take a clean towel and wipe off the haze on each piece of tile. Let the grout harden for 24 hours then seal it. I used a high gloss sealer but there are other kinds of sealer so just select the one you like.

Let the seal dry and you now have a beautiful broken tile mosaic floor.

5 Things You Need to Know Before Mulching Your Lawn

Mulching is a technique of spreading organic matter on the surface of the lawn. This matter naturally decomposes and is converted into humus through the soil organisms. The process gives the soil a dark color, along with a rich smell. The technique of mulching your lawn is generally preferred over composting. It is a great way to avoid producing organic waste and also helps in retaining water in the soil.

Maintain a Healthy Lawn

Mulching is a great way of maintaining a healthy and colorful lawn. It helps in protecting the growing plant and provides the needed ingredients for fertilizing them too. Before applying mulching, it is important to collect relative information about its motives and features. Some of these include-

· The activity of mulching protects the plants from mechanical injury only then if applied in the right quantity and manner. One should apply a layer of mulch ranging between one to three inches deep. Anything more than this and you may end up with the roots growing in mulch.

· If you want to fertilize the lawn, then grass clippings are the best source of mulching. It is easy to apply. The clippings are chopped into small bits that breakdown and provide the necessary elements like nitrogen to the plant. You can also take the help of a mulching mower.

· While setting up a new lawn, mulching your lawn is a great way of seeding. The process enables the seed in retaining moisture, along with boosting the germination as well. You can also mulch the lawn if you plan to patch the lawn and give it a fresh look.

· One of the motives of mulching is to protect the trees from fading away. For this, you need to choose the right mulch type that should be spread around the base of the trees. Such activity will help the tree in flourishing and stop it from growing under it. It would also eliminate the need to mowing and protect the roots from lawn mower nicks. Make sure the mulch is not too close to the base of trunk as it may result in decaying.

· Since plastic will not decompose therefore always avoid using plastic under the mulch layer. It extracts the moisture needed by the roots and result in drying of soil that could prove hazardous for the root’s growth.

Need to Mulch

There is a false notion regarding mulching your lawn. Some people believe that mulching may result in big, thick, harmful thatches and spoil the lawn. Contrarily, the process increases the fertilizing power and maintains a strong lawn. Since grass consists of approximately 90% water content, the clippings used for mulching disappear within one to two days. Mulching is also recommended as it is easy to adopt and saves a lot of time. It is recommended to mulch the lawn especially during summers as it removes weeds, helps in retaining moisture, protect roots, and most importantly add nitrogen to the soil.

Home Painting – Why Hire a Professional Painting Contractor

So you have decided to go get your home renovated and painting is on the agenda. You may want make it DIY project but coloring the walls of your home may not be as easy as you think. It is one home makeover project that deserves the attention of a professional painter. Murrieta, CA, provides several good contractors for this big job.

You may think hiring a professional could be a hassle but that’s not really how it has to be. It can be a good experience if you keep a few things in mind while choosing the contractor. And there are many reasons why you should hand over your home makeover project to experts.

Time, price, security, and quality are among the few reasons to hire a painter. Murrieta, CA contractors will handle the whole project in such a manner that you won’t be able to ignore the difference.

Here are a few reasons why you need to hire a contractor:

Equipment hassle

If you think you can take the task in your own hands to save the money, think about the all the equipment needed to handle the complete task. Do you have a power paint sprayer, power washer, a paint mixer, rollers, masking materials, brushes and caulking guns? Would you like to invest thousands of dollars just for one time painting project? A contractor already has all these tools and many more that give quality work.


You are certainly going to take much more time and energy to complete the task compared to an expert. Do you have so much time at your disposal? And what if you have a large house?


Another important thing to consider is safety. While painting you will require climbing tall ladders, scaffolds and working far off the ground which can be pretty dangerous. Would you want to take so much risk for a one time project? Is it worth it? Why not assign the task to a trained person?


Finally quality is the name of the game. You will not like a job without a good finishing. You will miss that professional touch. Quality also means it has to be durable to be able to bear harsh weather. What has taken years for professional painters to learn cannot be accomplished by you in a single day.

So the best thing to do is to select a good painter. Murrieta, CA offers professional painting contractors who will save your time, energy and money and of course you would be saved of unnecessary risk. Go get a good painting contractor today to give your house that lovely finished look. After all you invest only once in a while in such a renovation project.

What Makes A Chandelier Expensive?

Chandeliers are one of the best ornate fixtures that people can invest their money in, especially in making their homes, or offices, more aesthetically pleasing and extravagant.

Chandeliers have a natural ability of adding a feeling of elegance and warmth to any room that it is placed in, and it also serves as an essential ingredient in creating a particular ambiance in its environment while acting as a functional interior lighting in any home. Unfortunately, not everyone can enjoy these aesthetically pleasing lighting fixtures as most of these furnishings are not that cheap, in fact, they are quite expensive depending on the type and kind of chandelier that you may be purchasing.

Chandeliers can come in a variety of shapes, colors, sizes, and designs, which can be made of a number of different materials in its construction. All of these factors can determine the cost of any chandelier, which is why some chandeliers are considered to be more expensive than others. It is important to keep in mind that chandeliers are often related to the lavish and the extravagant, which is probably why most households that do have chandeliers in a part or some parts of their home are those that can afford it. Although there are cheap chandeliers as well, you still do not normally see chandeliers in poor households, or those which are not that well off financially.

Construction materials

One of the things that factors in a chandelier’s expensive cost is primarily the materials that is used in creating it. There are certain chandeliers that use crystals, such as the Swarovski crystals, as part of its materials. These crystals are used in making the chandelier appear more elegant and extravagant by adding it in the design of the entire chandelier. Crystals aren’t exactly cheap stuff, and considering that chandeliers use not just one, but a myriad of different types of crystals in constructing just one chandelier should give you an idea of just how expensive these lighting fixtures really are. Also, the materials used for the frame of the chandelier as well are taken into consideration, which is why two similar-looking chandeliers can vary in prices depending on the materials used in constructing them.


The size of the chandelier also plays a factor in its price, which is actually directly proportional to the amount of materials used in its construction, making larger chandeliers more expensive than smaller ones. However, those larger chandeliers that are made of cheap construction materials will not cost more than a smaller one that is made up of the finest construction materials around.

Design or pattern

The design or pattern on the chandelier itself can also be a factor in increasing the value of the chandelier, especially if the design pattern is very intricate and very elaborate. There are some chandeliers that do not have that much design but are more expensive than those that do, which could mean that certain factors may weigh more in the other chandelier as compared to the cheaper one, making the prior more expensive than the other.

No single factor dictates the price of a chandelier, which is why all of these different factors help influence the cost of chandeliers, but naturally, chandeliers are not cheap to begin with, so do not expect to be able to buy a brand new chandelier for a very cheap price, especially if all of the following factors are present.

Pre Planting Bulbs in Pots

It is possible to lift spring flowering bulbs in summer, after flowering is over, and replace them with other seasonal bulbs or bedding? Simply dig them up with a spade, take care not to slice them in half, and move them elsewhere while their life cycle is completed.

Alternatively, plant them in a perforated plastic pot that can be buried in the border. This makes lifting much easier and allows the bulbs to complete their growth cycle without any root disturbance.

Special wide bulb savers can be used, which control the planting area and make lifting straight forward. Simply dig a hole that is wide enough to bury the bulb saver in the ground, at the required depth, using a layer of gravel if necessary to make a level base.

Position the bulbs and fill in with soil. If bulbs are not required for the following year, lift after flowering. If they are required, allow them to complete their life cycle and only then lift and store.

Pre-planting in pots is also a useful technique for dealing with summer flowering bulbs that cannot survive frosty, damp conditions and are best planted in the garden only after all risk of frost has passed.

Bulbs planted in containers the previous autumn, such as dubium, or earlier spring, such as freesias, can be transferred to the garden in early summer when they are already well into growth.

Similarly, they can be lifted in autumn before the onset of wintry weather. Purple sensation and Lilium regale grow side by side and in both cases the seed heads can be left intact to encourage self seeding, but also to be enjoyed in their own right.

Top 3 Lawn Tractor Attachments

A lawn tractor is more than just a riding mower. It’s a small tractor that can help you get an enormous number of jobs done – quickly and easily. There are attachments of all kinds for every brand of lawn tractor, and they can make snow removal, gardening, landscaping and more a whole lot easier. But which ones are right for you, your home, and your tractor? Here’s a look at the three big categories of lawn tractor attachments and what they can do for you.

Spring And Summer Attachments

Attachments for use in the spring and the summer are generally garden and landscaping oriented. Utility carts make transporting soil and other objects much easier. The best models have a sloped design and molded ribs that make loading and unloading much simpler – even with a shovel, and feature wide tires to reduce resistance. Just don’t overload them!

Add a tiller to your lawn tractor to get your garden soil turned over and ready to plant, too. It is remarkable how easily a simple lawn tractor can convert to an effective garden tiller. Cultivators, harrow disks and plows are also available – some of them even in commercial grades. Blades and shovels for landscaping are also available.

Fall Attachments

Leaves, brush, and other debris need cleaned up in the late summer and autumn, and a garden tractor can help you. A tractor shovel can turn your lawn tractor into a miniature construction tool, helping you move materials and clean up yard debris. Check out lawn sweepers, too – they can help you pick up leaves and other smaller lawn debris quickly and easily. Don’t forget to add a brush guard for end of the summer field cleanups. Baggers and spreaders can make your late summer and fall mowing much easier, as well.

Winter Attachments

Snow blades and plows can help you keep your driveway and roads snow and ice free with just your lawn tractor. To clear a long driveway, you would once have needed a full size tractor. Now, a simple lawn tractor can help you, instead. Remember that not all lawn tractors have enough power for really deep drifts, but don’t pass up the opportunity to improve your driving with a simple attachment. You can also choose a rotary broom or snow blower instead of a snow blade.

These aren’t the only garden tractor attachments out there, of course. They’re just a small sampling of the options. Not every attachment will be available for every lawn tractor, and not everyone will be right for your property. However, the right attachments can let you get a lot more use out of just a single tractor. That’s a worthwhile investment! Take the time to find out what attachments are available for the make and model of tractor you own, and start working more efficiently. You’ll be amazed at the difference it can make.

Face Lift Tape Realities – What You Should Know Before Using Face Lift Tape

Face lift tape is the oldest alternative to facelift surgery and has been used by models, actors, and actresses for decades. It can take years off of a person’s face in seconds and inexpensively, which is one of the reasons it has been so widely used in the entertainment industry.

But is face lift tape a good option for at-home use? On the surface it definitely seems like a good idea. It’s easily applicable and totally reversible. Women can put it on every morning without spending a lot of money, and then take it off before they go to sleep. The reasons behind the recent surges in face lift tape products on the market are obvious. But unfortunately, this is one alternative to face lift surgery that isn’t very realistic for most people.

The first problem is how to hide it. Think about it: You’ve got two pieces of tape on either side of your head right by your ears. Attached to that tape is an elastic string running behind your head, pulling your skin tight.

Since face lift tape originated in the performing world, stage makeup and wigs could easily hide the adhesives. But in real life, it’s not so practical. Most women don’t wear wigs, and aren’t interested in being limited to a hairstyle that will keep the tape covered. And in order to cover the tape successfully with makeup, you’d have to apply so much that it just wouldn’t look right to the people you come into contact with everyday.

The second problem is that it’s uncomfortable. Sure, you can get used to anything. But having your skin stretched all day its a bit too much for most people to want to do on an everyday basis. Plus, the tape itself can be itchy and uncomfortable.

While at first glance, face lift tape seems like the perfect alternative to facelift surgery, it’s something that is really just best for the place it was conceived– the entertainment world.

Elevator Doors – An Open Door For Closed Safety

Ever wondered why there are two layers of elevator doors?

The layers of the entrance to an elevator consist of the inner sliding doors of the lift itself, where passengers ride, and the outer layer which is attached to the floor you are in and serves as a cover for the elevator hollow tracks. So as to avoid people falling into that space and possibly get injured, elevator doors serve as a safety measure.

The door’s purpose is not solely linked to the safety of the people in the building but it is also concerned with aesthetics as well. These sliding doors may come in different designs which improves the design of the interior of the building. Some may pick the plain doors as their choice, but some may choose to provide the structure with intricately detailed doors to beautify the elevator hall where most people wait for a ride. There are a lot of designs to choose from that are out in the market, make sure to check them all out.

While elevator doors serve as a safety precaution from people falling into the elevator’s hollow and wired space, it can also cause accidents if the wiring control and mechanism of the doors are faulty. There had been many incidents about people getting stuck between these doors. For a more efficient use of elevator doors for the building, consult experts or some people who are knowledgeable of this business. To lessen the hassle of these anomalies, make sure to get the right suppliers in the first place. Knowing the right suppliers will help boost the efficiency of the work process inside the building.

Get yourself the right supplier, get the best deal out of these elevator doors and open more doors for success.

Plate Hangers – Adhesive Versus Wire

Do you have some rarely used plates lying around your house? Whether its antique china handed down from your grandparents, a decorative tray you picked up at a flea market or just too many dishes to use, now you have something to do with them. Hang them on a wall. Hanging plates provides a thrifty yet beautiful way to cover bare walls. You can hang plates with racks, holders, or frames, but most people use wire or adhesive plate hangers. Here we discuss and compare them.

Wire plate hangers, the most common type, fasten to plates with springs and four hooks. Springs firmly hold the hooks to the dish. Some have decorative hooks that add character to dull plates. Use a standard picture hook to attach a wire hanger to the wall. Spring loaded wire hangers come in a variety of sizes. They support 3-30 inch plates or trays and hold up to 6 pounds. Manufacturers make them in many materials and colors, including brass and white. You can easily remove and reattach them, in case you want to use them for entertaining. They are fast and easy to install. Many local hardware, variety, and online stores sell them. Small wire hangers start at $1.25, while large ones cost up to $12.00.

Unlike adhesive plate hangers, wire hangers sometimes chip or scratch the back or rim of china. To avoid damage, the hooks often have clear plastic covers. Wire hooks often distract from the items you want to put on the wall. Many times, they prevent your displays from laying flat against the wall. Springs sometimes hide writing on the back of collectible items. Earthquakes can loosen the hanger so the object falls or chips. Odd shaped decor and knick-knacks do not work with most wire hangers.

Adhesive plate hangers, also called disc or invisible plate hangers, have either a glue or sticky back. You can stick them to dishes, trays, chargers, and three-dimensional objects, such as spoons, canes, or trivets. In general, sticky back hangers hold less weight and do not remove easily. They cost less than the glue hangers cost, but do not bond as well to heavy objects. Stick with the glue adhesives (no pun intended). Only use the sticky back hangers for small and inexpensive items.

Disc hangers work by wetting the glue, and attaching the wet hangers to the plates. Let them dry overnight, and pull them firmly the next morning. This ensures a good bond between the plate and hanger. Affix it to the wall with a picture hook. The discs are easy to install and you should not see them when you hang your item. Unlike the wire, they do not distract from the decor. These adhesive hangers allow your display to lay flat against the wall. They do not chip plates and work great in areas affected by earthquakes. You can easily remove them with warm water. Stores sell them in a few sizes from 1.25-5.5 inches, and they fit decor of most any size and shape. Combine two or more for larger items or platters. You can exhibit heavy tiles, crafts, wood and trays on the wall by stringing picture-wire between two or more hangers. When combined, they can hold over 20 pounds. String wire between two small hangers on each side of a plate so you can view all print on the back. Dishes hung with these hangers have remained up for over 30 years. Small adhesive plate hangers start at $1.50, while large ones cost up to $7.00.

Unlike wire plate hangers, you cannot easily find these disc plate hangers at local stores. They take longer to install than wire hangers. If you install them incorrectly, what you hang can fall and break. Objects made with plastic, melamine, or vegetable oils (such as oils in some wood), will not stick to them. Unfired dishes with painted backs will not bind to them, but they work on all painted fired substances. Do not use them if you plan to place them in very moist area, such as bathrooms with a shower. If you plan to entertain with the items you display, do not to get the hanger wet or hot.

Overview of Different Designs of Wood Burning Stoves

Wood burning stoves have come a long way since they were first introduced in the 18th Century. Nowadays, as well as being able to select from countless designs, you can choose from the different output and functional options that are available.


Wood burning stoves broadly consist of three main types, which are:

Box wood stoves – These are based on the original design of wood burning stoves, which were rectangular or square shaped with the fire situated inside the metal box. These stoves are cheap when compared to other types of wood burners, but because they are not airtight, they are less efficient.

Air tight wood burning stoves – With an airtight wood burning stove, the unit is completely sealed, which makes it more efficient. The air flow to the stove can be controlled either manually or automatically so that the amount of fuel used and the heat provided can be adjusted accordingly. This also means that an even temperature can be maintained if required.

They are constructed from metal and have a combustion chamber fitted with vents that can be opened or shut. They also have a flue, which can be designed so that it is angled, enabling the smoke to escape through a side wall.

Pellet wood burning stoves – These wood burning stoves use wood pellets, which are kept in a storage area next to the stove. They are very efficient and also kind to the environment. This is because wood pellets only give off a small amount of ash during the combustion process. However, their environmental efficiency can be influenced by the quality of the pellets used, which will also affect overall performance.

Although this type of wood burning stove is associated with wood pellets, many of them will also burn alternative fuels such as wood chips, grain, corn, or waste paper condensed to form pellets. With some stoves it is essential that the alternative fuels are combined with wood pellets when placed inside the stove.

Pellet wood burners have the advantage of being thermostatically controlled. They can be programmed and easily switched on and off. Furthermore, they do not have to be loaded very often with pellets, with some lasting as long as three days before reloading is required.


There are many designs to choose from, but most are based on three main shapes. These are: a box shape, a cylinder or a pot belly stove. The first wood burners were box shaped, but other patterns later emerged. Cylinder shaped wood burning stoves can look particularly stylish and many contain a curved window giving a view of the flickering flames.

Pot belly stoves are round, but as the name suggests, they have a bulge in the centre, which resembles the pot belly of an overweight man. In the past they were used to heat large areas, such as school rooms, and have a flat top where pans or kettles could be placed to heat food or water.


There is currently a large range of outputs available to suit different room sizes. To get an approximate idea of the output in kilowatts that you will require from your wood burning stove, firstly measure the room where it will be situated, in metres. Then multiply the height of the room by the width followed by the depth. Take that figure and divide it by 14. The figure that you end up with is roughly the kilowatts that you require. This is based on a required temperature of 20 degrees Fahrenheit and assumes that the outdoor temperature is 0 degrees. Requirements will also depend on whether the room is open plan and how many doors and windows it has.

Catalytic or Non-catalytic

Catalytic Stoves – These wood burning stoves have catalytic converters, which burn waste fumes. This reduces the fire hazard experienced with earlier wood burners when creosote would form inside the stove pipe. This would then burn at a certain temperature and give off dangerously high levels of heat. A catalytic converter is placed in the pathway of the smoke and it becomes effective once it reaches a specific temperature.

However, there are some disadvantages with catalytic converters. They sometimes have to be adjusted and they also need to be maintained. Most catalytic converters last between two and five years before they have to be replaced.

Non-catalytic Stoves – Modern designs of non-catalytic stoves also burn waste fumes but they achieve this in a different way by using secondary combustion together with a longer smoke path. This method is built into the design of the stove rather than through the addition of a separate catalytic converter. These designs were developed over a long period of time and the result is that they are effective and simple to use.

Apart from the above considerations, wood burning stoves are now sold in a wide range of adapted shapes, sizes, colours and styles and they can be either freestanding or fitted into a wall. With so many sophisticated and elegant designs currently on the market it is easy to find a wood burning stove to suit any room and any type of d├ęcor.

Cuckoo Rice Cookers Review

Founded in South Korea in 1978, Cuckoo Electronics has since been changed to Cuckoo Co. Ltd. in 2002. Cuckoo is a major export brand name of small home appliances, specifically the Korean-style rice cookers. What makes Korean-style cookers more special is its ability to glutinize rice starches which would result to more nutritious and better cooked rice.

Cuckoo is the top-selling brand of rice machines in Korea and one of the largest global distributors of cookers in the USA. Cuckoo also manufactures hot water pots, room air conditioning units, ari filtration devices, room humidifiers, vacuums, electric grills, and dish sanitizers.

What makes Cuckoo cookers special is its ability to give you perfect textured rice. Cuckoo has a variety of models to choose from. They are also available in many colors that would guarantee to make your kitchen more lively.

Take for example the Cuckoo CRP-G1015F. Don’t let its pink exterior fool you. This strong and durable rice cooker with induction heating system makes rice stickier and shinier than your ordinary rice cooker. It also has non-stick coated cooking bowl for easy cleaning. It features different settings on how you wanted your rice cooked: white rice or brown or grain mixed rice. It can also cook cake, steamed stew or meat, sushi and kimbap.

Most Cuckoo machines can cook for up to 10 people, so you can guarantee that everyone gets to be served with the hot steaming rice. Its durable and strong construction makes it last longer than your average cooker.

Cuckoo rice makers allow cooking in style. Not only that, you get to save more time in preparing by using Cuckoo. Modern rice makers make lengthy and messy procedures in cooking rice a thing of the past. With Cuckoo machines, a nice cup of steaming and fresh rice will be yours in just a few press of the button.