Playing Guitar and the Pickup Selector Switch

How many times do you change clothes in the course of a day? Two? Three? Four? I tried this on myself recently. Upon waking up, I slip on my robe and flannel sleep pants – that’s one. After a morning shower I put on whatever clothes will be appropriate for the day, whether it’s going out for meetings or staying in front of the computer all day – that’s two. As the day winds down I may shift into “yard work” mode, or go for a walk or do some form of exercise, requiring another change – that’s three.

Then before dinner, another quick change into something comfortable for the evening, usually involving sweat pants and a pull over – that’s four. Throw in a night out for dinner and you get one more change – that’s five! Changing clothes five times in the course of one day may, on the surface, seem a bit excessive – but the truth is, each set of attire serves a specific and distinct purpose. You wouldn’t wear your robe and flannels to a business meeting; and your business meeting outfit might not be the top choice for lounging around the house in the evening.

An electric guitar is much the same. It has the ability to “change clothes” by use of a selector switch. And like the above example, each change – or setting – can serve a specific and distinct tonal purpose.

In order to understand the tonal choices available with a pickup selector switch on an electric guitar, it is first necessary to understand how the switch works and why.

The pickup selector switch is connected to the guitar pickups, and gives the guitar player the ability to choose various combinations of pickups at any given time. Each combination of pickups produces a different tone that the guitarist may want to use for the particular song they are playing.

Although there are many numerous types of selector pickup selector switches on a wide variety of electric guitars, a good understanding of the subject can be gained by taking a closer look at two of the most common guitar models on the market. These are the Gibson Les Paul and the Fender Stratocaster. Each of these two legendary guitar models has its own legion of loyal supporters who espouse the merits of one over the other Many guitarists see the tonal importance of each and insist on having both available for any situation. . In addition, there are countless guitar manufacturers that produce guitars that emulate one or another of these two famous models.

The differences between the Strat and the Les Paul are many, and literally the topic for another discussion, so let’s just take a look at the differences in pickup selector switches between the two.

The standard “Les Paul” type guitar typically is built with a two “humbucker” pickups configuration. In this setup there is a “neck” pickup, and a “bridge” pickup. A neck pickup is, as the name implies, the pickup that is located closest to the neck or fret board of the guitar. The neck pickup produces a “darker” of “full bodied” tone. The bridge pickup is, also as the name implies, the pickup that is located closest to the bridge of the guitar, and produces a “brighter” or “thinner” tone. The selector switch on a Les Paul style guitar is normally a three position or “three way” switch. The three combinations of pickup selections available with the three way switch are as follows:

Position 1 – Activates only the neck pickup

Position 2 – Activates only the bridge pickup

Position 3 – This middle switch position activates a combination of the two pickups

The standard “Strat” style guitar is typically built with a three “single coil” pickups configuration.

In this setup there is also a neck pickup and a bridge pickup, but there is also a middle pickup as well.

The selector switch on a Strat style guitar is normally a five position or “five way” switch. The combinations of pickup selections available with the five way switch are as follows:

Position 1 – The switch in the most downward position activates the bridge pickup only

Position 2 – The next position activates a combination of the bridge and middle pickups

Position 3 – This middle position activates only the middle pickup by itself

Position 4 – This position activates a combination of the neck and middle pickups

Position 5 – This position activates the neck pickup only

A neat trick on the Strat style pickup selector switch is to place the switch in the “in between” position. It’s a little tricky to find, but by wedging the switch “in between” either positions 1 and 2, or positions 4 and 5 – you can get an additional couple of “out of phase” tones. This is a technique made famous by Jimi Hendrix and, in essence, turns a five way switch into a seven way selector!

Whether playing a Les Paul style, Strat style, or one of the many other numerous models on the market – the pickup selector switch gives the guitarist the ability to, tonally, “change clothes” on the fly. Which selector position should you use? It depends. It’s really a matter of personal interpretation. Different songs call for different tones, and many times you will use different combinations of pickups within the same song. The key is to play around with all of the tones you have available and find whatever works best for you.

Some players get caught in a rut and get comfortable keeping the pickup selector in the same position all the time. Don’t let that be you. Always keep in mind the tonal “change of clothes” you have available to you at the flip of a switch, and keep your playing fresh and interesting by “slipping into something more comfortable”, or getting “all dressed up”, whenever the mood strikes!

Why Sinusitis Affects Your Vision

Sinusitis and vision problems can be very much related to one another. Many people often find their vision is impeded every time their sinus flares up. Watery eyes, blurred vision, and frequent dull eye pain are all associated with sinusitis. Bacterial sinusitis accounts for more than 15% of all sinus infections and sinusitis vision problems. Depending on the sinus that is infected, multiple symptoms may occur. The main reason why people experience blurred vision is that all the four sinus regions are located close to the eye. The maxillary sinus is located in the cheek, the ethmoid sinus between the eyes and nose, the sphenoid sinus behind the ethmoid sinus, and the frontal sinus is located in the forehead above the eyes.

A sinus infection may occur in any or all of the sinus regions. Vision is most likely to be impaired when the infection is in the ethmoid or sphenoid sinus regions. Blurred, and in some cases, double vision are common in these cases. However, the symptoms do not last for very long. In rare cases of ethmoid sinusitis, the pressure exerted on the optic nerve causes a patient to lose eye movement. In other cases, an abscess forms around the eyes due to prolong sinus infection, leading to permanent eye damage without timely medical intervention.

In young males with sinusitis, vision is affected due to the inflammation of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses, in a condition known as osteomyelitis. The inflammation may spread to the inner eye socket and occurs mainly in the frontal sinus region above the eyes. However, this is a rare phenomenon. Common symptoms of osteomyelitis include watering of the eyes, squinting, and severe pain. In a bacterial infection that causes ethmoid sinusitis vision can also be impaired and is accompanied by severe pain in the midline of the face. In chronic cases an orbital infection may occur, which spreads to the cavernous venous sinuses next to the pituitary glands causing an abscess or meningitis. Blood clots may also occur in those suffering from ethmoid and frontal sinus infections. The most common symptom is dilation of the pupils. The blood clot travels to the venous structures around the eye thereby causing impaired vision. However, these symptoms are rare and occur only in chronic cases.

With infections caused by sinusitis, vision is affected mainly due to the drainage of mucus being blocked. The nasolacrimal duct that is right next to the entries sinus areas get blocked due to the inflamed sinus leading to excessive water and moisture in the eyes and subsequent sinusitis vision problems.

The nasal saline irrigation technique with the use of a Neti pot is among the best ways to treat sinusitis vision problems. This therapy involves the use of a salt and water solution to flush out the nasal cavity. The Neti pot is a ceramic pot that has been in use in ayurvedic and yoga as a form of natural medication. Several ear, nose, and throat surgeons recommend nasal irrigation to clear the nasal passage. This helps to thin the mucus and flush it out of the nasal passages. The cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures that line the nasal and sinus cavities wave back and forth, pushing the mucus back into the throat or to the nose so that it can be blown out.

It is advisable to seek the help of a medical professional in case of any sinusitis vision problems.

What Is the Difference Between a Duck and Decorated Shed?

A building can be designed with either function or style as its primary purpose; this led to three architects writing a book Learning from Las Vegas which studied the design of the casinos in Las Vegas. Robert Venturi, a leading architect, coined the term to describe a building as either a ‘duck’ or ‘decorated shed’ depending on its purpose. The study of the buildings and architecture on Las Vegas’ main strip saw how the buildings main priorities were not to function efficiently, but for their styles to awe. Function for a ‘duck’ building is a by-product of the styling whereas for a ‘decorated shed’ it is the purpose of its creation.

The term ‘duck’ was heavily influenced by the ‘Long Island Duckling’, a building which was built by a duck farmer and used as a shop to sell all his duck produce. The Big Duck was built in the 1930’s and sacrifices interior space for the exterior fa├žade of a Pekin duck. This is the building which Robert Venturi used as his alternative to a ‘decorated shed’ when he was studying the architecture of his time. Novelty architecture was extremely common throughout the 60’s and 70’s in America with some buildings taking on the form of the products which were sold. The Long Island Duckling was the beginning of such architecture and inspired iconic architecture such as giant doughnuts on top of doughnut stands, orange shaped juice stalls and even a hot dog diner.

Robert Venturi and two other architects Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour who wrote the book which first brought the concept to light, see a building as a place to fulfil its purpose. At the time the book was written, Las Vegas was beginning to move away from the burger or chicken style restaurant and into fully fledged buildings or resorts mimicking cities and landmarks. They created the term ‘decorated shed’ to describe a building which primarily is designed and built to maximise efficiency and functionality.

The book did not say whether a duck or decorated shed was better, but that they were different. Built with entirely separate points of focus, a duck would concentrate solely on how the building was presented to you. If a building had a grand, creative or extravagant exterior which made you appreciate the detail and craftsmanship then it has achieved its purpose. A decorated shed however, would treat the interior space and how effective the building was as its priority, with the exterior embellished after the inside is designed to maximise productivity.

In these modern times, it is more likely that a decorated shed is built, as environmental requirements; price and space are all sought-after advantages of building. Getting the mix between functionality, practicality and exterior design right, is the job of modern day architects who can follow Venturi’s theory. A building where the style and function are joined together, such as the Long Island Duckling, are seldom seen in recent times as there is no real need for them. Due to technology and modern techniques, it is possible to start a building with the intention of creating a decorated shed and finishing with a duck as contemporary architecture now has limitless possibilities.

Weller Soldering Station

The soldering station is a great tool for those who love do-it-yourself activities or for those who need to repair something. This tool is a great partner even for housewives who need to keep the house fixed and for students who need to get their projects done. The station consists of a soldering iron, holder, sponge and a power unit.

The Weller soldering kit is the most recommended product. The Weller brand was started by Karl Weller, a radio repairer, back in 1945. In his desire to make his job easier, we produced the first soldering station. As of now, Weller brand is under the ownership of Cooper Industries. Many reviews and recommendations will point you to the Weller brand for a great product.

The soldering station kit is the better, if not the best, replacement for an individual soldering iron or gun. This tool can give you better performance without spending big amount of cash because this comes in affordable and reasonable price.

This tool should be heavy enough to be stable or hard to be moved when laid down on a surface, but light enough to be portable. Portability should be one of the major considerations you should take when buying a soldering station. If you are a daddy who needs to fix the house, a housewife who needs to maintain order inside the house, DIY lover or a hobbyist, or a student, you would always want to save on time and effort and portable stuffs can give you that, especially on soldering kit. This tool is also great for industrial purposes or manufacturing.

Making Stained Glass Equipment

As with all things, there is essential equipment and then there is would be nice to have equipment.

Essential Equipment

Glass Cutter

Cutting glass is not difficult, but you do need a good glass cutter. There are various glass cutters to choose from. My personal favorite glass cutter is the pistol cutter. It is important to choose a cutter that works well for you, as this is a stained glass tool you will use constantly.

There are basically two types of cutters, one with steel wheels and those with tungsten carbide wheels.

Cutters with steel wheels tend to be less expensive but, usually don’t last very long. The steel wheel becomes dull after repetitive use and must be replaced. Steel wheels are good for general purpose or softer glass. The size of the wheel and angle of the bevel on the wheel will determine how hard of a glass it can score.

Tungsten carbide wheels are more expensive than steel wheels. There durability tends to out weigh the cost difference. Many are self-lubricating which can save time.

Glass Grinders

Grinders are used to smooth out cuts and insure exact fitting, as well as to lessen the chance of cutting yourself. The alternative to a grinder is a diamond file. This is less expensive, but the time and effort needed far out weights buying a grinder.

When choosing a grinder consider the size of the work surface, the power of the grinder and the accessories included such as bits, face shield and foot switch.. Additional considerations should be the warranty and price

Soldering Iron

There are a wide variety of different manufactures, types and sizes of soldering irons. Most soldering irons range from 60 to 150 watts with tip sizes ranging from 1/8 inch to 3/8 inch. When choosing your iron check out how long it takes to heat up, how long it holds the correct temperature, does it have a temperature controller and are the tips removable.

Probably, the most important thing to consider when doing stained glass soldering, is to choose an iron that feels comfortable in your hand. If the iron is not comfortable, then this will more than likely show up in your solder lines.

Yes, price it a factor, but remember, a good quality soldering iron will last for years and give professional results.

Soldering Iron Stand

After choosing your soldering iron, you will need to purchase a soldering stand. The stand can be simple or elaborate. The simple ones hold your iron and sponge, whereas, the more expensive ones will have a built-in temperature controller, iron stand, sponge, power cord, a solder roll holder, flux bottle well, brush and a catch-all tray. Needless to say, the more elaborate ones will cost more.

Temperature Controller

If your iron does not include a built-in temperature controller, then you will definitely need a separate controller. Using a temperature controller will maintain a constant temperature for your soldering iron.

Breaking Pliers and Grozer Pliers

These two hand tools are used for breaking glass. Breaking pliers are used after you score a line and want to break the glass. Grozer pliers are used for breaking away small areas of glass.

Semi-Optional Equipment

Foiler Burnisher

A foiler burnisher is used with Tiffany construction (copper foil). This tool will allow you to securely press and adhere the copper foil to the glass. A burnisher is an inexpensive tool though you could use a tongue depressor.

Table Foiler

A table foiler automatically peels off the paper backing, centers it to the edges of the glass and partially crimps it. Using a table foiler will also eliminate copper foil from unwinding and becoming tangled.

Came Saw

Came saws are used to cut metal came in either zinc, brass or copper. Came saws range from a manual model to a power mitre chop saw.

A manual came saw consist of a precision saw and a mitre vise. This is the least expensive of all came saws, but will require more time and effort. Electric power came saws range from 90 to 250 watt units. Blade sizes vary from 2 inches to 5 ¾ inches.

All came saws adjust from 0 to 45 degrees allowing for proper mitres.

The more powerful the came saw, the easier it will cut, not to mention durability.

Cork-Backed Stainless Steel Ruler

This is a steel ruler that is backed in cork. This is nice when drawing or cutting lines on glass. The cork backing eliminates the ruler from slipping.

Soft Bristle Scrub Brush

The soft bristle scrub brush is great for polishing your stained glass. With its soft bristles, it is able to get into the tiniest crevices.

A Fid

This inexpensive tool is used to widen came. This becomes very important when using heavily textured glass.

Optional Stained Glass Tools

Glass Saw

A glass saw is a nice addition to a stained glass workshop. With a glass saw you can make intricate cuts that otherwise would not be possible.

Glass saws can be a ring saw, band saw or wire saw. A ring saw has a circular diamond coated blade that allows you to cut in all directions. The band saw has a linear diamond coated blade and can cut glass up to ¾ of an inch thick. The wire saw has the thinnest blade giving you more flexibility for cutting intricate shapes and narrow cut lines.

All three types of saws come with various built-in features. It is up to you as to which one to choose. It needs to meet your own personal needs.

Came Bender

The came bender will perform precision curves on zinc, brass and copper came. This means greater design freedom when rigid came is used. With the came bender you can make circular and oval panels.

Copper Foil Sheers

These are specially designed sheers that will cut paper pattern pieces leaving the correct spacing needed for copper foil or lead.

Layout Blocks

These are used to hold cut pieces of glass together until you are ready to solder.

Glass Cutting Systems

There is a variety of glass cutting systems available. These systems will allow you to make repetitive and geometric shapes. Some of the more popular systems include Morton Portable Glass Shop, Circle and Strip Cutters, and Jitter Bug.

Light Box

The light box is nice for drawing patterns and viewing glass combinations.

Glass Drills

Glass drills are use to drill holes in glass.

What Is The Difference Between Intel Socket 1155 i3 and i5 Processors?

Intel separates the gap between i3 and i5 processors that makes it easier for us to identify between the dual core and the quad core. The main difference between them is that all i3 processors came in a dual core and i5 has quad core.

Another big difference between them is that i3 has the hyper threading and the i5 don’t. In contrary, the i5 processors do have a turbo boost and the i3 don’t have it.

What the Turbo Boost Does?

The turbo boost in i5 and i7 processors has the ability to gain more speed in your processors frequency when activated. You can add an extra 300MHz to 400MHz for i5 and i7 that can push you further. To give you an example on this, an intel i5 2300 2.8 GHz can be boost up to 3.1 GHz and an i7 2600 3.4 GHz can be boosted up to 3.8 GHz. This is the main advantage of the i5 over the i3.

What is Hyper Threading?

Hyper Threading is an intel technology that is capable of logic core duplication. This allows each physical core to be used as two logic cores. The result for this is that Windows OS will identify them as two giving your dual core i3 a quad core. The i5 don’t have this features and this is the big plus factor of the i3 processors over the i7.

As you can see the big difference between them, the i5 has a huge advantage over the i3 in terms of speed performance.


Intel finally came up with a lower cost processor for a budget conscious mind user. For an average computer user the intel core i3 is a perfect choice and for a more advanced who wants an extra push the core i5 is more appropriate for them.

Wireline (Open-hole) Logging – Basics of Wireline Logging and Formation Evaluation

Open-hole (Wireline) logging is one of a very large range of measurements and analytic techniques used in formation evaluation of oil wells.

Wireline logging provides the great meeting place for all formation evaluation methods in oil wells. Only through open-hole logging can a continuous record of measurement versus depth be made of so many formation properties. In particular, wireline logs can record formation electrical resistivity, bulk density, natural and induced radioactivity, hydrogen content, and elastic modulae. These raw measurements can then be interpreted to give a continuous measurement -versus-depth record of formation properties such as porosity, water saturation, and rock type. Almost without exception, every well drilled for hydrocarbons (oil and gas) is logged with wireline instruments.

With the price of oil at such a high right now, more and more oil operating companies are gearing up for more drilling, and therefore more wireline logging, to maximize their profits at this time of high oil prices.

The actual running of a log involves lowering a tool at the end of a logging cable into an oil/gas well. A sensor, incorporated in a sonde together with its associated electronics, is suspended in the hole (well) by a multiconductor cable. The signals from the sensor are conditioned by the downhole electronics for transmission up the cable to the control panel at surface which in turn conditions the signal for the recorder. As the cable is raised or lowered, it activates some depth-measuring device, a sheave wheel (pulley) which in turn activates a recording device. Finally, some form of reproduction takes place to provide a hard copy of the recorded data which is called the well log.

In general, wireline logging jargon distinguishes between a logging survey/run, a logging tool, and a log as well as a curve. There is frequently some confusion about these terms when logging matters are discussed. A logging survey is provided by a logging service company for a client. During the course of the logging pass/survey, the logging engineer may employ several logging tools, and record several different logs on each of which are presented several different curves. The logging tools used, in turn may be composed of multiple sensors.

Bright Lighting Ideas For Trade Show Exhibits

There are few things known to attract the eye quite like lighting effects. From glinting sunlight to targeted, focused mood lights, nothing can influence a setting and grab attention like illumination. Savvy trade show exhibits professionals take into account this major tool, using it to highlight their displays and make the most of any exhibition area.

Lighting Trade Show Exhibits

If your exhibit area is too dark, it’s obvious that extra light is required. Even well-lit places can benefit from additional bulbs. Most companies that produce trade show exhibits will create built-in compatibility with various lighting systems just in case you’d like to use them. Setting up the actual illumination is not the difficult element of design.

Generally speaking, it will be attached at the top of the portable exhibit and then pointed back toward the display board. This simple design allows for easy attachment and detachment of the system, and prevents it from being damaged when the booth is dismantled. There is some variety amongst different systems, including how configurable each bulb is and other small details.

Choosing The Best Style

Although the actual system is not complicated, picking the best way to implement it and deciding the best effect can be difficult. The key is to choose what type of feeling you’d like to evoke before beginning to plan anything more concrete. For most trade show exhibits, illumination should be used to highlight particularly important elements and attract attention. These two goals can often be accomplished by the same set, but that will depend upon the exact portable exhibit. If this is your goal, simply determine the most important elements of your display and ensure that the light hits them prominently.

Specialty Lighting For Specialty Booths

Most displays require only simple lighting effects. However, when special designs present opportunities for a more specialized option, thinking outside the box can reap big rewards. In some cases, companies will produce displays which block out the outside light. This may be to display a particular aspect of the product, in which case lighting should be restricted to allow the product to shine. It may also simply be for dramatic effect. If so, then illumination can be used to have an even more intense impact on visitors. In an otherwise darkened area, a dim light is a great spotlight. Just be careful that no area is so dim that they will have trouble readjusting to the light outside of your booth.

Fine Tuning Your Display

One of the most important things to remember about illumination is that it should be adjustable. Every convention will have different levels of lighting, and even the same building will have different lighting at different points inside. You need to be able to adjust the lights to match, or you risk too much or too little brightness. Both will lead your guests to ignore your specialty illumination and cause your intended high-impact area to go unnoticed. With proper planning and the ability to tweak settings, you’ll get a great result from your chosen illumination in every convention situation.

Art Gallery Lighting Tips

If you are confused as to what lighting solutions would be best for your art gallery, then the following tips would certainly be of help to you. Art galleries have very unique demands when it comes to lighting them up. Unlike most rooms that require a fine balance of task, accent, and ambient lighting, art galleries mainly rely on accent lighting to accentuate the art on display. While keeping the ambient lighting simple, you need to concentrate mainly on getting the accent lighting right for the actual artwork in the room.

Ideally, you must have a picture lighting system that can be easily reconfigured to light up relocated or new art pieces displayed in the art gallery. For several decades now, monorail lighting and track lighting are being used for lighting art galleries. Check the CRI (Color Rendering Index) A lamp’s CRI is nothing but its ability to display the colors of illuminated objects and falls in the range of 1 (monochromatic light) and 100 (the sun). Fluorescent bulbs that we commonly use have a very low CRI while incandescent lamps come with a high CRI. However, incandescent lamps are not really suitable for art galleries since they do not have the exact directional characteristics required for illuminating art galleries.

Low-voltage track and cable systems are commonly used for this purpose, as they use halogen lamps that are known for their almost perfect color rendering abilities with precise beam control. Another important factor that needs to be considered is the color temperature since it decides how colors would appear to the eye under a specific lamp. It is believed that warm colors would look more vibrant under ‘warm’ light sources while cool colors would look more pleasing under ‘cool’ lamps.

Pay attention to the beam spread abilities of a lamp. The size of the lighted area is one of the major lighting problems when illuminating an art gallery. For instance, a large cone used to illuminate a small art piece may not only look odd but also distract your attention from the artwork to the illuminated wall. It may not be always possible to change fixtures but you can certainly resolve this problem by choosing a lamp of the right beam spread. Simply put, beam spread refers to the width of the cone of light a lamp produces as you move away from the light source.

Beam spreads of lamps are specified in terms of spots and floods. While the term ‘spot’ refers to a beam spread of less than 15 degrees, ‘flood’ describes a beam spread in the range of 15 to 30 degrees. You must avoid directional cans as far as possible, since such recessed fixtures may not give enough light to illuminate an especially large piece despite their ability to rotate.

Understanding Communication Barriers

Communication is a way to keep you connected with other people. It helps us share thoughts and ideals with one another. There are a number of things that can be a communication barrier. The most common communication barriers are poor grammar, mispronouncing words, using words incorrectly, misreading body language, and cultural differences.

The choice of words influences the quality of communication. Some word can be interpreted in different ways by different people. It is quite possible that two people will not attribute the same meaning to the same word depending on its usage. Hence to overcome the language barriers, always use the accurate and understandable words.

One of the most common barriers to reception is a lack of attention on the receiver’s part. People generally drift off if they are forced to listen to information they cannot understand easily. To overcome this barrier, reword what you have understood and clarify the meaning by asking questions.

Differences in background may be one of the most difficult communication barriers to overcome. Age, gender, education, social status, economic position, temperament, religion, popularity and political belief can separate one person from another and make understanding difficult. The barriers related to differing backgrounds can be overcome by avoiding over exposing your culture or background.

When communication barriers are eliminated, better relationships emerge. When positive conversation skills are developed, relationships grow. Hence, relationships are primarily based on how we talk to each other and build bridges of understanding.

After all, you can learn from those that are considered masters in communication. Spend time listening to them, pay attention to what they do and say, and put what you have learned into practice.

Fireproof File Cabinets – Why You Should Never Settle For Less

To any organization or small business, office furniture and supplies are necessary investments and fireproof file cabinets should always be amongst the list of office items. The reason is simple enough, that is, in the event of a fire, your important business documents and customer contacts could be lost for good as these information are irreplaceable. And unless you take great pains to protect them from disasters like fire and flood, your business will suffer extensive losses.

No amount of business continuity program can help if you do not include them as part of your planning. In fact, some insurance companies include the installation of fireproof file cabinets as part of the business insurance package requirements.

Although the cost is considerably higher than a normal one, they are well worth the price. Manufacturers coat them with a special liquid which are capable of keeping the interior temperature low. Hence, in the event of a fire, the special liquid kicks in with effect, keeping the temperature below the burning point of paper and thereby ensuring that your important documents are protected.

Fireproof file cabinets are designed deliberately to resemble their regular ones, so that they also deter theft in times of burglary. They are created as such to blend into the overall office furniture and fixtures are well. Like their regular counterparts they are easily found in two, three, or four drawer designs, available in lateral or vertical forms. The lateral design allows you to file different types of documents without having to fold your off sized documents while the vertical ones are usually made for safekeeping legal and letter sized documents.

When researching for the right type of fire proof filing cabinets, focus on the reputed and proven authentic manufacturers. Remember to look out for the warranties that are applicable, namely lifetime guarantees as well as replacement warranties in the event of fire.

Windows Vista Wallpaper – How To Change The Wallpaper In Windows Vista

Why change your Windows Vista wallpaper? With the upgraded video cards required to run Vista you can now have very high quality wallpapers. This combined with the huge amount of Vista wallpapers available in the web, it’s no wonder that so many people want to have a change in desktop scenery.

Any time you want to change your Vista’s usual scene follow these steps:

o go to any blank spot on your desktop and right-click

o choose “Personalize” and a box will appear with 7 options.

o choose the Desktop Background option

o you now have a box that says “choose your desktop background”. You will see colored squares which constitute your first choice: solid colors.

o if you don’t like solid colors, click on the tiny box with the pull down arrow. The words “picture location” appear right on the left of this tiny box.

o click the arrow down. You’ll see that you have at least three choices: windows wallpapers, pictures, sample pictures, and public pictures.

o feel free to browse all of the wallpapers and when you’ve settled on one, click it and Windows will automatically replace your present desktop wallpaper with the one you selected.

o if you’d like to have your own personal pictures as your wallpaper, simply click on “browse” and windows will take you to your pictures folder. Choose which one you like, click and Vista does the rest!


o you can also use a picture you like that you saw in a web site or one in your pictures folder. To do this, (a) right click on the web site picture or your picture; (b) select “set as background”, and then Vista will execute.

o a tip you’ll appreciate: background or wallpaper files are usually stored as BMP, GIF, JPG, JPEG, DIB or PNB files. So any photo or picture on cyberspace or on anyone’s digital camera can be used as a background.

o when you bought your computer, the positioning of your Windows Vista wallpaper (or picture) was given a default position. You can override this by simply checking the appropriate box where it asks you: “How should the Picture be Positioned?” Select between stretched, tiled and centered

To position your wallpaper, you have three choices:

1. stretched – this means that the entire desktop will be covered

2. tiled – your wallpaper or picture will be in mosaic form (as in tiles)

3. centered – the Windows Vista wallpaper (or picture) will occupy only the center of your desktop.

Remember to have fun changing your Vista wallpaper because it really makes the day a little more enjoyable when you can look at a picture that you like rather then the one that Microsoft thinks you’ll like.

The Hollon Republic Series PDO RG-16C Fireproof Gun Safe

For gun owners who have invested a significant amount of money in their gun collection the Hollon Safe Republic range of fireproof gun safes are designed and constructed to withstand burglary attacks and protect valuable weapons in the unfortunate event of a fire. With the capacity to hold sixteen long guns and extra storage options using the pocket door organizer the PDO RG-16C Republican Series fireproof gun safe meets and surpasses the construction specifications for a true burglary and fire resistant gun cabinet. The PDO RG-16C may be the smallest of the Hollon Republic series of fireproof gun safes but still boasts all the refinements of it’s bigger brothers.

Two layers of fireboard provide one-inch thick fire protection for the safe’s body and three layers one and a half inches are used in the construction of the door. The safe is Torch Resistant Fire Rated for one-hour fireproof protection at 1250 degrees Fahrenheit. To ensure weapons secured in the RG-16 gun safe are protected from water and smoke damage in the event of a fire, the safe door has a heat activated intumescent door seal designed to seal out smoke and water.

To protect the gun cabinet from being pried open the five-inch thick door has 1/4″ (3 gauge) solid steel plate added to the entire door plus drill/ballistic armored hard plate to protect the lock. Additionally, the construction of the PDO RG-16 gun safes door includes seven (7) active steel 1 1/2″ locking bolts and three (3) 1 1/2″ fixed locking bolts on the hinged side. All the locking bolts are chrome plated solid steel. To prevent punch attacks the RG16 has an active spring-loaded re-locker. The high quality construction of the door is complimented by the steel construction of the safe’s body which is made of 9 gauge seamless steel.

The PRO RG-16 gun safe comes with external hinges that allow the safe door to open a full 180 degrees and when maintenance is required the door can easily be removed. Some experts argue that external hinges make the safe easier for burglars to break open. This is only the case where the safe has no locking bolts on the hinge side. This gun cabinet comes with and three (3) 1 1/2″ fixed locking bolts on the hinged side. Even when the hinges are completely removed the door remains securely in place.

The heavy duty steel construction of the safe gives it a weight of four hundred pounds (400 lbs) unloaded. While this is heavy it is not that heavy that professional thieves cannot remove it. To prevent the safe being taken off site pre-drilled anchor holes allow the gun safe to be bolted into position making it impossible for thieves to make off with the safe.

To store weapons without being damaged the interior of the RG16 gun safe has four removable shelves, three small adjustable shelves and one full length adjustable shelf, and is finished in a soft plush tan trim.

Why Fire Engineering is Important For Your Safety?

Fire engineering applies both science and engineering principles to guard the public and their surroundings from the harsh consequence of fire and smoke. There are various regulations of fire protection engineering and these comprises active protection, control and management of smoke, programs on fire prevention, passive protection, design, layout and space planning of building, fire dynamics and modeling, risk analysis and human behavior during fire events.

Basically, these professionals normally recognize hazards and design precautions that help in avoiding, scheming and justifying the effects of fires, help architects in assessing buildings life security and protection objective. Furthermore work as fire researcher, together with such extremely major cases.

In history, this dates as far back when Emperor Nero planned the city to be reconstructed by developing submissive protection techniques, including the division of space and the use of non-combustible building equipment. In this era, fire professionals focused themselves with planning techniques to guard large plants, principally spinning mills and further developing properties. During the last half of 19th century an additional incentive to categorize the regulation, describe practices and carry out investigations to support modernizations was introduced.

But it was during the 20th Century when numerous disastrous fires resulted in modifying building codes to defend people from fire. And it was at that time when it came out as a sole engineering profession. Its principal reason for this appearance was the growth of the “body of knowledge” precise to the job marking the beginning of the “Society of Fire Protection Engineers” in latter half of 19th century and with self-governing people seeking advice from professionals, and the spreading of engineering principles of fire protection.

Fire engineering nowadays, contributes a lot in the development of our environment. The fire protection engineers take on a proper course of education and ongoing development to obtain and uphold their expertise. This teaching characteristically comprises base studies in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and technological scripting. Professional engineers that are eligible for registration are duly competent and practicing fire protection engineers. In the United States, the practice differs from state to state where the credit of this engineering is limited to its practice only. Some countries standardize the professional practice of protection engineering with a regulation, even though some limit the application of the title engineer in connection with its training.

In the United States, the designation fire engineers and safety engineer are less likely to be favored when compared to the United Kingdom, as such was influenced by the British fire service. Several supporters assert that the title fire protection engineers recommends an involvement only with the devise of systems, such as sprinklers, detention, alarm, smoke management and other particular risk systems. The supporter of fire safety engineering advises it to precisely designate an awareness in mutually defensive and protective dealings. Individuals who favor the title engineer propose that it includes a wide variety of certified actions related with fire risk organization.

The Submersible Pump – Advantages And Disadvantages Examined

As implied by the name, a submersible pump is designed to be placed (submerged) in the water or other fluid that is to be removed. Submersible pumps are not all alike. There are different versions of these mechanical devices, used in various applications, including borehole, pool, pond, fountain, well, bilge, and sewage, to name a few.

If these pumps are so popular, then there must be some advantages to using them. What are these advantages?

One advantage to a submersible pump is in the way it is designed. It is designed as a tightly contained unit, with watertight gaskets and seals that keep the liquid out of the housing and internal components. This design ensures that the pump will not leak or short out electrically when submerged.

Besides being tightly sealed and waterproof, there are other advantages of submersible pumps over non-submersible models. One advantage is how it pumps the water. The submersible uses direct pressure to push the fluid through the pipe or hose, rather than using the suction method. Using direct pressure means that the pump can move fluids a greater distance more efficiently than suction devices.

Being self-primed is another advantage over a non-submersible. Other types of pumps, such as jet pumps or shallow well pumps, require being primed to start up. Priming is not required to start a submersible unit.

Also, due to it being placed directly within the liquid, the submersible model can operate more efficiently when moving liquids a long distance.

Is There Any Disadvantage To Using a Submersible Pump?

When considering the advantages of any type of product, one must also look at possible disadvantages. Of course, as with any kind of mechanical device, there is always the risk of some sort of problem occurring.

One potential problem would occur if a gasket were to rupture or lose its integrity. This would cause the pump to leak, eventually corroding the internal components and causing it to fail.

A problem or failure of the pump brings a second disadvantage to light. If the pump does need to be repaired or replaced, it may be more difficult to retrieve, by nature of it being submerged in water.

Another disadvantage is that it may cost more than a comparably sized non-submersible unit. While the price may be a consideration when deciding on a purchase, when weighing the advantages and disadvantages, the submersible pump often wins out.

In conclusion, when looking at the advantages and disadvantages, you will likely come to the conclusion as have many others, that the submersible pump is a convenient and versatile device – useful for many different purposes.