Leaky Luxury – Will My Frameless Shower Enclosure Leak?

A frameless shower has by design small gaps in the seams of the glass panels and around the door. Gaps exist because the unit lacks the thick metal frames found in traditional framed shower products. The custom nature of a frameless shower also lends itself to less forgiving tolerances than prefabricated framed units. Though a frameless shower should never be considered a completely water tight enclosure, there are a few techniques that can be followed to minimize the amount of moisture that leaves the shower.

One technique for minimizing the amount of water that escapes through the seams of a frameless unit is to utilize polycarbonate pieces that create seals between panels or between the glass and surrounding enclosure walls.

A standard single door (less than 30″ wide and 78″ high) has a 3/16″ gap between the wall and the door glass where the door is hinged to the wall. On the handle side of the door, a 3/16″ gap between the door and the wall is recommended in order for the door to swing properly. Finally, a 7/16″ gap is left between the sill and the bottom of the door glass.

In order to prevent water from leaking out underneath the door, a polycarbonate door sweep is attached to the bottom of the glass. The sweep directs water back into the shower and acts as weather-stripping underneath the door.

Gaps on either side of the door remain. Unless your shower head is pointed directly at the gaps though, an extremely minimal amount of water, if any, will escape. The potential for minimal leakage is the trade-off between frameless heavy glass showers and the less custom thin glass framed units.

When your shower configuration includes a door and a panel, an open space exists between the door and the panel. This space can be virtually eliminated by using a strike. When the door is closed, it rests against the strike that is attached to the panel, sealing the gap.

There are a multitude of other polycarbonate pieces that can be employed in certain situations to seal gaps. See your local glass company for non standard needs.

In addition to using polycarbonate seals, constructing your opening so that the walls are plumb, level, and square helps to ensure that all of the enclosure pieces fit together tighter.

A third and extremely critical technique to preventing water leakage is to eliminate any flat surfaces in the shower where water can pool. This is done by creating slopes with the tile so that water runs back into the shower.

There are two areas where the tile should be installed with a 5 degree slope. The first area is the seat (if applicable) that the return panel glass sits on. The return panel is typically where the shower head is directly pointed. If your enclosure features a seat, water will naturally pool up as it splashes off the return panel. If your tile work is done correctly, you shouldn’t have any major issues. Poor tile work however can easily be exploited by sitting water seeping through grout joints. To prevent water from pooling up on the seat, make sure the seat tile is gently sloped back into the shower at approximately 5 degrees.

The second area that water can exploit if not properly constructed is the sill or curb. The sill is typically a single piece of marble that spans the opening of the shower along the bottom. It usually sits a few inches off the ground and is the threshold you step over every time you get in and out of the shower.

As water hits the door or inline panel it rolls down the glass. The door sweep has a sloped fin that guides the water away from the door. Rolling off the sweep fin, the water hits the sill. A shower door sill that is properly constructed will be sloped approximately 5 degrees so that water rolls off the door, off the sweep fin, down the sill, and back into the shower.

If the sill is not sloped, water will collect and pressure from the cascading moisture above will slowly force it to find an exit around the door. Even the smallest gaps in the enclosure are large enough for water to find its way out and into the surrounding bathroom. The amount of water escaping on a per use basis may not be very noticeable. Over time however the continual presence of water outside the shower can lead to noticeable damage on wood and other surfaces.

You should be especially careful with fiberglass shower pans. While there is no problem installing a frameless shower door in a tiled opening that uses a fiberglass pan as the base, the online specs for these products do not mention whether the sill is sloped at all. If not sloped, water has the potential to collect and increase the leakage of your frameless shower.

Curved Deck Railing

The use of a curved deck railing is very important on every deck. It is an art piece used to enhance the curve appeal of your deck, in case you are planning to build a curved one. Without it, your curved deck will not be as good looking as you would want it to appear. On top of that, it won’t look complete at all. So while you are still in the planning stage of your deck, including it in the design if you want a curved deck will be best. This way, you wont have to try injecting it into the lay out and making the trouble of redesigning the entire task.

Building a curved deck railing is a bit difficult, which is why it is not recommended for DIYs. But there are real inventive and skilled people who can actually do the job. There are prefabricated curved deck railings that you can acquire for the building plans. These are perfectly crafted to match standard sizes and shapes of a curved deck so you will need no more cuttings or modifications on both your deck and your acquired prefab deck railing.

Construction of curved deck railings is just like constructing any other railing. It has to have a vertical baluster, a top railing, and a curved cap railing (which is not found in a standard railing). The vertical baluster is always included in this type of construction because it adds support and strength to the structure. The top railing is its highest profile, while the curved cap rail is its completing part.

If you are wish to do the installation by yourself, you got to have a complete understanding of geometrical principals and the required skills in preparing detailed drawings. Some of the important drawing tools you will need are protractor, compass, and scale ruler.

You think that curved railing is just one of the types of railings? There are still many different types of curved railings you can find. Some of these are listed below for you to choose the best that will fit your railing construction plans:

Curved stainless steel. This is extruded steel that are modular curved. This is the type of curved railings that can be designed in every curve you have for that authentic and great looks you want for your railings.

Curved wooden. Laminating together four strips of 1 1/2 inch wide x 3/4 inch thick cedar plywood strips with heavy-duty exterior glue is how curved wooden railings are made. This type of railing can be DIYed with the use of clamps to hold them in place and slightly bending the plywood strips.

Wrought iron. For more durable kind of curved railing, you can also use wrought iron. This type of material needs special equipments to have it bend.

Aluminum. Aluminums are very durable type of material for your planned deck railing less the weight.

Deck Design

There are standard construction principals as far as timber sizes and fixings. However decks offer great outdoor areas that are an extension of the living areas of the home. When designing your deck the first section to be considered is the purpose. What do I need or want from the deck? What will I use the deck for? What size do I need?

Your design

Your design should clearly reflect the activities and purpose of the deck area. Is the deck for more play room or a breakfast area, BBQ area, or to extend your dining area? Consider the level of the deck in relationship to your home. Would you like to step down onto the deck from your door or would you like the deck level with the floor of your home? The deck connection with your home is important and will create a flow or a separation with your home. Will the deck be connected or totally independent of the house structure?


What type of stairs would you like? The type of stairs creates a feel openness or limited access. Some decks have wide full width stairs to access the deck from any point, while others use a set of stairs at one end and balustrade to create a closed and defined space.

Materials – Timber Selection:

The construction materials influence the way a deck looks and thus you must decide what type timber you wish use. The cheapest construction materials are treated pine decking boards and can be stained in the colour of your choice. While treated pine is cheaper it does not generally last as long unless it is coated regularly. Also treated pine will not look as good as a hardwood deck. Hardwood decks look the best are stronger and will last longer than a treated pine deck. Hardwood decking boards do cost more but are much more durable. There are a number or beautiful timbers to use and your local hardware or timber supplies should be able to provide you with a good selection of different timbers and grades of decking. Quality hardwoods offer the best protection and durability, and also have many beautiful colours. Some hardwoods will need to be ordered in and can be order in mixed colours such as reds, browns, and red-pinks.

Deck design

  • Is your deck connected to your home or is it freestanding?
  • Is it a high or low (under 1 metre) deck?
  • Will your deck have a roof (pergola or awning) over it or will it be exposed without a roof?
  • How large an area is your deck going to be?
  • What type of timber are you using?

The next important thing to do when these questions have been answered is to go to your local council and ask what the local building guidelines and rules are when constructing a deck. For example a small deck may not need council approval only large decks. However some other council’s may require all decks to be subject to approval. It is very important to work these issues through before you start or you may have to pull the whole deck down. Please note that all decks must be constructed to the current building regulations or standards whether they do or do not need council approval.


When building your deck long term durability and safety are very important. Every year people get injured when decks fail because they are under engineered for the amount of people on them or incorrect construction techniques have been used. Decks are often fully loaded when parties and family events take place. Thus it is important to make sure your deck is designed and constructed properly. The best practise of building decks is to have it over engineered or stronger than the minimum requirement.


Balustrade simply put, is a railing that stops people falling off the edge of your deck. If you have a low deck of 600mm or less you are generally not required by law to have balustrade (however check this with your local council). If a balustrade is required consider the type you would like before you start.

Planning your deck and checking the current building regulations with your local council will help you greatly in the final construction and look of your deck. Also your local decking supplier should be able to help you in your timber selection and supply of you fixings that are needed for construction.

Which Stair Gate is the Best?

Our hearts leap with pride and joy as our little one learns to crawl for the first time. We sit and stare in wonderment as they take their first independent steps. Then if we are not prepared it can suddenly dawn on us that we have so little control over where they decide they want to explore!

Where should I install gates?

Stair gates are designed to assist parents and carers in taking control over the movements of their little one. We can prevent access to the potentially dangerous areas of the home, particularly the stairs.

As an absolute minimum, parents should install a stair gate at the top and bottom of each flight of stairs. As young children are learning their first independent movements, they are top heavy; the centre of balance is in the top half of their body. This leaves a child particularly prone to falling backwards as they attempt to stand up straight. At floor level this will result in little more than a ‘whoopsadaisy’ from mum, a quick kiss better and we’re off trying that new move again. If a child is left unsupervised to climb unprotected stairs the idea of them falling backwards does not bear thinking about.

The second point to consider is; which areas of your home are unsuitable for young children? The kitchen is the single most dangerous room in the house for a young toddler. Until your child is old enough to be taught and understand the important rules needed to stay safe in the kitchen, if it is possible to use baby gates to prevent access to the kitchen, use them.

Make a plan. Spotting the areas of potential danger first and restricting access is the key to creating a safe environment. Each home is different so there is no set solution. One home may have an open door that leads to a flight of stairs to the basement; another the newly refurbished dining room with sharp edges on the corner of the dining table; and another the open access to the office area with all the loose cables and electrical equipment. For the first few months while your child is learning rules of behaviour which will eventually lead them to spot their own danger signs and understand the meaning of the word ‘no’, make sure they can not gain access to any area you are not sure is 100% safe.

Once you have identified the areas of your home you would like to install stair gates, however narrow, wide or irregular the gap is, there is a stair gate available to solve the problem. Stair gates have now been designed to be installed in a variety of different ways: in a straight line and auto close after use; to be mounted diagonally if you do not have opposite fixing points; even multi panel configurations which can go around an open staircase or section off a corner of the room if required.

Purchasing a stair gate no longer means turning your once perfectly presented ideal homes into a mini prison. Manufacturers of stair gates have now woken up to the reality that although safety is the primary concern of any parent when choosing a gate, a colour or wooden finish that compliments their home interior is also desired. Stair gates are now available in: white, silver, black, beechwood, mahogany, oak, even gum tree.

Pressure Fit or Screw Fit?

Pressure fitted stair gates are the most popular type of stair gate. With a pressure fitted gate there is no need to test your DIY skills or to drill holes into your walls or banister posts. Many pressure fit gates have an auto-close/auto-shut facility which negates the possibility of a gate being left open due to forgetfulness. Other pressure fitted gates come with an indicator built into the gate which visually displays when a gate is installed correctly and alerts you to a gate being nudged out of alignment.

It is important to note that all pressure fitted gates have a trip bar. This is the bar that runs along the bottom of the gate and sits on the floor when the gate is mounted. In most situations this is not an issue as it is something you get used to very quickly. However, to have a trip bar at the top of a flight of stairs; particularly when you will be carrying your baby up and down the stairs; is a big safety hazard and should be avoided if possible. Some manufacturers sell additional step plates to convert the trip bar into a slight ramp, which is definitely advisable if you are to install pressure fitted gates.

The main advantage of a screw fitted gate is that it will be installed without a trip bar. The gate will sit on screw fittings and open much like a barn door without the need for the horizontal bar to stay in place. Although both pressure fitted and screw fitted gates sold by reputable stores in the UK will all have been rigorously safety tested, the nature of a screw fitted gate is that it will provide that additional level of stability. Regardless of a screw fitted gate being knocked against or leaned on, once the fittings have been screwed into the wall, the gate should not move a millimetre and not need readjusting. Many screw fitted gates now come with quick release fittings. This enables parents or more commonly grandparents or carers to remove the gate when not in use, leaving only the small wall fittings in place. When the grandchildren come back for another weekend, you simply slot the gate back into the fittings.

When should I install them and for how long?

The simple rule for when to install stair gates is the same for all areas of baby proofing; it is best to have everything installed before you need it, than frantically rush around trying to find the right safety products when your child is on the move. A typical age for most children to start independently moving is approximately six months. The amount of time you will need stair gates again depends on your child. As your child becomes fully confident in their walking ability, and as they have learned the lessons you have taught them regarding potential dangers, it is time to remove the gates.

Change Your Mindset to Achieve Success

What separates the successful from the unsuccessful and the rich from the poor has less to do with their knowledge, skills or luck but rather their mindset. A mindset that is geared for success is characterized by a burning desire to succeed and in conquering fear. On the other hand, a mind that limits itself and which is filled with negativity is set up for failure or less than satisfactory results.

In fact, the limitations we experience in life are often the result of our own mental limitations. One good example that inspires us is Roger Bannister when he broke the four-minute mile. Previous to his record, most people considered it impossible to run a mile in less than four minutes. But once Bannister did it, many people quickly followed suit. All it took was a mindset change for people to believe that they could do it.

If you are not as successful as you would like, it is likely that you have some negative beliefs. It may also be that success frightens you. You may associate success to be doing well in your work but also with having less time for your family or other more favorite pursuits. When you have an internal struggle and feel that you are unable to balance your time between work and family, you will find it hard to be the success that you had dreamed of.

Another form of negative belief is associated with low confidence. Subconsciously, you believe that you cannot make it. And that others can do always do it better than you. When you meet with challenges and difficulties, you feel like giving up. Your mind gives you plenty of reasons why you should not fight anymore but instead, take the safe way out. You believe that you do not have the capabilities to become a success. There is plenty of self doubt.

It is important that you deal with your negative beliefs, whatever they are. Get real about your negative emotions instead of denying them. I have come across many people who prefer to skip this part of the healing process, and instead would prefer to will themselves to be positive. Unfortunately, the hardest way, which is to face the negative beliefs, is sometimes the best way to getting the ultimate results you truly deserve.

Certain therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy, may help expedite your healing. Subliminal messaging and daily affirmations can also help build inroads into your subconscious mind for positive changes.

You can choose to break your big goals into smaller ones, so that you gain confidence that you are progressing. This helps you to overcome some of your negative beliefs that you cannot achieve success.

Consider adopting a millionaire mindset. Open your mind to believe that you can do it and that you can have anything you desire. When you start changing your mindset, things that you view previously as obstacles become opportunities that you can leverage on or life lessons that you need to go through, while you are on the way to success.

What Is Network Link Aggregation?

Sometimes it can be beneficial to aggregate links between layer 2 or layer 3 switches for the purpose of creating more bandwidth, and at the same time even to provide resilience by having multiple physical links.

Link Aggregation is a method of combining multiple physical network links into a single logical link, thereby increasing the capacity and availability of a single physical and logical communications channel between devices, either switches or end stations such as servers.

Link Aggregation takes advantage of existing Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet technology and STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) to manage loops. Two or more Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet connections are combined in order to increase the bandwidth capability and to create resilience and redundant links. Sets of multiple parallel physical links between two devices are grouped together to form a single logical trunk link.

Most link aggregation protocols also provide for load balancing, where the processing and communications activity is distributed across several links in a trunk, so that no single physical link is overloaded.

Some of the benefits of these aggregation protocols and technologies include:

High Link Availability

By aggregating a number of physical links into a single logical link, we prevent the failure of any single component link from disrupting communications between any communicating end devices in the network. Instead of the failure of a link causing a loss of communications, the aggregated link merely suffers a loss of available capacity without actually interrupting the data flow.

Increased Link Capacity

Performance can be significantly improved due to the increased capacity afforded by the use of multiple physical Ethernet links in the trunk channel. A single Ethernet links will normally be rated at 10Mbps, 100Mbps or 1000Mbps, but with aggregation we can increase that capacity up to 8 times. The tradeoff is that we need up to 8 available ports on each switch at the end of the trunk channel. As previously stated, as well as increasing capacity, we also gain from the fact that no single physical link will cause a failure of the trunk channel.

Aggregating can sometimes be implemented rather than a full equipment upgrade

If the link capacity is to be increased, there are usually two options, either upgrade the link capacity by employing devices with faster ports (Fast Ethernet to Gigabit Ethernet, for example), or use an aggregate multiple links (4 x Gigabit Ethernet links can form a 4 Gigabit aggregated trunk link).

There are a number of situations where Link Aggregation is commonly employed:

  • Switch to Switch Connections
  • Switch to Station (Server or Router) Connections
  • Station to Station Connections

Switch to Switch Connections

This is the most common use for link aggregation, where complete workgroups are connected together by an aggregated trunk link.

This type of configuration will require the dedicated use of multiple ports on switches at each end of the trunk, which will reduce the number of ports available for connection to external devices.

Switch to Server or Switch to Router Connections

Busy Servers can easily saturate a single 100Mbps or even 1000Mbps link, therefore making the link capacity the limiting factor when it comes to server or application performance.

From the perspective of a switch, a router is seen simply as an end station, much in the same way as a server or workstation is, so we can aggregate links between a switch and a router or server to improve both capacity and, with the right configuration, performance.

Server to Server or Router to Router Connections

The Servers or Routers can have multiple Network Interfaces, much in the same way that an Ethernet Switch does. We can therefore aggregate connection using these Network Interfaces. The improved high-capacity, logical trunk links provide the servers or routers with the bandwidth needed to ensure high performance, with the added bonus of redundancy.

Look out for a follow-up article on LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol), for a description of one method of link aggregation.

"Tickle Your Amygdala" and Access Your Super Brain

The key to developing your mind’s power works hand in hand with developing certain parts of your brain. Specifically, your frontal lobes, a part of your neo cortex, the area commonly referred to as the third eye.

Of course the brain is a cohesive whole and you can’t just work on one part. This means that to access the frontal lobes you also have to stimulate other parts of the brain that trigger activity in the region you want to develop.

One of the ways to do this, in the words of T. A. Lingo, is to ‘tickle you amygdala’. A pioneer in the field of neurophysics, Lingo understood the unfathomable potential lying dormant beneath our skulls, and set out to find ways to tap into that potential.

Key in his research was the role of the amygdala. A small almond shaped organ the amygdala, according to Lingo, acts like a switch that when switched forward fires up the super brain, the part of your brain that becomes extremely active during deep meditation, ecstasy, nirvana, samahdi, transcendence and all of your higher functions, emotions, and peak experiences. When switched back however, it activates our R Complex, or reptile brain the part of our brain responsible for fight or flight.

Albeit unconventional, and largely unacknowledged during his life time, time is now corroborating what Lingo asserted: that the amygdala is like a switch to our spiritual, cosmic super brain and that by tickling, or “clicking it forward” in other words, we can develop the ability to flick our power switch on.

Tickling your amygdala is a simple little technique that will open the gate to your super brain and cause a positive response in you. To find out how to ‘tickle your amygdala’ and to try it for yourself you can find the instructions here:


This article may be reprinted with the author’s name and website address intact. Thank You

The Eight Best Real Estate Bargains in the Bahamas

Have you dreamed of owning a beach house in the Bahamas but assumed only a mogul could afford one? If so, the bargains below will show you otherwise. In order to maintain objectivity, I have not included any properties in which I have a personal interest. Selections were based solely on exceptional value. For more information on a property, email me for the name of the relevant broker.

Great Abaco: 15 Acres with 630 Feet of Oceanfront

With scores of uninhabited cays and extraordinary fishing, yachtsmen consider the Abacos to be among the world’s finest cruising grounds. This parcel has 630 feet of oceanfront on the Sea of Abaco, including a stretch of beach. For all of you yachtsmen, there is sheltered anchorage of 20 feet depth in front of the property. One-acre harbor-front lots in the area routinely sell for $400,000. The subdivided retail value of this 15-acre parcel, therefore, is in the $5 million range. The asking price? $1.2 million.

Berry Islands: Four Bedroom Beachfront House

Before I wrote this article, I would have told you it was impossible to buy a beautifully maintained and landscaped four-bedroom house right on a secluded beach for under $1 million. Not only do I stand corrected, I stand double-corrected. This house on Sugar Beach, Great Harbour Cay, comes with two beachfront lots, for a total of 185′ of beach frontage and almost an acre of land. The price? $790,000. And if that’s too much for you, sell off the extra lot. There’s one on the market nearby for $300,000.

Berry Islands: Almost-on-the-Beach Lot for the Price of an SUV

This quarter-acre lot on Great Harbour Cay is right across the street from a beautiful white-powder beach. The sticker price of the lot is $45,000. Ocean and sunset views are included at no extra charge-a bonus you’re not likely to get with the SUV.

Cat Island: Beachfront Lot at Half the Price

Fifty miles long and with a population of 1600, Cat Island is a place for people who want to get away from the hustle and bustle of, for example, rural North Dakota. Cat has miles of deserted, pink-sand beaches, and you can buy 100 feet on one of them for $179,900. How is that possible? This quarter-acre lot is actually 150 feet back from the sea, but the parcel in front is a reserve that can never be developed. Walk right across it to the beach.

Eleuthera: Four Bedroom Duplex Overlooking the Atlantic

With sixty miles of beaches and only a few dozen hotel rooms, Eleuthera is a paradise for beach lovers who enjoy privacy and unspoiled natural beauty. Coral Reef is a two-story house on an elevated lot directly across the street from the Atlantic Ocean. Each floor consists of a two-bedroom, two-bath apartment with a bright, modern interior and an open plan. Coral Reef, which was built in 1986, would cost at least $400,000 to build today, not including the price of the land. The asking price for the property is $250,000.

Freeport/Lucaya: Canal-Front Home for Half the Price

Fortune Bay is a stylish canal-front community a few minutes by car from the shops and restaurants of Port Lucaya. A typical three-bedroom house with a pool would sell for $1.2 million. The house I found for you has four bedrooms and sits on an oversized half-acre lot with 120 feet of canal frontage. The kitchen and baths need updating, but the overall condition is excellent. $100,000 for interior upgrades and a pool would turn this into a million-dollar house. The asking price? $625,000.

Nassau: New Three-Bedroom Townhouse for $249,000

I had to put the price in the headline or no one would believe it. Renaissance East is a small gated development of a dozen 2 ½ story townhouses with a pool. The units have three bedrooms (including a large loft), 2 ½ baths, private patios, stainless steel appliances, and granite countertops. Construction on the islands costs upwards of $200 per foot and these townhouses have 1300 square feet of living space. There are only three units left, so I guess I’m not the only one who can divide $249,000 by 1300.

North Eleuthera: Private Island

Just because David Copperfield has a private island in the Bahamas doesn’t mean you can’t afford one, too. Located off the northeast coast of Eleuthera near Harbour Island, this 3.5-acre retreat is surrounded on three sides by deep water and on the fourth by a beach. A concrete pier and a wooden dock are already in place. Electricity comes from the main Eleuthera grid. David Copperfield paid $45 million for his island. The price for yours? $1.5 million.

Refurbished 17 Inch HP Pavilion DV7-3165dx Turion II Laptop – Excellent Computing For YOU!

Restored laptop has a elegant, bronze facade with a Turion 2 processor. The HP DV7-3165dx is formidable in computing power and has a 17 inch monitor. It is a great alternative to your traditional PC. Viewing pictures, playing games and watching movies are activities that can be at your fingertips with the adept ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4200 Graphics engine with 128MB Display Cache Memory and the 17 inch screen.

An 8-cell Lithium-ion battery will provide impressive, long lasting performance. In conjunction with the mind impressive speed of the 2.5GHz AMD Turion II Ultra M620 dual-core processors, the laptop creates a entertainment and communication powerhouse with Blu-Ray and HDMI compatibility, with a handy SuperMulti DVD±R/RW Double Layer drive for writing audio and video disks. The speakers on the laptop are made by Altec Lansing, and boast SRS Premium Sound.

It also has a 64-bit Genuine Windows 7 Home Premium operating system, a 500GB SATA hard drive and a 4GB of DDR2 memory. The laptop has a luminant, diagonal screen which has HD+ High-Definition HP LED Bright View Widescreen Display and a resolution of 1600 x 900. Included is an incorporated graphics media coupling. It has UVD2 (PIP assistance) and DX 10.1 backing.

People who are looking for a laptop with a long battery life, rather than a laptop with a large screen should consider another product. The laptop tips the scale at eight pounds. The measurements of the laptop are 10.9 inches by 16.2 inches by 1.37 inches.

Thanks to the laptop’s high resolution you can view side text clearly. Keep in mind that the laptop was built for mostly permanent use as to avoid energy and move-ability problems.

Information About Pipes and Soldering in Home Plumbing

While some plumbing jobs are too big for the average person to tackle, others are small enough that anyone can learn how to do them. If you are a novice when it comes to plumbing then there are things that you need to become familiar with before you attempt any water work in your home.

To begin with you need to understand about the different types of pipes. Piping is the foundation of the plumbing world. Knowing your materials is essential to your success. There is more than one kind of pipe. The most popular kinds of pipes that are used today include rigid copper, flexible copper, rigid plastic PVC, ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), PEX (crosslink polyethylene) and galvanized steel.

Rigid copper is the type of pipe that is used most frequently for main water lines. Rigid copper as the name implies is rigid which means that is not flexible and is unable to be bent and twisted into a different shape. What this means is that if you use rigid copper for the plumbing needs in your home then joints and tees will need to be soldered onto the pipe.

When you are soldering it is essential that you apply soldering paste (also referred to as flux) to both the pipe as well as the surface to be worked on. When copper is heated the soldering paste retards the oxidation process. When you attempt to sweat a copper joint make sure that you use a lead-free solder or a solder that is almost completely free of lead.

What works very well for soldering is a modified acrylic polymer anaerobic that is in liquid form. This type closely resembles regular solder because it is strong, resilient and lasts for a long duration. It is also very effective for uses in small and tight spaces where a soldering torch could be dangerous. The acrylic polymer does not require a surface that is completely dry in order for it to work as the regular type of solder does. This makes it the more preferable kind to be used by those who wish to do their own work.

If you discover a small drip anywhere in the water line then there is a simple way to solve the problem. Remove the crust from a slice of white bread and roll the bread into a tight ball. Then take the ball of bread and place it in the pipe where the drip originates and this will bring an end to the drip. Once the plumbing job is finished you can turn on the water and the bread will quickly wash away.

How To Make A Solar Panel – Learn To Do It Yourself

Solar energy panels convert sunlight into electricity for use in homes. With the escalating cost of electricity and the shortage of power to light each and every home in the world, there are growing concerns over finding an alternative for power production. What better way can be there than to utilize the singular source of light shining on our planet–sunlight. Though government initiatives are there, it will take sometime for every home to function on solar power, therefore you can start making your own solar panel at the earliest.

Here is a brief step-by-step guide on how to make solar panel at economical cost:


Ideally, the south facing roof will be apt but if you cannot access the roof, place the solar panel in your yard and keep it south facing.

Cost of Installation:

With all the materials, the cost should be less than $250.

Things You Need:

Buy some solar cells. They are not expensive. Of course, the expense depends upon the area you want to cover with your own solar panel. So after you have figured that out, get the solar cells.

Get plywood. Plywood is essential as a base to put the solar cells on. Again, you can get the plywood for real economic price from stores or better still, if you have plywood at home that you do not use any more.

For protection of your panel, you need to buy plexi-glass. The plexi-glass helps to preserve the solar energy panels for long periods of time against harsh elements.

You will also need silicone glue to stick the solar cells on the plywood; tabbing wires to connect the solar cells with one another; UV protector for the plywood maintenance; and soldering equipments. They can be easily purchased at economic price. Other tools you need are – glass wood screws, paint, wire cutters, wood saw, wrenches, screwdriver, caulk gun, and soldering iron.

The Procedure:

1) Solder the solar cells together.

2) On the pre-cut sheet of plywood, apply the UV protector.

3) Place the constructed solar cells panel on the UV protected plywood.

4) Use a sheet of glass to cover the installation and then seal the glass with silicon caulk.

5) During the day, connect a battery with the solar panel to harness the energy. To regulate the solar panel’s power output, you also need a controller.

6) Attach the battery extension to the electrical system of your home. Don’t forget to place an inverter for converting the DC power to AC power.

Further Help:

If you are unsure about creating the home solar panel yourself, hire someone who has experience in this. You can also buy several DIY books from the market for a comprehensive and detailed instruction on how to build solar panel.


Solar energy is an abundant renewable source of energy, which needs to be utilized for lighting our homes and save thousands of dollars in electricity bills. The steps above are crisp rendering of the basic solar panel building way. Take help from self – help books for further clarity about the building equipments and installation.

What to Do after a Tooth Extraction?

After an extraction, it’s important for a blood clot to form to stop the bleeding and begin the healing process. That’s why your dentist will ask you to bite on a gauze pad for 30 to 45 minutes after an extraction. If bleeding or oozing continues after you remove the gauze pad, place another gauze pad on the area and bite firmly for another 30 minutes. You may have to do this several times.

After the blood clot forms, it’s important to protect it, especially for the next 24 hours. It’s important to not:

o smoke and chew tobacco

o drinking alcohol

o suck through a straw

o rinse your mouth vigorously

o clean the teeth next to the extraction site

These activities could dislodge the clot and slow down healing.

Limit yourself to calm activities for the first 24 hours. This keeps your blood pressure lower, reduces bleeding, and helps the healing process.

After the tooth is extracted, you may feel some pain and have some swelling. You can use an ice bag (20 minutes on, 20 minutes off) to keep this to a minimum. The swelling usually starts to go down after 48 hours.

To control discomfort, take pain medication as recommended. Don’t take medication on an empty stomach or nausea may result. If antibiotics are prescribed, continue to take them for the indicated length of time, even if all symptoms and signs of infection are gone. Also:

o Drink lots of fluids.

o Eat only soft, nutritious foods on the day of the extraction.

o Don’t use alcoholic beverages.

o Avoid hot and spicy foods.

You can begin eating normally the next day, or if not by then, as soon as it’s comfortable. Gently rinse your mouth with warm salt water three times a day (put a teaspoon of salt in a cup of warm water, and then gently rinse, swish, and spit). Also, rinse gently after meals. This helps keep food out of the extraction site.

It’s very important to resume your normal dental routine after 24 hours. This should include brushing your teeth and tongue and flossing at least once a day. This will speed healing and help keep your breath and mouth fresh. Call your dental office right away if you have heavy bleeding, severe pain, continued swelling after two or three days, or a reaction to the medication. After a few days, you’ll be feeling fine and can resume your normal activities.

Dry socket is an infection in your tooth socket after a tooth is extracted. The condition usually develops when a blood clot fails to form in the socket, or if the blood clot comes loose. Dry socket occurs in approximately 5 percent of all tooth extractions.

Normally, the blood clot that forms after a tooth is removed promotes healing, laying the foundation for the growth of new bone tissue. When dry socket occurs, this blood clot is lost and the infected, inflamed socket appears empty – hence the name. Nerves are exposed, and sometimes the bone is visible in the empty socket.

You may not have symptoms until 3 to 5 days after the extraction. Then, the condition will manifest itself as severe pain that doesn’t subside, often accompanied by what feels like an earache. You may also have an unpleasant taste in your mouth, and bad breath. Call your dentist right away if you notice any symptoms of dry socket. Treatment for dry socket typically includes a gentle rinsing of the socket and dressing the socket with sedative medication.

Best 15 Opening Lines To Use on Women

Girls detest cheesy pick up lines. However if you see an attractive girl, you feel like going up to her and talking to her. But then you fear that she may not reply or turn cold. There has to be some killer opening lines to speak to a girl that will get her in the mood to speak to you..Here are some of the best opening lines which can go well at relevant scenarios. Of course you need to be confident and creative. These opening lines are just some of the ways that can take the odds in your favor:

Here are 15 best opening lines which help you click with women without

1. Do you have an aspirin?

(spoken in a pained voice. The girl will want to know what is wrong. It arouses their maternal instincts.)

2. Hi (with a warm smile..It works)

3. Is my tie straight? I am going to an important meeting and I want to look it right.

4. Does this bus go straight to ‘X’ place or does it go..coz I need to reach…in ….mts.

5. Can you tell me where the x supermarket/post office/ Anthony d’Silva high school is? (Probably she will lead you there. Use this time to involve her in a good conversation. Ask her if she is not disturbed or getting late. She will probably say that it is not a problem. When she reaches the place, tell her that you only wanted to see the place, not go there. As she is pleasantly surprised, you smile confess that you wanted to meet her and God considered you lucky to give a break. She will be flattered)

6. I think you will find this book will be quite apt for your taste.(in a book store…make sure you are browsing the book which deals in the same topic, she is searching for)

7. what color are your eyes(girls are always proud of their eyes)

8. where did you get that bracelet?( to a girl wearing a lovely accessory)

9. You are that actress from the play..(of course, she isn’t but who doesn’t like it when you are comparing someone to somebody famous or praiseworthy)

10. Do you have a change of ten(you are waiting for a bus, train etc)

11. Did you drop this handkerchief(it is another thing that piece of cloth is something which you dropped from your pocket)

12. Wow! that’s a cute dog( to a lovely girl with a dog in tow)

13. This dress is preety cool na, I am thinking of gifting one for my sister’s birthday. What do you think? (Nice opening line for a preety girl checking out clothes with you in a dept store)

14. Your eyes appear tired…you look sad…(when a girl whom you are apprehensive to talk with, is sitting alone after a heartbreak or a disappointing day)

15. You are my sister’s friend. Aren’t you? (If she says no..apologize and smile. Take any general topic like the weather or something and sprint ahead)

Hey, wait a minute…do you think that somewhere down the line, you don’t look good enough.

How To Dig Yourself Out of a Hole

I’m not going to beat around the bush today; I’m going to lay it out for you

exactly as it happened.

Monday morning, when I got into my office, I discovered a major disappointment,

something totally out of the blue. The shock of it brought to the surface emotions

I’d been holding back for a while (and didn’t even realize I was), and the combined

“thwack” just rocked my world.

Now, here’s where the story starts its happy ending: I put my head in my

hands and cried.

(What kind of a happy ending is that? I’m not at the end, yet – it’s coming –

but more important than just hearing the end of the story is seeing how I got there.

After all, you don’t read these articles just to be entertained, do you? It’s about

learning how to improve the quality of your life through turning to God, and

through your own knowing, help others to do the same. Yes? Let’s continue…)

Where was I? Right – bawling my eyes out. Then, once I could function

again, I started writing about it to my Mastermind buddies, who are great source of

support for me, both personally and professionally. As I told them about what was

going on with me, I cried a few more times, just saying what I needed to say…

because I could feel the rightness in my heart for taking the time I needed to do

what I needed to do, and not just redouble my efforts and start trying to “work

through it”.

Once that was done, I got up from my computer and saw that my office was kind of

a mess. I knew I needed to work. And I knew I needed to clean. And, I knew I

needed some time to process what was going on for me. Now, if you’re anything

like me, it’s easy to put aside your personal needs for what you perceive as a better,

more productive use of your time. And I’d done that, many times before. But had I

done that this time, and dove back into work, or tried to fix the problem, I’d have

been striving to change things from a mindset of lack. And I sure as tootin’

wouldn’t be writing about it to you, because most likely, nothing would have


Instead, I chose the “road less traveled by.” I gave myself the space to do

what I needed, to take the time to find out what it was I needed, and not rush the

process. (We teach our clients about mercy all the time; it sure is nice when those

chickens come home to roost.)

I chose to clean up my office, and put on some music. And talk about Divine

confirmation: the first song to play (I put my iTunes on random mode, so I didn’t

know what would come up) was called “Holy Now”, which is a great heart-connector,

and a reminder of God’s Presence in every aspect of creation. And the next to come

on was a sound byte I didn’t even realize was in that playlist – a line of a spiritual

litany recited three times, which translated means, “How excellent a Sustainer is my

Sustainer, How excellent a Sufficer is my Sufficer.” Talk about a message, huh?

The last step in my process was to sit and be in Remembrance for a while (the

practice of calling to God in your heart), using the litany that had come across my

iTunes. That grounded me in my heart, reminded me of something I had forgotten

(that helped ease the disaster), and gave me the platform to get clear guidance

about how to proceed from that point forward. Since that point, I’ve been not only

feeling productive and positive, but I’ve been intimately aware of the Presence of the

Divine in my heart, which is wonderfully comforting and reassuring.

Are you seeing the steps? Did you see how to get yourself out of a dark hole?

Allow me to spell them out for you.

Usually when we fall in the hole, we tend to do one of two things: give up, or

push harder.
Neither choice feels good nor produces very good results,

because neither choice uses your connection to the Divine; they are efforts made

from a place of isolation. But by following the steps of the story above, you can find

your way out of the hole, and do it in a connected way.

Let’s take a look at the steps:

1. Giving yourself space for your reaction. In my case, I cried myself a

river. But that’s rare for me to let myself go there; it took acceptance of the

situation, not fighting it. What could giving yourself space look like for you?

2. Listening to your heart. My heart knew I needed to ease my way

through it, not push. So I took the time to clean my office and listen to music, not

jump on my to-do list and re-establish priorities. When you’re in a tough spot, how

can you remind yourself to take your own time?

3. Connecting to The One. There is only One Sufficer, One Sustainer –

and your work ethic ain’t it. As long as you’re looking to yourself alone to have your

business work, your clients heal, and your life have some semblance of peace,

you’re destined to be frustrated, spinning your wheels. The only source of peace

and healing is the Divine – and you’ll greatly increase your chances of having peace

and healing when you tap into your Divine connection.

The Remembrance is the foundational practice for this – repeating the Name that

represents Oneness for you, in your heart – and, it’s not the only way to Remember.

The litany I quoted above is quickly becoming one of my favorites – and if you’d like

to give it a try, you can repeat it in English:

“How excellent a Sustainer is my Sustainer, How excellent a Sufficer is my Sufficer.”,

or if you’d like to try it in Arabic, like I do:

“Fani’ma-Rabbu Rabbi wa ni’ma-l-Hasbu Hasbiy.”

Either way, it’s a winner – because it reminds you of the basic truth that all things

source from the One God.

Now that you’ve seen my happy ending, the next time you stumble into your version

of a hole, you’ll know how to get yourself out as well!

Garden Lighting – Now Easy to Install and Makes Your Home and Garden Safer

Garden lighting has increased in popularity in parallel with the development, availability and increasing illumination quality of solar-powered garden lighting and today they are a worthwhile investment for the conservatory owner.

In the early days of solar lighting, many people were put off them because many poor quality items were made, but today’s units are generally both efficient and reliable and will repay an investment in them with the power savings made over their lifetime use.

Alternative energy sources are not just about saving money, they are better for the environment and in a garden present fewer technical problems when it comes to installation compared with wired-in units.

You can use garden lighting to illuminate specific trees, shrubs or bedding and move the solar-powered units around depending on the season, choosing the best garden features to illuminate. You can also use them to down-light pathways and steps, making your garden safer to walk in at night.

Lighting can also make your home safer by discouraging thieves from using the garden as an entry point to your home.

The only drawback with solar-powered lights is that in shady areas of the garden they may not get enough sun light to charge them, so you need to place them in spots where they will get adequate light for the charging process.

You also need to find out how long your lights can stay on during the evening and into the night. So before you invest in them, check the manufacturers descriptions carefully and ask anyone you know who already has solar-powered lighting, what their experience has been.

Most solar-powered garden lights will switch on automatically at dusk, but if you want light through the night it is sensible to mix these with the type that are triggered by motion sensors. Neighborhood cats, squirrels and other small garden visitors may switch motion sensor lights on, but so will un-wanted intruders.

Most models of lights now use Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s). These are long lasting and energy efficient; provide adequate bright light for most users will let them enjoy parts of their garden from inside their conservatories at night.