Mosaic Art


Mosaic is actually an ill defined term that can have several meanings. However, if we must be technical and insist on having a definition for the art form, it would have to go something like this –

Mosaics is the technique of attaching numbers of discrete coloured pieces of a particular material onto a prepared surface, in order to create the appearance of an image or pattern, when the assemblage is viewed as a whole”.

This unholy mouthful could encompass a vast range of artistic disciplines – from priceless baroque gold and jewel encrusted tabletops to trendy, modern, cut-and-paste photomosaics – but also be applied to candies pressed into cake icing! However to most of us, when we speak of mosaics, we are usually thinking of a more permanent work, made from hard materials, cemented or glued firmly onto solid surfaces. Coming easily to mind, would be the enduring ancient Roman floors, where myriads of tiny blocks of marble and polished stone were arranged eons ago, to create rustic scenes and bold, evocative images of ladies at leisure, gods and charioteers – always surrounded by distinctive geometric borders. Or possibly we might be picturing brilliant panels set up on a huge scale, where the lustre of glass and ceramic is used to throw light about and dominate the wall of a public building, making it alive with a contemporary artist’s passionate view of life in the modern world.

Modern artists, working in the traditional style, use hard blocks of stone, glass or a range of modern materials, cut into tiny tiles that are still collectively known by the original Latin name of tesserae. These tesserae are cemented or glued firmly onto a solid surface, using one of a host of modern adhesives – or for the purist – just ordinary cement mortar. Quick-setting grouting paste is used to add stability, by filling the gaps between the tesserae – but the grout can also enhance the visual effect by adding another dimension to the work. Grouting can be executed with a strong hand, using dark or bright grouts, to emphasise the mosaic builder’s technique, or it can be muted and unobtrusive, so as to not interfere or distract the viewer’s eye away from imagery and the flow and shading nuances of the tesserae. The end result of traditional mosaic techniques is to create art that is permanent and practical, because it is hard wearing, waterproof and stain resistant – thus needing little effort to maintain and keep bright and clean.

Mosaics are a great way to embellish a drab wall or garden path, by bringing colour and light to an otherwise uninteresting area. Bright work is cheerful and creates interest – but on the other hand, more subtle techniques, using slight variances in the colour and texture of embedded natural stone, may also be used with great effect, when the scale is large enough, to channel the emotions and to create mood. Actually, embedding river pebbles in a paved courtyard or wall, in order to create interesting patterns, was one of the earliest techniques, adopted by both Ancient Babylonians and also by the Greeks who followed them. Nowadays, working with mosaics is a craft that can be learnt by all – including even very young children. Whatever your age, if your mosaic is made with love and care, it is a way of leaving a little part of yourself to be displayed and enjoyed for many years to come – maybe even for several generations after you are long gone.

The two principal traditional techniques of creating mosaics are the “direct” and the “indirect” methods – each of these specific disciplines is best suited for a particular set of different applications and locations. Unfortunately, this article is not the place to go into detail about these and other mosaic methods – of which there are many. However these particulars can be found on my website.

One last word – do not be deterred, if you do not consider yourself “artistic” in the true sense of the word. You don’t need to start from scratch – there are many ways of carrying out this craft in an easier and partly directed way. Patterns and instructions are easy to find and prepared kits are readily available for the beginner. You can find them at most craft shops and also on-line. There are many levels at which you can find your entry into this exciting craft or art form. However it is important that you take time to read up on the topic beforehand and gather up all the useful information and tips you can, learning from others and avoiding the pitfalls. Planning is essential and unfortunately an ill-planned and messy mosaic can last just as long as an excellent one! If you want to get the most from this rewarding and absorbing hobby you must prepare yourself well. But most of all, remember that practice makes perfect – so start soon!

Floor Tiling Essentials

Are you thinking about taking on a tiling project in your home? Adding tile, whether it is on the floor or on the wall in your kitchen or bathroom, can really help add more style to your home and improve it’s value. Once you learn how to tile, you’ll probably find it is actually a relatively simple process. Before you get started, however, you will need to gather the proper tools for the job.


Obviously, you will need to purchase the tiles themselves before you can start a tiling project. You may be surprised to discover that there are so many different styles, colors and textures available when it comes to tiles. Make sure you take some time to explore all of your options and then order enough for your entire project before you get started. The last thing you want is to run out of tiles right when you are in the middle of doing the job. Or worse, you make a frantic late night trip to the tile supplier only to find your particular style and color has been discontinued!


In order to help you get a consistent gap between all of your tiles, you will need to purchase tile spacers. Tile spacers go between the tiles as you lay them so the tiles are spaced evenly throughout the entire area. The spacers also ensure that the right amount of space is left for the grout which you will ultimately apply between the tiles.


You will also need to get a trowel to help you spread the tile adhesive. You may actually want to buy a few different types of trowels to help you with different parts of the project. If you are just learning how to tile, trying trowels with different designs will also help you find the style that you are the most comfortable with using.

Tile Cutter

A tile cutter is basically an electric saw used for cutting tile and will likely be another necessary tool for your project. You’ll use it when you need to cut tiles for certain odd areas or to fill the entire space you are tiling.


Tile adhesive is a tacky mud-like compound (depending on the type you purchase) that sticks the tile to the application area. Most adhesive is applied with a trowel but some applications require a roller or brush. Refer to your product instructions for details.


Grout is that gritty concrete-like material that fills the spaces between the tiles. It comes in a variety of different colors so make sure it compliments your tiles and surrounding decor.

Painting Business Management – When and How to Fire Painters?

Concerning your painting business, I read once that if you keep talking about an employee to your spouse over dinner, then it’s time to fire that person. I used to do that. I used to believe that I could change someone and that if I tried this or that eventually that person would come around. You just can’t force a square peg into a round hole. I regret the time wasted with that belief. Many times I should have fired someone faster than I did.

When you come to the conclusion that the company and the employee just aren’t made for each other, the sooner you fire the better. The sooner the better for you and the sooner the employee is relieved the sooner that that painter gets a new job, and quite possibly a better match for that painter and a different company.

When I fire someone it’s usually because they don’t follow either the company policy or they don’t follow directions. Either way, they should be warned one time, then twice, the third strike and that painter is out.

My policy is to make it fast and clean. Don’t let it drag on because you are afraid to be a bad person. Don’t apologize, or indicate that you will change your mind. You’ll know pretty soon that the thing was the right thing to do, when the other employees relate what they feel. Sometimes the other employees will come forth and start telling you all the bad things that the other person did. That always makes me crazy; I can never understand why they would let someone hurt the company, except that they are afraid of being a stool pigeon.

Also, people don’t change, if the are capable, it would take years, and you are running a small business. Do you have enough money to be a counseling business?

Contemporary Glass Chandeliers

Glass chandeliers: A Touch of Style and Sparkle

They add such a brilliance of gleaming color in your bedrooms, living rooms, foyers, or even over your grand piano, that are actually unsurpassed by any kind of painting or abstract pictures. Until a few years back, the word “chandelier” invoked the lavish images of large crystal and glass objects hanging in the ballroom of some 18th century manor. Generally, people had an impression that these chandeliers are too fancy and bold and of course too expensive for them to buy. This is partially right about some of the higher end chandelier designs. However, considering its demand, some of the architectural lighting design manufacturers have introduced a number of contemporary chandeliers. Moreover, they provide an ideal source of overhead lighting and use much smaller halogen based bulbs that give enough light from within smaller shades.

Why choose a glass chandelier?

One of the main reasons that attract you towards a contemporary chandelier is that it provides an additional focal point to your modern interior without even being over-the-top. Though a crystal chandelier is definitely a gorgeous piece in a spacious living room, most of us live in more slipshod and casual settings where they will hardly fit. Thereby, these glass chandeliers are more appropriate and provide an amazing symmetry of colors in order to give life to any room. However, the contemporary glass chandeliers are a bit more expensive than their metal counterparts. They offer a large number of designs, shapes and functions. In fact, most of them come in various color schemes and patterns and add a distinct warm glow to your every room. They offer unique patterns of holders, shades as well as of the lights. Most of them use offer porcelain lighting that offers a more subtle ambiance than candles. Furthermore, they feature as many lights as you desire depending upon your personal taste of style.

Tips for buying glass chandeliers:

Make sure that you spend some time for your glass chandeliers as they need a lot of maintenance.

Clean them regularly and thoroughly as glass tends to gather dust very quickly.

Learning How to Play Cut-Throat Spades With Confidence?

It pays to play an intriguing game from the comfort of your home or among friends for money. The main problem however is that not all the people who start the game get to win. In most cases, it is not all about the luck of the player but the tactics he uses that determines the wining. This sorely applies to the online spades. Some people have played for years but still can’t master the game while others make good money a few months in the game. The understanding of the rules governing the game could be a great way of bettering the performance.

The cut-throat spades rules dictate that the game be played among three players else the dealing and biding will not be reliable. Exceeding or going under the required number of players’ bends the rule which results in efficiency. There are a total of 52 cards on the deck which means a standard game should have all the players holding 17 cards. The remaining card after the dealing is kept aside to leave the players working with the cards in their hands.

The dealing ranges lie between 0 (nil) and 17. This is based on the number of cards that each player has. The fact determining the probability of one player wining the game is that not all players can make the same bids. The bids have to be different hence the higher chance of only one player getting a better hand. The tricks used by an individual player also determine the winning hence the need to learn how to play cut-throat spades more reliably.

The cut-throat spades rules require that the player on the left side of the dealer start the bid. He is supposed to play any card except a spade. The game commences clockwise with all the players following the original suit. A player can play any card in hand if in case he lacks the original suit card. The ‘Breaking spades’ is usually the first spades card that is played. The highest spade wins the trick after breaking the spades. However, if no spades are played, the person casting the spade wins the trick. The person wining the first trick is the lead in the second trick.

There are a number of online spades that one can play to better the performance. However, to learn how to play cut-throat spades effectively is determined by the number of tricks that one garners. Be open to learning more.

I Hurt My Back Shoveling Snow – Why You Seriously Need to Think About Getting Back Support

How is your back holding up?

Did you hurt your back while you were out shoveling snow?

1.) The Purpose of This Article

A.) Not to bore you.

B.) To illustrate how back pain can start.

C.) To show you a great way you can help to treat your back pain conservatively (and cost effectively).

2.) Back Pain

We have all heard about the importance of good posture and proper body mechanics, but when it comes to shoveling snow, there is not text on how to do this properly. Sure, you might be thinking, “let a snow blower do the heavy lifting”, but you and I both know this is not always possible.

We have all been there. At some point or another, we have used a shovel to clear the drive way or sidewalk of snow. The weight of the snow might not be that bad, but its the repetitive effort of clearing the snow from your shovel that requires force. – You already know that to be true. This is where the back pain can start. Actually, your back issues could have started a while back and you were not 100 percent aware of it,… and then all of the sudden the shoveling of the snow just made your back pain soar! – Can you relate?

3.) Why You Need To Think About Back Support – Pain Reduction & Increased Stability

One of the very best things about a back support is that they can help to reduce your back pain. Actually, a well designed back support can do so almost immediately! They can help you to reduce your back pain to the point where many people do not need to take pain medications all the time. – The improved support that they can provide can really help you to avoid making those painful movements with your back that will make your pain escalate.

Many back supports are also very low profile these days. The saying “less is more” could definitely apply to the design of many back supports today. You can usually not even tell that someone has one on, because they are extremely easy to hide underneath a shirt.

*This is health information. – We do really believe in the positive benefits of back supports, but this article should not be seen as a substitute for the advice that your doctor will give you regarding your back issues.

Scissor Lifts – Its Description and Types

If you are looking for machinery that could help you to raise some heavy objects or people, you can make use of a scissor lifts or table lifts. They are utilized in raising number of people and heavy objects. These machines have a platform which is built on top of a criss-cross base that may enlarge and contract per height. They are obtainable in a selection of diverse sizes. You can have your choices from among those depending on the requirements of height, whether the equipment have to be stationary or mobile and the way by which the machine is powered. The lifts when not being used are compact and can be stored easily because the supports are collapsible in nature. Hence as they are perfect to be used in factories and warehouses, they can be utilized efficiently in your workplace as well as in your garage.

There are many things to put into consideration when choosing scissor lifts; you must purchase a product with elevated standard of performance, safety and stability. Depending on the intention, select a machine which can endure high temperatures, acidic elements and water. Lifts that are made of stainless steel are the excellent option, but certainly more costly. Keep in mind also that as you want to expand your lift, you will pay extra amount for the additional scissors to be inserted. Moving lifts that come together with a wheel drive in the front are more costly than lifts that are stationary.

Choosing lifts that have shirking bar surrounding them helps avoid injuries such as clothing or limbs getting caught by the scissor as it expands. A security bar is available also and is very useful in preventing the lift to contract if too much load has been set on the surface of the table. Although lifts are very useful, there are plenty of accidents wherein limbs and lives have vanished because the scissors collapsed due to excess load and overuse. You have to remember all these things as you make your choice so that injuries will be prevented and no limbs or lives will be lost.

There are two types of scissor lifts depending in the method they are energized: The hydraulic and pneumatic scissor lifts.

Hydraulic scissor lifts, in this kind of lifts, a liquid that is highly pressured is passed on through the machine which makes it to expand and contract. The fluid might be controlled by valves. When moving, it releases big amount of pressure which is transformed into power by actuators (mechanical device). The advantage of utilizing hydraulic lift is due to the fact that platform can be returned manually to the earth or ground. This can help prevent accidents.

Pneumatic scissor lifts, these lifts are energized by means of air bags instead of elevated pressure liquid which pose the risk of leakages. However the accuracy of these lifts is not similar to the precision of the hydraulic ones. In reality air bags are implicated in the contraction and expansion which leads to several amount of rebounds when loads are placed or taken from the stand or platform.

The First Passenger Elevator

Elevators are devices that are used to carry goods and supplies between floors. The earliest notation of an elevator dates back to 200 BC and is accredited to a Roman architect named Vitruvius. Elevators would continue to be used for thousands of years by people to move goods between floors.

While elevators were used for many thousands of years, the first passenger elevator was not invented until the middle of the nineteenth century. Prior to this the elevators were really dumbwaiters. The usually consisted of a simple rope hoist system. These dumbwaiters were powered by people, animals, or water.

One of the first major developments in regard to elevator technology occurred towards the end of the eighteenth century. A Russian inventor, named Ivan Kulibin , developed an elevator that used a screw drive system instead of a hoist. Kulibin’s elevator would be installed in Winter Palace and several years later another Kulibin elevator would be installed in Arkhangelskoye, which is a suburb of Moscow.

While there are many documented uses of the elevator, the first passenger elevator would not be seen until 1884, when a very talented inventor named Elisha Otis unveiled the worlds first safety elevator. Otis led a very interesting life and was a talented mechanic. While overseeing the construction of a new factory, he invented a way to stop a rope hoist from falling if the rope broke.

After the building of the factory was complete, he was set to go mine gold in California, when he began to receive many questions about his elevator. Seeing a market for this device, he started his own company that was aimed at providing commercial dumbwaiters to businesses. In 1854, Otis unveiled the first passenger elevator, which incorporated a new safety design to protect against cable failure. His design is the basis for the safety system that is used on today’s elevators.

Otis’s first safety elevator was showcased at Crystal Palace, which was a building located in New York. The Crystal Palace was built as a place for people from around the world to meet and showcase their designs. He quickly received an order for his elevator and the first permanent passenger elevator was installed several years later in 1857. The safety elevator was not Otis’s only contribution to elevator technology. He also developed a steam powered elevator in 1861. This elevator was unique because it contained its own steam generator, so even businesses that had no power source could use the elevator.

Otis died shortly after receiving his patent for the steam elevator, but his two sons took over his business. They were much like their fathers in that they were very mechanically inclined and continued to help steer the elevator industry.

Today the Otis Elevator is known world wide and holds over twenty percent of the elevator market. Their elevators can be seen in almost 1.25 million buildings all over the world and they employ almost seventy thousand employees.

The elevator has come a long way since the early dumbwaiter and its history is very interesting.

Disposable Wedding Plates – Why Are Disposable Wedding Plates the Best?

When some people hear about “disposable wedding plates” their reaction isn’t necessarily the one that is expected. It tends to be one of disgust and judgment that wedding plates are NOT supposed to be cheap-ware. Correct? Until they hear the ins and outs about how convenient and “smart” the disposable wedding plates actually are. Yes they may be “disposable” but, one question that would be asked is “What isn’t convenient about having a disposable wedding plate?” Here are a list of answers to often asked questions and some valid concerns that to be fair, need to be answered.

* How Expensive?: A main question is “Aren’t they cheap?”. Yes, they come at a very convenient price for the majority of the people who can’t afford something so grand as a rented exotic place that would accommodate five hundred people. This is for people who are planning the celebration by themselves and who don’t have access to rent tableware at a low cost that would fit their budget. Another reason they ask this question is for the quality of the plate. If they are disposable, than they are cheap, is what they feel. Wrong! These disposable plates are actually in better quality than your average plastic plate. When buying normal plastic plates, most people tend to look at them and say to themselves “I have to be careful, because it will either snap or crack if I am not”. With these, there is no fear. They are good quality.

* Wedding Suited?: Also a good question is “Are they meant for a grand occasion such as a wedding?” The answer to that is yes. If seen, the designs and look of the plates would astound most people because they would be so gorgeously surprising for a plate. They are beautiful and would go with anything that you would have planned for the occasion. Decoration wise, there is no fear of it looking tacky or not fitting. It will bring everything together and complete it rather than make it look offish and cheaply done. Also, they can come in almost any color you would like. The most popular one is the clear, but other colors are available as well to fit your decorations.

* Sturdy?: Absolutely yes. You can fill your plate with your dinner or refreshments with no fear of the plate cracking in half because of the weight. They work just like a regular plate. They can be treated as one as well. The only difference is you can throw these away with no regret and save clean up time by not washing dishes and such.

These plates will come with no regret if they happen to be tried out. It comes with a guarantee that the plates will do their job and do it well with a hundred percent satisfaction. For a paper plate, you’ve got to admit, these have a pull to them that paper plates generally wouldn’t have.

Gas, Pellet, Wood and Electric Stoves

There are a number of home heating stoves available, and there are a number of ways to run them too. Let’s consider each one separately.

Gas stoves are run by propane gas, meaning that the combustion system is gas, or they can be run by natural gas. It’s a very clean burning gas and the newer stoves do not even show a pilot light nor any burner tubes. With many of them you truly cannot tell the difference between a wood burning combustion system and a gas one. The logs inside look completely real, and the burning embers under the logs are also totally lifelike. But mainly it’s the yellow flames that lick the logs that make it appear so realistic. Many of the newer gas stoves are built of cast iron and the styles can be either ultra modern, or old style gas stoves.

Many also come with fancy accouterments, such as an aromatherapy unit, or even a convection fan! Or you may wish a certain finish to the gas stove. There are steel stoves, and stoves with porcelain enamel insets, and even soapstone, which is known to be one the best materials known to science at this time to retain heat the most as well as the longest. Many of these stoves also come with a remote control!

Pellet home heating stoves are actually wood burning, but the wood comes in pellets that are formed from sawdust, other trash wood or wooden waste products. They are put through a machine that renders the small pellets, and then the product is bagged for ease in handling. This kind of home heating stove will have a hopper for you to fill with pellets. The more modern pellet home heating stoves will have a microcomputer inserted into them that will regulate things like the optimum feed rate of the pellets. It will of course, sense the room’s temperature, and regulate the fire so that you have less heat loss. They are considered extremely safe as they have automatic shut offs should the computer find that there is a blockage of some sort for instance, or if there is an overheating of the unit.

Home heating stoves whose combustion system is one that actually utilizes wood are also available with many new inventions that allow for ease in adding wood, an automatic damper closure function for smokeless insertion of the wood, and even can come outfitted with rotisserie and grilling options! These can come in a multitude of colors too so that they blend well with any of your furnishing décor. Some even come with warming shelves so that you can warm your dinner as you enjoy the wood burning.

Electric stoves are just that-they warm your room with electric heat, to take over some of the work and expense of central heat. For instance, they are perfect for use in uninsulated rooms. People often buy these electric stoves in order to have the special ambiance that the traditional wood stove gives, but do not have to have special installations as gas, pellet or wood stoves require. All that’s really necessary is a standard 120V outlet–plug it in and voila! The flame technology on these is also incredibly realistic.

Range Cookers Vs Normal Cookers

Range cookers are coming in different sizes and capacities. Larger size of range cooker can perform many operations at the same time. The size of range cookers varies between 90 cm to 150 cm. Having a range cooker in home is equal to having oven, dual grill, burner stove, griddle and rotisserie. The normal cookers can’t perform all these operations at a time.

Most of the range cookers are having two ovens, a larger one having 50-75 litres capacity and the smaller one having 20-35 litres capacity. It’s coming with inbuilt fan for cooling the baked foods. The capacity of the normal cooker is very less, ranges between 3.5 litres to 4.5 litres.

The larger size range cookers are having drawers at the bottom to store the cooked food. It is simply used as hotbox, which keeps the food hot for longer period of time. The normal cooker can also perform this function.

Automatic ignition facility is available with range cookers. The burner ignites automatically when the burner knob is on position. It is more convenient from the safety point of view. In case of normal cookers we need to ignite the burner when it is turned on.

Most of the range cookers are having the drop down doors. The size of this drop down door should be at optimum level, larger is size can cause some problems to peoples having back pain complaint. Primary problem in range cooker is the drop down door, so you need to take care of this problem when purchasing a range cooker. No need to take care while going for normal cookers. It doesn’t have this problem.

Warming drawers are used to keep the prepared food warm before going to serve. It is also used to give uniform heat to the food. Sometimes, it can be used for baking purposes. Normal cookers don’t have this warming drawer. You can use the range cookers in two ways, first function is manual usage and the next one is preprogrammed function. Manual operations initially take some time to start. In the case of programmed operation it can operate itself automatically.

Normal cookers are also having this programming operation but it can perform complicated programs. Thermostat indicator is present in the range cooker to control the heat level within the system. Thermostat indicators will automatically switch off the system when it senses the high level of heat inside the system. Normal cooker cannot perform this operation due to the unavailability of the thermostat indicator. Countdown time sounds an alarm when the cooking time is up. It helps to manage the time without loss of energy. This facility is available with the normal cookers also.

All the range cookers are having adjustable legs. You can use the range cookers even at an uneven surface. These legs are also used to change the height of the cooker. Normal cookers do not have that facility. It’s an important criterion when looking from consumer point of view, so you need to take care of this while going for purchasing the cookers.

Dual fuel range cooker consumes the natural gas from the mains. If the main gas supply is off then it can use LPG bottles gas. This operation would be done by a qualified engineer. Some range cooker can perform these all operations using an electric external source.

It’s easier to take food from the oven by pulling the shelf out from the chamber. Non-tip shelves present at the chamber prevent the shelf from leaving the chamber and spilling food on the floor. Childproof locking facility prevents the system from accidental switch on. You need to press a button, or combination of buttons, to switch on the system.

Making Solar Panels at Home – Build a Solar Panel For About $200

Making solar panels at home is easy with the right materials and instructions. You can make a solar panel for as little as $200. The materials you will need include: solar cells, plywood or plastic board, UV protector for the plywood, Flex-Glass, tin wire at two different thicknesses, silicone, solder, solder iron and or gun, rosin flux pen, nuts, bolts, and wood or metal to use as a frame, and a junction box. You will also want a volt meter to test your panel. (You can borrow this from an electrician.)

1. Make a template. A template will make sure that each cell is placed evenly apart. You can purchase 5×5 inch cells for this project. Draw a template making sure that each cell in each row is about 1/4 inch apart. Leave a few inches on the outside edges for the frame of the panel.

2. Cut the plastic board or ply wood to the size of panel you want to build. You will want to figure out the size to cut the board or plywood. If you need 100 watts of power then you will make a panel with 50 cells. You may not need that much. If you are using plywood, then you will want to protect it with a coat of UV Guard.

3. Cut the tabbing wire: Cut the wire the same length of two cells plus 1/4 inch so if you were to use the 5×5 inch cells, you would cut the length 10 1/4 inches long. Cut two for each cell. You will be soldering half of the wire to the negative side of one cell and the other half of the wire to the positive side of the next cell. If you do not have coated wire you will need to put solder on the wires or on the tabs of each cell.

4. Use the flux pen and solder gun. Each cell will have two tabs on each side. Run the flux pen along the tab of a cell (blue side or negative side) where you are going to attach the tabbing wire. Solder the wire to the cell. Solder a second wire along the second tab. Do this with all the cells.

5. Attach all the cells in rows. Now turn the cells over and solder the excess wire to the positive side of the other cells making 5 rows of 10 cells (if you are using 50 cell panels). The negative side of cell #1 attaches to the positive side of cell #2 making sure that each cell is 1/4 inch apart in each row.

6. Attach rows using heavy wire: You are going to use the thicker wire to attach all the cells together at the ends. You will be connecting in a series, meaning negative to positive and negative to positive through the panel connecting each row.

7. Test it with the volt meter: Attach the volt meter to the wires on the cells to make sure it is working properly.

8. Use the Silicone to secure the rows of cells to the panel.

9. Put wires through the junction box: There will be two pieces of wire left over from attaching the wires in a series: a positive and a negative that you will solder to a positive and negative electrical wire. Pull through the back of the panel and into the junction box you have attached to the back of the panel with silicone. You can check out the link below to get the guide for all the details.

10. Frame it. You can use a wood border as a frame for the plywood or a metal c frame for the frame of the plastic board. Use silicone to attach the backing and then use nuts and bolt to keep it tight. Use several nuts and bolts to attach the c metal frame to the panel.

Free Sample Business Plan – Plan For Profit!

Are you looking at starting your own business? If so, then a free sample business plan can be an excellent tool for you to use. The starting of a new business and/or owning a business is a large investment in time and money. By looking at a free sample business plan to get advice and ideas from other successful companies, you will benefit both long and short term. A free sample business plan from a well-respected company will guide you and/or give you at least a solid starting point. The following are some features you may find in a free sample business plan.

Features Of A Business Plan:

1. Introduction: The plan’s introduction is where your business explains the service and/or product you will offer. The introduction will make the business stand out, above any other potential threat to offering the same or similar service.

2. The Business: This section of the plan will describe the board members, key players, and a brief introduction or summary about the company history. There will be discussion on percentages of ownership, how many employees there are, and where the company is located. If this is a new business, this section will be brief; but if it a free sample business plan and outline of a company that has been in existence, this section may cover past successes and achievements.

3. The products and services: This section of the free sample business plan is a detailed description of what product and/or service is offered. Specifics in this part of the free sample business plan are the key. For example, instead of the free sample business plan reading “ABC offers clothing”, the plan would state, “AMC offers designer children’s clothing for children ages birth to 8 years old at highly discounted prices”.

4. Market: This section of the sample plan will analyze (both informally and formally) the targeted market, if it is a niche market, and what community need the company will fill. At this point in the plan, you should use statistics, percentages, and detailed figures to support your statements.

5. Financial & Budgetary Analysis: The financial & budgetary analysis section of the sample plan will be an outline of profits, income, and expenditures of an organization already in existence. As a business just starting out, the section will be projected costs and expenditures, as well as profit projections. This is a great way for a business person to assess and visualize the venture is worth it. In other words, if it will not cost more to get started/operate than the money it will bring in.

6. Company Highlights: The free sample business plan will also include a section for you to look at that will have miscellaneous highlights of the company. The free sample business plan will list such highlights as: a mission statement; value statement; keys for success; desired outcomes; etc. All will show and prove why and how the business will be profitable.

7. Table of Contents and Index: The table of contents will guide you through the plan to find exactly what you are looking for. This is both visually appealing for the plan, and will help those looking at your plan (potential investors, banks, partners, etc.) move through it easily.

There are a wide variety of sample plans for you to look at online for most any type of business (both start up and already in existence). You will find free samples, as well as some offered to you for a small fee. A plan for business is a necessity in the business world. It will help you to outline your present tasks and your future ventures.

Handrails For the Disabled

Handrails can be produced in a wide variety of designs for the elderly and disabled people. There are many types of handrails, designed for various disabilities.

The ADA, American Disabilities Act, has formed certain boundaries to which public and other places must follow to fully support the people with disabilities. One of the major factors that must be considered is the design and the place of making handrails that includes hand bars. These handrails are not limited to only public places, but they are also developed in the private areas in order to meet ADA standards. The material of developing handrails must be powerful enough to handle the amount of stress caused by grabbing the bar. The handrails are usually made of steel and aluminium pipe, situated in public places. The handrails are 32 to 38 mm in diameter. The handrails situated in homes are made of nylon or PVC pipes. In Stair ways, wheel chair access is usually seen that is made for the disabled people. These rails are parallel to the ground.

A “D TURN”, rounded off section, is required at each end of the handrails. Grab bars are usually found in bathrooms to help the disabled. They are often seen in public restrooms, where toilet grab bars are established to aid the disable. Sometimes, these are installed in homes of the handicapped person. The bars help the handicapped person in lifting himself on and off the toilet seat. Grab bars are also installed in shower and tubs. The purpose of these bars is usually to help the injured person to be independent and to support himself in private places, where he might be reluctant to call anyone else for support.

Portable grab bars also available that might support the disabled in travelling. These handrails are made for those people who have mild injuries or disabilities. Shower seats include seats that could help the disabled while taking a shower. They often have a grab-bar nearby for support.

Unfortunately, in most countries, special attention is not given to support the handicapped people. In most situations, the elderly men and women with weak legs are unable to lift themselves up while using a standard latrine in hospitals, situated in rural areas. The use of handrails could help the disabled to walk in and out of the bathroom or lifting and sitting. Although it is important to follow the specified standards in establishing handrails, but if you do not have enough resources, you can simply use bamboo poles to assist in moving up and down.

There are some major barriers, seen in most countries like lack of sufficient spacing in different areas for disabled people, ramps, lack of chairs and toilets. This will not help the handicapped in performing their routine tasks and will eventually delay a lot of activities. They will be more dependent on others for support, and it might decrease their self confidence.

Impart a Chic Look to Your Deck With Modern Day Balusters

Installing balusters is the best way to prevent accidents that can occur when children come into close proximity with deck railings. To give a more clear definition of deck balusters, they are basically vertical pieces that are placed between the deck railing posts of the deck. The main intention behind the installation of these balusters has been the safety of kids in the house, but with the advancement of technology and the emphasis on aesthetic appeal, balusters have begun to be made in innovative colors and materials to enhance the look of the deck.

This is a radical change to the conventional balusters which were wooden posts fixed in a vertical line. These kind of balusters needed constant maintenance and would break with the passage of time. Repainting at periodic intervals was another issue with the old type of wooden balusters. If your preference veers towards wooden balusters, there is no need to worry as they are still available in the market. However, for those who want convenience in terms of maintenance and a sense of style in terms of looks, there are plenty of balusters that are being made with contemporary materials that can completely alter the look of your deck. For that matter, even the traditional balusters have started being made in powder-coated aluminum finishes that can be easily installed on the railings of the deck. Depending on your taste, you can get round or square shapes for your balusters.

Another type of balusters is aluminum that bear a close similarity to forged wrought iron material while costing much lower than real wrought iron balusters. Bronze and black are the usual colors for these kinds of balusters and they complement wood railings exceedingly well. Separate designs that can be used as centerpieces also give a sense of definition to the aluminum balusters. Names like colonial, baroque, arc etc. are some of the names designated for the designs of these ornamental aluminum balusters. Since a lot of these are equipped with easy-to-screw connectors, installation is not a problem. If aluminum balusters do not suit your fancy, you can always try out the stainless steel ones that are very low on maintenance and factors like painting.

Glass is yet another option if you are looking for ornamental materials for your balusters. Transparent Perspex glass material or thick safety glass is used while manufacturing glass balusters and these look very trendy on the deck. If your family has small kids, however, glass might not be a great alternative as there is always the danger of rolling balls and swinging bats causing the glass to break.

All in all, modern balusters can be used as a statement of style and you no longer have to be content with drab looking balusters for your deck.