Windshield Sun Shade – Beat The Heat And Protect Your Vehicle Interior

The sun is shining down and so is it’s scorching heat. We all like sun bathing and but not dealing with the effects of the heat in our cars. The sun’s UV rays can be harsh to your car’s interior and especially during peak summer months, which makes having a windshield sun shade a necessity for any vehicle. Direct sunlight burning through a car windshield results in extreme temperatures inside your vehicle, and can cause of damage to the dash, seat materials and even personally when coming into contact with hot metal or plastic. Windshield sun shades play a significant role in keeping the car interiors cool and protecting the interior material from fading while the vehicle is parked at the beach, work, airport or anywhere else.

Windshield covers help in reducing the temperature of car’s interior, by effectively obstructing the sun and harmful UV rays. A simple single windshield shade combats 99.5% of harmful UV rays and up to 80% of the solar energy, that can keep your car up to 50 degrees cooler than without it. It features a triple laminate structure where the middle foam core is laminated between the two layers of silver reflective surface and a soft felt inner surface on both sides. The sandwiched foam layer acts as an insulator that protects the car interior and the outer silver surface reflects the harmful rays, thus blocking them from raising the temperature inside the car.

These heat shields are lightweight and made in various forms as well as designs. For ease of use, they are either made to unfold or roll over the windshield. These are made to fit every windshield of almost all car and truck makes and models. These car sunshades are often custom printed with the messages or pictures, for a personal touch that looks quite unique and attractive. The idea triggered many marketing teams of auto dealers, insurance companies, and other businesses who now use this heat shade as a customized platform for their advertising.

In addition to cooling down your sizzling dashboard, there are few more advantages associated with its use. Since the car will remain cooler with a shade, there will be less fuel consumption to cool the car, which consequently will save you money. Another important function performed by this windshield cover is that it hides the things left in the car and prevents people from seeing into your vehicle.

A windshield sun shade is easy to use and gives you all the benefits by allowing your car and truck to stay cool and protected in the sun. By protecting the car interior from detrimental UV rays, it helps retain it’s true market value. There are many reasons to own car sun shield with the most important climbing into a cooler comfortable car when the temperatures are climbing.

To learn more about the benefits of a windshield sun shade and the different styles available visit this excellent online resource.

Tips for Keeping Your Camper Awnings Clean

For many people, their camper is an extension of their home, and your home is your castle. Not too many people want to live in a shabby, run down and tired looking home, so why would they want to live or travel in a less than clean and tidy looking camper. Camper awnings are one of the accessories of a camper, but they bring a certain life and style that just does not exist without them. It is therefore important that you keep them clean, neat and tidy. After all, how often have you gone to a campground and seen that the camper in the space next to yours had camper awnings that were run down, patched, downright dirty or even growing mold?

Camper awnings are easy to keep clean with a bit of preventative maintenance and regular care. One of the first things that you will want to do is store them during inclement weather. If for some reason you have been away during a sudden storm, then you will want to allow the awning fabric time to dry before rolling them away. Trapped moisture can cause the awning to mold, making it more susceptible to further damage. You should also always remove debris such as twigs before rolling your awning up, as twigs and branches or other debris could cause a tear or hole to develop. Camper awnings are not inexpensive to replace, so it is in your best interest to make sure that you always take good care of them.

To clean any stains, mold or mildew that has developed on your awning, you will want to clean it using a mild detergent solution such as dishwashing soap and warm water, together with a soft bristled brush. You will then want to rinse it off and allow it to air dry in the sun. It is best to do this on warm sunny days, as you will not want the moisture to pool and create a nice environment for the development of further mold or mildew. You can also use this method to remove any animal urine or fecal matter from the awning. If you feel that you would like to disinfect your awning, it is best not to use any kind of harsh or abrasive cleaning material. A very mild disinfectant or alternatively, vinegar or lemon juice, can be used when mixed with your detergent solution.

In addition to the fabric of your camper awning, you will need to periodically check the braces to make sure that they are in good working order and free of rust or mildew. Also be sure that they are tightly secured to the camper. This will help keep your awning in good and working order. If the braces are loose, the awning can become damaged if the braces break free.

Taking care of your camper awning will ensure that your camper always looks bright, fresh and in good condition. This is not only important for your enjoyment, but also for resale value, should you ever decide to sell.

Crack Sealing Asphalt Pavement

Maintaining a commercial facilities parking lot is important to the safety of your buildings’ visitors and important to the overall appearance of your business. No one wants to pick their way through a pothole filled parking lot to go shopping. Businesses with weeds growing through the asphalt, standing water or crumbling pavement appear to be un-kept and mismanaged. Your parking lot is the first impression your customers get when it comes to your business. It’s important to properly maintain the area by sealing cracks and making asphalt repairs as needed.

Why Does Asphalt Crack?

There are several reasons for cracks in the asphalt. First, asphalt cracks are more prevalent in dry weather. When the ground under the asphalt dries, it can cause the asphalt to pull apart and cracks can occur in your asphalt pavement.

Trees are also a cause of some asphalt cracks. Overtime, the roots of the trees will grow under the asphalt as they seek out moisture. It’s normally moist under asphalt, so they are attracted to this area. As the root removes the moisture, the pavement can separate as in the first example. Also, roots can cause bulges in the asphalt pavement if they grow in an upward fashion. To avoid this from happening, the planning of landscape area and trees should be in conjunction with the planning and paving of your parking area.

Applying Crack Sealer

Ask your paving company to take a look at any cracks you have in your parking lot. Sometimes, after a little rain the cracks may close a bit and become almost unnoticeable; however, if this isn’t the cause, your paving contractor can apply a crack sealer. A crack sealer should be applied to cracks before sealcoating to prevent them from growing and further damaging your asphalt parking lot.

To keep your asphalt parking lot and driveway in pristine condition, asphalt cracks should be filled and asphalt repairs be made very year. Additionally, your parking lot should be seal coated every two to three years. Sealcoating will help protect the asphalt from the harmful effects of the weather as well the damaging effects of petroleum-based products like gasoline and oil.

As we just discussed, if asphalt is not property seal coated or, not sealed at all, cracks can start forming in the asphalt. If the cracks are not managed and filled every year, this can then lead to potholes making it necessary to perform an asphalt repair.

Bridge Jewelry – Artisan Jewelry

Jewelry is more than an accessory; it can be a promise, a remembrance, a statement or a frivolous decoration. Fine jewelry, Bridge jewelry and Fashion Jewelry are all types of jewelry that allow you to have a variety of choices to add to your collection and create your look. The terms Bridge jewelry and Artisan jewelry are sometimes used as if they are synonymous. We will explore this assumption and discover that Bridge jewelry and Artisan jewelry can be the same thing, but are not always the same.

Fine jewelry uses at least 14 kt. Gold or other precious metals along with precious gems like diamonds, sapphires, rubies or emeralds. Fine jewelry can be mass-produced or artisan-made one-of-a-kind pieces or limited-edition. It can be found in fine jewelry stores or in galleries. It commands the highest prices and holds value very well.

Fashion jewelry can also be artisan-made or mass produced. Materials used in the designs are base metals, glass, plastic and other synthetics. This jewelry may also be made of shell, wood and other organic materials. Fashion jewelry is available in craft shows, department stores, discount stores, drug stores and even flea markets. Prices on Fashion jewelry tend to be the most affordable of all jewelry. Its value is in its usability and the addition to your wardrobe.

Bridge jewelry is called that because it is the bridge between Fine jewelry and Fashion jewelry. It may use vermeil, gold filled or silver as the metal and uses semi precious stones such as amethyst, citrine, turquoise, jade, topaz, fresh water pearls, garnet and others. Much Bridge jewelry is artisan-made, but it can also be mass produced. Bridge jewelry is often found in craft shows, galleries and art shows. Prices are in the mid range between Fine jewelry and Fashion jewelry. Depending on the artist and/or materials, this jewelry can be a good investment.

Of course other combinations are found in jewelry. Some designers use precious metals such as 14k gold with amethyst. These pieces are not so easily classified. Price points and materials are the most definitive difference between the categories. Fine jewelry as the most expensive and Fashion jewelry as an inexpensive alternative. Bridge jewelry falls between these two on price.

Bridge jewelry can be a unique and affordable addition to your collection. You may see some familiar names in galleries or fine department stores and begin to recognize them as producers of Bridge jewelry. When you attend an art show, take a special look and you will recognize that much of it is fine artisan-made Bridge jewelry. It can provide you a good value because of the combination of quality materials; creativity and workmanship provided by the designers of these unique one-of-a-kind or limited edition pieces.

Dot Net – Assembly In ASP Net

We can say that assembly is a combination of single-file or multiple files in ASP NET. The assembly which contains more then one file is dynamic link library (DLL) or we can also say it’s an EXE file. In ASP.NET assembly contains metadata that is pronounced as assembly manifest. This manifest of assembly contains data about the assembly versioning, AuthorName, Security, Token Key etc that’s makes assembly popular and secure.

We can also say it’s a big advantage of assembly and another big advantage of using ASP.NET Assemblies is that programmer need not to create applications without interfering with other applications on the system its means assembly requirement in one application cannot harm another application that using that assembly because assembly in one application is not applied to another application.

But one assembly can be shared with many applications. In asp dot net 2003 assembly is placed in Bin directory of the application that uses it. This advantage make assembly so popluar because this is one of the drawback in of DLL in the past.

In past, developers need to share libraries of code through DLL. And when same dll is needed in applications then users have to register that DLL on to the machine. One of main thing in ASP NET is that the assembly is created by default when we build our application or DLL. We can also check the details of the manifest of the assembly by using classes located in the System.Reflection namespace. We can create two types of assemblies in ASP NET.

Private Assembly

Shared Assembly

There are many advantages of assembly some of them are as follows:

(1) Increased performance.

(2)Better code management and encapsulation.

(3)Introduces the n-tier concepts and business logic.

In asp dot net System namespace and other namespaces like it i.e. System.Data, System.Web are also pre-built assemblies that have been provided in the dot net framework to us by Microsoft.

Banner Installation Methods – How to Properly Hang Your New Banner

You have purchased a new banner sign to advertise your business or event and now are wondering about the best way to install it. Hanging a banner should not be a difficult task. Here is a list of some of the common places where banners are installed and the best methods and techniques for mounting or hanging them:

Flat Wall Mounting – Most banners are ordered with grommets around the perimeter which make them fairly easy to install on flat walls. For Drywall, you can use push pins through the material or grommet openings, or use plastic wall anchors with screws and washers to fasten through the grommets and into the wall. Make sure the washer is slightly larger than the grommet opening. For a Brick or Block Wall, use a tapcon masonry screw with a washer to fasten your banner (note that you will also need a hammer drill and a masonry bit for this method). For a Sheet Metal Wall, use sheet metal screws and washers. For a Wood Wall use wood screws and washers. EIFS or Synthetic Stucco Surfaces, with brand names such as Dryvit and Masterwall, are difficult to install banners on since the first 3/4″ to 4″ of the surface depth is typically just polystyrene foam. Some have had success using plastic EZ drywall anchors with large threads that allow the screw and washer method to be used for short time periods. Any holes in the EIFS surface should be filled with caulk once the banner is removed to prevent water damage to the structure. Usually, it is best to tie the banner up with rope in the corner grommets and to anchor it to a hard surface above and below the wall.

Between Pole Mounting – When mounting banners between poles it is best to have rope or webbing with D-rings sewn into the top and bottom seams of the banner. You can then simply tie the rope around the poles or through large eye screws that may be installed on the poles. D-Rings at the end of the webbing can be attached with bungee cords strung around the poles or also from large eye screws, if present. Bungee cord mounting is a great mounting technique as it allows the banner to move during high winds. Mounting banners between poles with a rope attached to simple corner grommet holes is usually a recipe for failure as the grommets will tend to rip loose during the first strong wind. Bungee cords can also be attached to corner grommet holes and will lessen the chance of the grommets ripping out.

Lawn Mounting – For temporary banners mounted in grassy areas, use a method similar to the between pole mounting. Steel T fence posts can be purchased at most home improvement stores, such a Lowe’s and Home Depot, and can be put into the ground using a post driver. Rope, bungee cords, or heavy duty plastic wire ties can then be used with grommets to install the banner between the posts.

Fence Mounting – Mounting banners on a chain link fence is usually an easy task. Simply use plastic wire ties or zip ties through the grommets and around the links. For a wooden fence, use the same method as you would for a flat wooden wall.

Ceiling Mounting – The best way to hang a banner from a ceiling above a stage, gym or auditorium is to use pole pockets. Pole pockets are openings that are sewn into the top and bottom seams of the banner that allow for a rigid PVC or metal pole to be slid through them. Wire, cable, or decorative rope can then be attached to the top pole and hung from the rafters above. A pole is then inserted into the bottom pocket to add some weight to the banner keeping it rigid and stationary.

Flag Mounting to Poles – Pole pockets are also used to mount vertical banners to the sides of electric poles and light poles. Sometimes called Boulevard Banners, these are often seen decorating city streets and college and business campuses. Banner bracket kits with projecting metal or fiberglass rods are installed on the poles to allow for mounting of the banners.

Across The Street Mounting – Large banners for parades and events are sometime mounted across an entire city street. These are usually mounted with guy wire strung just above and below the banner and attached to poles on each side of the street. Snap hooks are then inserted through the grommets and around the wires to suspend the banner. Rope can then be attached to each corner grommet on the banner and pulled tight around each pole to keep the banner in place.

Storefront Windows – Banners that are designed to fit between storefront window frames can be mounted to the inside of the window using suction cups with hooks. The hooks are simply inserted through the grommet holes and then the cups are stuck to the windows.

While this list might not cover every possible banner mounting situation, it should cover most that you might encounter. Perhaps a combination of some of the banner mounting methods and techniques discussed above would work in some instances. You should now know how to hang a banner.

How to Relieve Hammer Toes and Bunions

Hammer toes

Hammer toes and bunions deformity of the joints; in hammer toes a bending of the toes usually the 2nd, 3rd or 4th toe. Causing a permanent bend which looks like a hammer. These toes can become quite painful because of the pressure on your joints.


Bunions and hammer toes can be caused by shoes that do not fit properly. Ill fitting shoes can force the toe into a bent position, like wearing high heeled shoes or narrow fitting shoes. With the toe bent for a long time this can cause the muscle to shorten resulting in a toe deformity. This is often found in conjunction with bunions or other foot problems. The most common cause of hammer toes is a muscle or tendon imbalance. Hammer toes can also be caused by nerve or joint damage, resulting from conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes.


To relieve the pressure and pain you can change your footwear to new soft shoes that are wider and give more room in the toe box area. In more severe cases like when the hammer toe becomes more rigid, surgery is required to correct the deformity. Your Podiatrist can advise on toe exercises that can be done at home, like stretching and strengthening the muscles. Hammer toes never get better without intervention. Orthoses also help to re-align and re-balance the feet.


You can spot a bunion a mile away it is a big lump on the side of your foot on the big toe. It is a structured deformity of the bones and joint on the big toe. It can also be very painful. Women tend to complain more about bunions than men because of the shoe types they wear. Bunions are quite common, it is medically known as Hallux Valgus.


Bunions can often be inherited. The symptoms of a bunion can be pain, inflammation, skin irritation and redness around the bunion. You can get a lot of pain when walking and the big toe tends to lean towards the other toes. Bunions are caused by abnormalities when tendons and ligaments are no longer functioning properly. Other causes are flat feet, abnormal bone structure and genetic factors. Your footwear can exaggerate the problem more: also you can get arthritis of your big toe joint.


Bunions and hammer toes may be treated by a change in your footwear, extra padding and shielding or orthotics which can be fitted by your Podiatrist. Also resting your foot and applying ice to the affected area. You can get bunion spacers, toe separators, and bunion splints. These treatments help with the symptoms but do not correct the deformity, only surgery may be necessary if the deformity is severe. But you will need an x-ray first to see the extent of the deformity. Surgery involves removing of the bony enlargement on the side of your foot, realigning and straightening of the big toe, also correcting any abnormal misalignment of your toe. Your age, health and lifestyle play a big part in whether you can have surgery. Bunion surgery can be performed under local or general anaesthetic and recovery time is 6-8 weeks.

Useful Information About Mosaics

Mosaic is a form of tiling that is usually used in showers and on floors to add a lot of color and style to the room. Mosaics can be found in a large number of textures, colors, layouts and shapes so that if required, you could customize every room in the house. Not only are they are a form of tiling, they are sometimes even considered works of art, called mosaic art.

Most mosaic tiles come with ridges on the backside so that glue can bond more securely to the tile. Nearly all types of glass, stone and ceramic material can be considered as a mosaic tile. The vitreous-glass mosaic tile is a glassy stone-like material that is opaque, not clear, and is not as sharp as regular glass when cut. It is better to use mosaic supplies like mosaic glass cutters for cutting glass mosaic tiles; regular tile nippers may cut the tile but not as predictably as with a mosaic glass cutter. Ceramic mosaic tiles are popularly used for architectural applications, as they are quite cheap and can be easily cut using regular tile nippers. Sometimes, broken pieces of china and other types of dinnerware are used as mosaics, but as this ceramic dinnerware is engineered to be unbreakable, the plates produce razor edges when broken. Some of the mosaic tiles come attached to fiberglass mesh that keeps the tiles arranged in a grid. This mesh is then glued directly to the floor to be tiled. If you need to remove the mesh to get loose tile, the tile has to be soaked in warm water and the tiles fall off the mesh.

Mosaic tiles are not only used for flooring; they are also used to produce pieces of mosaic art that can be used for display. Mosaic tables make a great piece of furniture, with a tabletop made of mosaic tiles. Pools are the greatest source of use of mosaic art, with mosaic used in different mosaic patterns on the bottom and edges of the pool.

Instruction Of Plaster Walls

Preparing Walls for Plaster

Installing rock lath, the base to which wall plaster is applied, is not a difficult job and requires only a few tools. If you can swing a hammer or cut wire with tin snips or read a carpenter’s level, you can do your own lathing. For speed and convenience, invest in a lathing hatchet. If you prefer to use your own hammer, you’ll have to score and cut the lath with a knife, which takes longer.

First calculate the square yardage on all surfaces to be covered and order lath accordingly. Buy metal corner stripping by the linear foot for openings and corners. Ten pounds of lathing nails will be needed for each 100 square yards of rock lath.

The next step is to set up baseboard grounds – 3/4″ wood strips which allow for some foundation settling and prevent plaster cracks. Nail these along all walls to be plastered. Then proceed as outlined in the photographs. Remember to keep all lathing work neat and the corners square. The final job will be just as good – or bad – as this essential base job.

How to Plaster a Wall

There’s an art to making a good plaster wall, and the use of the proper tools is essential. These include a plasterer’s trowel, a corner-shaping tool, a hawk, a darby, a screeding rod, a heavy brush and a bucket. To order the materials you will need, figure the square feet of the area to be covered. The undercoat is a mixture of sand, pre-pared gypsum plaster and water. You will need – for each 10 square feet of undercoat – 90 pounds of plasterer’s sand, cleaned and screeded, and 30 pounds of gypsum plaster.


1. Trowel: a plasterer’s trowel is a must. This has a long brace bar on the top side in contrast with the shorter bar on a mason’s steel float. It costs several dollars more and is worth the price.

2. Hawk: this is the classic mortarboard device. Use one made of aluminum and save wear and tear on yourself. The wooden type weighs a good deal more. Load with plaster and hold in the left hand while the right does the work.

3. Darby: a two-handled smoothing tool to level large flat areas. It is held flat against the wall as it is moved along and levels out raised spots.

4. Screeding Rod: a straight-edged wood or metal stick to level off rough plaster applications. One end is usually held against guides as the upper end scrapes excess plaster back onto board for reapplication.

5. Water Brush: this, and a bucket of clear water, must be kept on hand for finish plaster coating. The brush spreads as well as dashes water over the surface being troweled smooth.

To mix, use either a wheelbarrow or shallow wood box and mix the sand and plaster, dry, in one end. Tilt the mixing box with the dry mixture in the upper end and put water in the low end. Then draw the mixed sand and plaster into the water a little at a time, mixing constantly. If water is added into the dry mix, or all of it is pulled into the water at once, lumps are formed which can’t be easily broken up. Mix to a heavy creamlike consistency. Add more of the dry mix or water, as necessary.

Apply the base coat as shown in the photographs. The final coat of finishing plaster is mixed with water without sand and applied as illustrated. Troweling technique is quickly mastered. Plaster is applied from a full trowel on upward strokes, using light pressure only. The trowel, in finishing, is held at an angle of about 30° to the wall. If pressed fiat against the wall, the trowel is held by suction and will pull the plaster off. If the angle is too great, the edge of the trowel will leave wavy lines in the surface.

Repair of Plaster Walls

Sooner or later, almost every plaster wall and ceiling develops cracks – if not in the broader expanses, then at least where flat surfaces join one another. Wind pressure on the house, structural expansion and shrinkage, traffic vibration, and household activities all contribute toward weakened plaster. Before any redecoration can take place, the inevitable patching must always be done.

First, clean away all material that appears loose in and around the crack. If it’s a fair-sized crack, use a putty knife and a beer can opener and open the crack to its deepest part, then undercut it so that it’s wider underneath than on the outer surface. Little cracks can simply be brushed clean. With a spray, a sponge or a wet rag, thoroughly dampen all surfaces of the crack. If this is overlooked, moisture from the new plaster will be absorbed into the wall, leaving the patch powdery and weak. Mix patching plaster to a thick paste and pack it into the crack with a putty knife, preferably a flexible one. (For thin, hairline cracks, use a paint brush.) Press the mix into the bottom of the crack, build up slightly more than necessary, smooth off the excess, and let it dry for 2 to 4 hours. Then use medium-grit sandpaper on a flat block to smooth off the excess. If you are going to paint later, a few strokes with fine-grit sandpaper will finish it off nicely. Before your paper or paint over this patchwork, brush on one coat or more of thinned shellac as a size coat. If there is no “glazed” look to the size coat when dry, apply a second coat.

One word of caution – when the job is finished, don’t pour excess plaster down the sink, for it will solidly block the drain pipe. If you mixed the material in a china or plastic bowl, it’s easy to clean out for the next batch. Each quantity mixed should be just what you can apply in 10 minutes. After that, it starts to harden and has little holding strength left.

The general procedure for patching holes where plaster has fallen from the wall is the same as for patching cracks: undercutting, cleaning, dampening and applying new plaster. Before applying the patch, however, make sure that the lath or other plaster base has not come loose from the framing members behind. If it has, nail it back into place.

In the case of wooden lath that is broken, you will have to enlarge the hole in the plaster until two adjacent studs or joists are exposed. Then remove the broken laths and replace them with short lengths of lath nailed to the studs. If the hole is more than an inch or so in diameter, apply the patching plaster in two coats. First put on a fairly thick under-coat and, before it has quite dried, score its surface with an old comb so that the next coat will bond to it. After the undercoat has dried and set, dampen the surface and apply the thin finish coat. If the area of the hole to be patched is larger than approximately one square foot, you will find difficulty in doing an adequate repair job with patching plaster alone. One way of repairing such large holes is to apply two coats of gypsum plaster as is done in ordinary plastering and then a third coat of finishing plaster. Another way, perhaps easier, is to cut a piece of plasterboard to fit the hole, nail it in place to the lath and apply a finish coat of patching plaster.

To repair a bulge, first create a hole where the bulge appears. Do this by rapping the bulge with a hammer until the loosened plaster falls out. Be sure to knock or pry away any loose plaster around the hole so as to have sound plaster at the edges of the patch.

Expense Recovery With Fatal Accident Claims

The law is contained in the Fatal Accidents Act 1976, and the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1934.

1. Expenses Incurred Prior to Death

The LRMPA allows recovery of funeral expenses by virtue of section 1(2)(c) which provides for the deceased’s estate to claim these. In addition, other expenses may also be claimed under the LRMPA. These are limited to what the deceased himself could have claimed had he lived. Section 1(1) LRMPA states:

Subject to the provisions of this section on the death of any person after the commencement of this Act all causes of action subsisting against or vested in him shall survive against, or, as the case may be, for the benefit of, his estate.

2. Defining “Funeral Expenses”

“Funeral expenses” are not defined in either Act. Neither does case law give us an exhaustive definition. What is clear from the case law is that in claims under both the Fatal Accidents Act 1976 and the LRMPA 1934, the funeral expenses must be ‘reasonable in all the circumstances’. The test seems to be the same under both Acts. The relevant circumstances will include the deceased’s station in life, occupation and racial origin (Goldstein v Salvation Army Assurance Society [1917] 2 KB 291; Hart v Griffiths-Jones [1948] 2 All ER 729 at 731 per Streatfield J; Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, [1980] 2 All ER 557, CA).

Some examples of what has been deemed to be (a) a funeral expense and (b) a reasonable or unreasonable funeral expense through the case law include:


St George v Turner [2003] CLY 936 – an exceptional case in which damages were recovered for funeral expenses in Japan exceeding £50,000, including a family Buddhist altar and fittings; funeral costs; the cost of a Buddhist renaming ceremony for the dead; payments for attendance by Buddhist monks; a gravestone and works; a memorial day reception; and an anniversary reception. A Japanese woman had been murdered by her English Husband. McGregor on Damages comments upon this case “It is thought that this is far too extreme to be upheld; even murder cannot influence the level of recovery for funeral expenses”

Smith v Marchioness/Bowbelle (27 January 1993) – a reception was allowed as reasonable. ‘A claimant cannot ignore the social obligation to provide some refreshments to guests’. Social decencies must be observed and the £400 spent was recovered. See also St George v Turner (10 May 2003, unreported). Contrast Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, CA

Gammell v Wilson (at first instance) – a headstone or gravestone would be considered a reasonable expense. Also, reasonable funeral expenses may include the costs of a burial in another country if that is from where the deceased comes (see also St George v Turner above)

Schneider v Eisovitch [1960] 2QB 430 – the expenses of two family members who travelled to France to arrange for the return of the (brother’s) body were reasonable. Paull J ruled that the services provided had to be necessary and as the expenses would have occurred in any event, they were reasonable.

Hart v Griffiths Jones [1948] 2 All ER 729 – embalming a four year old child’s body was a reasonable expense.

Goldstein v Salvation Army Assurance Society [1917] 2 KB 291 – the cost of a tombstone was reasonable.


Harding v Scott-Moncrieff [2004] EWHC 1733 (QB) – funeral expenses did not include the expenses of a memorial service, solicitors’ fees, accountants’ fees and a valuer’s report.

Quainoo v Brent and Harrow Area Health Authority (1982) 132 NLJ 1100 AND Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, CA– expenses of an over-elaborate wake failed.

Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, CA – The Court of Appeal upheld, with some hesitation, the trial judge’s award of £595 for a headstone in respect of a funeral which had taken place in 1976. One member of the court observed that “the tombstone… in this case was very near the boundary between a headstone and a memorial”. The Court of Appeal approved the approach ‘that there is a distinction between a headstone finishing off, describing and marking the grave, which is part of the funeral expense, and a memorial, which is not’. Expenses for an elaborate wake and mourning clothes were unrecoverable.

Stanton v Ewart F Youldon Ltd [1960] 1 All ER 429, [1960] 1 WLR 543 – expense on a memorial or monument was not in the circumstances reasonable but a simple gravestone would be allowed. McNair J said “‘The legal position is that a stone over a grave may properly be considered as part of the funeral expenses if it is a reasonable expenditure for the persons in the position of the deceased and of the relatives who are responsible for the actual ordering of the stone; but in so far as it is merely a memorial set up as a sign of love and affection, then it should not be included.a”

The claim also included £5 paid to the minister for attending the funeral, £8 for two additional limousine cars at the funeral, and £5 for removing the body to the house. These payments were also included as reasonable funeral expenses in the damages recovered.

Sadly, there is no definitive definition of funeral expenses, or, more importantly, reasonable funeral expenses. When considering these items in a fatal accidents claim, it will be a case of considering the case law and the two acts for guidance, and making a reasoned judgement based on this.

A Biography of Bob Ross the Artist

Bob Ross was a versatile painter and television anchor from America who was born in the year of 1942 on 29th October. Bob’s place of birth was Daytona Beach in Florida. Before he became famous as a painter, he had a long career in American air force for about 20 years.

His posting was mostly in Alaska and he used to take care of the medical services there. After retiring from the air force services he earned huge fame in all over the world for his paintings and television shows.

Bob Ross had an impressive look, which like his paintings appealed a lot to the audience of television. With his afro hairstyle and his composed, gentle voice added up to his worldwide popularity.

He used to host a television show related to art and the name of the show was The Joy of Painting and it is often considered to be the most popular one among the Americans.

In this show he used to teach the viewers how to paint and the techniques and presentation was impressive enough to make the audience stick to the television screen. There were quite a number of kids who used to take their art lesion from Bob Ross through this particular television show.

Some of the paintings that gained huge fame and still remembered by the audience are “pretty little mountains”, “happy little trees” and “happy little clouds”.

He was a strong believer of the fact that each and every person has an artist hidden inside him who can come out if the person is inspired and taught in a correct way. His shows were dubbed in German and they were broadcasted for the popularity among the audience.

He was quite successful as a painter. In fact he started painting when he was posted in Alaska. He discovered a unique technique of painting, which was acclaimed by the art critics of the United States.

This technique is known as the wet-on-wet technique and it involved special method of applying the wet paint on an existing layer of paint that is absolutely different from the conventional methods. He used to paint the darkest clouds and liveliest trees on paper using the simple 1or 2-inch brushes.

But the most interesting fact about bob Ross is that he never received a professional training of making paintings.

At the same time Bob Ross has got some critical comments from the art critics as well as fellow artists. According to them his paintings run short of detailing which is an indispensable part of a good painting. They also say that the paintings of Bob Ross contained a style, which seems artificial.

In fact he also faced embarrassing situations created by the traditional artists who protested against his modern technique of painting. This great persona passed away in the year of 1995 suffering from lymphoma.

Installing Your Chandelier (Using an Electrician)

Hiring an Electrician to Install Your Magnificent Chandelier

You’re excited about your new exquisite chandelier purchase at the lighting store. It’s still wrapped up in a box and you need to assemble it. You’re like a kid at Christmas; you can’t wait to tear into it Then you realize it. You realize that a chandelier uses electricity.

Electricity, if you haven’t figured it out lately, can be lethal if you are not careful. It’s a fairly common way to die quickly among electricians. There are a bazillion volts of electricity running through hundreds of wires all throughout the house. You know not to touch any of them unless you have a really good reason. Even then you would probably have someone at the fuse box to turn all the power off just in case something goes wrong.

So rather than paying a highly qualified electrician $100 to come in and ease some of your trouble, you play macho and try to download something online that would walk you step by step through your installation process. So you say to yourself, “how hard can it be? A few wires, a few splices and cuts, and then bingo, instance grace!”

You can do that, but I wouldn’t recommend it. First, unless you’re trained and experienced, you could really hurt yourself. No, I mean really really damage vital components of your body.

Secondly, I have always gone under the principle of “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” In other words, if you do mess up any of the electrical connections and circuitry in your house, think of how much you would spend to have a qualified electrician come and undo your damage. Probably more than $100.

Lastly, get the job done right the first time. Period. If he (or she) screws up, you bring him back to fix it. Simple. The electrician should have a 30-60 day guarantee. It’s standard.

So, how do you find a quality electrician? Ask your friends if they know someone. It’s not necessary to get a union shop to take care of you, though that guy will probably know what he’s doing because of all the training and experience he has to get to where he is. It’ll cost you but it’s probably worth it. Asking around will probably get you in contact with one or two. Otherwise, let your fingers do the walking or let your mouse do it for you.

Installing your new chandelier shouldn’t cause you mental angst. But if you want the job done right, hire someone who will get it right the first time. You want to be able to enjoy your chandelier a bit.

How to Choose a Long Lasting Shovel Or Spade

Most people, myself included, buy a $10 shovel at a big home improvement store. Six months later, the shove is dull, rusted and digging becomes a chore. Selecting the right shovel can make your Garden Chores almost fun. Weather you are a home improvement expert, handyman, master gardener, or professional, take some time, do some research, buy the best and buy once.

First some Definitions- this is serous business after all.

Shovel: Tool used for digging in medium to soft ground. or soil, sand, gravel, clay or small rock moving.

Spade: Tool used for digging in harder ground. Because it is narrower than a shovel it is not as good at moving or transferring materials as a shovel.

Blade: This is the metal end of the tool. Does the cutting or moving. Narrower the blade the tougher digging conditions the shovel can handle, but the more “trips” you will have to make. Cheap shovels are stamped out of sheet metal. Good shovels are welded steel.

Step: Your foot goes here. A great shovel has a large step, as most of us are gardening in crocs, clogs, flip flops or even barefoot.

Shaft: This is the bar that connects the handle (if there is one) to the blade and step.

Handle: There are two kinds of handles on most shovels. The first is as simple as a rubber or plastic grip around the shaft. The second is a bar perpendicular to the shaft. Some are T shaped but the best shovels and spades have the handle on a wishbone (D-Handle) that connects them to the shovel or spade shaft.

Coating: This is what keeps the shovel from rusting and keeps your shovel or spade looking great. Remember that digging is a very abrasive activity and coatings will not last forever. Paint and clear coat temporary, Powder coating last as long long time.

Warranty: This is one of the most important parts. Will the manufacturer stand behind their product? If not, go elsewhere.

There are only about 4 shovel types that you are likely to need:

Long Handle Digging Shovel All around shovel, go anywhere, do anything. Every one needs this type of shovel in their Garden Shed. The pointed tip cuts into medium hard to soft ground and makes quick work of even the most stubborn roots. If you only buy one shovel- get this one. The straight shaft and handle are great for digging without having to uses your feet. The important things to look for in this shovel is a strong all metal shaft welded to the step and the blade. A large step is a must have in this type of shovel. As will all shovels- unless is stainless($$$) it must be powder coated. Paint or clear coatings are not enough! While it seems counter intuitive, the heaver a shovel, the easier it is to use if you are digging.

D-Handle Digging Shovel Similar to the Long Handle Digging Shovel, This shovels D- Handle is best when you have to dig a hole then transfer or throw it. Digging, preparing plant holes, and removing sod and soil for a walkway or garden bed makes this kind of shove shine. As with Long Handle Digging shovel, durable coating, metal shaft, strong welds and a large step are crucial.

D-Handle Transfer Style Garden Shovel This is the square bladed transfer shove that has probably frustrated you in the past. It has a very specific task and is not a digging shove in most soils. Use it to move already loosened soil, dirt, compost, sand or pea gravel and you will fall in love with the the Transfer Garden Shovel. Because this type of shovel is not really a digging shovel, you will likely want a D-Handle and not a Straight shaft handle. A long, square-edge, flat blade makes this shovel ideal for fine, straight edging, cutting through soil and grass. A large step is not really important here but a durable coating and metal shafts are always a good idea. This is the only shovel where a lot of weight is not a really good thing.

D-Handle Transplanting Spade Often referred to as a sharpshooter shovel, this work horse of a is ideal for deep, precise digging, transplanting, and loosening very hard soil and packed or crushed rock. Big step, strong welds, metal shaft and a thick blade are very important with this shovel. When the going gets tough, the tough get this shovel. Strangely, this shovel only comes in a D-Handle but it seems to work.

Recap of the Most important features:

Metal shaft

Powdered Coated shaft, blade and step

Welded steel not stamped sheet metal

Steel not stainless steel- too expensive and not worth it.

D-handle if you are going to be moving material or straight shaft if you are digging- unless it’s a sharp shooter.

Big step unless it is a transfer shovel.

Lastly, a great Warranty. Most shovel manufactures worth their salt, will replace a broken shovel free of charge.

Shovel, Blower, Or Plow?

The most powerful Snow Storm of the season hit in Northwestern Ohio today – and since I try to find a lesson in everything I do – this is what come to me while clearing the driveway and sidewalks. In many ways – dealing with a Snow Storm is a lot like the way you deal with tasks in business.

In this example – we’ll call our tasks the content of writing articles, making videos, and/or creating Blog Posts.

Doing Everything Yourself

If you plan on tackling the drifts on your own – when you first know a Snow Storm is coming – you rush out and get all the supplies necessary to help you weather through everything. You know the usual suspects that go along with doing everything yourself – Warm Clothes, boots, salt, a Snow Shovel, and LOTS of time and Sweat Equity.

In tackling the above mentioned content – you do similar things. You gather all your tools – usually free ones – and do with them what you can and you do so with 100% of your own effort.

Utilizing Tools

If you’re lucky – you might be able to start employing tools that make the job A LOT easier! They still require time and Sweat Equity – but less of it. You’ll still need many of the supplies above – but now the list might include include a Snow Blower or a Snow Blade that can be attached to the front of a Lawn Tractor. These tools and supplies require you to invest money in the equipment, gas, and maintenance in order to keep them running properly.

This time around – conquering the content can be a little easier. Because now you’re using tools and/or services you’ve purchased that make completing everything easier and with less time involved on your part.


And lastly – if you’re too busy, unable to, and/or just don’t want to remove the snow yourself – then you might consider finding someone who does it for a living. Hiring someone still requires telling them what it is you want done. And each part of the job will probably cost you extra. For instance – simply clearing your driveway might only involve driving up and pushing all the snow away with a plow. But if there are areas that can’t be reached with the truck – they might have to get out and use the same tools you would have in the examples above. This will add to the cost of the job. In addition – there may be maintenance required in keeping the snow off the affected area – which means you may need them for an extended amount of time.

In this stage of the game – your telling someone with the tools needed what you want and they’re doing it all FOR you. This allows you to concentrate on more important tasks – and/or provides you with Time Freedom.

A Beginner’s Guide to 4×4 Suspension Lift Kits

You see them all the time: Light trucks, Sport Utility Vehicles, Jeeps, and more, coasting down the highway, sitting atop towering truck suspension lift kits and sporting a set of tires so big that a person could live in them. If you’re the curious type looking to lift up your own rig, a more important question than “How do I get my ride to do that” is “Why should my ride do that?”

There are several reasons why people might customize their vehicles with suspension lift kits, as well as quite a bit to know before you get started. If you’re a seasoned veteran who has conquered the most vicious terrains and knows your vehicle better than your own mother, there probably isn’t much for you to learn here. On the other hand, if you’re just getting started and want to familiarize yourself with the basics, read on.

Why should I lift my ride?

Glad you asked. Equipping vehicles with a suspension lift kits involves much more than buying the sexiest looking truck lift kit and then dropping your ride off at the local mechanic. Actually, chances are good that if that’s all you plan to do, lifting your ride might not be right for you in the first place. Installing truck suspension lift kits requires some hard work, a bit of technical savvy and consistent upkeep and attention to your vehicle’s components.

The first determination you need to make when considering suspension lift kits is what you want to do with it. There are essentially two main purposes for installing truck lift kits: style or function. Although the two are somewhat interrelated, it’s still important to consider which purpose you most wish to pursue, as it will assist you in making the correct modifications to your vehicle.


Let’s face it: Transforming a vehicle into a style statement has been a popular hobby ever since the advent of tailfins and flame decals. As much as we all might chuckle at a hybrid hatchback sitting on 18″ wheels, or the family sedan with a wing that resembles the Seattle Space Needle more than a spoiler, we also find our own vehicles having fuzzy dice hanging from the mirror, or a bobbling hula dancer statuette on the dash. As far as style is concerned, adding truck lift kits makes more of an impression than anything else you can do to your ride. Heads turn instantly at the sight of a lifted rig with massive tires that appear to be sprouting fangs and an exhaust system that scares stray puppies into hiding.

When it comes to adding suspension lift kits to make a style statement, looking good is the easy part. Sometimes it’s easy to overlook general, everyday performance in the midst of decking out a ride. For this reason, choosing the right suspension lift kit with attention to comfort, reliability, durability, safety, and not to mention price, should be given just as much consideration as those precious inches you want to add.


So you’ve made the jump into tuning your rig for the off-road world, and you’re ready to take the plunge to invest in one of many truck lift kits. But before diving headfirst into a custom truck lift kit and gigantic tires, there are a number of issues to address to ensure a correct setup. The first step is to ask yourself what you will be doing the most, whether it’s slow-speed rock crawling, high-speed desert racing, general purpose 4 wheeling, mud racing, or long distance open country treks. From there, you can narrow down what you need to do in order to customize your vehicle to suit your needs.

Whether you’re just starting out, or you’re the experienced professional, tuning your rig for optimum off-road performance is an expansive hobby with numerous factors to be wary of. The possibilities are limitless, which can sometimes make it hard to determine exactly which suspension lift kits are ideal for what you want.

Where do I begin?

As if determining which suspension lift kits to purchase weren’t complicated enough, installing truck lift kits can alter other components in your vehicle, sometimes causing unforeseen issues that could affect performance or be potentially detrimental to the vehicle itself. For example, drive shaft length, steering geometry, brake lines, highway performance and handling, gear ratios, and overall weight are just a few of the factors that could potentially be impacted by adding truck suspension lift kits.

Finding ample resources to determine what products you need can be difficult. Speaking with a mechanic can provide some insight. Reading factory service manuals, off-road magazines, internet message boards, manufacturer’s guides, and a number of other resources can help as well. But by far the most useful way to determine what truck lift kits are right for you and your vehicle is to consult an experienced and knowledgeable person who has a vehicle similar to yours and uses it in the manner similar to what you want to do. Not only can such a person suggest the correct products, but also likely has experience with installation tips and general drivability.

In the meantime, here are some of the basic elements of suspension lift kits for you to keep in mind as you plan your modifications.

What does a Suspension Lift Kit do?

  1. Clearance

    For starters, one of the foremost reasons for installing truck suspension lift kits is to raise the height of your ride off the ground to enable steeper ascent or descent off-road, and higher ground clearance. In general, it makes sense that when driving over boulders, slogging through mud, coasting across the desert, or even just making your way through the occasional forest trail, higher clearance facilitates negotiating certain obstacles. This can often be a tricky bit of artistry to manage, as higher clearance also raises your vehicle’s center of gravity, which can reduce handling.

  2. Larger Tire Fitment

    The general consensus suggests that larger tires equate to more traction, right? Well, not entirely. While larger tires may provide some improvement to traction in off-road conditions, there are other ways to improve a vehicle’s traction that are far more efficient than simply bulking up the rubber. Aside from the obvious stylistic discretion, the main reasons for adding larger tires are for higher vehicle clearance for improved performance in mud, deep snow, rocks, and deeply rutted trails. Certain tires designed specifically for off-road conditions can improve traction depending on the circumstances, but the added clearance is the most immediate and direct benefit of larger tires.

Factors to Consider with Truck Suspension Lift Kits:

  • Installation: Many manufacturers offer manuals for installing truck lift kits onto certain vehicles; however, some installations are quite intricate, requiring some welding or cutting in order to add some necessary components. In this case, having a trusted mechanic or a few knowledgeable friends is the best resolution.
  • Additional Modifications: Upgrading to truck lift kits with taller tires also means that a number of components may require part upgrades or some tuning to compensate. For instance, a truck’s engine is tuned at specific gear ratios to propel the vehicle. When adding taller tires, the gear ratios must be tweaked accordingly, since the engine has to spin much larger, heavier tires. Again, consult with more experienced individuals for further insight.
  • Highway Performance: Larger, wider tires can sometimes result in instability on roads or a noisy, uncomfortable ride, particularly at high speeds. Also, more aggressive off-road tires tend to wear faster on the highway, and traction might not be as great as you would expect on wet roads. In this sense, larger tires can sometimes be a gamble without any direction from an experienced off-road veteran.
  • Weight: larger tires are heavier, which can put a lot of strain on your suspension, particularly if it’s a stock suspension. Trusted, durable suspension components and lighter aluminum wheels can sometimes help to reduce the strain.
  • Handling: Adding truck suspension lift kits will undoubtedly raise the vehicle’s center of gravity, resulting in less stable turns. This is a common issue when installing truck lift kits, but is mostly just a matter of becoming accustomed to a vehicle’s change in performance.
  • Legality: Some suspension lift kits are such a serious change in your suspension system that it may not be legal. Check the suspension regulations within your country, state, or province to be sure.
  • A Few Useful Accessories: Before installing a lift kit, it’s a good idea to first examine if any components will be affected by your vehicle’s new height. Here are a few useful accessories that may need to be upgraded:
    • Brake Upgrades: Stock brakes can’t always accommodate larger tires, or will wear easily due to the added strain.
    • Drivetrain and Differential: Axles, gears, differential covers, lockers and more ensure that your drivetrain is up to par with your suspension.
    • Replacement Parts: Longer Control Arms and Track Bars to compensate for the additional height of your rig.
    • Shocks: For those taller lifts, longer shocks will ensure the smoothest performance both on and off road.
    • Other Parts: Steering linkage, slip yoke, drive shaft length, u-joint angle, and brake lines are all worthy of consideration before installing suspension lift kits.

Installing Suspension Lift Kits:

When it comes time to install a lift kit, there are two ways possible ways to go about it: install it yourself, or have a professional do the job. Naturally, each has its advantages and disadvantages, and when it comes to your rig, attention to detail is crucial. A general rule to follow is that even if you know you want a large lift, it’s best to start with a small lift and work your way up. This allows you to work out any kinks and hindrances along the way to make sure your kit works right.

  1. Do-It-Yourself

    Even if you’re not technically inclined, taking the time to learn the inner mechanics of your vehicle is a valuable experience that can save you time and money. An intimate knowledge of your rig can also allow you to make your own modifications to your vehicle if the need arises. There are numerous resources available that can usually guide you through the majority of the process; however, one must keep in mind that it’s a lot to take in, and tweaking the intricate components of your vehicle is no small matter. It’s always a good idea to have a second set of hands or an experienced individual assisting you.

    On the downside, even with the increasing availability of bolt-on kits, installing suspension lift kits is no easy task, particularly if you’re a beginner. Additionally, certain instructions or resources can sometimes be misleading or based upon the personal preferences of individual gearheads. Often times, after installing a lift kit you’ll find yourself spending hours tweaking the other components of your vehicle to get them back to spec. That’s a whole lot to take on, particularly if you’re inexperienced.

  2. Mechanic

    A licensed professional installing your lift kit is typically the best way to ensure that suspension lift kits are installed correctly, so long as you’re willing to pay the labor charges. A professional can perfectly tune your vehicle to your liking and see to it that all components are working as they should, all within a fraction of the time it would take even the most experienced gearheads to install it themselves.

    On the other hand, as is the case with regard to any mechanic, it might be difficult to find one you can trust to install the kit properly while not overcharging you for any unnecessary parts. Also, if you’re not a gearhead, anytime there’s a functional deficiency or your vehicle needs minor tweaking, you have no choice but to return to the mechanic for service.

Suspension Lift Sizes:

Small: A small lift consists of 1.5 or fewer inches, and will grant you a little more clearance and room to run slightly larger tires. The most common way to gain a small lift is by using coil spacers in front and long shackles in the rear.

  • Advantages/Disadvantages: Small lifts are inexpensive and easy to install with very few complications.

Medium: A medium lift is roughly 2″ of lift, and is a good choice for those looking for the best tire clearance, but aren’t planning on doing any off-roading. Common medium-sized lifts use spacer and add-a-leaf lifts, and sometimes come with new shocks.

  • Advantages/Disadvantages: You’ll notice changes in handling and performance: some good, some bad. You’ll also need strong rear springs, and if you plan to use an add-a-leaf kit, later modification for more lift may be difficult, since add-a-leafs are designed to lift stock springs.

Large: The largest lifts consist of 3 to 4″ or more for an aggressive look and the best off-road performance. A common large lift setup consists of new front coils and add-a-leafs in the rear, plus some combination of new front coils and new rear springs. These kits often include a matching set of shocks.

  • Advantages/Disadvantages: Large lifts are obviously the most expensive, and more complications are expected than with smaller lifts. On-road performance will also be affected, sometimes dramatically. But a large lift will transform your rig into an intimidating off-road machine that will stand out among a crowd.

Types of Suspension Lift Kits:

Spring Over Axle (SPOA):

SPOA suspension lift kits are most popular among serious rock crawlers looking for the utmost articulation (up and down wheel travel). These truck lift kits keep the tires on the ground for maximum traction, while correctly lifted springs lifts everything out of harm’s way, including the springs.

Shackle Reverse (S/R) Suspension Lift Kits:

S/R truck lift kits are designed to provide a smooth ride upon mild terrain such as forest roads, desert driving, and scenic trails; however, high-speed driving on highways is not recommended.

Coil Suspension Lift Kits:

The choice of many of the world’s best-riding 4 wheel drive vehicles, Coil Suspension Lift Kits offer unrivaled ride quality and cheaper springs, but installation sometimes requires some welding. The end result, however, is a suspension lift kit that provides excellent articulation on the trail, and a comfortable ride you have to feel to believe.

Lifted Spring Suspension Lift Kits:

The most commonly used type of truck lift kits in the world, Lifted Spring systems are easier to install, and an excellent choice for first-time lifters in the off-road world. These truck lift kits allow you to run larger tires for additional clearance, while producing control on the highway.

Shackle Suspension Lift Kits:

As probably the most affordable way to add inches to your rig, Shackle Suspension Lift Kits are primarily for the truck enthusiast looking to add larger tires, yet are not intending to do much hardcore off-roading. Moderation is recommended with these truck lift kits, as Shackle systems are known to affect steering and sway control.