How to Bend Wood Handrails

I’ve been getting a lot of calls lately regarding, “How do I bend a wood handrail?” Bending handrails, even for some of the most experienced carpenters causes fear and trepidation. Well, fear not!

Here are some beginning base tips:

If the net length on the rail you are bending is 12-ft, a 14-ft bender rail is best to insure that the ends are pulled around the desired radius in order to hold its form when removing rail from its clamps. If you have 13 “steps or treads”, you are safe with a 14-foot bender for an inside radius. If an outside radius going up a stair, figure 2-foot per step. Bending rail is understood when imagining a standard handrail profile cut into thin strips and keyed together (tongue and groove bead to create alignment). Bending mould should also be included as it is moulded to the outside profile of the handrail and is used to sandwich the handrail and allow clamping without damage to the handrail itself.

Weldwood’s Plastic Resin Glue (a DAP product) is perhaps the most ideal glue for bending handrails. It has a curing time of 24 hours, allowing for ample time for one to bend rails without feeling rushed. It also sands easily once dried and works with stains. The best place to find this product is a True Value Ace Hardware Store. I understand that they bought the rights to sell this product, which pulled it off of the shelves at all Home Depot and Lowes. It comes in a one pound plastic container and is mixed with water until soupy. Apply it to both sides of the bending rail keys, tape or shrink wrap the rails together, and you can start bending!

When considering steam bending, Weldwood is best applied once the handrail has been steamed and bent on the forms. Remove it from the forms once dried, apply the Weldwood, and reattach to the forms. Steaming handrail, for most styles, is not an option unless your bending rail is less than an 18-inch radius. For some handrail styles the minimum before steam may be a 24-inch radius.

One key to keeping the stress points on the rail’s shoulder from cracking or breaking is to apply vinegar on the stress areas of the wood. Vinegar reacts with the woods fibers to relieve stress. Don’t use bleach! It will permanently stain some hardwoods black.

Once a handrail is bent, use an orbital or belt sander to finish the job. Make sure all glue is properly sanded, otherwise one will have blotches where the stain cannot penetrate since glue acts as a sealer.

C-Clamps or bar clamps are the best two tool choices for bending handrail.

Also, as a helpful hint, there is a book out there call “The Stair Builder’s Guide”, by Coffman stairs that has an entire chapter on bending handrails (with pictures!) The book is no longer in print but there are copies out there to be had through

Frontal Baldness – Causes and Solutions

Frontal baldness is one of the most common types of hair loss in men. Many men who suffer from this type of baldness feel self -conscious because it is so visible. Unfortunately this type of baldness is the most noticeable and can be challenging to treat. Still, frontal hair loss can be treated.

Most frontal baldness is caused by a condition known as Male Patter Baldness (MPB). MPB is genetic and develops because of a hormone called dihydrotestosterone aka DHT. This substance is created when the male hormone testosterone comes into contact with a specific enzyme. DHT attacks healthy hair follicles and shortens their growth cycle. This usually happens over time and may not be very noticeable at first.

One of the most effective and proven ways to treat frontal baldness is with hair loss medications like Propecia. These products will have to be used for several months in order to see results though.

Another proven method is a surgical hair transplant. While these operations can be expensive they are very effective and may be well worth it for some. These procedures are usually performed at a specialized clinic. The whole transplantation process can take a while, up to two years on some cases. During a surgical hair transplant hair is taken from the back and sides of the head to the bald spots in the front.

Frontal baldness can be successfully treated, but treatment will take time and money. Still for men (or women) who suffer emotionally because of their hair loss they may be well worth it.

Body To Body Massage

Tantric and tantalizing, a full body to body massage is the perfect way for you to show your beloved exactly how erotic a massage can be. The sensual combination of your touch and skin to skin contact will not only relax your lover but will have them writhing in anticipation.

What Is A Body To Body Massage?

A body to body massage is a combination of a full body massage using your hands and a massage using your body. You can use different parts of your body for the body to body massage and get very creative. In fact, there are places in Amsterdam where you can order a sensual body to body massage from trained massage girls in your hotel room.

The idea is not a new one. Massage techniques have been used for many generations as a way of relaxing and erotically stimulating a lover.

How To Perform This Tantalizing Treat

In order to perform a body to body massage, you and your beloved will both need to be showered, clean, and relaxed. I recommend taking a nice long hot shower together or a sensual bath before beginning. This will help prepare your muscles to relax and get you both clean and ready.

You might also want to invest in some massage oil. Heated massage oil will give a deep muscle relaxation and make the movements of your hands and body glide smoothly across your beloved’s skin.

Begin with a rubbing hand massage. Gently knead all of the tension out of your beloved’s shoulders and back. Work your fingers over their arms and legs and gently massage their neck to deliver a fully relaxing massage. Once your lover is comfortable and relaxed, take the massage to a new level by applying the warm massage oil onto your chest and onto their body. Gently rub your body over theirs as if you were making love. Caress their skin with your chest, move your legs over theirs and enjoy the pleasure of skin on skin.

For women, using your breasts to massage your beloved can be tantalizing torture on him. Glide your breasts across his chest, over his shaft, down his legs, and along his back. Let him feel your hard nipples across his skin. The soft pressure of your body pushing against his gives the relaxing effect of a massage while the erotic sensation of your nipples and breasts makes the body to body massage a sensual delight for you both.

About Brick Facade Siding

Brick facade siding is one of the many various types of external facades used for homes. For many homeowners who are planning on the construction of a new home, the choice of using brick as the preferred cladding for the exterior is most likely due to the unique look and feel that it will give to the home’s walls.

Brick is the best choice for siding material due to its strong and durable nature. When it is used as a siding, the best thing is that there is no painting required. This type of siding has a big plus as it will never fade and is exposed to the weather or environment without any problem. It is also wonderful as an insulator to the house, providing a barrier to the temperature outside of your house. However, since bricks are porous, a regular application of clear water-repellent coat to preserve the bricks is a wise thing to do if you live in a rainy climate, or if you experience episodes of freezing and thawing during the winter.

This type of siding is usually applied to a wood framed wall over building paper. A mixture of cement, sand, lime and water is used to hold the bricks in place. The mortar that is used to hold bricks together can be finished in a number of ways such as concave, flush with bricks, extruded between the bricks, raked or V-joined.

Another alternative to solid brick siding is brick veneer siding which has a manmade material that is often much lighter. Brick veneer used as a home cladding has a variety of choice in terms of colors, textures, sizes and distinct patterns from traditional to modern touches. Similar to solid brick, this type of siding can last for a very long time, due to its high durability.

If brick facade siding is your final choice for your exterior walls of your home, get a professional who is experienced in the field to do the installation for you.

Soldering Iron Safety Tips

For many of us, soldering irons are ordinary, everyday tools used for a variety of applications. These indispensable little irons, which allow users to meld different metals together by heating them to the point of melting and applying a filler metal, can be used for tasks including metalwork, crafts projects, home improvement, car repair, electronics repair, and more. But make no mistake about it: Soldering irons can be very dangerous if the proper safety precautions are not taken. When in use, the tip of a soldering iron will exceed 700 degrees Fahrenheit in temperature – more than enough heat to seriously injure somebody or inflict damage on property and surroundings. Here are some soldering safety tips to keep in mind at all times:

  • Always solder in a well-ventilated area, as the smoke given off by the iron can be extremely irritating to lungs and mucus membranes. Avoid breathing in the smoke by placing your head to the side, rather than directly over your work, and wear a protective mask if necessary.
  • Use a fire-resistance surface such as plasterboard, or invest in a special mat intended for soldering. This will help you avoid mishaps that could burn carpeting, melt plastic or mar woodwork.
  • When plugging in your iron, make sure not to overload the outlet. If there are too many appliances plugged into a particular outlet, unplug some of them first, or choose a different location altogether.
  • Never set your soldering iron down on anything other than a specially made iron stand! This could damage your iron as well as the surface you’re setting it down one.
  • Replace your iron immediately if the electrical cord becomes frayed, worn or otherwise compromised.
  • Take care to wear heat-resistance gloves or use needle nose pliers to grip objects that you’re soldering, particularly small pieces. This will help you avoid accidentally touching the tip of the iron with your fingers and sustaining a potentially serious – and very painful – burn.
  • Don’t leave your iron plugged in after you’re finished using it, and never leave a hot iron unattended.
  • Always wash your hands after you finish using your soldering iron. One of the components of solder is lead, which can be toxic if ingested or absorbed into the skin.

Prevent Dry Socket

Dry sockets are known as alveolar osteitis by dentists and it is quite common to have a drysocket after tooth extraction. Generally, a blood clot is expected to protect the underlying bones and nerves in the hole, created due to tooth extraction. But, if the blood clot is not formed or it is dislodged or dissolved due to fibrinolysis, then the socket becomes dry. The socket appears dry and you can see the exposed bone. There is no formation of pus in the socket. The blood clot formation is required for heeling the wound or the socket.

A dry socket leads to severe pain and the heeling process is delayed. Drysocket pain intensifies, 3-4 days after the extraction of the tooth. The pain can be unbearable and can not be shortened unless and until it is properly treated. Before knowing about how to prevent dry socket, let us first have a look at the drysocket symptoms, which can be very irritating.

Dry Socket Symptoms

* Severe pain is the main symptom of drysocket after tooth extraction.

* Bad breath or bad taste in the mouth, as gaping wound is an open invitation to microorganisms

* Difficulty in eating

* Loss of appetite

* Swollen lymph nodes in neck

* Swollen gum or adjacent teeth

* Jaw pain

* Fever

After reading the symptoms only, one can imagine how a dry socket must be leading to restless days and sleepless nights. So it is better to prevent drysocket formation.

Prevent Dry Socket

To prevent drysocket, we need to know what causes dry socket. There are conflicting results from the studies organized to identify the factors that appear to be associated with increasing incidences of experiencing dry sockets. But, if these factors are taken into consideration while planning for and proceeding with a tooth extraction, then the risk for drysocket can be minimized.

Follow Dentist’s Instructions: You should follow the dentist’s postoperative instructions sincerely to avoid dry socket. The dentist places a gauze packing and the patient has to bite it to place it firmly in the socket. The dentist advises the patients that they should not disturb the gauze packing that the dentist has placed over their extraction site for the next 30, and probably preferably, 60 minutes. This is the time when the blood clot is formed in the socket. After the formation of the blood clot also, at least for the first 24 hours, patient should avoid vigorous rinsing, refrain from actions like sucking on a straw or cigarette, avoid alcohol and tobacco use in general, minimize physical stress and exercise, and avoid hot liquids such as coffee or soup. The dentist may provide you with some more specific instructions, if required. You should sincerely follow all those instructions.

Traumatic Tooth Extractions: The chances of drysocket formation are more in cases of traumatic tooth extractions. It is believed that the traumatized bone in the area of the extraction site releases compounds or the tissue activators, that then diffuse into the blood clot that has formed in the tooth socket. These tissue activators are responsible for the disintegration of the blood clot. Therefore, the heeling process of the dry socket is delayed. During the process of disintegration of the blood clot, some compounds like kinins are released which stimulate the pain receptors, resulting in severe pain. So more care should be taken to prevent drysocket, in case of traumatic tooth extractions.

Dental Care: As you know, tooth decay is the main reason behind most of the tooth extractions. With proper dental care, you can avoid tooth decay and the related further complications. Thus you can prevent dry socket after tooth extraction. Even after tooth extraction, the cleaner you keep the extraction site, the quicker it will heal. 24 hours after your tooth extraction, you can gently rinse the socket with warm salt water (1/2 teaspoon of salt in a cup of water) after meals and before bed. This offers great toothache relief. Commercial mouth rinses are not recommended as they may irritate the extraction site.

Stitches: The dentist sometimes may place sutures (stitches) in the extraction site which are either re-absorbents which disintegrate and dissolve away on their own or non-re-absorbents which will be removed by him. You should not feel afraid of the stitches as the process of removing stitches is usually very easy and quite painless. If the question ‘do stitches prevent drysocket’ is haunting you, the answer is that the stitches are not placed to prevent dry socket. You should follow the instructions of the dentist religiously, regarding the stitches. Do not disturb the extraction site with your tongue or finger.

History of Dry Socket: If you have already experienced a dry socket with any of the past tooth extractions, then the chances of having a drysocket are more. Keeping this in mind, you should follow the instructions carefully. You should be diligent in your efforts not to disrupt the blood clot.

Wisdom Tooth Extractions: Wisdom tooth extraction is considered as traumatic tooth extraction, so there are more chances of formation of wisdom teeth dry socket. You should take proper care and follow the instructions of your dentist, to avoid drysocket.

Vaginal Opening of a Virgin

Does the vaginal opening in a virgin seem to be a bit too small? It will be difficult to get a finger in let alone a penis. Here is the answer to this question.

Remember that the vaginal opening does not have a size in one woman. It expands depending on how stress free and aroused the woman is. It also depends on the size of the object going inside it. The fact that you have not had vaginal intercourse before doesn’t mean that the size of the opening will change after the sex. Sex does not change the size of the vagina permanently. However it is to be remembered that the women who are not sexually active don’t have sexual healthcare so the data for this group is difficult to gather. We are also considering the women who still have hymens which are partly hiding the opening. This also tends to make the opening smaller. It is a possibility that the women who have previously had vaginal sex still have the partial hymens intact.

There just is no data available on the average size of the vaginal opening for women. This is so because it does not serve any practical purpose. And as clarified earlier, there isn’t any size limit. When there is nothing in it the opening is closed. Also remember that the size average size of the penis is about 5 inches and is softer as compared to the finger. The questions is, are you feeling pain while inserting the fingers and not feel it when aroused. That is the main focus here.

The Different Types of Hole Saws

If you’re looking to cut a hole into something that seems otherwise impossible to penetrate, look no further than a hole saw. You may very well be able to achieve your objectives by cutting with one of these.

There are various types of hole saws in existence, and I’ve seen people make the mistake of buying one that doesn’t fit their needs. Hopefully this article will help to clear things up if you’re wondering why type of hole saw you might need for your cutting.

Believe it or not, the concrete hole saw can successfully cut into buildings made of concrete slab. If you’re undertaking the challenging job of doing this, I’d like to offer you one tip.

Make sure that you get a drill bit capable of puncturing a hole as deep as you’re looking for. Depending on the size of the drill bit you get, the size of the hole will vary.

Another popular device is the diamond hole saw. Don’t be misled by its name into thinking that this is simply meant for cutting diamonds, because that’s not the case.

Diamond hole saws are best used for cutting things like glass, marble, and other rocky surfaces. They can also be used to cut through concrete, so this saw may have the versatility you seek out for long term use.

If you ever find yourself in a situation where you need to cut metal, the metal hole saw should serve your needs. Popular uses for this device include things like cutting holes into doorknobs in order to install locks and dead bolts. Used in conjunction with something known as an arbor, these are extremely powerful devices, as their abilities would indicate.

There are other forms of hole saw too, and a quick online search should detail the best device for your needs if the substance you’re looking to cut wasn’t mentioned here. Remember to wear safety glasses when using any of these tools!

Light Tables For Quality Control Inspection

Anyone who performs quality control in a laboratory or industrial environment knows the importance of adequate lighting. Without the proper level of illumination, it is nearly impossible to perform quality control to expected standards. This could result in serious legal penalties, fines, and even a shutdown of the facility. Equipping heavy, medium, and light duty tables with illuminated table tops ensures that this will not happen.

A standard industrial table outfitted with lighting is offered with optional casters that make the workbench a mobile unit. Hydraulic lift units adjust the height of the table to accommodate seated or standing users while a hydraulic tilt unit moves the work surface to an ergonomically convertible angle. A deluxe version of this table features additional light panels that provide adequate illumination for inspection of the smallest items.

When the ultimate in mobility is needed, light duty tables are often not the solution. An inspection cart featuring a light panel, casters, and hydraulic lift makes the perfect workbench. It can be pulled around the facility floor as needed or used in training applications. Other optional features expand the number of potential applications for this work cart. This unit is the perfect partner for a heavy duty industrial table.

Fluorescent lighting used in lighted tables is covered by frosted glass. Consumers can specify the size of the glass area, with 12-inch multiples available for the width. A dimmable switch is included with the lighting and each fluorescent bulb is a maximum of 40 watts. Though standard sizes of light duty tables with lifting functions are available, custom dimensions can also be specified. When customizing this industrial table, a consumer can choose other features designed to meet the special needs of the user or work environment.

Light duty tables are not the only versions available with illuminated table top lighting. Most of the workbench styles offered can usually be ordered with illuminated surfaces. Whether a lab or cleanroom table is needed, consumers will not need to go without the light feature. Ordering directly from the manufacturer, allows for more flexibility in terms of final product design. Many manufacturers can build light table furniture to meet your exact specifications.

In labs where space is at a premium or where room dimensions are irregular, it is often difficult to find light duty tables and storage options that are compatible. A manufacturer has no problem designing furniture, shelving, and cabinets that will fit into tight corners or small square footage. Most of these items are delivered pre-assembled, eliminating time and frustration for the consumer. Everything arrives ready to use once it is removed from its packaging.

Ordering heavy, medium, or light duty tables with tabletop lighting, casters, hydraulic lifts, and other features is not difficult. When shopping online, consumers simply enter the height, depth, and width of the table, the width of the lighted area, and finish or colors for the frame and top. They can even view samples of optional features and access live help if they have any questions.

How to Layout Recessed Lighting

One of the most important principles to understand when designing a recessed lighting layout is beam angle. In recessed cans, the light is produced in the shape of a cone. You picture the light starting as a point at the light fixture and forming a circle on the floor. The beam angle is the angle of this light out of the bulb. For example a 60-degree beam angle will produce a circle of light about 9 feet across on the floor if the fixture is 8 feet off the floor. See a


That is just one part of the formula. That circle of light we now have on the floor is not all the same intensity. About five and a half feet of that circle is good intense light while the remainder is spill over and diminishes as it gets further from the center. This is very important to understand. With this information, you can overlap the spill over light so that you end up with a nice even light pattern over the entire area you are trying to illuminate. Something to remember when you are planning this out is something called the work plane. This is an area about 30″ above the floor. It is an area where most tasks take place.

The work plane is important because as the distance between the light fixture and the surface to be lit decreases, so does that circle we spoke about. In a living room or den, designing the lighting plan so that we have even light on the floor is fine. In a kitchen though, this work plane becomes far more critical. This is why in a kitchen, keeping recessed lights about 4 feet apart, creates a pattern that is even on the work plane with the intense portion of the circle.

There are some other things besides the bulb and the can that shape the light pattern. The finish trim on recessed lights can vary the pattern of light. A wall washer creates a half cone that can be directed at a wall or fireplace. A pin spot trim can direct the light in a very narrow beam to light a small object.

This should give you a basic idea of what is involved when you undertake a recessed lighting layout. If you would like to learn more or have questions, please visit us at the links below.

(c) Copyright 2005 Paul Forte. All rights reserved.

The Barriers to Effective Communication

D.E. McFarland has defined Communication as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human being. But there may be some faults /barriers in the communication system that prevents the message from reaching the receiver, these barriers are as follows:-

1. Language Barrier; – Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represents a national/ regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation and unqualified assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion.

2. Cultural Barriers: – Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, ethics, values, motives, assumptions, aspirations, rules/regulations, standards, priorities can separate one person from another and create a barrier.

3. Individual Barrier: – It may be a result of an individual’s perceptual and personal discomfort. Even when two persons have experienced the same event their mental perception may/may not be identical which acts as a barrier. Style, selective perception, halo effect, poor attention and retention, defensiveness, close mindedness, insufficient filtration are the Individual or Psychological barrier.

4. Organizational Barrier: – It includes Poor Organization’s culture, climate, stringent rules, regulations, status, relationship, complexity, inadequate facilities/ opportunities of growth and improvement; whereas; the nature of the internal and external environment like large working areas physically separated from others, poor lightening, staff shortage, outdated equipments and background noise are Physical Organizational Barrier.

5. Interpersonal Barrier: – Barriers from Employers are :- Lack of Trust in employees; Lack of Knowledge of non-verbal clues like facial expression, body language, gestures, postures, eye contact; different experiences; shortage of time for employees; no consideration for employee needs; wish to capture authority; fear of losing power of control; bypassing and informational overloading, while Barriers from Employees includes Lack of Motivation, lack of co-operation, trust, fear of penalty and poor relationship with the employer.

6. Attitudinal Barrier: – It comes about as a result of problems with staff in the organisation. Limitation in physical and mental ability, intelligence, understanding, pre-conceived notions, and distrusted source divides the attention and create a mechanical barrier which affects the attitude and opinion.

7. Channel Barrier: – If the length of the communication is long, or the medium selected is inappropriate, the communication might break up; it can also be a result of the inter-personal conflicts between the sender and receiver; lack of interest to communicate; information sharing or access problems which can hamper the channel and affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness.

To communicate effectively one need to overcome these barriers. Working on breaking the barrier is a broad-brush activity and here are certain measures.


– Allow employees access to resources, self expression and idea generation.

– Express your expectations to others.

– Use less of absolute words such as “never”, “always”, “forever”, etc.

– Be a good, attentive and active listener.

– Filter the information correctly before passing on to someone else.

– Try to establish one communication channel and eliminate the intermediaries.

– Use specific and accurate words which audiences can easily understand.

– Try and view the situations through the eyes of the speaker.

– The “you” attitude must be used on all occasions.

– Maintain eye contact with the speaker and make him comfortable.

– Write the instructions if the information is very detailed or complicated.

– Oral communication must be clear and not heavily accented.

– Avoid miscommunication of words and semantic noise.

– Ask for clarifications, repetition where necessary.

– Make the organisational structure more flexible, dynamic and transparent.

– Foster congenial relationship which strengths coordination between superior and subordinate.

– Focus on purposeful and well focused communication.

– The message of communication should be clear and practical.

– Get Proper Feedback.


– Be a Selective Listener, this is when a person hears another but selects not to hear what is being said by choice or desire to hear some other message.

– Be a “Fixer”, a fixer is a person that tries to find other person’s fault.

– Be a daydreamer.

– Use long chain of command for communication.

– Use too many technical jargons.

– Jump to conclusions immediately.

– Interrupt the speakers and distract him by asking too many irrelevant questions.

What To Look For When Buying A Fireproof Safe

There are a number of reasons why a person would invest in a fireproof safe. In most cases, individuals simply want to protect important documents or possession that cannot get damaged in any way. Anyone who is currently in the market will need to know what to look for when buying a fireproof safe. Prior to making the purchase, use this guide and learn about what this safe has to offer over the ones that do not offer any fire protection whatsoever.

It is always important to remember that the term fireproof does not always mean that the item will be completely protected. In fact, many of the fireproof safes out there will only be able to take so much heat before the possessions inside are burned along the way. Users will need to make sure that they know about the major types out there as well as which ones will offer the best form of fire protection, just in case.

Most of the fireproof safes out there will only be able to handle a certain degree of heat for a certain amount of time. Buyers who are unaware of this could end up buying a lower end model that will barely keep anything safe. When the fire reaches a temperature of 1700 degrees, the a safe should be able to withstand the element for 1 to 2 hours. If the fire reaches 2000 degrees, a safe could provide protection for up to four hours.

To make sure that the right amount of protection is invested in, make sure to buy a top brand model that can be trusted. There are many companies out there that make their own models and some of them are known to withstand great heat. It will be up to the buyer to shop around and research the dealers as well as the brands before buying.

Of course because this is an actual safe, it is important to evaluate the security measures and ensure the proper locking options are put into place. Most models do have extensive locking mechanisms that cannot be broken into. Look over the locks and think about using a keypad lock so that no one else will be able to get in at any time.

Customer ratings or reviews might also point a new buyer in the right direction. If the model that is being looked over does not have the reviews or ratings to prove its performance, then it may not be a good buy. Read as many reviews as possible to make sure that the perfect brand and model is invested in.

After reading over reviews, take the time to compare the top models and make a decision. Do not forget to think about the overall resistance to the flames as well as the security features that come installed. Once the right one has been purchased, feel free to store documents, jewelry or even weapons in the safe.

It is always important to know and understand what to look for when buying a fireproof safe. There are plenty of manufacturers that will provide individuals with top notch safes that will hold up to that heat for a significant amount of time. Search for the right model and be careful about what is stored in the device.

Wallpaper – History, Types, Cleaning, and Removal

Wallpapers are also known as wall coverings. There are many different designs printed on the wallpapers, so you can buy wallpaper with the right style and color for whatever your home or office theme is.

Let us get to know more about the history of wallpapers. How did they come about? Who invented them? Here are the timelines:

4000 B.C.

Egyptian Papyrus was invented. Papyrus is the early form of paper.

200 B.C.

Ancient China began using rice paper to decorate their walls by sticking or gluing them on their walls.

105 A.D

Ts’ai Lun, a Chinese court official, invented papermaking.

8th Century

Chinese prisoners with papermaking skills worked under the Arabians. Papermaking spread throughout Middle East.

10th Century

The Arabians began using wood and bamboo, creating a high quality paper.

12th Century

Papermaking reached Europe.


Louis XI of France ordered Jean Bourdichon to paint angels on blue background on 50 rolls of paper. King Louis XI had them ordered because he moves frequently from castle to castle. The rich society then began to commission artist to paint paper for their walls.


Paperhangers guild was established in France.


Jean-Michel Papillon started making block designs in matching and continuous patterns. He was considered the inventor of wallpapers. He is also a French Engraver.


Flocked wallpapers came from Worcester.

18th Century

Wallpaper products from London became popular. Expensive hand painted papers were all the rage because they imitate architectural designs. Wallpapers gained authority because they were less expensive. Popular designs were borders resembling tasseled braids or sway of fabric, and flocked papers that looked like a velvet cut.


Wallpapers reached America. Plunket Fleeson began printing them in Philadelphia.


Louis XVI issued a decree that wallpaper rolls should be about 34 feet in length.


Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf of France invented the wallpaper printing machine. Nicholas Louis Robert of France invented a way to make endless roll of wallpaper.


Alois Senefelder of Germany invented Lithography.


French scenic papers printed on hand-carved blocks became popular.


Charles Harold Potter of Potters and Ross printing firm in England invented a printing machine with four colors.


Eight-color printing machine was invented.


20-color printing machine was invented.


Karl Keitsch of Austria invented Intaglio, a gravure printing.


Ferdinand Shivel invented the wallpaper paste.


In England, flexography printing was invented.

20th Century

Wallpaper pasting machines appeared.


A paste powder that was soluble in cold water appeared in the market.


Plastic resins which are stain resistant, durable, and washable appeared.


The National Guild of Professional Paperhangers was established in the United States.

Late 1980’s

Wallpapers popularity died down because of Faux Painting.

Even though wallpapers were not as popular as it was before, modern people had begun to discover the beauty of wallpapers. There are now different types of wallpapers compared to before.

Vinyl Coated

Wallpaper coated with acrylic vinyl or polyvinyl chloride. It is the most common type of wallpaper. They are easy to clean, easy to remove, and very durable. Ideal rooms are the kitchen and bathrooms.


This type of wallpaper is very difficult to work with. It can show the wall imperfections and gets wrinkled easily. However, it adds brightness to any room because of its metallic surface.


Great for decorative highlights and it gives off a formal ambience. They have patterns with velvet-like raised designs.

Grass Cloth

Made up of weave of grasses. Not to be used on areas with high traffic and humidity. They are difficult to remove.


Made from textiles and they are not easy to clean. A special clear paste should be used in sticking it to a wall.


Easy to clean and hang. Hides wall imperfections. The textured paper can be painted.

When looking for wallpaper, you should also know how to clean them. Different materials have different ways of cleaning them. You should ask the manufacturer on their recommendations in cleaning their products.

However, dry cleaning is the safest cleaning method on any kind of wallpapers. Avoid using any moisture on wallpapers that are absorbent like paper and fabric. Some stores also sell a clay-like material to be used on wallpapers.

This clay-like cleaning material is good in absorbing soils from the walls. If you found a mold or mildew in the wallpaper, it is advised that the wallpaper be removed and replaced.

If you have removed the wallpaper, clean the walls first with water and chlorine solution. This is to kill any mold and mildew on your wall. Rinse it with clean water and let it dry before installing new wallpaper.

There are also different ways to remove wallpaper. As with cleaning, different material have different ways in removing them. Some materials are easy to remove, while some are very difficult to remove.


If the wallpaper is a simple paper, just brushing it with water can remove it off from your wall.


A chemical wallpaper stripper can be found in most home improvement stores. It is mixed with warm water or warm water with vinegar. You must saturate the wallpaper as the mixture dissolves the wallpaper paste. When the paste is completely dissolved, you can remove it easily by stripping it off with a putty or drywall knife.


A steaming machine is used to dissolve the glue or paste under the wallpaper. Extra caution is required as it can damage your drywall or plaster.

Some vinyl coated wallpapers are difficult to remove because they can’t absorb moisture. You first need to scratch the surface to let any moisture in. However, some are fairly easy to strip.

Before you go and buy that new wallpaper or wall cover, be sure to know what type or style you wanted. And to ask the store for the cleaning tips on the wallpaper you just bought.

Protect You Home With Fire Retardant Paint

The very thought of fire breaking out in our homes fills our minds with panic and fear. We start imagining about smoke, property-loss, unbearable heat and last but not the least, the loss of lives. Your insurance company will give you the money to regain all the material goods but what about the lives lost? There are certain things that money cannot replace. Fire accidents may occur in your home or office without any prior warning. So, the only way to protect your living place is to use fire protective coatings.

Regular paints can save your walls from corrosion & can be used to decorate them but when it comes to dealing with fire, such paints are flammable & aggravate the fire. Here arises the need of fire retardant coatings that can resist the spread of fire & protect the building’s structure from any sort of permanent damage.

A fire resistant paint is specifically made that can delay the spread of fire & resists its further expansion. However, it should be noted that no substance is entirely incombustible. Fire resistance paints cannot extinguish fire, they just prevent fire & protect the surfaces on which the paint is applied.

Such paints are in-tumescent that means they swell up when they are exposed to comparatively higher temperatures and increase in volume, in turn, decreasing the density. The swelled up paint forms an insulating substance known as ‘char’ which is a poor conductor of heat. This gives more time to fire- fighters to take complete control of the fire.

These paints come with a fire resistance rating that explains how long that particular fire resistant paint would withstand fire.

When it comes in contact with heat, this paint increases its volume from 200 to 300 times that, in turn, forms the insulating layer & delays the ignition temperature of the substance. Though paints are basically used to decorate the walls of a home but these paints serve an additional purpose of providing protection to your walls. These paints can be rolled, sprayed or brushed on just like any other traditional paint.

The fire retardant paints were first used in 1950s but they were quite expensive, difficult to use, used to create undesirable smoke and comprised of carcinogen which is quite harmful for the people who came in contact with them. Later in 1980’s, in-tumescent paints were introduced that were far better than their predecessors and safe to use as they did not contain any carcinogen.

Building a Surround for a Wood Burning Stove

A surround for your wood burning stove has a functional purpose as it protects non-combustible surfaces from the heat of the fire. However, it also serves a decorative purpose, with a range of ready-to-fit surrounds available in a variety of styles.

A fireplace is generally comprised of the hearth, the surround and the mantel piece although some wood burning stoves are fitted straight into the chimney recess, with no need for a surround. In this instance the stove itself provides a decorative feature to the room, but a hearth is still necessary for fire safety reasons. With fire recesses, there are also Building Regulations relating to the surrounding walls.

Building Regulations

In accordance with building regulations a hearth must be fitted to protect non-combustible materials from the heat of the stove and from any accidental spillages of ash. The hearth itself must be made from a non-combustible material, such as concrete or masonry.

There are set guidelines as to the size of hearths both for wood burning stoves fitted into a recess and for freestanding stoves. With recesses the hearth should reach at least 150mm past the sides of the stove and 300mm in front, and with freestanding stoves the hearth should be at least 840mm x 840mm in size. The hearth should also be at least 125mm thick with a space of 50mm between the hearth and any combustible material, or otherwise 250mm thick.

Surrounds should also be made from non-combustible materials, and if the stove is fitted into a chimney recess there are set requirements regarding the thickness of the walls and the materials that they are constructed from. For example, the walls of masonry chimneys should be at least 100mm thick, but if the walls separate the room from another compartment or dwelling, then they should be a minimum of 200mm away from the inner surface of the flue liner or have a gap of 40mm from the outer surface of the chimney.

The fireside recess and the chimney should also be made from non-combustible material, and the internal walls should be a minimum of 200mm in thickness. Flue sizes must also comply with Building Regulations for safety reasons.

Any work undertaken should be notified to your local planning department so that they can make sure that all the requirements are being met. Alternatively, you should employ a qualified installer who will be familiar with Building Regulations.

If you buy ready-made hearths and surrounds from a specialist stove supplier, they will usually ensure that these parts meet with Building Regulations. It is best to check with the supplier to make sure though.


To fit a fire surround you need to start by marking the walls according to the measurements of the surround so that you can make sure it fits. Masking tape is useful for this task. Next, you need to mark where the studs are in the wall as the spacers will be fixed to these. The studs are the upright posts that form part of the framework of the wall. You will also need some non-combustible spacers, and screws to fix the spacers to the wall studs.


Suitable materials for wood burning stove surrounds are cement board, slate, or granite tiles. For reasons of safety, wooden surrounds are not suitable. However, providing all Building Regulations have been complied with in terms of thickness and materials relating to the chimney walls, then it is possible to have a wooden mantel shelf. Many suppliers sell mantel shelves complete with fittings in a range of woods and finishes. Again, the mantel shelf should be a suitable distance from the stove and flue.

With some fire surrounds the mantle place forms part of the surround as it juts out from the wall. Therefore, you will not need to buy a separate mantel shelf for these types of fire surrounds.

Fitting the Surround

Start by fixing the spacers into the studs using screws. The purpose of the spacers is so that there will be an insulating gap between the wall and the face of the surround. You can then fix the fireplace surround, which should be made from a non-combustible material. You do this by using screws that are long enough to fit through the spacers and then into the wall studs. There should be a gap at the top and bottom so that air can heat up and flow through the gap.

Once you have fitted the surround, if it is not supplied with a decorative finish, you can decorate it using a fire proof material such as stucco, tiles or heat-resistant paint. Remember to cover any surrounding areas to protect them from spillages.

Fire surrounds come in a wide range of styles to complement any room in a variety of materials. You can choose from contemporary or traditional. Whatever style of surround you select, it is sure to enhance the appearance of your wood burning stove making it a great focal point for any surroundings.