How to Solder Copper Pipe

Learn how to Solder

Learning how to solder cooper pipes is one of the first things you learn in plumbing school. You need to find you own soldering techniques, the more you do it the more you get feel for it. You will eventually find your groove and be good at soldering.

Soldering or sweating involves using a heart source preferable propane torch not a soldering iron to heat the pieces of copper you would like to solder, solder then gets pulled into the fitting bay what is known as “capillary action”. Capillary action is just the physical action of the solder getting sucked into the fitting. A soldered joint will last for years to come.

To ensure a proper soldered joint is made you will want to be sure to clean the fittings and pipe you are going to solder. Then you dry fit each piece to make sure that everything is plumb and fit properly. Then you simply grab a old rag to use to wipe and you are good to go.

Be sure to have all the proper soldering equipment to complete the job. Be sure you have all the fittings and all the proper pipe you will be using.

Cutting Copper Pipe

Use copper cutters to cut your pieces of pipe. Make a mark on the pipe where you want to make your cut. Put copper cutters over the cut line and tighten the cutters. Do not clamp the cutters down to hard because it will be harder to turn the cutters around the pipe. Once you have clamped the pipe with the cutters you can start to spin the cutters around clamping the cutters more as you go until the pipe is cut. Use the reamer on the copper cutters to ream out the end of the copper pipe you just cut.

Use emery cloth or sand cloth to clean the ends of the copper pipe where you are going to solder, until it looks clean. ( you will be able to see where you cleaned) What this does is removes dirt and grease that creates oxidization. Being sure that you properly cleaned your pipe and fittings will ensure a leak free joint.

Using a wire brush the proper size, clean out each fitting just like the pipe before soldering. Then fit everything together to make sure that all your cut pieces are correct and that you cleaned enough of the ends of the pipe to solder.

Now take everything a part and use soldering flux on the ends where you cleaned the pipe and on the inside of each fitting. Only use a thin layer of flux because the solder will naturally go where the solder paste is and you don’t want to make a mess. Then fit everything back together again.

It’s GO time!

Heat the pipe and fitting equally, keep in mind that where the pipe is in the fitting will take more heat, but not too much. Be sure to keep the heat moving; do not let it stay in one spot for too long, you will cook the fitting. After about 8-1o seconds your fitting and pipe should be hot enough to start putting solder in your fitting. If the solder does not melt on contact apply more heat. When the solder starts to drip out of the fitting then you have put enough solder in the joint and move on to the next one. A rule of thumb to remember is if using ½ pipe, you should only use about 1/2 inch of lead free solder. Sometimes it takes more but this is just to give you an idea on how much solder to use. Just to make it look pretty and professional wipe the joint after you have soldered it. Don’t wipe the joint too early, it will get messy. I usually wait until it’s not shiny anymore. It will also be very hot. If you can, make a temporary soldering station, where you can do as much soldering on the ground before tying it in. Also be careful not to get flux paste near or in your eyes it will burn.

There are also different solder types, the soldering mentioned is lead free soldering, you do not want to use lead solder. Lead soldering is done on drainage lines only and not permitted on potable water lines.

Removing Solder

If wanting to know how to desolder, or un-sweat your fittings, just heat up the fitting as normal and then take two sets of pliers and twist and pull. So hope you enjoyed these soldering tips and now I hope you know how to solder copper pipe.

WES51 Weller Soldering Iron – Review

The WES51 is excellent soldering iron that is designed and manufactured by famous Weller company. It is perfect for all kinds of soldering projects including repairs, rework, industrial manufacturing, etc. Its economical price makes it also a good soldering iron for occasional users such as hobbyist or home electronics enthusiast. The WES51 is best-selling soldering iron on Amazon.

And Weller has been around for many generations. Weller has started designing and manufacturing soldering irons in 1940s. Even though Cooper Tools acquired Weller Soldering in 1970s, the Weller brand name is well-respected and recognized throughout the world as a best manufacturer of soldering equipment.

When you buy the WES51 Weller soldering station, you will receive the main power unit, the pencil, the pencil stand and a sponge attached to the pencil stand that you can use to clean the tip of the soldering iron. All of those tools combined into the soldering station setup, provide you everything that you need to start your soldering project.

Some of features of WES51 Weller station:

  • 50 watt iron is is perfect for most soldering tasks
  • Temperature range at the tip of iron is adjustable from 350 to 850 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Non-burnable cord made of silicon rubber (cord length 4 ft.)
  • Temperature lockout control so you do not burn up your circuit board with a careless mistake
  • Easily switch between Fahrenheit and Celsius readouts
  • Electronic temperature control is accurate to within 9 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Station automatically powers down after 99 minutes of inactivity
  • Static proof so you do not destroy delicate circuit boards
  • Fast heat up of iron from cold to hot, even with bigger tips

The WES51 comes with PES51 soldering pencil that has a comfortable foam grip that improves the ease of use and reduces heat transfer from the iron into your fingers. I found the soldering pencil to be really quite comfortable to grip for extended periods. It features a stainless steel heating element which extends the soldering iron’s life by minimizing corrosion. Soldering pencil PES51 uses ET series tips – Weller has a huge range of tips in ET series to suit all kinds of soldering jobs.

Main problem with most of soldering irons is that you need to wait for them to heat up from cold stage to ready-for-soldering stage, not only when you start using them, but also in between jobs if you leave them alone for a long period of time. For example, one of my soldering stations automatically powers down after 15 minutes of inactivity. Unfortunately, this particular setting is not adjustable so you can not customize it for your needs. In other words, you can not increase this time if you do little bit of soldering with a long periods of time between two soldering jobs. WES51 has a built-in activator that allows it to automatically powers down after 99 minutes of inactivity. That is right setting of this shut down time – you have enough time even if you have some longer interval between two soldering jobs.

Another great characteristic of the WES51 Weller soldering iron is that it has very accurate electronic temperature control. Temperature of iron can be adjusted with the front panel temperature control knob – you can precisely control the temperature of iron to within 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Electronic temperature control means you’ll always know if the tip of the iron is hot enough for the material you are soldering. It makes your soldering task a whole lot easier. In addition, electronic temperature control allows precise control of the heat level at the tip of the iron. This means that you can rest assured that your iron is hot enough and ready for soldering, and at same time you know that it is not too hot to burn some temperature-sensitive components on circuit board. If you do not pay attention on temperature of iron’s tip you can accidentally damage or ruin your soldering project by applying too much heat. For every soldering task you need enough heat to quickly and reliably melt the solder and apply it to soldering joints, but you do not want too much heat that can burn or melt delicate electronic components or circuit boards.

In conclusion, WES51 Weller soldering iron is solidly built, it has a very durable design and you can count on using one for many years with no problems. It comes in well known Weller-blue color. It is very comfortable to use this Weller soldering iron, even if you spend several hours of continuous soldering on your soldering task.

Weller WES51 analog soldering iron is very similar to Weller WESD51 soldering iron but does not have a digital display (digital display shows current temperature of iron’s tip during operation or set-up).

Weller WES51 is an excellent low cost soldering iron. It is one of the best soldering iron on market that can be found under $100. It is one of the best soldering irons available in USA and Canada. I give 4 out of 5 stars for this soldering station, as it lacks a digital readout.

HTML5 Web Sockets Example

HTML5 Web Sockets will single handedly revolutionize web technologies as we know it. The purpose of this post is to explain what techniques have been used to simulate server push until now, define HTML5 web sockets, and then give an example of how to use it in your HTML5 application.

What is polling?

Until now, the web has been one directional. In other words, web pages could only send a request to a web server, and not the other way around. Once AJAX came along in 2005, web developers quickly adopted techniques to simulate a request from server to client known as polling. There are two types of polling, short polling and long polling.

Short polling is implemented by making a request to the web server every few seconds or so to see if data has changed. If it has, the web server will respond with the new data. Otherwise, it will respond with a blank message. The drawback to this technique, however, is both a surplus is server requests and an overhead in CPU usage on the web server to constantly check if an update to the data has been made.

Long polling is implemented by making a single request to the web server and keeping the connection open until the data has changed, at which point the web server sends back a response. The drawback to this technique, like short polling, is that the web server still has to check if the data has changed every few seconds or so, creating an overhead in CPU usage.

What’s an HTML5 web socket?

This is where HTML5 web sockets come in. HTML5 will be the first HTML specification to support client side web sockets. In other words, when data changes on the web server, the web server can send a request to client, eliminating the need for polling.

HTML5 web socket example

Step 1: Create a WebSocket with a valid URL

Create a new WebSocket connection to WebSocket server at

var stockTickerWebSocket = new WebSocket(“ws://”);

Note that a ws:// and wss:// prefix indicate a WebSocket and a secure WebSocket connection respectively. The default port for WebSockets is 81 and the default port for secure WebSocket is 815.

Step 2: Attach JavaScript Callback Functions

Associate event listeners to handle each phase of the connection life cycle.

stockTickerWebSocket.onopen = function(evt)

alert(“Stock Ticker Connection open…”);


stockTickerWebSocket.onmessage = function(evt)

alert( “Received Ticker Update: ” +;


stockTickerWebSocket.onclose = function(evt)

alert(“Connection closed.”);


Step 3: Send and Receive Data

To send a message to the server, simply call the postMessage method on the webocket with the content you wish to send to the server.

stockTickerWebSocket.postMessage(“BUY: GOOG,100@200.25″);

This will send the BUY message to the server. Any message coming from the server will be delivered to the onmessage callback registered in step #2.

Step 4: Disconnect When Done

When completed, call the disconnect() method to close the WebSocket connection.


As demonstrated in the example above, there are no HTTP requests made to the server from the client side to retrieve data, instead the data was pushed to the client from the server – when it becomes available.

When a new WebSocket connection is established the browser opens an HTTP connection to the server first and then negotiates with the server to upgrade the connection to a dedicated and persistent WebSocket connection. This process automatically sets up a tunnel through to the server – passing through all network agents (proxies, routers, and firewalls) in the middle (very much like HTTPS establishing a secure, endtoend connection), solving numerous issues that the various Comet programming techniques encountered. Once established the WebSocket is a fullduplex channel between the client and the server.

Example provided by

Father of The Bride Speech: Opening and Ending

The following tried-and-proven strategies will show you how to open your Father of The Bride speech with confidence to instantly capture attention, put you in control, and warm people to you as the proud father you are. Equally important, you will learn how to finish with impact so your speech is a memorable one.

Opening: Give careful thought to the first words you say as they will set the scene of who you are and give an idea of where you are going and why you’ve earned the right to be there. In order to do this it’s important you first accept that nervous energy and a racing heart is a perfectly natural reaction for anyone getting up to speak. Everyone experiences this sort of thing. Here’s how to transform it into something positive. With your opening simply pretend you are a lot more confident than you actually feel. Slightly raise your voice a little louder than usual by being a touch larger than life. By ‘acting out’ the confident speaker you want to be for those first few sentences of your speech (even though you might not feel it!), you’ll not only capture attention, you’ll leave those initial nerves behind so you can comfortably settle down to enjoy the rest of your speech in a friendly conversational manner. Don’t worry, all this will look perfectly normal to your listeners.

As the father of the bride, here’s an example of the opening words your guests could hear:

“When I first heard my daughter was getting married a terrible fear swept over me… ‘I’ll have to give a speech!!'”

An opening such as this will not only stimulate a laugh, which never fails to break the ice, it will help your listeners relate to the uncomfortable feelings we all experience when confronted with a speech. It also radiates empathy with your listeners by showing them you are a fallible human being just like them.

Now you are ready to share some of those priceless memories of your daughter in the body of your speech as she transitioned from the little girl you used to rock to sleep in your arms to the beautiful woman ‘before us today’. With the groom, you could not only highlight one or two qualities you admire in him, you could tell the story of how he acted strangely on the day he asked you for her hand in marriage…

Ending: As with your opening, the closing words of your speech need special attention with your approach, content, and delivery.

Now nearing the end of your talk your heartfelt words and entertaining stories have won your listeners’ respect and they are looking forward to joining you in a toast to the Bride and Groom. Just before proposing the toast, take advantage of this trust and anticipation with a few ‘fatherly’ words of advice for the groom along the lines:

“Bill, if I may be so bold as to offer you some sage advice… Allow me to borrow a few words of wisdom from the famous philosopher OGDEN NASH.

To keep your marriage brimming with love in the marriage cup… Whenever you are wrong admit it. Whenever you are right shut up!”

Proposing the Toast: At this point you are ready to invite everyone to stand and join you in a toast to the Bride and Groom, keeping in mind that audiences just LOVE to be led. They’re genuinely looking forward to your leadership. So say something like the following with confidence!

“Ladies and gentlemen would you all please stand and join me as I propose a Toast to the Bride and Groom.” Allow them to stand. Now raise your glass towards the happy couple and say something like, “To Bill and Mary for a long life of health and happiness as they embark on this wonderful journey together.” Everyone will automatically join with you and say “To Bill and Mary” as you all toast the newlyweds. Nothing more need be said. You simply return to your seat and sit down.

To summarize: An effective Opening and Ending of your Father of The Bride speech is critical for two important reasons: A confident opening not only calms your nerves, it sets the scene of a proud father who is there with a clear purpose of what he wants to say. And a crisp, clear, deliberate ending led by someone in control of the Toast, rounds it all off nicely. So to ensure the success of your Father of The Bride speech, make sure you give careful thought to both the beginning and ending of this all-important talk.

Golf – Should You Remove the Flag Stick Or Leave it in the Hole?

When you are watching golf on the television have you ever wondered what goes through the players’ minds when deciding whether to remove the flag stick while putting or to leave it in the hole?

According to the official rules this is a decision which each player has to make and you are permitted to leave the flag stick in the hole and ask your caddy or a fellow player to watch over it or to remove it and place it off the green while putting out.

This might seem like a very simple decision but it is not quite as simple as you might think and is something that you need to think about very carefully.

So, what are the advantages and disadvantages of removing the flag stick?

Removing the flag stick gives you clear access to the hole and ensures that the stick does not become an obstacle to dropping your ball into the cup. You don’t for example have to worry about your ball hitting the stick and bouncing out of the hole which can be very frustrating. On the other side of this same coin however, if you hit your ball a little bit too hard, you might be happy to have the flag stick in the way to stop it from rolling straight across the cup and on across the green.

By leaving the flag stick in the hole you have a clear target to aim at and hitting the stick can bring your ball up short and leave it very close to the hole or even drop the ball into the cup for you.

On the other hand, hitting the stick can also cause your ball to be diverted from its course and to shoot off at an angle, possibly onto a sloping area of the green on which it will happily roll away from the hole and even clear off the green.

So you see it is not quite as simple a decision as you might imagine.

At the end of the day you must weigh the advantages and disadvantages carefully but don’t forget to factor in your own playing style and of course the nature of the green. For example, if you are putting downhill you might like to leave the flag stick in to help prevent your ball from rolling on past the hole. Similarly, if you are putting uphill you might prefer to take the stick out to prevent your ball from hitting it, bouncing back and rolling right back down to where you started. It’s your call.

Car Stereo Wiring 101 – A Must Read!

I have come across a lot of car stereo systems over the past 10 years or so. There are so many “techniques” to installing head units. Everyone has their own opinion of what is right and wrong when wiring up a system, but just because it works doesn’t make it right.

I asked Majestic Modifications what their opinion was on the subject. How do they install so many units and always get it right?

First, if applicable, always use the harnesses. The aftermarket wiring harness will usually take the guesswork out of the installation. These harnesses attach to the vehicle’s factory wiring harness and gives you a color coded installation. You just attach red to red, yellow to yellow, etc. But is that all an installer should know?

Starting with your digital multimeter, find the power sources in the harness. One source will be continuous 12 volts, the other will be the ACC (ignition) 12 volts. These two will go with the yellow and red wires from the aftermarket head unit’s harness. They are labeled accordingly. It is usually a good idea to attach the ground wire to the frame of the dash. A lot of head units come with a connector for this already attached to the ground wire. Secure these in place with some solder and shrink tubing. Slip the shrink tubing over one of the wires to be connected and move it out of the way. Connect the wires and dab a little solder on the wires. Let cool and then slide the heat shrink tubing over the connection. Heat with a heat gun/hair dryer to shrink the tubing to fit.

You can try to look on the internet for the wiring colors, but good luck. They will tell you the “typical” wire colors, but chances are it will be different. You can try two techniques to find the right wires. Clip the rest of the wires from the factory harness. You can test the speakers with a good 9 volt battery to see which speakers are which. Two wires connected to the same speaker will make it pop. Note which speaker makes the pop and attach it to that speakers wiring from the head unit. I like to turn the unit on and make sure the wires are the right polarity. A reverse wired speaker will not have as good a sound as a properly wired one. Continue the technique until all the speakers are connected.

The other way you can trace the speakers down is to turn on the head unit, but be VERY careful to not cross any wires. Start with a pair of wires, and attach them one at a time until you get sound. Note which speaker it is and attach it to that speaker’s wires from the wiring harness, taking not of polarity. Continue until all the wires are in place. Zip tie the wire together and neatly tuck them behind the head unit.

Be sure you have a good ground wire connection. Be sure that RCAs or signal wires are running away from any power wires or sources, and are not run parallel to them.

If you want a neat trick, you can attach the 12 volt acc to the illumination wire, and you will be able to turn the unit on with your parking light switch. Take note, that anytime the unit is on, the dash panel lights will be on too, but you won’t notice them in the daytime. The illumination wire is used to turn the factory radio lights on at night.

Not having the wiring harness for your vehicle is not a do or die situation. If you can get the harnesses, save the hassle and time and use it. If you find yourself in a bind, then follow the steps above and get it installed correctly.

What Are Flood Lights?

Flood lighting involves making use of light bulbs of high power to light up a big outdoor area. This type of lighting is put in place permanently and needs a lot of electric current. Flood lighting can broadly be classified into three: façade, general area and signage. Each kind involves its own unique subject and challenges which need to be addressed. Some examples would be supply, installation and maintenance.

Flood lighting is typically employed for highlighting the architectural texture of an impressive or historically significant building. By using flood lighting, you can augment the detailed structure of a building. An installation of this kind of lighting makes it essential to think over its positioning, power, plus maintenance.

The size of any building decides the size of the lighting unit that has to be installed. When you want to light up a very elevated building, you need to ensure that the lighting element is huge enough to throw out the light of the required intensity. Generally, you need to position the unit at least 75% of building’s height, away from its base.

Such kind of lighting needs a dedicated source of power. You are required to consult an electrical engineer to design the most practical circuit that ensures the adequate power. Remember that external lighting needs a connection with a generator in case of emergencies. Take into consideration your options for wiring, and come to a decision if flood lights should form a constituent of emergency lighting arrangement.

Any flood lighting arrangement needs repair and maintenance. Steps should be taken to ensure that the plan and design you choose make it feasible to undertake normal maintenance, and that it is adequately safe. These two aspects demand planning in advance to employ a realistic answer.

One piece of flood lighting is usually insufficient for sign lighting, and requires additional units. These units need to be installed at equal distance from one another, and need to be focused on the sign. The usual thumb rule is to place lights at less than half the distance from the base of the sign, separately from one another.

Sporting events and security require general area lighting. Generally, such lights are fixed on top of high poles for the lighting of large areas. The pole’s height is decided by the area needing illumination. The thumb rule is to keep the height equal to half of the width of the area.

Undoubtedly, the most preferred way of outdoor flood lighting comes to us by way of highly powerful, electrically driven quartz halogen lights. Such lights are capable of throwing out gleaming beams of light in hundreds or thousands of watts. Generally, they incorporate motion sensors which automatically turn on if any undesirable person gets into the restricted area. Quartz halogen bulbs make the best option for flood lights. These are helpful for domestic use, business premises, and also for lighting up tennis courts and playgrounds in parks.

Four Barriers to Effective Communication

Why does communication so often go wrong? Here are the top four reasons for breakdowns in communication:

1. Poor Listening Skills. Poor listening skills top the list when it comes to barriers to communication. Poor listening skills can result from:

* Lack of involvement with the other person or the topic at hand: you just don’t care enough to listen.

* Distractions in the environment such as excessive noise or activity.

* Disagreement with the speaker, resulting in mentally “shutting off” the other person.

* Passive listening rather than active involvement with the speaker.

2. Assumptions. There are many assumptions we make while communicating with others. For instance, you might think that you know what the other person is going to say, so you simply “leave” the conversation.

3. Non-Verbal Signals. One recent study showed that only 7% of our communicating is tied to what we actually say! A full 55% of communication happens through non-verbal signals, and another 38% is based on tonality. So if your non-verbal signals are contradicting what your mouth is saying, people are going to remember what you didn’t say.

4. Improper Use of Questions. Many people believe that if they ask a multitude of questions, they are communicating well and connecting with the other person. This may or may not be the case! We must ask the right questions at the right time to get the information we need to communicate effectively. That means asking open-ended questions – questions that begin with who, what, when, why, where, and how. Open-ended questions help true discussion and understanding to take place.

© 2008 Timothy I. Thomas

You have my permission to reprint and distribute this article as long as it is distributed in its entirety, including all links and copyright information. This article is not to be sold or included with anything that is sold.

Fireproof Your Marriage Seminar

Obviously a marriage can be vulnerable, just look at the high divorce rate in our nation. A small friction may spark trouble, sometimes you may have smoldering misunderstandings, tensions and hostility may flare up and the next thing you know you have a situation that is a full fledged inferno and you may feel that there is no solution or help in sight. In that case you may want to consider attending a fireproof your marriage seminar.

Marriage is a wonderful thing it is also one of the most difficult things in life that you will face every single day. You have to learn about one another expectations of what married life should be about. You must have understanding and learn how to continue loving each other even once those first feelings have worn down. And, naturally, it takes devotion and commitment to one another. In other words, it takes a great deal of work but having the right foundation is the first step towards fireproofing your marriage and that is exactly what a fireproof your marriage seminar is all about.

There is no such thing as a perfect marriage which means that no one person in the marriage is perfect either; just as it takes two people to make a marriage it also takes the same two people to break that marriage. Of course it is not always true that each one is equally responsible but no matter how you split the responsibility each person still has some as everyone does make mistakes. It is just a matter of time when you live with someone that you will hurt them, even if not intentionally, but it does happen. A fireproof your marriage seminar shows you that you will need to first acknowledge that a mistake was made, and then work on correcting it all the while sincerely apologizing while making it right. If this does not happen then you may just be lighting that spark.

If you refuse to take responsibility, or even acknowledge your mistakes and actions then you will be unable to properly heal and will not learn from your mistakes. This in turn means that you will not be able to improve in any of the areas that may need improvement. No matter how much which person was responsible for they are still errors in judgment, or mistakes that have to be acknowledge and fixed in order to save the relationship. Attending a fireproof your marriage seminar shows that this improves your marriage so that unhealthy cycles will not be repeated.

Even if you have a strong relationship that does not mean that you will not have any arguments or struggles. There are trying times and temptations in every marriage, but when you decide to attend a fireproof your marriage seminar it takes you one step closer to realizing that no one is perfect and no marriage is or ever will be perfect. You have to learn to accept each other, imperfections and all.

The Wallpaper Pirate – Selling Wallpaper On-Line

Disney’s three new pirate movies has resurrected “pirate” as

a fun concept for children as opposed to the not fun making

“pirate copies” of these same movies. The idea of “the wallpaper

pirate” goes back to the 1980’s where toll free 800 numbers were

advertised in the back of magazines.

Customers really loved the concept. They felt they had a

right to shop around for the best price. They had spent all the

time looking through many books in a number of different stores.

Although various sales personnel attempted to help them, it was

the customer who did the real work.

You would not believe how much retail store owners hated the

800 number wallpaper sellers. These retailers believed they were

stealing their customers. The retailers would spend untold hours

with the customers who would then not purchase from them but dial

an 800 number to place the order. It was the wallpaper retail

store owners who called this type of business a wallpaper pirate.

A retail store has expenses that a wallpaper pirate does not

have. Each wallpaper book costs between fifty and one hundred

dollars. Retail store space cost thousands per month in any

location that has any traffic at all. Floor sales staff costs

many hundreds per month.

The costs for an 800 number business includes the cost of

the operator giving out quotes and taking orders. The normal

rate is about nine quotes per order. Now if you lower your

price, you get more orders with less quotes. And if you raise

your price you get less orders with more quotes. So you can go

out of business by lowering your price and you can go out of

business by raising your price. Your variable costs vary with


But now we have the internet and there is no cost to giving

a quote. So now the formula is simple. You rise your price and

the volume goes down. You lower your price and your volume goes

up. Your variable costs are constant.

Right now, anybody who has access to wallpaper can get on

the internet and sell wallpaper on-line. You just give your new

internet business a different name than your present non internet

business and you are on your way. Call it “AAA Wallpaper

Discount”. Put all key words you can think of in your meta tags

and in your page content. Pretty soon you show up on the search

engines. Put together some quick ads and pay per click and you

get instant traffic.

But you cannot compete with the “big boys” because you do

not have access to all books at the best prices, unless, of

course, you sign up for the highest cost book plans for all the


But then again, many of the vendors save their best prices

for stores who invest in inventory. Your investment will be in

the tens of thousands of dollars in inventory to get the prices

you need.

So now your fixed expenses have risen and more and more

businesses use this same model. So those selling at the same

price see their volume dropping because it is now shared with

everyone and their brother (a figure of speech indicating heavy


So what is left is developing a niche market where you get a

few products a really good discount and then sell at a fair

price. Your success is therefore based on picking the product

and marketing that product effectively.

To give a little of my personal experience, I wrote the

software program for Delta Paint in New Jersey in the 1980’s for

their National Wholesale inbound telemarketing business. They

sold wallpaper for one price in their stores and at a lower price

in the back room over the phone. The local customers had no idea

they could get a lower price by calling the 800 number.

I started selling wallpaper myself on the internet in 1997

by using a simple e-mail technique. Later I converted my software

to work on the internet and have been constantly upgrading since


If you are considering selling wallpaper online yourself,

the best advice I can give is to be prepared to change quickly

and often.

Problem of Solid Waste Incineration in Developing Countries

In fact, if not for the sake of hospital waste, one could have categorically concluded that waste incineration should be phase-out from the developing countries- especially, Nigeria. The reasons are quite obvious; incineration requires high skill and technicality. The types of incinerators that are very common in Nigeria are by far different from those ones that are found and being used in the civilized countries.

Taking Ibadan city for example, no incinerator has provision for flue gas treatment and, to large extent, energy recovery. Perhaps, you can only find electrically powered incinerator at the University Teaching Hospital, Ibadan. Apart from this, the incinerators were not normally built with high chimneys to take care of gaseous emissions.

Although, no other methods of effective pathogen reduction have ever prescribed for health care facilities worldwide other than incineration, non-incineration technologies are being encouraged in recent years by many environmental pressure groups. The reasons include toxic and obnoxious ash residue as well air emissions that are carcinogenic.

Further more, the nature of waste generated which contains more of organic cannot be properly handled by indigenous incinerators with perceived low in-built temperature. Incineration is a high temperature dry oxidation process that reduces organic and combustible waste to inorganic, incombustible matter. Then, incinerator can be used for sludge and mix kitchen wastes with very small low heat value. However, none of locally made incinerators can effectively do this because of lower temperature (usually lower than 10000C). Worse still, most of them are built without provision for fuel and usually clogged with unburnt or partially burnt matters.

In conclusion, due to the sophistication, high technology and skill, and high capital involved in normal incineration, and also due to the threat posed to the environment and health by the current method in some developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, it could be suggested that locally made incinerators phase out in these countries for now.

Suspended Ceilings – What Types Are There?

Suspended ceilings are like a second ceiling, it is placed underneath the existing ceiling and is used to hide pipelines or ductwork. They are generally attached and suspended on wires from the ceiling above and are laid out in a grid where tiles are fitted in. Suspended ceilings can be made with a lot of materials, for example, wood.

Once the suspended ceilings have been installed you can fit in fluorescent lights or install air ducts etc. They are used a lot to cover up this kind of work anyway so suspended ceilings being installed to cover air ducts can easily be integrated in. Also you can install insulation into your suspended ceilings which absorbs heat and sound.

Suspended ceilings are also implemented so that maintenance can take place in the void that is made when the ceiling is installed.

When designing and purchasing your suspended ceilings you are going to need to decide whether or not you want the ceiling to be demountable or completely non-accessible. If you make you suspended ceilings demountable then this will allow you to easily access the ceiling void and perform maintenance on the ceiling or on other objects that the ceiling is concealing. If you make your suspended ceiling non accessible then you will not be able to perform ceiling maintenance easily as you will not be able to get into the ceiling void.

You should consider the above very seriously as the ceilings will need to be redone if you wish to be able to change a non accessible ceiling into a demountable one.

There are many different types of suspended ceilings systems but all are different depending on your requirements yet the concept is the same. For example there is the free span suspend ceiling system that is mainly used for corridors. This kind of system is made up of ceiling planks which are held by the perimeter trim on their short edges. This kind of system can be installed quickly and pretty easily, also it can produce a very nice effect when finished which is usually smooth. These types of suspended ceilings can be made de-mountable for maintenance or non-accessible; if you opt for the de-mountable type then the ceiling planks are removed to allow you your easy access.

Another suspended ceiling system is the bandraster system; these types of suspended ceilings are very flexible and can be made to match with any kind of building architecture. Once again these suspended ceilings can be made accessible or non accessible. These suspended ceiling are design with either concealed or exposed sections which link up to achieve lateral bracing, therefore these systems can be modified to fit any building.

Another system is the exposed suspended ceilings system which is another system which can be installed quickly and efficiently and also allows for you to do maintenance work in the ceiling void easily. These types of suspended ceilings have tiles slotted into a suspended grid allowing for it to be edited easily as well.

I hope this has helped in your search for your suspended ceilings.

Reviews Of Duraceramic Flooring

Duraceramic is a mix of ceramic tile and laminated tiles to form a composite. It is intended to provide the benefits of both types of flooring.

Duraceramic Reviews

This type of flooring is available in a range of stylings and sizes to fit your project specifications. You can choose imitation stone, porcelain, or wood which provides you with the versatility to create the look you are searching for. Duraceramic has a variety of options to choose from to fit your flooring needs.

One of the exceptional features of the Duraceramic flooring tiles is that they are very flexible and sturdy that makes them easier to work with if you choose to install the tiles yourself. It does not require grouting so it is a breeze to install. This material is perfect for people who like DIY projects. Choosing this type of flooring and installing it yourself can save a lot of expense.

More Duraceramic Reviews

Their are many positives to Duraceramic, but there are also some complaints. Multiple duraceramic reviews mention that the product is prone to chipping or cracking, mostly on the corners. Make sure that you choose a suitable location to apply this flooring, where high traffic or heavy furniture cannot damage it. Avoid using it for the kitchen or in a work room.

Although you do not have to use grout with Duraceramic, many people choose to do it anyway. In their duraceramic reviews, they mentioned that they had some difficulties with the grout. This is probably a mistake on the part of the installer however, and can be remedied accordingly.

Duraceramic is more expensive than regular tile but it has many positive features that make it worth spending the extra money. If you can afford it, this flooring comes with a lifetime warranty against staining, fading, and other damage that can occur over time. The high cost that you pay initially can pay off in the long run because it is a more durable, aesthetically pleasing option.

The only other complaint that customers registered against Duraceramic floors were that they are more difficult to clean than tile. This is a personal opinion however that not everyone seems to share and can be avoided with the proper equipment and technique. The complaints were about stains that were difficult to remove.

The best way to figure out what kind of flooring is right for you is to go to your local flooring store and talk to their experienced staff, who will be happy to tell you what you need to know. Even if you decide that Duraceramic is not right for you, they can point you in the right direction. For those who can afford it though, Duraceramic reviews indicate that it is a very promising selection.

Penile Implants for Erectile Dysfunction – Worth It?

There are 3 types of penile implants for men who suffer from erectile dysfunction, a non inflatable implant, a two piece inflatable implant and a multi-component inflatable penile implant.

The terms penile prosthesis, inflatable penile prosthesis, penile implant and internal penile pump all refer to the multicomponent inflatable penile prosthesis.

What’s referred to as an internal penile pump, this is a soft fluid-filled device consisting of water and salt, that can expand and contract without losing elasticity.

Consisting of three small components, the pump, very thin tubes and the reservoir, the reservoir contains fluid which is transferred by the pump into the tubes, which causes it to expand and become rigid.

There are now believed to be over 250,000 men who have the internal penile pump worldwide. Below are listed the common advantages and disadvantages most associated with these devices.

Non Inflatable Penile Implant


  • Totally concealed in body, all parts of the device are implanted inside the body
  • Relatively easy for you and your partner to use, you simply bend it up for an erection, down when not in use.
  • This is the simplest surgical procedure so it’s a good option for surgeons with limited surgical experience.


  • Only 20% of these implants are performed in the USA.
  • Strange and abnormal feel and appearance.
  • Having a permanent erection will be very bothersome for most men.
  • It will cause deterioration and thinning of penile flesh over the long-term.
  • Least expensive. This may be a consideration for men not covered by insurance.
  • By far the most painful and discomforting post-op because the penis needs to adjust to a constant erection.

Two piece Inflatable Penile Implant


  • A good option for men with limited dexterity which maybe something to consider if you have arthritis or difficulty using your hands.
  • Simply pump it up for an erection and down when not in use.


  • The cylinders have an unnatural shape and make the penis look like a broom with a square head.
  • The penis is not as rigid as with a multi-component inflatable device because only a small amount of fluid is transferred into the cylinders to obtain an erection.
  • The pump is small and difficult to inflate.
  • All parts of the device are implanted inside the body so having a partial erection is very bothersome.
  • It will also cause deterioration and thinning of penile flesh over the long-term.

Three Piece (Multi-component) Inflatable Penile Implant


  • All parts of the device are implanted inside the body.
  • The larger softer pump makes it easier to inflate than a two-piece device.
  • Many single patients report that the partner does not realize that the penis has an implant in it.
  • Pump it up for an erection and press the release valve above the pump to deflate.
  • Offers better flaccidity (softness) to the penile shaft when not in use.
  • Due to a larger amount of fluid transferred into the cylinders to obtain an erection, the penis is the most rigid of all the implants.


  • Because the penis is flaccid after the surgery, the patient will have a less amount of pain post-operatively, but still a noticeable amount.

Bottom Line:

Whilst a penile implant may seem like one option to counter erectile dysfunction, as you can see it’s clearly by no means pain free and the damage is irreversable.

Erection problems can now however be tackled with some of the latest natural supplements which help relax the blood vessels in this organ, resulting in a larger volume of blood filling the penis which in turn creates a harder manhood during sexual intimacy.

A much more appealing option which is pain free and will cost the fraction of a surgical procedure.

What Is Lean? Company Resources


Lean as the name suggest is the production of products or services using the least of everything – human effort, investment in inventory, machines, space, tools, time, development, transport / movement. The term is called Lean, Lean Manufacturing and Lean Enterprise all meaning the same thing and deriving from the Toyota Production system and some other sources. It is however very simply the reduction of waste from your processes it has enabled Toyota to become one of the biggest and most reliable car companies in the world.

Lean is therefore the identification and steady elimination of waste through the implementation of perfect first time quality approaches to work, standardisation of processes, smoothing of flow, flexibility of work, long term relationships with customers and supplies and reduction in time leading to cost reduction and business improvement. To achieve this a number of tools have been developed which facilitate the removal of waste from processes and a number of methodologies to implement the principles.

In organisations where the principles of Lean are fully understood the people use the tools and techniques with out thought as eliminating waste and improving flow become the norm. Lean in its many guises has been around since the 1940’s and has developed and adapted over the years to become one of the key business improvement methodologies used in many of the worlds leading companies. At its heart lean is effectively simple and easy to understand. Lean implementation is therefore focused on getting the right things, to the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity to achieve perfect work flow while minimizing waste and inventor while being flexible and able to change if the customer requirements change.

However, no matter how simple, at the heart of any lean implementation is the cultural and managerial aspects of Lean which are just as, and possibly more, important than the actual tools or methodologies of lean itself. There are many examples of Lean tool implementation without sustained benefit and these are often blamed on weak understanding of Lean in the organisation.

The first concept which must be understood is that waste is bad. This has been the ethos for successful companies from Henry Ford onwards. So what is waste?

Waste or non value added work is anything which doesn’t add value to your product or service. When you examine your processes in real detail you discover that the vast majority of what we do is non value added. To illustrate this Shigeo Shingo (a deep lean thinker) observed ‘that it’s only the last turn of a bolt that tightens it – the rest is just movement’. If we review everything we do to this extent we see that most of our activities are waste. To eliminate waste we must examine three aspects – the design and planning of our activities, the fluctuation at our operations such as quality and volume and thirdly the waste in our processes themselves in the movement of people and materials and the machines they use.

When you examine your processes in this way you can be said to be ‘learning to see’ and can start to eliminate the waste and improve the processes. To make things easier there are 7 ways to think about waste.

The original seven wastes are:

o Overproduction (production ahead of demand) – making things ahead of when the customer actually wants them. We do this because our processes are not reliable, or we like to manufacture or do task in big batches (traditionally accountants tell us this is the most efficient way)

o Transportation – moving parts, materials or work in progress around a factory or paper around an office

o Waiting – for parts or information so you can perform at task

o Inventory (all materials, work-in-progress and finished product) – Items produced which can’t be used or sold straight away go into inventory tying up money, space and causing multiple management issues

o Motion -people or equipment moving or walking more than is required to perform the processing

o Over Processing – making more than is needed or doing more work than is needed because you can’t guarantee what the outcome will be ie I need 20 but I will make 25 just in case something goes wrong

o Defects / Rework – the effort involved in inspecting for and fixing defects, reworking items or having to scrap them

There has now been identified an 8th Waste

o Human talent – the waste of peoples talent – training, enthusiasms and brain power.

By identifying waste and non value added activities in our processes we can then start to use the lean tools to eliminate them. Typical Lean tools include – 5S, visual management, TPM, SMED, Pokie Yokie, Standardised work, pull systems, takt time, single piece flow, Kanban, cellular manufacturing, design for manufacture, kaizen etc.

Lean thinking and the tools associated with it have been used for decades all over the world by every type of business. There is a standard approach to implementation of lean thinking.

o Step 1: Specify Value

Define value from the perspective of the final customer. What does your customer actually want, what will they pay for and when do they want it.

o Step 2: Map

Identify the value stream, all the actions required to bring a specific product through the physical flow of the company. This includes all the information flow and management flow steps to make things happen. Create a map of how it is today and how you want it to look like. Identify and categorize waste in the Current State, and eliminate it!

o Step 3: Flow

Make the remaining steps in the value stream flow. Eliminate functional barriers and develop a product-focussed organization that dramatically improves lead-time.

o Step 4: Pull

Let the customer pull products as needed, eliminating the need for a sales forecast.

o Step 5: Perfection

There is no end to the process of reducing effort, time, space, cost, and mistakes. Return to the first step and begin the next lean transformation, offering a product which is ever more nearly what the customer wants.

If you have a top management team who understand the concepts and a workforce who embrace the culture then Lean will transform your business.

So what is Lean Six Sigma?

As stated above Lean and Six Sigma when used together will provide a business improvement methodology which combines tools from both Lean Enterprise (Manufacturing) and Six Sigma. Lean eliminates the waste in your processes, while Six Sigma ensures quality through the elimination of variation in your processes and also provides a structured data driven structure to solve problems and implement sustainable change into your business.

Why is there even a debate about which one you should use?

For some reason two camps have emerged one supporting Lean and the other Six Sigma. Lots of it is childish my way is better than yours and some of is lack of knowledge. Either way what you find is that both approaches use each others tools any way. So the whole thing is stupid. As with any business improvement you should use the best tool for the job no matter what it is or where it has come from. You should be constantly seeking out new tools, methods, applications and methodologies to satisfy your customer and business needs by eliminating waste and improving quality. That is why we always train, consult and coach in Lean Six Sigma but bring in anything else we know. That is why we don’t mind you calling your improvement initiate what ever you like and that is why we get results.