Assembly at Home Jobs – Electronics Assembly at Home Jobs

Assembly at home jobs involved the assembly of many products. The beauty of this kind of work is that you will be taught the assembling techniques of a broad range of products. If you would wish to assemble electronic products, the company will provide you with a step by step instruction which would be very easy to understand because of the simple English and the illustrations that go with the step by step process of assembly instructions.

In fact, even if you have no knowledge about electronics and it would be your first time to touch and hear about the names of those tiny electronic components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, and other electronic items, you can still go about the assembly of these products. Of course, it is a must that you know how to read and understand English correctly in order for you to be able to assemble these products based on the instructions. Actually, assembly at home jobs that would deal about the assembly of electronic parts can be of several types.

You can be given assignment to assemble electronic components that would only need tools such as long nose pliers, screw drivers and cutters. This kind of assembly will make you assemble electronic parts through the use of these tools. Another kind of electronic assembly will have to make you use an electric soldering gun and even a simple tester to test the product. With this kind of electronic assembly at home jobs, the company will have to provide the assembler with an electric soldering gun, lead for soldering and a simple electric meter for testing.

These tools will come attached with how to use guide. Anybody can easily learn to use these tools. Assembly at home jobs dealing in assembly that need specialized tools will need to have separate instructions in how to use such tools. These instructions, aside from making the user learn how to use the tools, will also provide for the necessary safety tips to preclude the worker from getting hurt through the wrong use of such equipment. It has been noted, however, that most of assembly at home jobs worker choosing electronic product assembly jobs, have some basic knowledge of electronics, the reason why they go for this kind of assembly work.

Electronic assembly at home jobs are offered by many businesses and companies involved in the manufacture of electronic products. Because of the growing market of their products that are used in many electronic applications such as FM radios, Cassette Disc players, digital cameras and even cell phones, the need for electronic assembly at home jobs workers are badly needed by these companies. This is also one reason why even those without basic knowledge in electronics are being taken in by companies so long as the applicant home worker knows how to read and follow instructions. In effect, if you think you are ready to follow instructions in the assembly work of electronics product, this kind of assembly at home job which is an easy and profitable way of using your idle time at home is truly suited for you.

How to Mount a Rifle Scope

Hunters and sportsmen alike can benefit from a rifle scope. These are magnifying devices that you mount to the top of your gun for better shooting accuracy. If you are new to rifles and scopes here are some general instructions on how to mount a rifle scope.


Your first step will be to choose the appropriate scope for your gun. The best rifle scopes will be ones that do not overpower your weapon. Each gun has a maximum distance they can reach and the scope should not magnify beyond that point. You can get specifications for many hunting scopes online.

Mounting Equipment

Scopes are not just slapped on a gun you need the proper mounting equipment in the form of a base plate and rings. Each base plate is particular to specific guns and the rings are specific to your base plate, scope tube diameter and front objective. Make sure you have purchased the best rifle scopes and mounting equipment.

Step by Step Instructions

1. Safety- When mounting your rifle scopes you should always put safety first. Start by ensuring the gun is on safety, keep your fingers away from the trigger and make sure the gun is not loaded. Now you can safely place your weapon in a gun vice to securely hold it while you attach the scope. If you do not have a vice, sand bags are a good alternative.

2. Remove Plug Screws- Most new rifles have plug screws in place and you will need to remove them before placing your scope plates or base. After you remove these screws, you might want to clean the area with a degreaser and then coat with a good rust inhibitor.

3. Instructions- Each scope mount will come with their own specific instructions. You should place your base plate on the rifle according to these instructions. Scope mounts are so varied there are no one size fits all instructions for their installation. For extra security you can add thread locking compound to the base screws, this will keep them from backing out over time. Before you tighten the base down according to specs, it is a good idea to use a specially designed level to ensure your mount is place correctly.

4. Rings- Next attach your front and rear scope rings, again according to manufacturer’s instructions. If you are fortunate enough to have alignment bars for properly setting your rings you will place the alignment bars into your rings until they almost touch in the middle. When your rings are appropriately aligned, the points on the bars will be aligned vertically and horizontally. If the alignment is not spot on you can adjust the front ring with the windage screw.

5. Tighten- Scope mount kits will come with specific torque specifications, torque each screw for the base plate.

6. Remove the ring caps, keeping them together and do not reverse their order. Place your scope in the rings with the elevation turret on top and the windage turret on the right hand side of the gun.

7. Level- With the scope in place it is a good idea to use a small specially made level. Place the level on the front site and level the gun in the vice. Next place another small level on the top turret of the scope and turn the scope until it is level as well. Your crosshairs should now be perfectly level also.

8. View- Pick your gun up out of the vice to check your field of vision through the scope. You should quickly be able to see the full field of view without moving your head much. You may need to move in or out a bit, but not much. If your field of view is not good, slide the scope back or forward until it is. Tighten your scope rings down by turning each screw slightly then moving to the next. Do not tighten one screw all the way down and then move on as this can damage your scope.

9. Sight In- You are now ready to take your gun out and sight it in on the range. Some people will have their guns professionally bore sighted while others prefer to use targets and shooting.

Silversmithing – Tools of the Trade – The Hammer

Some time ago, I wrote an overview of all the basic tools required to do silversmithing. Since then, I have had requests to write about all the various tools in greater detail. This then, following the order of presentation in the original article, is the first of many articles to cover the basic tools. I will begin with hammers and mallets.

Whereas a carpenter’s hammer is primarily used to drive nails, brads and the like into wood, a silversmith’s hammers are primarily used to shape and form metal in one way or another.

The number of hammers and mallets available to the silversmith is truly tremendous. They include the silversmith’s hammer, embossing hammer, planishing hammer, raising hammer, ball peen hammer, chasing hammer, and riveting hammer. They are made of hardened steel, brass and nylon. Mallets also come in nylon as well as plastic, brass, wood, resin and rawhide. They each have a fairly specific use which is mostly how their names are derived. For that reason, talking about each specific hammer is a lot like a discussion of the technique for which it is used. Just as you can not separate a smith from her tools, you can not separate a hammer’s purpose from the procedure.

The silversmith’s hammer is used for banging out anything from spoons to small trays. There are a couple of styles, but basically it has a two-sided head, both sides of which are domed. The sheet metal to be formed is placed in a wood dapping block (a block of hard wood that has had bowl shaped depressions of various sizes formed into it…these will be covered at a later date) and struck with the hammer. You can create bowls, trays, vases, pitchers and all manner of vessels. This is known as “raising.” Raising is a technique that has been around for a very long time. It has been said that there is really only one right way to raise: the way that works! Experimentation and practice will serve you best. Each person has their own strengths and weaknesses to work around. But do not let that stop you getting some professional instruction if you feel the need.

The silversmith’s hammer along with both embossing hammers and planishing hammers are used to raise or depress the surface you are working on. The embossing hammer (similar in appearance to the silversmith’s except the heads are a little larger and one head will often be flat instead of domed), when driven against the inner walls of a raised work will elevate positions on the surface and can also be used for planishing. Planishing hammers (even larger heads with one flat and one domed) are ideal for smoothing out surface imperfections and finishing the surface of a piece that has been raised.

Raising hammers are used most often on the outside surface to force the basic shape of metal objects. They are usually used in conjunction with stakes. Think of a tent stake with an exotic shape. Stakes are held in place by a double jawed vise or a special stake vise. They come in fantastic shapes with odd names, like cow’s tongue stake. The metal to be shaped is place over them and struck from the outside with the raising hammer.

The riveting hammer, simply put, is used for forming rivets. It is a smaller and lighter hammer than those already discussed. One end of the head is flat and the other is chisel shaped. There are a number of ways to form rivets, but they all begin with widening one end of a short piece of wire. Most often you will do this by holding the wire in a pliers or vise and striking it with the chiseled end of the hammer. Once the end is widened it is inserted into the hole prepared for it and the rivet is finished with the flat side of the hammer. Some shaping and smoothing of the rivet is usually required.

The silversmith’s ball peen hammer looks very much like your average, every day garden variety ball peen hammer. It is primarily used for removing dents. The ball end of the head is good for dimpling and stippling.

Finally, there is the chasing hammer or chaser hammer. Many of the hammers mentioned previously have straight handles. Chasers are different in that they usually have a fattened end to the handle. They are commonly gripped well back of the head with the fattened end resting comfortably in the palm of the hand. This is the hammer I consider to be the best all around hammer to own. If you can afford only one hammer, buy a chaser.

The head of a chasing hammer will be either flat or domed on one side and have a ball on the other. I have one of each; flat and domed. They have taken me through just about everything I have wanted to do with sheet and wire. The ball end is great for putting a dimple pattern in sheet metal or on wire.

By the way, chasing is the method of incising a design on metal using a chasing tool. You use a chasing hammer to strike the steel chasing tool into your metal, moving the tool along to create the pattern or picture. If you plan on chasing, you might want to have two chasing hammers; one for chasing (the head will become marred from repeatedly striking the chasing tool) and one for planishing. Many jewelry makers use a chaser as a planisher.

Why buy a hammer made of a material other than one made of hardened steel? There are several reasons. Sometimes you do not want even the possibility of marking your metal with your hammer or mallet. And indeed, it is most commonly the mallets that are made in the other materials.

Rawhide and wooden mallets are great for pounding a finger ring round on a steel ring mandrel. Often times, you will do much of the major construction on a finger ring before making it round and soldering it together. The rawhide mallet is perfect for this. Plastic and resin mallets will also perform the same with a similar “bounce back” to the rawhide. Brass mallets are also softer than most metals the silversmith will be using and are employed when you do not want to mar the metal.

Be careful how you use your hammer and your hammer will last you a lifetime. Protect your hardened steel hammers from exposure to water. A little light mineral oil from time to time will help keep them from rusting. Should your hammer rust, sand it until the rust is removed and then using fine sandpaper; restore it to a nice smooth finish. If you have a polishing motor, you may also bring it back to a nice shine with a mild polishing compound. Be sure to oil the hammer head afterwards.

If you get pits and scratches in your steel hammer, these will transfer to the metal you are working. And actually, silversmiths quite frequently will purposely grind or file a pattern onto the head of a hammer in order to create patterns on their work. But if that is not what you want, do not strike anything harder than, or as hard as the hammer, with the hammer. When I am using hardened steel stamps to decorate my work, I use a regular carpenter’s hammer. This way, I do not ruin my silver working hammers. At any rate, the pits and scratches may be dealt with as for rust. Although, if they are really deep, you might have to do a little grinding on a silicone carbide grinding wheel first.

There is something very satisfying about banging away on a piece of metal with a hammer. But please be sure to wear eye protection at all times. And it is a good idea to protect your hearing also. As fun as it is, it can be very loud.

So grab a hammer and some metal and start hammering. You might find you will never want to stop.

Glass Tile Mosaic Art – Do We Cut Or Break Glass (Does it Matter)?

Making wonderful glass mosaic tile art is easy! Let me show you how.

Ever wonder what glass actually is? Do we cut it or break it (is there a difference)? Why and how does scoring a line allow us to control the way glass breaks? To fully understand why we cut glass the way we do, we should first understand a bit about glass itself.

There are two types of solids: amorphous and crystalline. (Huh? Amorphous? Wasn’t he a character in the movie series The Matrix? No, that was Morpheus.) Glass is an amorphous solid. An amorphous solid, such as glass or plastic, has molecules arranged randomly in no particular pattern. On the contrary, a crystalline solid has molecules arranged in fixed patterns, sometimes called lattices. Most solids are crystalline, such as metal, ice, and diamonds.

Glass can break in a controlled manner (e.g., along its score line) because it doesn’t have a specific molecular structure. For example, a diamond breaks cleanly along its fixed molecular structure or cleavage (more commonly understood as “grain”). If you don’t properly align your breaking tool along the grain, the diamond can shatter. However, because glass doesn’t have a grain, you can break it in any direction without it shattering. The question is how do we get it to break the way we want?

Depending on the tools used, glass can either break from exceeding its tensile strength or cut from exceeding its compressive or shear strength. To control the fracture, we must define where to exceed the tensile, compressive, or shear strength to result in a controlled fracture. We do this by scoring the glass when we want to break it by applying a tensile stress or properly aligning the cutters when we want to cut it by applying a compressive or shear stress. For example, the glass’ tensile strength along a tiny score line is less than anywhere else on the glass, so it tends to break cleanly along that line (i.e., the break follows the path of least resistance).

When a separation occurs because of tensile stress, the separation is called a “break.” When a separation occurs because of shear stress or compressive stress, the separation is called a “cut.”

When using a scoring tool and running pliers on stained glass, you apply tensile stress to break the glass. When using wheeled cutters with the two wheels aligned (or other tool with the cutting edges aligned, such as nippers), you apply compressive stress to cut the glass. When using wheeled cutters with the two wheels misaligned (e.g., because you dropped the tool and bent the jaws out of alignment), you apply shear stress to cut the glass. (The most familiar example of a cutting tool with misaligned cutting edges is a pair of scissors where the two cutting edges are side by side instead of aligned.)

Remember, making mosaic art is easy. You can do it. Yes, you can!

Application of Trowel Blades

Trowel blades are the components fitted on power trowels in concreting works used by construction companies, contractors and architects. They have the function of enabling the concrete to set and for the slab to have a smooth and fine finish. There are several companies making trowel blades and supplying them to power trowel manufacturers. They are also supplied as spares and replacement to contractors as and when required by them. Many of them are on their regular list of suppliers to original equipment manufacturer.

Trowel blades have three different functions, all essential for a durable and well finished concrete slab. The three different functions are leveling of the concrete surface, then smoothing and giving it a good finish. Because of the nature of their duty, trowel blades differ in constructional details though not very much. They are the float blades, finish blades and combination blades. Essentially the application of trowel blades is only as contributory factor in the use of power trowel to effect the three operations on a concrete slab, mentioned above.

The first application of the trowel blade of the power trowel is the leveling of the concrete also called the floating operation and uses the floating blade. This is done after the concrete is set enough to bear the weight of the trowel without a dent being created. The floating blade makes contact on the concrete slab surface, when the trowel is run. This process opens up the surface crust and enables it to set. Floating removes humps and also fills up all the pits on it. Compaction of the concrete is also achieved by large aggregate being pushed beneath the surface. They are clip on devices and do not require bolts and nuts to fit them on the trowel. The same is the case with the other two blades also. Float blades are broad one with the edges turned up and used flat. The floating operation brings the water to the top.

The second and third application of smoothing and finishing is done by finish blades. They are narrow six inch blades. The length varies according to the diameter of the machine on which it is to be fitted. They are reversible and can be turned end for end. Finish blades are tilted to small angle and are usually run with the machine at full speed. Used when the concrete has just begun to set, they make the concrete surface hard and give it smooth finish and sometimes glossy. Usually, trowel with the blades is run as many times as required, from one end to the other. It is also run across, with a motor at a higher speed and the blades exerting more pressure. This operation is done to cover any filling which might have been missed in the earlier run. Combination blades are used for doing both floating and finishing operation. This blade is not reversible.

Goya Paintings

Francisco de Goya was a famous Spanish artist who produced his paintings in the 18th and 19th century. This article covers his works and his style which left a lasting mark on the art world and it’s development from renaissance to contemporary movements. Many love to buy Goya prints because of the qualities of the artist’s original paintings.

The Fuendetodos-borm artist produced most notable works such as The Parasol, La maja desnuda, La maja vestida, The Second of May 1808, The Third of May 1808 and The family of Charles IV of Spain.

Goya actually began his art career through an apprenticeship at the age of 14, with the artist Jose Luzan. He later went onto study art in Madrid but took time to develop his style and receive acceptance. Goya went onto study in Rome and develop an understanding of European art styles. It was then that his characteristic use of tonalities began to appear. It is this that helped him to become recognised and for what he is most respected today.

Goya was now to involve himself in high levels of Spanish society where he built contacts and powerful friends who enjoyed his art. With this came commissions and regular work. One such person was Charles III. Others included Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna and his wife María Josefa Pimentel, 12th Countess-Duchess of Benavente, María del Pilar de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba, and her husband José María Álvarez de Toledo, 15th Duke of Medina Sidonia, and María Ana de Pontejos y Sandoval, Marchioness of Pontejos.

Goya remains a much loved artist, one of Spain’s best ever, and his work is an important topic to study.

Tips for Hiring a Painter

So you are ready to move forward with your painting project and you have decided to start looking for a professional house painter to do the work. The question is where to look and how to weed out the flakes from the professionals, the high bids from the low bids, the real references from the family references and what’s truly needed for a quality job as opposed to fluff items that cost more money but provides no additional benefit to you.

Starting the search

There are several ways to begin your search for a professional house painter.

  • The Internet has become the most common way people look or search for services and products. Most people use search engines such as Google or Yahoo to look for a house painter, plumber, electrician or handyman to provide an estimate. But these search engines don’t tell the whole story and don’t distinguish between a reputable, trustworthy, professional service provider versus someone who is just trying to make a quick buck and leave you with a project that is now going to cost you more to have fixed. Don’t give up hope there are other online resources that will help narrow the field and weed out the shysters. Some of my favorites include Yelp, Google Places, Kudzu and Angie’s List. Keep in mind that not all reputable house painters are listed on these sites just as not all dishonest house painters will not be mentioned, but these sites are a good barometer of how the ones that are listed will treat you and the kind of work you can expect if you hire them. Most reputable house painters will encourage their customers to post their experience on-line so other potential customers will feel comfortable using their services
  • Word of mouth. Getting a reference from friends or neighbors is always one of the reliable ways for choosing a house painter. It is also one of the most cost-effective ways for a painter to generate new business so it is always in his / her best interest to deliver quality work at a reasonable price with a willingness to stand behind their work and a track record of doing so.
  • The Better Business Bureau is another valuable resource to determine if your painter is going to live up to your expectations. House painters that are belong to the BBB must agree to resolve customer complaints or issues, have all of the proper insurance requirements and conduct their business in a professional manner in accordance with the BBB guidelines. In addition to making this commitment to the BBB, each business is rated with a letter grade based on complaints, their time in business and the size of their company. An A+ rating is a company with no unresolved complaints or issues and has been in business for at least 7 years. An A rating is a company with no unresolved complaints with less than 7 years. Keep in mind that companies do get complaints and some are from customers that have unrealistic expectations or are constantly filing complaints for the attention. As long as the company has resolved the issue in the eyes of the BBB, you should have no concerns. In most cases a reputable company will have resolved a customer complaint well before it reaches the BBB.
  • References: My mom say’s I’m a good painter is not really a good reference unless you know the mom. Do your homework. After all, you don’t really expect a painter to give you bad references do you? A good rule of thumb is to ask for a complete list of customers dating back as far as possible and to do your own random calling or drive by. We always give our customers a complete list of previous customers. Our rule is we don’t know who you are going to call or what or previous customer is going to say, but if we have done our job right than we will earn your business and if we haven’t then we don’t deserve it.
  • Money: Deposits are sometimes requested by painters to pay for materials. The rule to follow here is never give more than 10% of the contract – estimate and limit it to $1,000.00. Depending on the size of the job progress payments or draws may be requested by the painter. These payments should be part of any contract and should be based on work performed and inspected. Never pay ahead of schedule or make a final payment until the work is complete and you are fully satisfied. Try to avoid paying cash if possible. Our policy is any work under $20,000.00 does not require a deposit and payment is due upon completion.
  • The estimate: Every painter has a method to their madness and therefore every estimate should be different. Now you may be asking yourself how different? Well that all depends on how many bids you are getting, the size of the company you calling, the type of insurance the company carries and the amount of overhead the painters has. If you are calling painters that are a one man show with low overhead and low insurance cost your estimates should be consistent in pricing. The trade-off to hiring a painter that works alone is the time he will spend at your home disrupting your life. If you are getting estimates from painters with crews that will put multiple men on the project then again your pricing should be consistent and within a few hundred dollars of one another. The trade-off here is slightly higher pricing due to overhead but with less time disrupting your schedule. If you mix these two types of businesses together for estimating purposes than expect irregular pricing.

    Other estimate considerations should include the scope of work. Each estimate should include similar language as to what is included and what is excluded. Types of material should also be discussed and included in any estimate. Again, compare your quotes to verify that each painter is using similar products. Warranty information, how long does the painter plan on standing behind their work? What does the warranty include? Verify customers that have used the warranty. Warranties beyond 5 years should be considered more marketing than reality. Finally, the high, middle, low question. Some bids may be high for a reason which may include the fact that the painter is busy and doesn’t need the work but should you choose him he will fit you in. Or he may be higher because the quality of work that is delivered is worth the extra cost. This is where additional homework on your part will be required to determine what the actual case may be. The lowest bid should be examined carefully, remember the golden rule “You get what you pay for”.

This article was provided by Tim Flood from We Rent Painters.

How To Assess The Value Of Your Crystal Chandelier

Many individuals today are interested in buying crystal chandeliers, so they could add a luxurious, elegant and wonderful glow to their homes. When buying these crystal lighting fixtures, or anything for that matter, it is vital to take note that you can ensure that the chandelier that you are purchasing is of good , or upscale quality.

As no one wants to purchase something for a certain amount, and later find out that they did not get the quality they paid for. Ensuring that your crystal chandelier is of top-notch quality is important if you want to get your money’s worth, and get one that will remain attractive for years, and see its values rise with age.

How To Asses Your Chandeliers Values

A good way of assessing your chandelier’s quality, is by verifying the company that produces it. If a certain manufacturer is well-known for making high-quality chandelier products, then you could be sure that their lighting fixtures have undergone rigorous quality-control testing certification, to ensure a superior-quality lighting fixture.

Generally, manufacturers that are of high-repute showcase their product, from the materials that was used to make it to the actual process of how it was made, and could be seen by the elegant craftsmanship reflective of its good quality.

By verifying this, you could be assured that the manufacturer has inspected the product thoroughly. If, however, you are not quite sure of the product’s quality, then you can assess and review their chandeliers quality yourself. One good thing to do is to personally the chandelier’s finish. Check if your chandelier’s finish is durable and smooth. Poor-quality chandeliers generally have cracks, bubbles or scratches on the surface of its finish.

Your chandelier should not have any of these negative prerequisites, so ensure that you check for those features before deciding on purchasing a specific chandelier. It is equally vital to know that chandelier finishes are also designed to resist tarnishing, corrosion and flaking, which help in increasing the chandelier’s durability, and long-term values. If you see that your chandelier is easily corroded, flaked or tarnished, then it needs to be rechecked again for its quality.

Research On Other Chandelier Designs

It is also recommended that you do research about various antique chandelier designs, and also observe photos as well as take a closer look at some actual authentic pieces, and compare them with the ones you have.

Most antique chandeliers are made of bronze, brass or crystal. The carvings and designs are usually quite intricate, and each one has a unique design.Old chandeliers may use candles, gas, kerosene or whale oil. Some may also use electricity or have been modified to be electric.

Antique chandeliers made of iron, brass or antlers should never be shiny. They can be polished to provide some luster but most owners prefer the old archaic feel that aged metal has. Slim-trim chandeliers may be antique but are not well-liked and valued by collectors, since they do not generate the same classic aura. You can identify a fake antique lighting fixture by rubbing the metal firmly with a clean cloth. Antiquing glaze are usually used on shiny metal to make them look older.

In addition, also check for signs of age like crusting, rust and darkened edges. It is also possible for some to be in perfect condition if they have been maintained well throughout the years. Sometimes, there might be a date engraved carefully in very small text which exactly indicates the date the chandelier was made. – Golden Age USA

Types of Electrical Connectors

There are many types of automotive and marine electrical connectors. Some of the common electrical connectors are butt connectors, ring terminals, spade terminals, and quick disconnect connectors.

Butt connectors are used to splice two wires together.

Ring terminals are used to connect the wire to a stud point like a screw for grounding or similar.

Spade terminals can be used like ring terminals but the nice thing about the spade terminal or fork terminals is that the stud does open to connect to it. The spade can slide around the stud for a connection.

Quick disconnect connectors are used to connect to a tab and come in four tab sizes,.110 tab is 1/8 inch,.187 tab is 3/16 inch,.250 tab is 1/4 inch and.375 tab is 3/8 inch. There are male and female quick disconnect connectors the female will slide onto the male tab. Other electrical connectors include copper lug ring terminals, crimp caps, t tap connectors, plier tap connectors, hook terminals, and pin terminals.

Electrical connectors can be insulated or non insulated and come in various types of insulation. The non insulated electrical connector is usually bare copper that has a tin plating. Insulated terminals can come in PVC insulated, nylon insulated and heat shrink insulated. The PVC insulated type are usually the cheapest and most common. PVC tends to be a harder insulation and can crack when crimped and for this reason I do not recommend using them. Nylon insulation is a softer insulation and will not crack when the terminal is crimped. The nylon insulation will also withstand higher temperatures. I recommend using nylon insulated terminals and connectors. Heat shrink insulated terminals and connectors are great for applications where the terminal is exposed to outside elements such as high temperatures, rain, snow, and underwater applications.

The heat shrink insulated terminals with adhesive lining create waterproof connections to the wire. Although heat shrink terminals can be costly they are the best connectors to use since the will last the longest and almost never corrode.

When purchasing electrical connectors it is best to use UL listed terminals and connectors to make sure you are getting quality connections. I recommend staying away from terminals and connectors that are made in China due to the low quality standards and cheap materials they use to make the connectors. If you search the internet you can find quality terminals and connectors at reasonable prices.

Why Shovel? History, Benefits, and Choices of Snow and Ice Management

History of Snow Removal

According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, early snow control attempts involved citizens leveling drifts of snow to ease sleigh traffic in the 1700s. Several cities had ordinances requiring homeowners to clear their sidewalks, but streets were not cleared on a city-wide basis. Travel and the exchanging of goods, therefore, depended on individuals clearing the streets themselves. Wintertime travel in the early 1800s was mostly on foot as a result. With increased industrialization in the mid 1800s came the first snow plow, drawn by horses, and enabling transportation to recover quickly following winter storms. The snow plow created the basis for municipal responsibility in snow removal but new problems were also created, as merchants complained about the removed mounds of snow blocking their storefronts and sidewalks.

Sleigh drivers also disapproved of the ruts and uneven surface of the streets following plowing. Some cities responded by hiring shovelers to work in conjunction with the plows to haul the snow away and dump into rivers. Salt was used in a few cities but was strongly protested because it ruined the streets for sleighing and damaged the clothes and shoes of pedestrians. Following the blizzard in 1888, cities recognized the need for more organized and efficient snow removal. Rather than waiting until the storm was nearly over, city officials began to plow as the storm began, giving better results and more rapidly cleared roads. By dividing cities into sections and hiring more drivers, streets were cleared with greater efficiency.

With the advent of motorization, snow removal was revolutionized in the 20th century. Motorized plows and dump trucks arrived as early as 1913. Many cities abandoned horse-drawn carts and motorized their snow removal fleets. Caterpillar tractors equipped with plow blades were utilized, along with trucks, for plowing, while steam shovels, cranes and railway flatcars were used to haul snow away. Snow loaders also came into use in the early 1900s. As more cars took to the road, though, new problems ensued, as public safety demanded removal of even light snowfalls. Furthermore, residential streets, as well as main streets, needed clearing. Plowing left behind a slick layer of ice on the road so city officials began spreading salt by the ton. No longer concerned with protests, motorized salt spreaders became an essential tool. Later complaints of damage to vegetation and automobiles by salt led to improved salt spreaders with more efficient gauges. With so many cars on the road, shopping centers and office buildings began to see a need to clear their parking lots for employees and customers, thereby creating a specialized market. Smaller plows and snow blowers were in demand and many of these companies turned to private snow removal contractors to clear their lots.

While the introduction of motorized vehicles and subsequent technological advancements has made snow management and plowing faster, the basic process of plowing today is not much different than it was 75 years ago. Although the refinement of weather forecasting has allowed professionals to better predict and prepare for a storm, we still have to wait for the snow to fall, at which point we push it out of the way.

Why the need for snow removal?

While falling snow can be a majestic site, a parking lot, street or sidewalk of snow is hazardous and troublesome to those determined to not let a snowfall alter their day. With so many people out and about, the potential for motor vehicle accidents increases, as well as personal injury from wet and icy parking lots and sidewalks. As 90% of slips and falls occur in less than an inch of snow, it is important for businesses to manage winter conditions properly to reduce their liability. The protection of concrete and/or asphalt is an added benefit of removing snow from your property.

Liability issues The National Safety Council estimates there are approximately 300,000 injuries and more than 1,500 deaths per year as a result of wintertime weather. Premise liability laws concern a building owner’s responsibility to remove potentially dangerous conditions around their property to prevent injury to guests. This is the category of law under which accidents from ice and snow fall. Building owners are given a window of time following the end of the storm in which to clear their parking lots and sidewalks of snow and ice and to take measures preventing ice from forming in the future.

This often involves monitoring outside temperatures, if not pavement surface temperatures, and requires some form of surface treatment to aid in the prevention of ice. While many building owners hire outside companies to manage snow conditions, liability for injury is not necessarily transferred to their snow management contractors. It is important, therefore, to understand your snow removal options, research potential snow removal companies and formulate a plan that will protect you, your property, your employees and your customers. These recent verdicts against building owners and managers indicate how serious slip and fall claims can be and underscore the importance of managing snow and ice on your property in a conscientious way:

  • $475,000 awarded to a New York woman who slipped and fell on a flea market parking lot. The defendant claimed that the flea market owner and the owner of an adjoining lot were negligent in clearing their lots from a snowstorm the previous day.
  • $2 million awarded in Connecticut to a man who slipped on ice outside a hotel. The lawsuit claimed that the hotel managers were aware that the area got icy for several years but failed to correct the problem or warn pedestrians.
  • $390,000 awarded to a Philadelphia man who slipped in an icy industrial parking lot. The man claimed the industrial park’s owner allowed rainwater to drain directly on the lot and did not salt, shovel or clear ice and snow from the lot.
  • $942,000 awarded to an Omaha man who slipped on ice while stepping over a pile of snow outside a motel. The jury found that the motel’s parking lot was not sufficiently lit to reveal the icy surface.


Effects of snow on concrete and asphalt Although concrete may appear to be a completely solid object, it actually contains numerous microscopic passageways. These tunnels are formed during the initial crystallization process as concrete is transforming from a liquid to a solid state and the needles of interlocking cement paste crystals grow. When water freezes, its volume expands by about nine percent and any water that has entered these passages can break the needles of the interlocking paste crystals. Snow left on concrete will melt and enter the tunnels only to refreeze at night and, over time, will cause cracks and potholes on your lot. Removing snow from the surface of your lot will keep the water content of the concrete down and minimize freezing damage, thereby helping to preserve your investment.

Asphalt is a mixture of tar, oil byproducts, curative and aggregate gravel spread over compacted earth and gravel for drainage. Under heat and stress from traffic, asphalt eventually cracks leaving gaps for snow and water to enter. This water freezes during winter and the resulting expansion forces dirt and gravel out, leaving a hole when the water melts again. The thin asphalt layer over the hole is left weakened and eventually collapses causing a pothole. To help prevent this unsightly and potentially damaging hazard, snow must be consistently removed from the surface. While it is impossible to keep the asphalt completely dry during and following winter storms, removing snowfall will decrease the volume of water available to seep into the cracks and will minimize freeze damage to your lot.

How surface treatments work

Snow-melt products are designed to weaken the bond between ice/snow and the ground, not to completely melt all the ice and snow that accumulates. Chemical deicers in their solid state are unable to melt anything. When they come into contact with water, however, they dissolve into liquid brine and this salt solution lowers the freezing point of water and melts ice and snow on contact. The brine spreads out under the ice and breaks the bond between ice and pavement, allowing plows to separate the ice from a surface. The melting action will continue until the brine is so diluted that the freezing point of the solution reaches ground temperature. Some surface treatment chemicals also release heat when they dissolve in water, thereby melting snow more quickly. The efficiency of the various chemicals also depends on the temperature and whether the salt needs direct contact with moisture to dissolve or if it can absorb moisture from the air. All of these factors are important to consider when selecting the best deicer for your job.

Eutectic temperature The lowest possible temperature at which deicer brine can dissolve ice is called its eutectic temperature. The eutectic temperature, however, only applies to a specific concentration of the deicer in water and no deicer is capable of staying at this concentration for long, as it continually becomes more diluted as more ice and snow is melted. As the solution gradually becomes weaker, the freezing point gradually increases. Therefore, eutectic temperatures are significantly lower than the temperature at which a deicer can be effective. For example, the eutectic temperature of sodium chloride is -6ËšF but its effective temperature is only 15ËšF. The lowest effective temperature is a more meaningful number to consider when selecting a deicing product. Be sure to research a product’s ingredients and effective temperature, as deicer manufacturers will sometimes mislead consumers by advertising the eutectic temperature on packaging without making clear what it means.

Melting capacity As temperatures drop, salt becomes less effective at melting ice and more chemical is needed to get the job done. The table below demonstrates how temperature affects the melting capacity of sodium chloride and shows that, at colder temperatures, more salt is needed to melt ice. In colder environments, choosing a chemical with a lower effective temperature allows a larger amount of snow to be melted per pound of salt.

Melting rate Melting rate is a measure of how fast melting occurs at different temperatures and, like melting capacity, the rate is influenced by temperature. 


Deicing products can, alternatively, be spread before snow falls in an effort to prevent ice from building up. Sitting on a surface, rock salt will do nothing, but as the snow falls the resulting brine prevents any bond from forming and leaves a parking lot ready to be plowed. In addition to not having to wait for ice to be broken down, the plowed surface will be cleaner than if it is plowed after ice has a chance to bond. Anti-ice applications generally involve liquids and, once they are applied, can have residual effects for several days, i.e. they will remain on the pavement if the snowstorm doesn’t hit or shows up late. When the storm does hit, pre-treating a site will reduce service time and the amount of chemical spread. Temperature can be a factor, though, as using liquids in temperatures that are too warm can leave dangerous, slippery pavements. It is, therefore, important to work with a well-trained contractor who understands these processes.

Chloride brines vs. dry salts

At colder temperatures, application results can be slow and require a large amount of chemical. In extreme cold, the addition of liquid brine to rock salt can improve chemical performance. To some, the application of a liquid to pavement seems counterintuitive and causes apprehension, but there is no question that liquid deicers melt faster and last longer than traditional salt applications. Rock salt needs to form a brine solution that is 23% salt to melt ice. Adding moisture to the dry salt before you spread it means less moisture the salt needs to come into contact with in order to begin doing its job. Furthermore, the brine sticks to the surface better than dry salts, which can be scattered by bounce, traffic and wind. Spreading pre-wetted salts uses substantially less salt overall and decreases the time spent clearing your lot.


Sand is sometimes spread with salt to improve traction but after snow and ice have melted, sandy pavement has less traction than sand-free pavement. Tests conducted by the National Safety Council have determined that salt gives as much anti-skid protection as abrasives when applied at normal deicing rates. The proper use of deicers along with the removal of snow and ice should be sufficient and eliminate the need for sand.

Environmental effects

Most environmental damage results not from the product itself, but from misapplication or improper use of the product. Many of the chemicals used for deicing are also used in agricultural applications and are not necessarily detrimental to vegetation. Danger from chemical deicers to the environment is posed when the concentration of the chemical rises to abnormally high levels in the soil. Just as fertilizers can cause die back and browning when over applied, care should be taken not to use more salt than is needed for breakup and removal of snow and ice. The best way to prevent damage is to avoid overuse and to select the most effective product for your situation. Using the most effective product means you will need less chemical to clear the same amount of ice and snow and minimize exposure to plants, trees and shrubs.

Most damage to concrete from chemical deicers is not from the chemicals themselves but from the effects of freezing and thawing. By lowering the freezing point of water, deicers can increase the number of freeze-thaw cycles and add to the problem. When temperatures fluctuate between 10ËšF and 20ËšF, plain water will remain frozen. A deicing brine of rock salt and water, however, will freeze when the temperature drops below 15ËšF and thaw when it rises above 15ËšF resulting in more freeze-thaw cycles than if no deicer had been applied. For this reason, it is important to consider the lowest effective temperature when selecting a chemical deicer. It is also important to remove the snow once the deicer has broken the bond with the pavement. Removing the snow leaves less water available to seep into holes of the concrete.

Green alternative

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) was developed in response to concerns of the effects of salt on vegetation and the concrete of structures such as bridges and parking lots. In the 1970s, the Federal Highway Administration identified CMA as the only low-corrosion chemical alternative to road salt. It is approximately as corrosive as tap water and is biodegradable in soil. CMA can increase soil permeability, may improve plant growth and is unlikely to reach groundwater but it does come at a price: it costs approximately 30 times more than rock salt. While some environmentally sensitive situations require the use of CMA, many of the traditional chemical deicers pose no threat when applied at proper rates.

Snow relocation

This practice involves loading snow into dump trucks and hauling it to another location and can be an important management tool for your business. Rather than plowing snow into huge piles in the middle of your parking lot, taking up valuable space in some instances, snow can be hauled away to another site to melt. Piles of dirty snow can be unattractive, hide business signs and storefronts and create hazardous trails of melted snow which then refreeze when the temperature drops. By removing snow off the lot, you can provide a safe, clear site, reduce obstructions and increase pavement areas.

Snow removal contractors

The Better Business Bureau provides these tips on hiring a snow removal contractor:

  • Get several estimates and remember that the least expensive service is not necessarily the best.
  • Be sure you understand the price options and are aware of any additional charges. Do they charge based on inches of snow fallen or a flat rate per season? How does the company determine the size of the snowfall? Are there sometimes additional charges during large storms?
  • Find out what is included in the estimate, such as sidewalks, steps and the cost of salt? Will the area be cleared during the storm as well as after? Are there additional charges if the contractor has to come back?
  • Ask for references and check them out.
  • Check the BBB reliability report on the company you are planning on using.
  • Make sure you get a written contract and the company provides proof that they are insured and bonded. Ask who you can contact regarding any damages, such as cracked driveways, and how you can terminate the agreement if necessary.


Deicing products

Deicing materials vary greatly and can range from the familiar rock salt to liquid chemicals. The type of material used depends on availability, environmental factors and effectiveness with regard to speed or temperature. No matter which chemical you use to manage snow, it takes time for it to go into solution and melt ice, regardless of how much is applied. Understanding the deicer you choose and its chemical properties can prevent over-applying, protecting your property and saving you money. While by no means exhaustive, here are some of the commonly used treatments:

Sodium chloride: Known as rock salt, this is the most commonly used product because of its low cost and effectiveness at moderately cold temperatures. It is easy to secure and requires no special handling or storing procedures. Sodium chloride requires heat in order to “go into solution,” which it absorbs from the air and the pavement, thus making it an effective ice-melting agent. One drawback to sodium chloride is that it must come into direct contact with moisture in order to dissolve so it does require more time to be effective than other chemicals, such as calcium chloride and magnesium chloride. The lowest effective temperature is 15F.

Calcium chloride: Calcium chloride is probably the second most commonly used deicer. It is exothermic, meaning it releases heat as it goes into solution, and therefore works more quickly than sodium chloride. Furthermore, instead of requiring direct contact with moisture to dissolve, calcium chloride readily attracts moisture from the air, enabling it to begin working more quickly. It is also effective at lower temperatures (as low as -20F) and is relatively harmless to plants and soil. The drawback to calcium chloride is that, because of its ability to attract moisture from the air, it requires special storage procedures to prevent it from reacting before it can be spread. Furthermore, calcium chloride can create wet pavements and slippery conditions when not applied properly.

Magnesium chloride: This salt is also exothermic but has less heat-release capability. It is, therefore, more efficient than sodium chloride, though not as effective as calcium chloride. It can be used in temperatures as low as 0F and is less toxic to plants and less corrosive than sodium chloride. However, like calcium chloride, it requires special storage procedures due to its ability to attract moisture. This compound is used in its crystal form for businesses and sidewalks but a number of highway departments have increased their use of liquid magnesium chloride as a deicer and an anti-icer. The liquid compound is spread on dry pavement before precipitation or on wet pavement before freezing temperatures to prevent snow and ice from bonding with the roadway.

Potassium acetate: A biodegradable liquid deicer that is less aggressive on soil and less corrosive. It is, therefore, preferred for airport runways but is not often used in other markets due to its high cost. Potassium acetate can be applied in temperatures as low as -15F making this compound effective at colder temperatures.

Calcium magnesium acetate: Developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to road salt, calcium magnesium acetate is the safest chemical for concrete and vegetation as it is approximately as corrosive as tap water. The cost, however, is about 30 times more than rock salt. The effective melting temperature is approximately 20F.

Potassium chloride, ammonium sulfate and urea: Commonly used as fertilizer, these three chemicals are occasionally used as deicers. All three are corrosive and have an effective temperature of 20F.

Copyright © 2010 Team Green Outdoor Inc. All rights reserved.

Lifting Equipment – Lift Tables and Hydraulic Lifts

Heavy industry lifting equipment like lift tables and loading dock equipment are designed to help workers easily and safely load and unload heavy machines, equipment, vehicles, and much more. These equipment are designed for a variety of purposes, and they are always to be used as per the guidelines supplied by manufacturers.


Let us consider the example of lift tables, which are lifting devices that use scissor mechanism to lift and lower materials. Lift manufacturing companies, today, manufacture lift tables with a variety of features, such as

* Rotating rooftop

* Hydraulic foot pump

* Pneumatic lifting mechanism

* Tilting mechanisms

A lift table is usually used to properly position workers in assembly line operations. They are also used to position materials into feeding machines.

Lift tables manufacturing companies, today, manufacture lifting tables for use in metal working, paper, printing and publishing industry, heavy machinery transportation, light assembly, and warehouses.

Safety Tips For Hydraulic Lifts

Hydraulic lifts are another examples of heavy industrial lifting machines commonly used today. A hydraulic lift is basically used to lift and lower material to specific heights. However, there are certain precautions that must be exercised when using a hydraulic lift.

* Should only be used by authorized personnel.

* Make sure that the “dead stick” type of control is returned to the neutral or off position when the lift is released.

* Damaged parts should be replaced

* Do not use it to lift more weight than what is recommended

* Do not use it if it raises too quickly or suddenly jerks or jumps

* Always follow manufacturer’s instructions.

Dock Equipment

Loading dock equipment are other commonly used lifting machines. Loading dock equipment includes levelers, dock boards, yard ramps, dock seals, safety rail, mini ramp, and portable docks.

These equipment provides workers easy accessibility to the dock area. They facilitate loading and unloading of materials in the dock area. Moreover, they ensure safe movements of workers and goods.

Like lift tables and hydraulic lifts, dock equipment should also be used as per the manufacturer’s guidelines. This ensures the safety of all those who are working in the industry or dock area.

Elevator Etiquette – The 20 Basics

Whether you work in a hotel, hospital or any other type of high-rise building, elevator etiquette should be followed with the same rigor as any other customer service standard. Why? Because so often a brief elevator encounter initiates the first impression made of your organization by visiting customers, guests, patients, vendors, and co-workers.

Most organizations don’t teach elevator etiquette, so I thought this would be a great opportunity to provide a few simple basics that everyone can adhere to. These basics cover three elements of the elevator experience: boarding, riding, and existing or disembarking.

  1. When boarding, always acknowledge individuals who are already on the elevator with a warm and friendly greeting like good morning, good afternoon, or good evening.
  2. If you are rushing to catch the elevator, politely ask that someone “hold the elevator please”.
  3. If you are carrying large objects or are traveling with a large group, wait for an empty elevator. Likewise, if someone boards and needs assistance – politely offer to help them.
  4. Don’t re-push the elevator call button after someone has already pushed it, as this could imply that you don’t trust the person that has already pushed the button.
  5. If you arrive as a door is closing, regardless of how many people are in the elevator, don’t press the button. Patiently wait for the door to close completely, then press the button to call the next elevator.
  6. If you accidental press an elevator button and the door opens on the wrong floor, don’t ignore it — politely apologize for the mistake.
  7. Once in the elevator, be mindful to stand as close to the wall or corner as possible, to make room for additional riders.
  8. If you are standing in front of the elevator panel, ask on-boarding riders which floor they would like and press the button for them.
  9. Many people prefer to ride an elevator in silence; therefore when in the elevator, be mindful of your conversations with co-workers, especially in the presence of external customers (i.e., clients, patients, family members, vendors, or guests).
  10. Step aside for people exiting the elevator, and be sure not to block the door when the elevator stops.
  11. Never attempt to hold the elevator door with your body or hand; always use the HOLD button.
  12. If you are sick, carry a handkerchief or tissues to cover your mouth and nose in case you need to sneeze or cough.
  13. Reframe from using your Cell Phone while riding in the elevator, except in an emergency.
  14. When exiting the elevator, out of courtesy always allow customers, patients, vendors and guests to disembark first. Gentlemen, always allow ladies to exit first unless you are blocking the door.
  15. If you are trapped in the back of a crowded elevator and you need to get off, call out “my floor” to alert other riders that you wish to get off, and move slowly but firmly through the crowd.
  16. If you see someone struggling to get off an elevator, politely step out to make room, and then step back in.
  17. To save yourself from embarrassment, always check the direction of the elevator (up or down) before boarding. If you cannot see an indicator lamp, politely ask the riders which direction the elevator is traveling. DO NOT stop the doors from closing to do this.
  18. If you are going up or down one floor, use the stairs, especially during peak traffic times like the morning or afternoon rush.
  19. Exceptions are when you have a cart or large package(s); when the elevator is empty; or if you are disabled or injured.
  20. If you see a person alone on the elevator that you don’t feel comfortable/safe being alone with in close quarters, wait for the next elevator.

How To Price Your Auto Detailing Services For Profit

Pricing your auto detailing services for profit can be a daunting task. Underpricing the detail work you offer to customers is the quickest way to go out of business. Every service you offer, from an exterior wash to engine cleaning has a fair market value (a price at which both buyers and sellers are willing to do business), attached to it. If your goal is to be near or the top of that scale as often as possible your professional skills should mirror the prices you charge.

Incorporating a professional looking price sheet that shows the customer your set prices makes it easier to get the price your skills call for. Many consumers think that it’s bargaining time if you just quote the price verbally without referring to a price sheet or at least something you looked up on the computer.

When pricing a detailing job first take into consideration the condition of the vehicle you’re asked to comfortable detail. Interior cleaning is one area that takes time, patience and thoroughness. An interior on one vehicle with a large soda stain on the front passenger seat might require two to three hours of time while another might only need an hour. Obviously, an SUV is going to require more of you and your pricing should reflect such. Let’s assume your price for an average size car is $150; most SUV owners understand that although bigger might be better, bigger also means costlier. And not just a bigger body, but bigger tires, rims and more cargo space. Most car trunks will usually just need a good vacuuming, but because in an SUV what would be considered the trunk might be used as play space for the kids or seating space, more cleaning is required, so raising your price $25 to $50 to account for additional cleaning will not only sound fair but very reasonable.

How do you price for profit? Understanding the value of your time (labor) is the first step. Factoring in the cost of supplies and equipment use is next. Last, but not least is your skills. Let’s begin with supplies and equipment.

Figuring the cost of supplies and equipment you’ll use is relatively simple. Soap, water, tire dressing, even towels (cleaning) have an expense attached to them. On average it will cost $5 to $7 in supplies to detail the average size vehicle. Jobs that require purchasing additional supplies can be priced accordingly. What most detailers forget to factor when pricing a detail is equipment cost. Not only does it cost to run the vacuum, but each time you plug in that hi-speed buffer consider the cost of electricity to operate it, then include the future expense of eventually replacing or upgrading. Sure, these expenses are small but keep in mind that updating your equipment and consistent inventory upkeep is what keeps your business growing.

How much is your time worth? That depends upon two things, the skills you’ve acquired and more importantly, your self-image. Whatever the going rate for a complete auto detail in your city, it should afford a professional detailer an annual salary in the $30,000 to $50,000 range assuming you operate year round. That means your time should translate into a minimum of $15 per hour. In many southern cities where winter temperature averages hover in the 40 to 50 degree range, it’s not hard to maintain a comfortably consistent income.

If you’re not comfortable using buffers or have not yet learned to clay a car, you are limiting your financial possibilities. Get trained. This is where your skills come into play. I once quoted a potential customer a complete detail price higher than what he was used to paying. When I mentioned waxing and buffing during my exploratory conversation with him he quickly said he did not want any type of buffer used on his car because of a previous bad experience. Once I explained to him the differences in buffers, the relative risks involved, and how the detailer’s experience comes into play when choosing and using orbital or high-speed buffers, he felt at ease enough to allow me to buff his car with a 16 pound orbital. Because I came across as knowledgeable, experienced and confident he felt comfortable paying a higher price.

I’ve found that the biggest obstacle to getting paid what a professional detailer thinks he should get paid largely depends on self-esteem. What makes one detailer think they can charge $225 when another detailer in the same market four blocks away is providing essentially the same service but charging $150? Self-esteem! What are the skills and experience you’ve acquired worth? $15 an hour, $25 an hour, or maybe you believe you’re worth even more!

It’s all up to you. Pricing your services is an art. With each quote consider the condition of the vehicle, your costs, your skills, your knowledge, your experience. But most of all, consider your time. You’re worth what you believe.

How to Clean Marmoleum Floors

Cleaning and caring for your new Marmoleum floor doesn’t have to be a mystery. While many people discuss the cleaning and caring of Marmoleum, few really know what they are talking about.

Just the other day I received an email from a cleaning professional who was quite upset. She had just finished cleaning her customers Marmoleum floor and was in a panic. It appears that she followed the advice of a questionable source, someone who really didn’t have the experience or the knowledge to give such advice. The house cleaner was told to use a well know household “all in one” wonder cleaner. Needless to say, the cleaning bottle did not clearly state it was for cleaning “linoleum based floors” or “Marmoleum floors”. The end result was that the floor now has a faint green cast to it.

While I did give her some very good and very accurate advice, the final outcome was not revealed to me.

Please note when you are dealing with a quality product, a natural product, it may require following the directions provided by the manufacture. Forbo is the manufacturer of Marmoleum, not your neighbor.

The cleaning of Marmoleum should only be done by using a linoleum cleaner. Marmoleum sells their cleaner and polish through it’s retail dealers and it’s made especially for their flooring. They’ve tested it and know it will do the job and not harm the floor. Yes, there are other products available to clean linoleum based flooring. Jut be sure the cleaner states that it is an acceptable cleaning product for linoleum floors.

Marmoleum is a beautiful floor and should last a lifetime if cared for properly. I suggest that you visit your local Marmoleum dealer to purchase the correct products.

If your Marmoleum floor was manufactured prior to the application of Marmoleum’s Top Shield coating, you may need to periodically strip the old floor polish off and reapply.

For complete step by step instructions, visit [] and click on the Marmoleum link to learn how to care for your Marmoleum floor.

The Ladder, A Great Invention

Ladder is kind of a scale that has steps fixed in a vertical or inclined way. There are different kinds some are rigid, some are fixed, some are flexible, and some are portable. Nowadays ladders are very essential for industrial usage. Today’s manufacturers specialize in all kinds of ladder manufacture and Aluminum alloy is the most preferred alloy used for their production. With quality management teams and stricter and accurate production techniques, the demand of these tool has increased quite a lot. Aluminum is the preferred alloy because it is high in rigidity and easy to maintain.

Various types of Scales are available namely Aluminum Step, Heavy Duty, Climbing, Extension ladder and many more. Aluminum step ladder is beautiful in design and are quite delicate to look at. They are pretty light in weight. It is pretty easy to operate and is available in moderate sizes. The sizes available are pretty convenient to use and store.

Climbing ladders are the normal ladders available in the market. It has several usages today. It is being used at homes for house hold work and also used in industrial purposes. One should be very careful before climbing a ladder. You should make sure that the base of the scale is properly standing on the floor. There shouldn’t be any point left untouched to the ground. The scale must be properly placed and leaned on the wall. Make sure the steps on the ladder are anti- skid in nature so that a person climbing the ladder doesn’t slip. Although dangerous, it is a real helpful tool and it is a great invention.