A Violinist’s Guide to Choosing Rosin For the Bow

First, what is rosin, and how does it work? Rosin is a resin collected from one of about a hundred different types of pine tree throughout Europe, Asia, North America, and New Zealand. Rosin comes from from living trees by tapping — just like maple syrup. After the resin is collected, it is sometimes mixed with other tree saps from different species of trees to create a unique formula. This formula is then purified by straining and heating it in large vats until the resins are completely melted. Once cooked, the concoction is poured into molds. After the mixture sets, the rosin is polished and placed in cloth or another type of housing. The color of rosin is determined by when in the year it is collected. If the resin is tapped in late winter or early spring, it will be gold or amber in color and hard when set up. As the seasons change to summer and fall, the color of the resin darkens and the consistency softens. Rosin works by keeping the bow hair stuck to the string. The bow pulls the string in the direction of the bow motion until the adhesion breaks. Then, the string snaps to its original position and vibrates, to create sound.

With rosin, many brands to choose from. But how do we evaluate which one sounds the best? This is a very difficult question to answer, because players have different preferences for how their rosin functions, and what sound or feel they are looking to derive from it. But one thing is very clear: cheap rosin (usually in the rectangular shape inside a wood housing and costing a couple of dollars) is not a good choice for any player, except for perhaps a beginner. Why? Because this rosin tends to stick to the strings like glue and feel and sound grainy.

For some reason, most of the finer rosin is circular and often encased in cloth or wood. When it is darker, it tends to be stickier. When lighter, it tends to glide more readily over the instrument. If you are a player who likes to “dig in,” or you have a violin that responds well to pressure, a dark rosin may be your choice. You might even opt for cello rosin (such as the Hidersine), for its extra grab.

For those of you who like the feel of a lighter, smoother rosin (or you tend to under-rosin your bow to avoid the feel of excessive grain, grit, or stick, a lighter rosin might be your choice. Often, some of the finest rosin brands will offer different formulations to suit the tastes of both those who prefer a darker rosin and those who tend to opt for the lighter versions.

Below is a list of rosins and descriptions. Although you may find this list helpful, experimentation and trying different brands is the best way to choose your preferred rosin.

One top choice of the pros is Andrea Rosin (formerly Tartini Rosin). This Rosin is relatively expensive (priced at around $30.00) and comes in several varieties from the lightest version (termed “Paganinni”) to the darkest, which is designed for cello but is often used by violinists searching for that rich, dark sound.

Pirastro (of string-making fame) sells a large line of rosins, largely named after its string brands. There is Pirastro Gold, Tonica, Eudoxa, and Oliv, among others. How much difference there is between these is questionable but they are an affordable alternative to “the block” cheap rosiin.

Jade Rosin is another popular and reasonably-priced option that seems to work well for a wide variety of bows and players. It is considered to produce a smooth yet firm grip.

Liebenzeller rosin is a particular favorite of mine. In fact, I have carried this rosin around for almost 20 years. Unfortunately, it is temporarily discontinued, but if you can find yourself this rosin, you will find that it comes infused with various metals from gold to nickel to copper, that lend the rosin different characteristics and grips.

In the end, most of the rosins priced above $8.00 or so are reasonable choices, and the biggest factor as to which one you prefer is whether you want more grip and grit (softer, darker rosin) or a lighter and smoother feel (lighter, harder, rosin). You might even be surprised at which option you prefer in the end — after all, your particular bow and violin may have preferences of their own!

Bricklaying Basics

When you build with bricks you’re creating something that can be appreciated for generations. It’s not uncommon to find structures in complete ruin except for the masonry such as a brick chimney or wall.

The reasons for do-it-yourself bricklaying vary, but the primary reason seems to be cost. Others include learning a valuable skill for starting a new business, or simply learning a new hobby. Planning a bricklaying project begins with gathering ideas and envisioning the end result. Don’t overlook this step. Masonry is permanent so be cautious and remember you need to do it right – the results of your efforts will be on public display for a long, long time.

As you begin your planning it’s important to consider size and scale, location, material selection, drainage and appearance. Make deatiled drawings of the planned project so to eliminate design flaws and aid in estimating building costs.

Visit your local home improvement center or hardware store and collect samples of the material you have in mind and evaluate the way they blend with your existing landscaping. Depending on whether you plan on pouring a small slab or building a brick archway, estimate the dimensions of your project as accurately as possible. This eliminates extra shopping trips. Since your using brick the local brickyard is where you’ll find the best supply of bricklayers material. They also carry the tools you are going to need.

Speaking of the tools, and to work effectively you are going to have to buy or rent some special purpose tools. I suggest that if this is a one-time project then by all means rent the tools. What follows is a suggested list of tools for doing brickwork:

Mortar hawk – for holding mortar

Wide pointing tool – for placing mortar on brick

Jointer – for finishing joints

Brick tongs – for carrying multiple bricks

Narrow tuck pointer – for placing mortar on bricks

Mason’s trowel – for applying mortar

Masonry chisels – for splitting brick

Mason’s hammers – for chipping brick

Maul – for driving stakes

Joint chisel – for removing dry mortar

Shop broom – for keeping the work area clean

Bucket and scrub brush

Stiff bristle brush – for removing loose material

Rubber mallet

Pipe clamp – for scoring large quantities of brick

Circular saw (with a masinry blade) – for cutting brick

Hammer drill with masonry bit

Wheelbarrow – for mixing mortar


Cement – for mixing mortar

Particle mask, gloves and protective eyewear

A helpful hint is to build your project, if possible without using mortar. This allows you to see the finished project, make corrections along the way and decide if the end result is really what you wanted.

The last thing I’ll cover is choosing, mixing and throwing the right mortar. Masonry mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand and water. Other ingredients include lime and gypsum to improve workability and control setup time. Believe it or not the strongest mortar mixture isn’t always the best for the job. Gone thankfully are the days when do-it-yourselfers had to mix mortar fom scratch, often with disastrous results. These days mortar comes premixed in 50 – 100 lb bags. Today you simply select the correct mix for the job at hand.

Type N mortar is often called for because it offers a good blend of strength and durability. It’s commonly used in non-load-bearing projects such as freestanding walls, BBQ grills and chimneys.

Type S mortar is a high strength mixture for exterior use in foundations, brick and block reatining walls, driveways, walks and patios,

Type M mortar is a very high strength mortar for load-bearing exterior stone walls.

There are other types mixes for special purpose but fo the sake of simplicity I left them out o this article.

Mixing mortar is simple these days. I dump one to two bags of mix into a large wheelbarrow, push it to one side and slowly add water until I get the right texture I want. If it’s too thick , it will fall off the trowel in a heap and not in the smooth line you want. Add to much water and it’s messy and weak. Just follow the manufacturers directions and you should be fine. If you’ve never mixed mortar before experiment in small batches until you find the mixture that works. Keep note of your mixture ratios to use later.

Don’t mix mortar in large batches unless you are willing to use it all in one application. More than one do-it-yourslf bricklayer has ended up with a wheelbarrow filled with 200 lbs of dried mortar for this reason. It’s best to mix mortar as needed. You can’t foresee delays such as bad weather, running out of daylight or worse yet injuring yourself.

Watching a professional bricklayer at work is an impressive sight. I remember as a small child living with my grandparents and watching their new home being built. The mortar practically flew off the workers trowels and the walls seemed to rise out of the ground in minutes. “Mortar throwing” is an acquired skill that takes years to master, but you can use the basic techniques successfully with just a little practice.

Throwing mortar is a quick, smooth technique. Load the trowel with mortar (how much depends on you comfort level), then position the trowel a few inches above the starting point. In one motion, begin turning your wrist over and quickly move the trowel across the surface to spread mortar consistently. Ideally you want ot end up with a line of mortar about 2 1/2 ” wide and about 2 ‘ long.

These are the very basics. There are numerous books and how-to videos on countless masonry projects. Just remember to plan accordingly, take your time and above all … be safe.

How to Deduct Vehicle Mileage Expense on Schedule C, Line 9

For the typical Sole Proprietor, taking a deduction for business use of your vehicle is one of the best ways to legitimately reduce your taxable income and pay less tax. This article will walk you through the process of reporting vehicle mileage on Schedule C, the main form for reporting your small business income and expenses.

The IRS has authorized two methods of reporting vehicle-related expenses. Method #1 is known as the “Actual Expense Method”, in which you keep track of all vehicle expenses such as gasoline, oil, maintenance, repairs, car washes, insurance, depreciation and so on. Method #2 is known as the “Mileage Method” and it is this method that is the focus of this article.

Instead of tracking and reporting actual expenses, the Mileage Method only requires you to track mileage. You simply keep a log of your vehicle business use and at the end of the year you add up all those miles and multiply that mileage number by a rate established by the IRS. In 2009, that mileage rate is 55 cents per mile. If you drove your car 10,000 miles for business purposes, you simply multiply 10,000 miles by .55 to arrive at your vehicle deduction of $5,500. Then you report that $5,500 deduction on Schedule C, Line 9.

There are three main advantages to the Mileage Method:

1. It’s generally easier and less time consuming than tracking actual expenses. Think about it. With the Actual Expense method, you have to keep track of every receipt for every expense associated with your vehicle: every gas purchase, every repair or routine maintenance work such as oil changes and tune-ups, every car wash. With the Mileage Method, all you have to do is keep track of the mileage, which is easily done with a simple mileage log that you keep in your glove compartment. Every time you use the car for business, you record the date, the business purpose of the trip, and the mileage amount.

2. The Mileage Method may result in a larger deduction than the Actual Expense Method. Of course, the only way to know this for sure is to keep track of actual expenses as well as mileage. Then, at the end of the year, run the numbers both ways and see which method gives you the higher deduction. But for many folks, the difference is so insignificant that the time-saving benefit of the Mileage Method is well worth it.

3. If you use your vehicle less than 100% for business, the Actual Expense Method requires that you keep track of the mileage as well as all the receipts. Most Sole Proprietors use the same vehicle for both personal and business use. So if you are using the Actual Expense Method, after you add up all those expenses, you have to know the “Business Use Percentage” to arrive at the deductible portion of your actual expenses. You calculate the Business Use Percentage by dividing business miles by total miles. Example: you have 10,000 total miles and 8,000 business miles, resulting in a Business Use Percentage of 80%. If you have $5,000 of actual expenses, you don’t get to deduct the entire $5,000. Instead, your deduction would be $5,000 x 80% = $4,000. But the only way you can determine that Business Use Percentage is to track total miles and business miles.

Cable TV Vs Satellite TV – Which Is Better?

Cable TV has pretty much caught up to satellite television when it comes to level of quality, customer service, and cost, but there are several differences between the two you’ll want to bear in mind if you’re considering paying for satellite or cable television. Here is a comparison of cable TV vs. satellite TV.


On average, cable TV costs $10 to $25 a month more as compared to satellite television due in part to the fact that cable TV companies have to pay local area fees and taxes which satellite TV companies don’t have to pay for.

Where I reside in Arizona if I were to order cable it would cost me $57 a month for 140 TV channels. If I were to purchase Dish Network satellite TV service it would cost me $25 for 190 TV channels.

One other difference is the rate increases. Cable Television service has increased by 40% since 1998, while satellite TV service has increased by a mere 8% within that same time frame.

Equipment Evaluation

Cable TV providers supply you with a receiver, or cable box, that receives a TV signal via an underground cable. The receiver converts that signal and delivers it to your TV set.

With satellite TV you receive a satellite dish which captures the signal originating from a satellite, plus a receiver which translates the signal and sends it to your TV.

For both systems you’ll need a receiver for every television in your house that you’d like to view cable or satellite TV programming on. With cable TV you must pay between $3 to $5 per month for each and every cable box receiver you’d like connected to your TVs. With Dish Network and DirecTV your receivers are free of charge.


Digital video recorders, or DVRs, allow you to record your favorite shows. In addition to recording your shows you can also pause, rewind, and fast forward live television programs, so that you can answer your phone, view part of the program you missed, or fast forward through a commercial.

Using the typical cable DVRs you are able to record 2 TV shows simultaneously, and record 100 hours of programming. The drawback with this is that if you have 3 shows that come on at the same time, you can watch one show and record one or record two shows, but you won’t be able to see the third show.`

Dish Network, on the other hand, lets you record 6 different shows simultaneously, and you’ll be able to record up to 2,000 hours of programming, so you won’t miss of your favorite television shows. With DirecTV you’re able to record 4 different television shows at once, plus record up to 1,000 hours of programming.


Both satellite television companies, as well as most cable television companies, will install all of the equipment required to receive their programming for free. To make sure you do not have any equipment breakdowns down the line, you need to ensure the company who installs your system uses professional installers.


Cable television outages average 3% to 5% depending on the company you purchase your service from, while Dish Network and DirecTV blackouts average 1%.

Customer Rankings

Dish Network is ranked number one in consumer satisfaction by the American Customer Satisfaction Index among the leading cable and satellite TV companies, while DirecTV is ranked number two.

Consumer Support

Customer support for most satellite television and cable TV providers is available round the clock, 7 days a week including holidays, and with almost all companies the service is very good.


As far as program variety, number of channels, recording capacity, reliability, price, and customer satisfaction, satellite TV beats cable TV hands down.

Should You Make Extra Mortgage Payments?

One question many homeowners are asking themselves in the face of today’s low mortgage rates is whether or not to make extra payments on their mortgage. It may seem like a no-brainer; making these kinds of payments on a regular basis will shorten your loan, as well as lower your borrowing costs overall. But are there also pitfalls to watch out for when making extra mortgage payments?

The truth is that there are many potential pitfalls if care isn’t taken to make the decision. Unfortunately, the decision process itself can be complicated as well, generating many more questions than it seems to answer. In order to figure out whether making extra payments will benefit you, you will have to consider not only the financial, but other sides as well.

Considering All Aspects

Emotionally speaking, if you feel you would be more content knowing your home was completely paid off, this could be a good point for making extra payments on your mortgage. Looking at things logically, if you plan to be in your home for many years, then extra mortgage payments will likely make sense to you. And finally, the financial aspect of your decision will involve thinking about things like whether or now you could be getting a better return on your investment somewhere else.

Different Reasons to Pay Extra

There are different motivators affecting every homeowner who is considering paying off their mortgage sooner with extra payments.

Some homeowners don’t want the specter of monthly payments hanging over them as they are trying to enjoy their retirement. Others are worried about what’s happening in the headlines and, fearing the downturn of the markets have opted to make extra payments.

Still others have financial goals which exceed paying off their homes, such as financial security in the event of job loss. For example, a homeowner may be paying a lot more in extra payments while they are still employed. This will allow them to exist with very little money in the event that they become unemployed.

Why Not to Pay Down

There can be as many reasons not to pay down a mortgage. If you’ve recently refinanced to an incredibly low rate, then you probably won’t see much benefit to making extra payments on your mortgage.

Investing for a higher return, also known as out-earning your mortgage rate can be another reason not to prepay. But it will require being confident that your investments will bring you a higher return than making extra mortgage payments will.

Making extra payments may also not be an option if you owned a home before and did this already. Chances are that mortgage rates weren’t as low then as they are now, and so paying down the mortgage made more sense.

In the end, you may decide to split the difference by making some extra payments and prepaying your mortgage. This may indeed be the best decision for homeowners who aren’t sure which road would be best. As well, it can work well during times of market uncertainty.

Interior Concrete Waterproofing: Protect Your Concrete Against Water Damage

Moisture is a major enemy of concrete. It can weaken concrete, make it crack and in general cause deterioration of any concrete structure. Moisture can also cause staining and fungus that is nearly impossible to remove. Interior concrete waterproofing can help prevent moisture damage of this type.

Before you apply any type of interior concrete waterproofing you should first make sure any leakage or drainage problems are corrected. Just because you apply waterproofing doesn’t mean water won’t occur in the area. If landscape drainage problems or leaks aren’t fixed, you’ll still have water pooling on the treated concrete.

Interior concrete waterproofing is a sealing method that can be used on poured concrete, concrete blocks and even on stone foundations. Interior concrete waterproofing can be used on new and old concrete alike. For the best protection you should seal concrete right after the curing stage.

Interior Concrete Waterproofing

The sealant you use should protect against water, water vapor, and radon. To waterproof properly you may have to apply more than one coat of sealant, usually at least two. Read the manufacturer directions carefully before applying your brand of sealer.

Make sure to thoroughly clean and dry all concrete before you apply any interior concrete waterproofing. For existing concrete surfaces such as in a basement, all old paint or adhesive that might have been used on the floor must be removed before it can be waterproofed. The areas to be treated should be as clean as possible and free of any mold or mildew.

If you want to waterproof concrete foundation walls they must be cured for about a month. Sealants will keep cracks, holes or defects in concrete foundation walls from receiving moisture as well. For best water protection, it is usually recommended to seal both sides of the wall, using an exterior coating on the outside.

Different Types of Toolboxes

Toolboxes have so many uses. It can be used in our cars (or automobiles like trucks), in shops and even at home. These toolboxes are use to store all our tools in one place. It makes it more organized to tuck away tools, and easy to retrieve when needed.


Toolboxes have different types, found in different places. It can be found at home, in our shops, in our cars or trucks. Those found in truck beds are called truck toolboxes. These usually have locks that keep tools safe from theft. They are usually made of metal or plastic. They either have a single lid or double lid opening.


The top mount toolboxes are the popular choice of builders and contractors. These are mounted at the side rail to open easily. Its contents are within reach from the outer part of the truck. They are generally made of aluminum and fit all types of trucks.


The machinist toolboxes are especially designed to suit the needs of machinists or woodworkers. It has multiple drawers to fit the different sizes of tools. This is also ideal for home use. This kind of toolbox is so reliable and durable, it lasts for generations.

Here are some things to consider in buying a storage toolbox. First identify the things you will put inside, the quantity and sizes.

Price may be dependent on the material used. Plastic may be cheaper but still durable. Metals are better than plastics however.

If you will be carrying around more often, you might want to consider one with rollers. You can easily drag them anywhere. Otherwise, a static toolbox will do.

Also choose the one with multiple drawers, front locks and other functions useful to your lifestyle and needs.

These are the types of toolbox for you to be able to choose the toolbox that fits your needs.

Autodesk Inventor Vs Pro/Engineer

I have worked with both of these tools and have found them very similar yet rather different at the same time. OK lets start with me, I’m an engineering apprentice who uses both of these tools, Autodesk Inventor at college and Pro Engineer at work. I’ve used Autodesk for about 3 and a half years now, so I’m not a complete wiz at it, but I feel I’m pretty good on it. Pro Engineer I have only used for the last 7 months so my knowledge is a little less on this software package. As it is clearly visible to anyone I haven’t used either software for very long so I am not familiar with every little trick each package is capable of, but I do have a good understanding of the basic functionality of each software, and this is where the focus of this review will be.

Creating a 3D part is a simple straight forward process. The only hard part of making the first 3D part is all the different file types. When Autodesk inventor is opened and you select to make a new file you are presented with a nice little window, looks simple enough? Look again there’s a nice list of various different file types with different formats. Unless you know what your looking for it can be a pain trying to find the right file type. I still get it wrong, so I opted to write a small text file telling me which are the commonly used files to create a single part, and assembly and a technical drawing. I mean who would have thought that BSI.IDW is a drawing! I rarely remember which one is right.

In this instance Pro Engineer is much simpler, within the Pro/E window there are 3 simple buttons, the first being called “Default Starter Part”, next “Default Starter Assembly” and the last being “Starter Drawing for Models”. After this a few windows pop up, one asking for a name for the part/assembly/drawing. After this we get a second window which is usually ignored and the default responses are accepted, relatively straight forward. So for ease of creating a new part I would have to give this point to Pro Engineer.

Lets focus on creating a single part for a little bit. When Pro Engineer loads up it shows you a set of three planes, being the horizontal vertical and the end plane. To start making the part you need to select what you will want to do with the sketch you are yet to create. For example if you want to make a simple bar, typically you would go with drawing a circle and then extruding it up the length of the bar. In Pro Engineer you need to select extrude as the first thing. From here a little toolbar appears at the top of the window with “Placement” highlighted in red. When you click on placement you then have to click on define… and then the plane… and then sketch… and then finally you can start drawing! To me this seems a few to many clicks to simple say “I want to sketch on this surface and extrude it”. This process then changes for all sketches that you want to do that are directly on a surface of the part. To do a sketch on a surface you must first select the surface and then select what you want to do with the sketch and so on like before. For sketching on a plane you use the same process as the first sketch.

In Autodesk Inventor we have a slightly different set up, first when you open a new part it automatically goes straight into the sketch mode, but after this for any other sketches you follow what feels like a much more logical path to me. You select “Create 2D Sketch” from here you then select the surface on the part you want to sketch on. After selecting the surface you are then straight into the sketcher, where you drawn the design you need and select finish sketch. Now you have a sketch you select what you want to do, such as extrude. Once you’ve made this choice you then select which part you want extruding, but only if there are more than one closed segments. By this I mean that if you have just drawn a circle on the surface when you select extrude it automatically detects the circle, but if you have a square around a circle because you want to extrude a square with a hole in you then need to select either the inside of the circle or the closed area around the circle. So in my opinion of working with both of these methods I prefer the Autodesk Inventor method, it just feels more sensible and logical. There may be other methods of doing this in Pro Engineer and Autodesk, but from the training I have received at college, this is the only way in Autodesk Inventor that I have been taught, with Pro Engineer I have worked through training guides and they have only mentioned the one way.

OK so now we are seeing similarities between the two software as well as some key differences. The next difference is a short one but for me it is rather an important one. Hot Keys, some people never touch them, some love them, I am one of the lovers. In Autodesk Inventor 2011 they decided to jump on the most annoying band wagon of the time, ribbon menus. I hate them! Never able to find the tools I need on them. I spent many hours trying to find where all my tools moved to when I jumped on Inventor 2011. Luckily I was able to spread this out because I knew the hot keys for the key things. I was able to find easily how to create a sketch and finish the sketch, good because I don’t know hot keys for these, but I do know the hot keys for things such as; drawing a line, drawing a circle, trimming a line, dimension tool, extrude, chamfer, and more. This meant even with these relocations I was still able to continue working. Not everyone gets on with hot keys, but since learning the Inventor hot keys I have been able to produce parts and models much quicker because I am not having to look around for the tool or spend timing moving the mouse up to the tool and back down. I know that last point is only a few seconds saved, but add that up, a few seconds saved for every tool change… adds up fast.

After spending just under 3 years on Autodesk Inventor I moved into the design departments at work and started on Pro Engineer. The most annoying thing for me was losing my hot keys, Pro Engineer does not have hot keys, well not at least that I have found. So for ease of use and finding tools I feel this goes to Autodesk Inventor. Moving on to creating an assembly. In Pro/Engineer the process is relatively straight forward. You place the first part and then set it to be constrained to the cordinate system of the assembly. After this you add in items one by one each time fully constraining the item down to the other parts in the assembly. Pro/Engineer uses a nice system where it automatically detects the constraint you want. This usually works well, until you accidentally select the wrong surface. It then becomes a pain to change. With inventor you can add as many parts as you like before constraining. Inventor automatically pins the first part put into the assembly so this is the “earthed” part that does not move. After this you can manually constrain each item, selecting the constraint type manually.

My opinion is that both of these are good for different reasons. I like the auto constraint detection from Pro/Engineer but I also like the “freeness” of Inventor. For me this has to go to both. So that’s my brief review of basic usage of both Autodesk Inventor and Pro/Engineer. To sum things up I prefer working with Inventor, but that may be because I have been taught Inventor and have worked on it for longer.

Emotional Detachment And How To Overcome It

Emotional detachment can be referred to an individual who cannot connect find or connect emotionally with others or themselves. Such individuals cannot perform in a social gathering and might eventually sink into a nervous breakdown. It is very important for an individual to get professional help in order of overcoming this emotional condition. There are quite a number of therapies out there that have been conjured to help individuals overcome such; most of these therapies come as personal development cures. Emotional detachment is often linked to some or all of these signs


Anger can be a very difficult vice to kick out. Individuals who have had previous problems which have led them to this state will always tend to isolate themselves from other people. This is because they are able to react differently to even small issues like jokes. They may be emotionally detached as they do not know how to handle their anger.


Grief can be a difficult issue to deal with especially when has lost someone they were really close to. They may not know how to deal with their loss and they may find themselves keeping to themselves. However for individuals who go through this state their friends and family can take note of this and recommend better options for them to take like dealing with experts who can teach them how to let go and move on with their lives.

Stress And Depression

Individuals who have stress may find themselves emotionally detached in the long run. This is because they are so immersed in their own problems that they cannot find time to socialize well with others. This at severe situations will cause depression. Once depression sets in they might find themselves getting an emotional breakdown.

Loss Of A Job

If an individual loses there source of income it may lead them to a state of emotional detachment. An individual may be confused and be out of options. This can be more difficult if they have responsibilities they need to take care of. These signs are easy to detect. When an individual is getting emotionally detachment they should seek the help of a professional before they get an emotional breakdown.

People who overcome emotional detachment must find in themselves ways to forge ahead with their lives. Accepting life situations however hard they may be is often a big step in emotional cure. It is also very important to understand influences of the brain when seeking for any therapy; successful individuals note that the brain is the central controlling organ of each and every activity in the human body. Looking for therapies which influence the strength of the human brain in affecting cure to emotional detachment is the only permanent way of getting rid of the sickness. There are quite a number of places where you can get good information about how to cure emotional detachment, when seeking more information on these always make sure that you get information from good reputable sites which have a reputation of displaying factual information.

What is Insulation, Why Do We Have it and How Does it Work?

A small science lesson about insulation:

Heat moves from warmer areas to colder areas. This is the single basic principle on which the idea of insulation is based. On hot days heat tries to get inside your house and on cold days the heat tries to escape. Insulation seeks to minimise this ebb and flow of temperature by slowing the process.

Unfortunately no matter how good your home insulation is, any building always needs a constant supply from a heat generating source to maintain a steady temperature. Of course however, if you have good insulation then you will need much less heat and thus a lot less energy to achieve the same effect.

Most of us learned in GCSE science about conduction convection and radiation.

Here is a brief summary of each to refresh every ones memory.


This is the process that heat flows through or along one material and into another. This is done through molecular transportation. To do this, the materials must be in contact with each other. This conduction happens with all things of liquid, solid or gas substances but that rate at which it happens greatly varies depending on the substance and its state i.e. if it is a good conductor or a bad conductor. Good metal conductors include gold, silver and copper down to the worst conductors like wood and THERMAL INSULATING MATERIALS.

Gases and liquids are also bad conductors BUT are prone to the other, convection.


The requirement for solids to lose or gain heat by this process it must be in contact with the liquid. Convection happens when a change in temperature happens in parts of the fluid thus causing the liquids density to alter. This is called ‘natural convection’. If the fluid in instead displaced and accelerated by wind or artificial factors then it is called ‘forced convection’. In forced convection the process of convection can be increased substantially.


This is how heat is emitted from a body and transmitted across a space as energy. This kind of radiation is similar to radio and light waves. It does not even need air in between for it to happen, and works just as well in a vacuum. Every solid body emits energy but the rate of emission all depends on three different things:

o Distance between surfaces

o The emissive of the surfaces (shiny and light/matt and dark)

o Temperature differences between receiving and radiating surfaces

House insulation

The application of thermal insulation does not have the effect of generating heat in your house. It is still always the rule that you will have to supply heat from an inside source. There may be a rise in temperature inside the building after the installation of insulation but that will be down to the better performance and energy saving properties of better house insulation.

Lime Lawns – Sweet and Sour

Oh what a sight when you turn a corner and there in front of you is this absolutely beautiful yard. Almost makes you want to smile, then your get to your yard and then you become a little, um, depressed? We all want a beautiful yard and we do the best we can but sometimes overlook the actual health of the soil that hold our lovely blades of grass together. Prior to doing research for my own lawn, I was unaware that it was important to Lime Lawns if necessary. I was surprised to learn how easy it is.

There are 3 different types of lime that are available to apply to your lawn. Burnt Lime which reacts quickly; Hydrated Lime, also called slaked lime, is more effective than Calcium Carbonate and the last is Calcium Carbonate which is easier and less harsh to deal with and is the most widely used throughout the United States.

If you’re not sure if your lawn requires a dose of lime, have your soil checked by either a lawn service, a local nursery or your county extension office. The testing is done to determine the amount of hydrogen contained within the soil. If the outcome number is between 1 and 7 then your soil is considered acidic and 7 and 14 the soil is considered alkaline. Most grasses thrive with a pH between 6.5 & 7.5. The acidic level can very throughout the country; acidic soil is also called “sour” soil. More alkaline soil is considered “sweet”.

The soil, if determined acidic, could be due to the leaching of calcium and magnisum from nitrogen based fertilizers, peat moss or compost. The addition of Lime will create a more balanced soil causing an increased of nutrients, calcium and magnesium. Once the soil is at a favorable pH level of approximately 7, the soil is more apt to give your lawn and other plants that healthy glow you are striving for; A healthy lawn is the best reason to Lime Lawns.

Ultimately, the best time to apply lime is prior to a new lawn. For established yards, the best time to Lime Lawns is in the fall or spring, which is also the best time to apply most other products your soil may need. If this is the case, don’t apply all of the products at one time, allow at least a week between the different applications to allow the soil to absorb what is needed. Lime can be purchased at your local home improvement store in either pellet or powder form. A spreader can be used with the pellets or the powder. It is very important that the lime is evenly distributed on the soil or lawn, especially the powder, as once the lime touches the soil, it will not move.

It is important to follow the manufacturer’s directions as it is easy to over apply the lime. Generally, the rules are 150 pounds per 1,000 square feet. In addition, if more is needed the additional amount should be applied 2 to 3 years later. Prior to this second application, you may want to retest your soil as too much lime can harm your soil.

The Truth Behind Calcium Hydroxide Usage

Calcium hydroxide is one of the chemical compounds that are not associated in calcium supplement manufacturing because of the presence of acidic properties. It takes the form of either white powder or colorless crystal which is produced when another chemical compound which is the calcium oxide is quenched with water. It can also be produced by the mixture of the aqueous (water-based) solution of sodium hydroxide and the aqueous solution of calcium chloride.

When processed under heat, it decomposes into water and calcium oxide. One of the products, which is the lime water (formed by a suspension of fine particles of calcium hydroxide in water) is considered to be a medium-strength base which reacts viciously with acids as well as assails many metals in the presence of water.

Due to its sturdy basic properties, calcium hydroxide is used on various applications, such as the following:

o When in the form of lime, it is used as a sewage treatment and for the improvement of acid soils.

o It is an active ingredient in the production of plaster, whitewash, and mortar.

o It also acts as an alkaline which is used as a non-lye substitute in lye-free hair relaxers.

o It is also used as a reagent in the following applications:

o For the reef aquarium as a bio-available calcium additive solution for organisms inside the aquarium that uses calcium such as snails, algae, corals, and hard tube worms.

o For the tanning industry as a neutralizer on extra acids.

o For the petroleum refining application as an ingredient for manufacturing oil additives such as sulphatic and fanatic.

o For the chemical application as an ingredient in manufacturing calcium stearate.

o For water processing such as alcoholic and soda drinks.

o For clearing magnesium and carbonate contents of calcium in manufacturing salt for food.

o It is also used as a filler on the following applications:

o Solid oil manufacturing.

o Brake pad manufacturing.

o Ebonite production.

o Dry mix preparation for decorating and painting.

o Pesticide mix manufacturing.

o Polikar manufacturing (a drug that is used as a preservative for vegetables and fruits during storage period).

o It is also used in paste which is employed in tooth’s root canal procedure which reduces inflammation as well as acting as a disinfectant within the infected area.

However, since it contains acidic properties, calcium hydroxide overdose can lead to dangerous consequences such as breathing difficulties, internal bleeding, hypotension, skeletal muscle paralysis, and an increase in the blood’s pH level, which can cause damage to the body’s internal organs.

Lime – What is Lime Used For in Gardening?

For those of you new to gardening, the issue of soil preparation may be a mystery. Believe me it is more than just turning over a sod or two with a spade. I was talking to a friend today about PH and Lime application, and it was apparent from our conversation that this whole area is a mystery to some.

One of the most misunderstood issues in gardening relates to that magic phrase “PH” – so what’s it all about? Well, all soils are generally speaking acidic in character, to a higher or lower extent, dependent in each case on a number of variable factors at work in the soil forming process for that individual “soil.” Most gardeners recognise the importance of the following influences:

  1. The surface features or topography of the area
  2. The prevailing climate particularly rainfall leaching.
  3. The influence of time
  4. The nature of the soil itself
  5. The type of living organisms active in the soil
  6. The level of fertilizer use

All of these factors are at work and the synthesis of their interaction over time results in a particular level of acidity for that soil sample. So why is acidity so important? Well, it depends on the plants you are growing of course and some plants do better in acidic conditions, but as a general rule high soil acidity is a “no – no” for most plants.

So how do we work out soil acidity? It is obvious that we need some simple measure of soil acidity so that corrective action can be taken to reduce acidity and improve growth conditions. Well, this is where PH comes in. Without going into too much technical jargon, PH is simply a way of calibrating the level ( or potential “P”) of hydrogen ions ( H+ ) in a solution of water. It gives us a measure of acidity.

By mixing a solution of soil and distilled water in a 1:1 solution, the PH of the water solution in equilibrium with the soil can be accurately recorded. The lower the PH the more acidic the soil sample. The higher the PH the more alkaline the soil sample. PH is usually measured on a scale of 1 to 14, so that at a PH of 7, the soil sample can be said to be neutral. The lower the PH level the more likely it is that metallic components are present. So below a PH of about 6.0 the incidence of metals such as copper, zinc and manganese increases to toxic levels. Above 6.0 the incidence of nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium increases to beneficial levels for plant growth.

Each plant species is suited to different growing conditions of course, and slightly acidic soil can help to keep down blight in potatoes for example. On the other hand, slightly alkali soil has a higher level of salt present which may not suit your particular crop. Generally however, gardeners tend to aim for neutral PH of around 7.0 in most cases.

So, faced with an acidic soil, what can the gardener do to improve soil quality? Well, this is where lime comes in. You can raise soil PH by applying Lime to the soil. Lime is made by crushing limestone or chalk, whose main active ingredients are calcium and magnesium carbonates and oxides. ( Don’t worry – you can buy it at your local Garden Centre ). On application, a chemical reaction occurs which changes some of the hydrogen ion concentration into water and carbon dioxide – in effect diluting the hydrogen ion level and raising the PH measure to a more alkali friendly number. Liming in this way can provide a source of calcium, improve water penetration and increase bacterial activity. Be careful to understand however that Lime is a chemical and overliming can be harmful too.

Lime can be applied throughout the year, but most gardeners will apply it during Winter or early Spring. Remember that Lime is insoluble in water so thoroughly mix the lime with the top soil. Once moisture is applied the lime will start to chemically react, so thorough mixing in dry conditions is very important. Don’t forget that different plants thrive in different soil conditions, so make sure you know which PH level your plant needs before deciding how much or how little Lime to apply.

Patio Bars

Gearing up your patio involves finding that delightful, purposeful and long-lasting patio bar that is well-designed to suit your needs. Since it may become the hub of all the activities in your patio, it is important to find one that will go perfectly with the layout of the area, as well as the design that you are going for. From the classic, causal to the modern, metallic chic, to the uniquely and elaborately designed, they are notable fixtures for your patio as well as your other outdoor facilities such as a pool or court.

The Cattle Baron’s Bar is among the patio bars that stand out with its distinctive teak material. Giving off that antique look with its textured and rural design, this patio bar is good for cozy conversations with friends. It is made of a durable wood, finished with medium wood for weather resistance. It is embellished with three lanterns that complete the rustic, Western look. This patio bar can be conveniently maintained using natural wax that can be found in most hardware stores.

The Companion Outdoor Bar is a classic patio bar with its velvety wood finish that spells both style and durability. With six colors to choose from for this patio bar, the Companion Outdoor Bar has a three-sided serving area and open shelves that allows safe storing and easy access when in use. Designed to achieve that classic American flavor, this patio bar also comes with matching bar stools.

The Horseshoe Bar adds texture, style and character to the traditional patio bar. It has a simple style of a patio bar that in its spic and span state, perfect for that laid-back portico. The patio bar counter top can be embellished with two different materials and finishes to choose from.

If you are going for a futuristic patio bar, the Ironwood Bar is your best bet. Made from a harmonious blend of a wooden body accented with metal bands along the edge and hard-wearing stainless steel mesh shelf, this patio bar does not neglect function as it provides convenient and sufficient room for storage.

The use of wood in patio bars and in other fixtures is carefully monitored to prevent illegal logging that has destroyed rainforests all over the world. The manufacturers of these patio bars, however, have made sure that all of their products are form a renewable source.

Bath Mixer Taps and How to Install Them

The bath mixer taps are really essential. You could switch over from bath to shower bath functioning by pulling out a plug that shuts off water supply to the tap and hives off them to the shower bath head. You could also adapt the temperature of water simply as you’d need for a bath.

Tools needed:

Adjustable spanner

Piping spanner

Teflon tape




Taking off older taps

Begin by switching off the water supply to the bathing tub. If there’s not any single turncock for this, switch off your water supply at the home mains. Let the taps to run till no longer water supply comes out.

Take away the face of the bathing tub therefore you could bump off the older taps for installing. Utilize the piping spanner to unscrew the nuts on the water passes over that go with the taps. Unscrew on both the cold and hot water piping. Then utilize the screwdriver to unscrew the calking all around the taps and gradually draw out the taps loose. Bump off them and set up them apart to throw away after.

Making clean

Ahead before you set up the bath mixer taps in situ, you ought to cleanse the bathing tub to take out any older calking and check the newfangled taps will sit down equally and flawlessly. At this point, put on the Teflon taping to the threads on the taps where they’ll conjoin the water pipes. These will chip in a stronger, more leak proof sealing.

With this exercised, put on a very lean beading of calk on the ground of the bath mixer taps ahead before you push it into position. Once again, this brings in the sealing leak-proof and forbids superfluous water supply from dropping down any open up cracks.

Tightening up

Begin tightening up all the nuts with hand onto the threads with the faucets. This makes a point that they are safe and secure on the threads and they will tighten up well easily with a spanner later on. Utilize your piping spanner to tighten up all the nuts till they are really strong. Do not over tighten up or you will peril disrobing the threads therefore you will not be capable to take away the tap if you ever prefer to supersede it.


You at present have the bath mixer taps in situ but you all the same want to add up the shower bath portion of the unit. You’ll require a shower bath head and maybe as well a stand that could be appended to the fence. A metallic hosepipe will chip off the shower bath, finishing in a nut.

This nut requires to be connected to the bath mixer taps. First of all, roll Teflon taping more or less around the threads on the faucet then hand constrains the nut onto this. Tighten up more with an adaptable wrench.

Release the water supply back active and check out for any leakages, comprising in the shower bath joining, before driving in the face of the bathing tub back in situ.