Socket Wrench Basics For the Mechanic

Welcome back to our series on tools for the new do it yourself hobby enthusiast. If this is the first article that you've read, do not worry – we will not get too complex. Socket wrenches can really make the difference between enjoying a project and wiping you never saw it. Socket wrenches are more commonly just known as "Sockets," but their proper name is derived from the fact that they apply force on the same vertical axis as the more common open end or box ended wrench.

A socket wrench is very similar in nature to its more common box-ended wrench sibling except that it looks more like a cup that fits over the nut or bolt instead of the box ended wrench which slips around the perimeter of the nut or bolt. As with wrench sets, the socket wrench is also available in both metric and SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) sizes. It also shares the plating process in common with the more common wrenches.

When buying a set of socket wrenches for your new tool collection, you will want to hold socket wrenches to the same standard that you would hold regular wrenches. You will want to examine the finish of the plating to be sure that it is uniform in appearance. You will also want to be sure that the socket wrench is free of any sharp or unfinished edges as this may indicate a flaw in the metal used or the machining process when it was manufactured. I typically recommend that first time do it yourself mechanics get a set of both deep well sockets and regular length sockets as you will very often need both.

Enjoy a New Web Experience from Google Chrome


Want to experience a new world of web? Then all you need is Google Chrome. Google Chrome is a web browser from Google that makes web browsing faster, safer and easier.

Its development is based on open source code derived mainly from Apple and Mozilla and other open source projects and future development will depend on feedback from various forums. It is simple and streamlined getting out of your way, yet getting you where you want to. Tabs are kept in isolation to prevent them from crashing into one another and the browser architecture provides protection from rogue sites. It includes JavaScript V8 to make full use of the next generation of web applications.


Opening new tabs in the browser will give a visual sampling of sites visited, search engines used, closed tabs and bookmarked pages. Web searches will open up suggestions for the intended search. Applications will load within a window without opening another browser. Dragging tabs from a browser will create new windows. Tabs running independently will not will not allow crashed applications to bring everything to a standstill. Private browsing will not allow pages visited to appear in your web history. Warnings will show when visiting malware or other unsafe websites. You can use all bookmarks and passwords from existing browsers.


Google Chrome frequently downloads updates of blacklists (phishing and malware) and warn users when they attempt to visit these sites. Currently Google Chrome does not support plugins like Adobe Flash Player or ActiveX controls which run at / above the security level of the browser.

As of May 2009 Google Chrome was the 4th most widely used browser. Development versions for Linux and Mac were released in June 2009.

Top 5 Trout Fishing Tackle Essentials

With rows of rods and racks of flies from floor to ceiling, a trip to a large trout fishing tackle shop can be intimidating even for the experienced angler. But do not fret; With these six trout fishing tackle essentials, you'll be more than ready for your fishing expedition.

Rods, Reels, & Line (Combos)

The perfect combo depends on your destination, your fish, and your style. For spin or bait fishing in small streams and brooks, you need light or ultralight gear. Small streams mean small fish, and the Brookies and other smaller trout are best caught with a flexible ultralight rod 4-5 feet in length. Combos include the reel and line pre-spooled for convenience and economy.

If you are aiming for bigger lake or river trout, you need a heavy rig. Heavy rigs with longer rods (6 – 7 ft.) And stronger line allow for longer casting into larger bodies of water, and are durable enough to haul in a feisty big trout. Spin-cast, enclosed spools, are a good choice, with monofilament line in the 7-14 lb weight range.

Fly fishing is a totally different and exciting fishing style, and that requires an entirely different combo. A 7-8 foot fly rod is recommended with slow to medium action. A 3-pound test tippet with a tapered leader is also preferred. Cabela is a popular combo manufacturer with good quality and reasonable prices ($ 100- $ 250).

Flies, Live Bait, & Lures

The choices of artificial flies may be dizzying, but a little research can balance your decision making. Find out what kind of insects are prevalent at your fishing hole and choose your flies accordingly. The Elk caddis fly and the Peacock caddis are popular and effective. The Parachute Adams fly is another favorite, named for its ability to parachute softly onto the water's surface like real bug. If you're fishing live bait, nightcrawlers are easy to find at your local shop. A little digging around your fishing hole can also turn up grubs, hellgrammites, or leeches which all make great bait. Lures on the other hand, mimic the small fish trout eat, like minnows. Rooster Tails and the Blue Fox are popular spinner lures. Rapalas are the preferred lure to mimic minnows, and the Nestor Wobbler Spoon lure is my spoon of choice.

Waders, Boots, Hats, & Shades

In the game of trout fishing, you can not just sit on the sidelines. But, before you jump in with both feet, get some waders! Hip waders completely cover the legs up to the waist, while chest waders come all the way up to the chest and back allowing deeper wading. If you will not be in deep waters, a good rubber wading boot like those made by Rocky River or Frog Toggs may be all you need. Remember to be safe when wading in deep waters.
Also, do not forget a good sun hat and polarized sun glasses. Observant fishermen catch more fish. If you are blinded by the sun, you will not be able to identify insect types, water features, and fish activity. In addition, no one wants their fishing trip cut short by an eyestrain headache.

Tackle Boxes & Vests

Tackle boxes come in all shapes, sizes, and colors, and should be chosen based on your gear. Get a box that comfortable fits everything you are likely to use on a particular outgoing, with some room to grow, but not one so big it's a chore to lug. A good vest can compliment or even replace your tackle box. It's not practical to wade to shore every time you need to change flies, so vests with multiple pockets and secure Velcro or Zipper enclosures can help you take what you need into the water with you. A durable vest with some padding in the neck and shoulders for comfort is highly recommended. Remember, your vest will be much heavier when it's full of gear.

Creels & Nets

The first consideration when choosing creels and nets is whether you are catching and releasing, or catching and eating. Trout are some of the tastiest fish, so eating is a great option, but respect the environment and do not keep more than you will eat. Rubber trout nets are best for catch and release, because they will not injure the fish like thin-mesh nets. A flat bottom panel also helps protect fish you plan to release. Remember to size your net for the fish you are after. If trout is on the menu, split-willow creels or canvas creels are recommended.

Eco-Friendly Wallpaper

More wallpaper is being woven from natural materials as the industry adapts to customer demands for sustainability. Natural elements such as grass, leaves, bamboo, sand and cork are being used to produce some amazing styles. While this requires new technology and increased effort, there is no sacrifice in quality. In fact, many of these eco-friendly wallpapers fall into luxury categories and produce decor effects not available with traditional wallpaper.

A New Day

The reasons for these changes in the industry are obvious. Finite natural resources and growing market demand force manufacturers to work with materials that are sustainable. With a more informed, sophisticated and health-conscious consumer, the days of plastics, vinyls and synthetics are coming to an end. Where once the industrial development of adhesives focused on two dimensions – effectiveness and cost, there now exists two more considerations – safety and sustainability.

A Changing Industry

Some of the largest wallpaper manufacturers in the world are pushing into this new area of ​​development with serious resources and effort. York Wallcoverings, based in York, Pa., Is one of these. The oldest wallpaper manufacturer in the world, York has stayed relevant by staying progressive. Its engineers, designers, chemists and marketers are busy finding solutions to the sustainable problem. They have developed wallpapers from materials as diverse as natural grass, sand and even glass. Eco-Decor, one of their newest collections, is the culmination of these efforts. This work is leading the industry into a new realm, one it can take pride in and one in which its customers applaud.

With Earth Day right around the corner, it is a good time to reflect on the positive changes being made in terms of environmental health, consumer safety and sustainable growth. While many industries have been marketing these endeavors for decades, the wallpaper industry, one of the worst offenders in the olden days of synthetics, toxins and waste, is putting their money where their mouth is and initiating positive change.

A Sustained Effort For Sustainable Change

This work is possible through some of the sharpest business, engineering and chemical minds in the industry. It is something we are all proud of, and something we at Interior Place are very happy to tell our customers about. Feel good about your decor; feel good about the earth. This is something we tell our customers because today there is no need to sacrifice quality and luxury when making the kinds of decisions that will ensure a happier, healthier life for the world and those we will leave it to in the coming years. Have a great day today and a great Earth Day in the future!

Stop Worrying About Your Gun Falling Into the Wrong Hands by Getting a Fireproof Gun Safe

Getting a handgun is without doubt a good move to secure your safety in the case of an emergency, suddenless one must be absolutely certain that the gun does not fall into the wrong hands, for instance into the possession of one's own children! Over the last couple of years there have been numerous stories of children opening fire in public areas such as schools, and most of these children managed to get hold of the weapon in question from their own homes, and that too due to the carelessness of their parents that do not secure the storage of their guns properly. Even more shocking is the fact that most parents keep their guns loaded as well in addition to not securing them in a safe and out-of-bounds location!

So the most important thing to be accomplished is to ensure that all your firearms are kept in a safe, secure location that is not accessible to your children and the teenagers at home, who can tend to act rashly at times. The most practical way of doing this is by purchasing a safe to store your gun safely, and you would be able to keep your gun away from your kids effectively without having to worry that they would have access to your firearm. Once you decide on this option, you should start exploring your options to determine the best safe for yourself. In addition to keeping your gun away from the wrong hands, you could also opt to get a fireproof safe that would protect your gun brilliantly if there is an occurrence of a fire at your home.

Now that you are certain about getting a safe to store your gun, you would need to determine what kind of a safe that you would need. If you have only one gun in your possession, the best option would be a small, portable safe that holds one gun brilliantly with its ammunition or spare magazines. The size of this safe would also depend on the size of your gun. On the other hand, if you hold several guns, you would need a bigger safe that would be able to hold all your guns in addition to their ammo and magazines safely within a single safe. Or you could opt to get a few safes to cater for each of your guns, this might be a more expensive option, but in terms of portability this is the ideal option, as you could carry these guns securely with you when required.

And you would also need to decide how you want to secure these safes without allowing others to have access to them. The conventional method is through the use of keys, but then you are open to the risk of misplacing your keys or losing possession of them to the wrong hands. You also have the option of analog or digital numeric-combination locks to secure your safes. Last but not least, for those looking for a more sophisticated and secure method to safeguard your guns, biometric safes (also known as fingerprint gun safes) would be the best option for you! These safes utilize the fingerprint access system to lock and unlock the safes, so they are exceptionally secure and safe to have.

With the above-mentioned pointers and obtaining the right fireproof gun safe for yourself, you can now stop worrying about your gun falling into the wrong hands!

CO2 Tanks

Carbon dioxide, also known as CO2, is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable and slightly acidic liquefied gas. It is sold commercially worldwide under pressure in steel cylinders or bottles called tanks.

CO2 tanks can be used for a variety of things. Most popular uses include carbonated beverages, beer making, paintball guns, medical-grade usage, metal fabrication applications, catering, and fire extinguishing.

CO2 tanks need to be hydro-tested every five years, and the test date should be noted on the top of the canister. CO2 tanks need to be taken to a DOT certified hydro-testing facility if they need filled. Once certified, the certification number is stamped onto the tank.

Fire extinguishers
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers contain CO2 under extreme pressure. In fact, there is so much pressure in these tanks that bits of dry ice may shoot out of them when you engage it for usage. CO2 fire extinguishers are only good to be used on flammable liquid and electrical fires, Class B and Class C fires. Good places to keep a CO2 fire extinguisher include a laboratory, a mechanical room, a kitchen, or a storage area where liquid flammables are kept. CO2 fire extinguishers are better for electrical fires.

Carbon dioxide is a refrigerating agent and is used to chill, freeze and protect the taste of your food products by maintaining correct temperature control. It reduces the need for preservatives in packaged food products and is a main factor in carbonated beverages.

Recreational Usage
CO2 is the cheapest noncombustible pressurized gas and is frequently used in the game of paintball, in airsoft guns and for blowing up bicycle tires. Many paintball stores or fields offer to test your CO2 tanks before you. Paintball CO2 tanks are usually small and are filled from a larger CO2 tank. Sporting goods stores are also good places to get your paintball CO2 tanks filled. Again, the filling of the tanks are performed by professionals.

Medical Usage
Carbon dioxide in its liquid phase provides sub-zero temperatures for surgical practices and cryotherapy. CO2 can also be added to pure oxygen to help promote breathing and to stabilize blood oxygenation.

Beer Kegs
A CO2 tank is hooked up to a beer keg system to dispense beer from the keg to your glass. CO2 is the chosen way to dispense beer because it will help keep the beer fresh, unlike air that may interact with and ruin your beer. The CO2 is stored in a high-pressure tank as a liquid. The CO2 helps the beer flow more readily from the keg and helps to carbonate the beer.

Handling your CO2 tank
Even though CO2 is noncombustible, you should still take certain precautions with your CO2 tank. Be sure to never throw or drop a CO2 tank. Keep the CO2 tanks away from extreme heat. Always secure the tank in the upright position. If there has been a leakage from the tank, make sure you ventilate after the leak is contained; then immediately take the tank to a DOT certified testing facility. Tanks should be stored in the coolest place possible, ideally in an area that is around 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Most importantly, keep an eye on the fill date printed on the top of the canister. The best practice is to not use the tank at all if the date is five years or more in the past.

CO2 tank usage, testing, discharging and refilling should not be taken lightly. They are very dangerous is mishandled to the point of death.

Suggestions for Identifying Extra Storage Space in Your Home

Over the years we collect an unbelievable amount of clutter. Some things we hang on to for sentimental reasons, others we keep hold of – 'just in case', and sometimes it's simply a matter of family growth. But how do we contain it all, especially now, minimalism is the new trend? New houses never seem to offer enough storage space, while older properties offer space that is awkward and hard to utilize.

So, what can be done?

Start by looking around your home to consider the amount of storage space you realistically need. Identify your problem areas and be honest; would a clear-out help to free up storage space or is it definitely a matter of having to accommodate more? If it's about accommodating more, look at updating single-functioning pieces of furniture with multi-functional ones to provide quick fix solutions. If updating furniture is not an option then simply decide what items need to be hidden away in order to generate more room. Identify any 'dead' space around your home – obvious places like walls and corners and not so obvious places like half-filled cupboards, single rail wardrobes, space under beds etc. Then search the internet or go down to your local DIY store to obtain some inspiration and possible solutions.


Hallways are notorious as dumping grounds. No matter how small your space you should find a way to accommodate visitors coats and shoes. Designs for coat and shoe racks can range from multi-functioninging free standing ones, to slim line ones that attach to the wall – choose ones that work with your space as these need to aid the situation, not add to it. If you have no carpet on the stairs, considering getting the bottom steps made into pull out drawers and if you have available space underneath your stairs, consider converting it. Pull out storage works great if your hallway is wide enough, if not; add shelves or use it to store household items such as the vacuum cleaner and ironing board.


Think about how you can utilize the space more effectively. Do you really need all those gadgets on show? Think about a drop down TV, or a pull out / drop-leaf table that will help to maximize minimal space. Stacking storage systems are available for internal cupboard areas that really help to maximize them to the full. Add more storage space by simply adding wire baskets to the inside of the doors. Keep utensil and cutlery drawers in order by investing in drawer dividers and organize the space under the sink by collating all cleaning materials together. If you are big on recycling then stay on top of it by having designated areas for each of the materials you recycle. Add shelves or wire baskets to your store fresh fruit and vegetables and if your kitchen can accommodate a kitchen trolley, opt for one that offers a butcher block and some storage facilities.


Consider installing a bath panel that pulls down as these are great for shining bathroom items like shower gel, soaps, shampoos etc. Purchase a hammock with suckers, or invest in some string bags with hooks – these are terrific for storing kids' toys or individual bits and pieces. If space allows, opt for a mirrored cabinet – these come in various shapes and sizes and provide excellent storage areas. Add over the door coat hooks to house spare towels, laundry bags, or individual wash bags.


If you have not got floor to ceiling wardrobes, consider investing in some. Alternately, think about internal fitments. Most wardrobes can accommodate two hanging rails. Install a pull-out trouser rail and you may even find you have enough space to install some shoe racks underneath. Purchase some hanging pockets that hook over the top of a door for housing shoes, scarves and belts and if you have not got a bed with drawers, make full use of the space underneath by investing in durable storage boxes or vacuum bags for seasonal storage ideas.

Living Room

As the main room of the house, this can get a little messy if items do not have a defined space. Kid's toys can be stored in blank boxes, wicker boxes and storage pouffes or hidden behind multi-functional screens. Large multi-storage units are available that will house all game consoles, gaming equipment, audio equipment, CD's and DVD's that you have.

Whatever storage problems you have, do not be afraid to think outside the box, you may think space is an issue but there are lots of different storage ideas available and with a little imagination you will be surprised at what you can achieve.

Garage Gym Flooring Options

So you're setting up a garage gym, or you're already set up with a gym, but you're tired of working out on a concrete slab. In either case, it's time to explore some garage gym flooring ideas. Good, durable flooring protects your homes foundation, your expensive equipment, and most importantly, you and your joints!

So what's the best flooring for a gym? Well, if you've ever stepped foot in a box gym or CrossFit facility (as I'm sure you have), you've seen the strict, durable rubber flooring they have installed. While this is probably the best flooring option (and I'm certain what the majority of us would like to have), most of us can not afford to outfit our personal gym with this material. So, we need some other options.

Option 1: Commercial Flooring

Let's first look at the commercial flooring I was just talking about. The material you would find in a large, global gym. If money is of no issue, this stuff is about as nice as you're going to get. It's called Aktiv by Regupol. It is offered in a ton of colors, and as far as pricing goes for the commercial stuff, everywhere I've seen it sold requires you to request a quote.

You can also buy the tiled version of this flooring. It is called Aktivlok. I'm not sure how it compares to the commercially installed flooring, but prices are more readily available without asking for quotes, and it sells for about $ 4- $ 5 a square foot. So not too bad for a high quality product.

Option 2: Rubber Stall Mats

The next option is almost as good as the above-mentioned commercial flooring. Believe it or not, it's horse stall mats. They are 3/4 "thick 4 'x 6' rubber mats that run about $ 40 each ($ 1.66 per square foot.) You can cover some serious square footage for not a lot of money with these. garage gym. They're relatively easy to cut down to fit your space or when you need to cut holes to secure equipment to the ground. cage with a jigsaw. I've seen videos of this stuff being cut with box cutters as well.

A couple of things about these mats. First of all, they are extremely durable. I drop dumbbells and weights on these regularly and never think twice about doing so. I have not so much scratched these mats. They also hold their shape. If you bunch four or six of them together in a square, they all line up. They do not disturb like less quality rubber mats do. They are extremely heavy though. They weigh in at about 100 pounds each. Get help from a friend when you pick these up at the store (Tractor Supply Company has them for $ 39.99).

Option 3: Interlocking Rubber Tiles

Finally there is the economic option. CAP Barbell makes interlocking rubber tiles that you can purchase from local sporting goods stores like Academy or Dicks, or even online on eBay or Amazon. It's cheaper than any other option, but you get what you pay for. If you're going to be dropping bumper plates and dumbbells consistently, you may want to avoid these. I looked at them when I was shopping for my gym flooring but I did not feel like they would hold up for any length of time. Having said that, I did not actually buy them so I can not say how well they will hold up for you. Read some reviews on Amazon for an idea of ​​how people like them.

The hardware stores also sell versions of the interlocking vinyl or rubber tiles. The online reviews are hit or miss, and the specs do not look all that great for the price (they appeared thin). Still, another option for you to consider.

So in summary, the more lightweight interlocking mats or tiles seem more suitable for putting under a treadmill or elliptical. Something that does not move around much, but will still protect the floor underneath. For explosive movements with bumper plates, especially movements where a failed rep means dropping the bar, I would at the very least go with the heavy duty mats like the horse stall mats. If you've installed flooring not mentioned here and love it, leave a comment and tell us about it.

Moroccan Tiles – Tips To Creating Your Own Backyard Oasis

An oasis in the desert can slake your thirst. An oasis in your backyard can
sate your senses. To turn your patio into a bright and colorful place to escape
after a hard day, try some of the following suggestions.

Take some inspiration from the Mediterranean north coast of Morocco. Incorporate
the striking color schemes, and set it against the cool blue water of a swimming
pool. Zellige art, a tradition of geometric mosaic, is a mainstay of Moroccan art. Moroccan tiles could be the answer. Line the outer edge of the pool to create an inviting border, or overlay an ordinary courtyard surface with tiles to make an inxicating geometric pattern, possibly one beautiful radiating out from the center.

Another option might be a Moroccan mosaic fountain, which makes for a striking
focal point in any yard. The pleasant sound of trickling water blends nicely
with warmth of the sun's rays. Typically standing about five feet tall,
including the back rising up from the water tank, these fountains can
feature any number of designs. Often created in shades of gold, blue, or red;
they can range in patterns from sunbursts to arched shapes reminiscent of
Moorish doorways.

Stylishly shaped wrought iron chairs from Morocco also work beautifully outdoors
as patio furniture and are durable in all types of weather. Another possibility
might be as simple as adding a fresh coat of paint in a vibrant hue to existing
faded wooden patio furniture. For more informal seating, sling a hammock in a
corner between two trees and drape translucent linen overhead for a sunshade.
Maybe even attempt something more outlandish, hang an antique window with
different colored poles of glass on chains from a tree branch.

Ferns in bold orange terra cotta pottery work nicely with bright Mediterranean
color schemes. Lush vegetation and palm trees will further add to the feeling of
relaxation and casual fertility. Got a green thumb? Try an arbor of hanging
vines and watch it thrive, or plant some fragrant jasmine flowers. Burn some
incense or, to fight off the chill of dusk, try a chimenea with some aromatic
cedar wood.

To light up the night, an evening can be further enjoyed with a deck of hanging
lanterns from Morocco. Made from colored glass and cut into unique shapes, these
geometric designs in the lamps echo the undulating patterns of the tiles and
cast glazing shapes of across the ground to complete an enchanted setting.

Have a magical night with an informal picnic in the backyard. Drag out a throw
rug and pillows, sip on some wine, and watch the stars. Sit back and enjoy your
private paradise.

A Tongue in Cheek Look at the History of Motorized Retractable Awnings

Early humans had an instinctive response to their environment. During lazy days of hot summer weather they withdrew from the harsh sun to shield themselves under overhanging rocks and in cool caves. Came winter, the extreme cold talked them unprepared and they had to retreat even deeper into caves to withstand the bitter cold. It seemed that the sun and the howling winds and rain were following them everywhere.

And then, one day, far back in the history of human innovation, something dawned on one of our early forefathers. "If", he thought to himself, "if we can extend the roof of this cave to the front, we can catch two flies with one swipe. go down to catch supper. Secondly, we can in doing so, stop the mind-numbing nagging of the womenfolk about our incredible laziness. "

It was one small step for man and one giant step for mankind. And with it, the concept of residential awnings was born. Sophistication and further conceptualization followed as these early Einsteins wave birth to this new concept. A concept that developed into perfecting the usage of these window covers and related awning material in due course.

Many suns and many moons later, we modern people are still improving on our first experiences with these exterior window coverings. We have not only changed the materials from crude sticks and broad leaves to acrylic fabrics, coated aluminum arms and beautiful patterns. We have also perfected a way to extend our prototype to become roll out awnings that covers huge areas against the same sun that still hunts the human race. And … we can roll those back in whenever we feel like it. Yes, we humans have created the retractable awning!

It was another paradigm shift and residential awnings were never the same again. Families started to compete against each other to come up with more and more colorful canvas fabrics. Some of these families even started to call themselves companies in order to promote their state of the art deck awnings and retractable patio models.

Some bright sparks discovered that the awnings added nicely to otherwise boring window treatments and window coverings. They also noticed that the devices were greatly enhancing the value of properties.

And then something even more substantial happened. One sunny afternoon, while the women were sunning themselves and the children were splashing in the pool, one of them ladies neatly ordered her husband to retract the covering. They were trying to catch the last of the sun's rays and the shivering kids needed some warm up.

Now, the men were lazing about under the now very modern canopy, as in the old days in the caves, and did not really feel like cranking the retractable patio awning in. Whilst they were discussing this ongoing nuisance, one of them stated that there should be a motor that could at the push of a button roll the retractable awning in all by itself. It was another of those paradigm shift moments and the men toasted their newfound freedom with huge social screams and some good tasting stuff.

Time passed. People still appreciate the fact that motorized retractable awnings with Somfy motors provide them with cool cover in summer. These days, when winter comes, the automated device allows the fabric to be roled in to provide additional heat to the inside of the home.

They are also happy that these retractable residential awnings bring friends and family to enjoy many hours of laid back entertainment. Lastly we humans are still amazed that these comfortable entertainment enhancers keep on operating year after year, thanks to sound manufacturing processes.

The men are still lazily discussing new ways to make these window shades even more enjoyable, but they have not come up with anything better yet. They do however expect the women to come out with blazing guns someday to ask for something unreasonable yet again. The world awaits that moment for a new paradigm shift in the advancement of retractable awnings.

London Bridge

This famous landmark bridge has a weight limit of 17 tonnes. Today some 40,000 vehicles cross Tower Bridge every day and it opens for river traffic about 900 times a year.The Old London Bridge of nursery-rhyme fame was built by Peter of Colechurch between 1176 and 1209, replacing an earlier timber bridge. Because of obstacles encountered in building the cofferdams, the arch spans varied from 15 to 34 ft, the uneven construction rendered in frequent need for repair, but the bridge survived more than 600 years.It is 928 ft (283 m) long and was designed by John Rennie and built between 1824 and 1831. The early wooden bridge was replaced by a stone bridge with houses and a chapel.Its roadway was loaded with a jumble of houses and shops, many projecting out over the river. It was demolished and replaced in the 1820s by New London Bridge, designed and built by John Rennie, Sr. (1761-1821), and his son John Rennie, Jr. In the 1960s it was again replaced; the old masonry facing was dismantled and reelected at Lake Havasu City, Ariz., as a tourist attraction.The buildings were removed from 1756 to 1762. The bridge was many times damaged by fire and was finally removed in 1832 after the opening of a new bridge in 1831. In 1968, London Bridge was dismounted and purchased by Lake Havasu City, Ariz. In 1973 a new concrete bridge replaced the old one. London Bridge was the only bridge over the Thames in London until the construction of Westminster Bridge. In 1825 a new bridge, designed by John Rennie, was opened, as the old one could no longer cope with the increasing traffic. This bridge was widened in 1902, and was the bridge that Dickens had in mind during Oliver Twist. In fact, the steps that used to lead down to the river to the west of the bridge were known as 'Nancy's Steps'.

By the end of the 18th century, it was obvious that the old London Bridge – by now over 600 years old – needed to be replaced. It was narrow, decrepit and a hazard to river traffic. In 1799, a competition for designs to replace the old bridge was held, prompting the engineer Thomas Telford to propose a bridge with a single iron arch spanning 600 ft (180 m).

The revolutionary nature of this design won praise but it was never used, due to uncertainty about its feasibility and the amount of land needed for its construction. The bridge was historically replaced by an elegant structure of five stone arches, designed by engineer John Rennie. The new bridge was built 100 feet (30 m) west (upstream) of the original site at a cost of £ 2,000,000 and was completed by Rennie's son (of the same name) over a seven-year period from 1824 to 1831. The old bridge continued in use as the new bridge was being built and was destroyed after the new bridge opened in 1831. The current London Bridge was constructed by contractors John Mowlem from 1967 to 1972, and opened by Queen Elizabeth II on March 17, 1973. It is a fairly dull edificecomprising three spans of pre-stressed concrete cantilevers, paid for in part by the sale of the earlier Rennie bridge. It is 928 feet (283 meters) long. The cost of £ 4m was met entirely by the City of London's Bridge House Estates.

Prototype Machining History and Rapid Prototyping Assembly History

Rapid prototyping is a revolutionary and powerful technology with wide range of applications. The process of prototyping involves quick building up a prototype or working model for the purpose of testing the various design features, ideas, concepts, functionality, output and performance. The user is able to give immediate feedback regarding the prototype and its performance. Rapid prototyping is essential part of the process of system designing and it is believed to be sufficient beneficial as far as reduction of project cost and risk are concerned.

Rapid prototyping is known by many terms as per the technologies involved, like SFF or solid freeform fabrication, FF or freeform fabrication, digital fabrication, AFF or automated freeform fabrication, 3D printing, solid imaging, layer-based manufacturing, laser prototyping and additive manufacturing .

History of Rapid Prototyping:

Sixties: The first rapid prototyping techniques became accessible in the later eighties and they were used for production of prototype and model parts. The history of rapid prototyping can be traced to the late sixties, when an engineering professor, Herbert Voelcker, questioned himself about the possibilities of doing interesting things with the computer controlled and automatic machine tools. These machine tools had just started to appear on the factory floors then. Voelcker was trying to find a way in which the automated machine tools could be programmed by using the output of a design program of a computer.

Seventhies: Voelcker developed the basic tools of mathematics that clearly describe the three dimensional aspects and resolved in the earliest theories of algorithmic and mathematical theories for solid modeling. These theories form the basis of modern computer programs that are used for designing almost all things mechanical, ranging from the smallest toy car to the tallest skyscraper. Volecker's theories changed the designing methods in the seventies, but, the old methods for designing were still very much in use. The old method involved either a machinist or machine tool controlled by a computer. The metal hunk was cut away and the needed part remained as per requirements.

Eighties: However, in 1987, Carl Deckard, a researcher form the University of Texas, came up with a good revolutionary idea. He pioneered the layer based manufacturing, wherein he thought of building up the model layer by layer. He printed 3D models by utilizing laser light for fusing metal powder in solid prototypes, single layer at a time. Deckard developed this idea into a technique called "Selective Laser Sintering". The results of this technique were extremely promising. The history of rapid prototyping is quite new and recent. However, as this technique of rapid prototyping has such wide ranging scope and applications with amazing results, it has grown by leaps and bounds.

Voelcker's and Deckard's stunning finds, innovations and researchers have given extreme impetus to this significant new industry known as rapid prototyping or free form fabrication. It has revolutionized the designing and manufacturing processes.

Although, there are many references of people pioneering the rapid prototyping technology, the industry gives recognition to Charles Hull for the patent of Apparatus for Production of 3D Objects by Stereolithography. Charles Hull is recognized by the industry as the father of rapid prototyping.

Present-day Rapid Prototyping: Today, the computer engineer has to simply sketch the ideas on the computer screen with the help of a design program that is computer aided. Computer aided designing allows to make modification as required and you can create a physical prototype that is a proper and proper 3D object.

Top Drywall Hanging Tips And Techniques

Hanging Tips & Techniques

Using a Deadman

A deadman is a temporary brace made of two lengths of 2×3 or 2×4 joined together and braced to form a T. Cut one of these as long as the ceiling is high plus 1 inch (but minus 1 1/2 inches for the crosspiece) and the other about 3 feet long. When hanging ceiling drywall, wedge the deadman beneath a panel to hold it until it can be fastened.

You may find it necessary to use two deadman on a ceiling panel, especially if you're working alone. If so, make sure that you oppose the angles of the two uprights; tilting them the same way creates an unstable situation.

Using a Stepladder

Stepladders are made from three different materials; wood, aluminum, and fiberglass. Drywallers tend to prefer aluminum for its low cost and light weight / durability. Ladders a rated according to the weight they can safely hold. Type III ladders can support 200 pounds per rung; Type II, 225 pounds per, Type I, 250 pounds per, and Type IA, 300 pounds. A Type II is fine for most residential work. Remember, howeverthat drywall is heavy; if you weight 200 pounds and lift a 54 pounds 1/2 inch panel, you'll be stretching the limit of a Type II ladder.

Using a Panel Lifter

A panel lifter allows you to raise a panel an inch or so off the floor while keeping your hands free. You'll use this handy device when installing wall panels near the floor. (Floor-level panels are not installed resting on the floor, but rather an inch or so above it. lever with a lip on one end that tucks under the panel. A panel lifter also gives you fairly careful control when positioning the wallboard, especially if the panel above is set. You can buy a panel lifter or make one from a pair of 3-inch-wide lengths of pine. In a pinch you can use a pry bar and block of wood.

Using a Panel Jack / Hoist

A panel jack is a real work-saving device when drywalling ceilings. By mounting a panel and lifting it up into position, you have a near effortless way to provide ceiling-panel installation.

Using Stilts

Shoe stilts take some time to get used to, right, and they can be awkward and dangerous. But when mastered, they can provide easy access and mobility to high areas when hanging drywall.

Essential Plastering Tips For the Beginner – What Depth of Plaster Should I Apply to the Surface?

It's quite easy for newbie's to Plastering to make the mistake of laying Plaster onto the surface very thinly, that is to say, the material is mistakenly scraped on with the trowel, instead of laid onto the surface, if this is the case we are then left with problems of Plaster drying off too quickly, not adhering adequately to the surface, besides not having enough Plaster depth on the surface in the first place for towing up later.

The depth you should be looking for to apply Plaster to your surface is around 2mm thick.

This should also, once applied, be as reasonably even as possible, but please do not make too much fuss of your applied Plaster at this time because once the whole wall / ceiling is Plastered onto you can start to trowel out some of the ridges later on, so said, you should not be putting clumps of Plaster onto your surface, & where you have just applied your strokes of Plaster, do not play with it too much once it is on the wall, instead, lay on a band of Plaster, & smooth out your strokes so that you have a reasonably level Plaster application the first time, then move onto the next section of your surface to be Plastered until completion.

By applying a few strokes of Plaster it is sometimes tempting to work on that particular area trying to level out as much as possible before moving towards the next strokes of application, but by paying too much with the Plaster you have just laid on, you are helping it & helping it to dry off quicker plus you are also dis-adhering it from the wall surface you have just applied it too. So in summary, lay on, smooth level strokes & move on until completion.

Lavinia Fontana – An Artist From the Mannerist School of Art

Italian Mannerist painter Lavinia Fontana was born in 1552 in Bologna. Her father Prospero Fontana (1512-97) was a fresco artist of the School of Bologna, who even trained her initially on the youthful Mannerism. Later, Lavinia progressed towards Carracciesque style, which deal with quasi-Venetian coloring. Italian Renaissance artist Sofonisba Anguissola (1532-1625) highly influenced her work.

'Monkey Child' (1575) is her earliest known painting. Her second painting 'Christ with the Symbols of the Passion' (1576) is still at the El Paso Museum of Art, El Paso, Texas, USA. Lavinia was known among the affluent for her ability to integrate the intricate work of fabrics, rich gold jewels, and textures into her rich images. She was famous for the attention she paid on the details like the poses and the use of delicate palette. She was exceptionally good at painting large-scale mythological and biblical figures, including female and male nudes. Unfortunately a few of her competent art works such as' Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon '(1598-1600) and' Venus; the Virgin Lifting a Veil from the Sleeping Infant Christ 'have mistakenly been attributed to the Italian Baroque artist Guido Reni (1575-1642).

At the age of 25 Lavinia met painter Giano Paolo Zappi at her father's workshop and got married to him in 1577. They formed a very successful partnership that facilitated a successful life for them. While Zappi assisted Lavinia with her art and cared for their eleven children, Lavinia focused on her paintings and providing for the family. At twenty-seven, a Dominican scholar and church historian Pietro Ciaconio (1526-81) commissioned her self-portraits. 'Self-Portrait Seated at Her Desk' (1579) was the product. Fontana has more than 135 refined oil paintings to her credit. She is considered as one of the most successful female artists before the 1700s. 'Portrait of a Noblewoman' (1580), 'Portrait of the Gozzadini Family' (1584), 'Allegory of Music' are a few examples of her excellence in creating female forms on canvas.

By the age of thirty, Lavinia Fontana had gained ample fame in her devotional genre of art. 'The Holy Family' (1575), 'Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalen' (1581), and 'The Dead Christ with Symbols of the Passion' (1581), are few of her highly appreciated creations in the style. While she created 'St. Francis of Paola Blessing a Child '(1590) for the Church of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna, her' The Holy Family with the Sleeping Christ Child 'adorns the Escorial Palace in Madrid, Spain. In 1603, Lavinia and her family moved to Rome upon Pope Clement VIII's (1536-1605) invitation. There she executed her famous 20-feet altarpiece 'The Stoning of St. Stephen Martyr 'for the Papal Palace, Vatican. In 1611, sculptor Felice Antonio Cassoni (1559-1634) honored her contribution to the field of Arts. She was also nominated into the Accademia di San Luca of Rome. On August 11, 1614, at the age of 62 Lavinia Fontana died.