Chandelier Facts

Chandeliers are both luxurious and extravagant, adding a touch of elegance to a room. They look best in a room where they can be accredited by visitors with plenty of space to show off its true beauty. Here are some facts about chandeliers that will increase your knowledge on these beautiful lighting fixtures:

· 'Chandelier' appeared in the English language in the 14th Century.

· The earliest candle chandeliers date back to medieval times and were made from wood with spikes for the candles to sit in. The whole fixture was secured and hung via a rope or chain which was suspended from a hook.

· In the 15th century chandeliers became more complex and designs were based on rings or crowns. Night time lighting was costly and was symbolic of luxury and high status.

· Come the 18th century chandeliers become ornate with long curvy arms with candles common in many merchant class homes.

· The 19th century saw the production of branch ceiling fixtures. Many candle chandeliers were converted to gas chandeliers and from the 1890s with the development of electricity – fixtures wholly powered by electricity were the standard.

· One of the most famous chandeliers is the chandelier in the Opera Garnier which is crashed by the Phantom in the 1910 novel 'The Phantom of the Opera' by Gaston Leroux.

· The bobeche is the dish which the candle sets in; it is designed to catch any wax drips and is also known as the drip pan.

· A festoon is a set of glass drops or beads which drape down or across a glass chandelier.

· Venetian is a type of glass from the island of Murano in Venice, but this word is also used to describe a chandelier of Venetian style.

· Crystal chandeliers are a popular choice as they refract the light from the light bulbs in the center of the chandelier, creating a rainbow of different colors. (This only happens with clear bulbs)

· Antique chandeliers can be heavier than normal chandeliers as they are made from brass.

· Chandelier installation should be completed by a professional to ensure it holds up for life, and reduces the risk of the fixture falling and causing an accident.

Chandeliers are a true thing of beauty and there are many to choose from; from small to large and black chrome to crystal. They make a difference from your usual modern table lamp so why not consider one for your home?

Preparing an Allotment – Tools for Tall People

With more people getting allotments the need for soil cultivation tools is growing, as is the height of the population. Taller people can greatly benefit from tools made specifically for them as it will make activity easier with less bending.

Are we getting taller as a species?

We have all been in historic homes and cottages and had to stoop to enter through doorways. This shows us the inmates were not as tall as we are today. Modern humans are clearly taller than those from the 18th and 19th centuries. In fact, over the last 150 years the average height of people in industrialized nations has increased approximately 10 centimeters or 4 inches.

Nutrition is a key factor and examination of skeletons shown no significant differences in height from the Stone Age through the early 1800s. It has been documented that the heights of vagrant London boys declined from 1780 to 1800 and then rose three inches in just 30 years, an increase that paralleled improved conditions for the poor.

Also, during World Wars I and II, when hunger was common place the heights of the children actually declined but recovered soon after.

Digging Today

For taller people bending while digging over extended periods can be at best uncomfortable and at worst very painful. Tools that have longer handles and allow the taller person to remain more upright are the ideal solution, but not readily available in many high street stores.

Bulldog Tools, made in Wigan, have addressed this problem and produce several ranges of tools to suit the taller person.

Longer Shafted Standard Tools

For soil preparation a basic tool set on allotments will compose the spade, in the digging or border form, and the fork, also in the digging or border form. The standard shaft length for bulldog and many manufacturers is 28 inches.

Bulldog Tools manufacture all four with 32 inch shaft lengths in the forged Premier range.

Long Handled Tools

Another solution for tall people is the changing of the standard 'D' or 'Y' shaped handle to a straight long handle. These typically are 42 inches to 54 inches long allowing the tallest person to stand upright and work comfortably.

These long handled tools from Bulldog are available in the following forms: –


Long handled drilling spade- the head size is the same as a standard spade with a 48 inch handle

Long handled shrubbery spade- the head is a little smaller than a border spade with a 42 inch handle

Irish digging spade – the shaped head size is larger than a standard spade with 48 or 54 inch handles

West Country digging spade – the shaped head size is larger than a standard spade with a 54 inch handle


Long handled shrubbery fork- the head is smaller than a border fork with a 42 inch handle

Rakes and Hoes

The standard hoe or rake handle is 54 inches in length and can easily be replaced with a longer one if required. Straight handles up to 72 inches can be purchased and provide some extra handle length for the taller person when hoeing or raking allotment parcel beds.

In Summary

Taller people need not suffer while on the allotment, a range of tools that are perfectly adapted to an upright place are available and will make the more energetic aspects of cultivation more of a pleasure than a chore.

Shovel Snow Safely

Shoveling puts stress on your back due to the cold weather, weight of the snow, and improper shoveling ergonomics. Many people suffer from muscle strains, disc injuries, and even spinal fractures while shoveling snow. Some of the injuries are the result of excessive stress on spinal structures, and others occurring from slip and fall accidents.

Prior to shoveling, consider your heart health. Snow shoveling can put extra demands on your heart, especially if you have cardiovascular disease or other chronic health conditions, if you are over weight, or if you do not exercise regularly. If you question weather snow shoveling is safe for you, a better option might be hiring someone to do it for you. If you decide to shovel, pay attention to your body. Shortness of breath, dizziness, chest discomfort, or arm pain are all reasons to stop immediately and seek medical care.

Snow shoveling can be compared to weight lifting, and its aerobic aspect is similar to working out on a treadmill. Therefore, if you treat shoveling as you would an exercise workout, you will be safer.

• Warm up beforehand by taking an easy walk and stretching. Warm muscles are less prone to injury.

• Avoid smoking or consuming caffeine in prior to shoveling. They are stimulants that will raise your blood pressure and constrict your blood vessels. This will cause less blood to get your muscles, making them tighten up and become more vulnerable to injury.

• Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration.

• Take breaks as needed to avoid excess strain.

Be sure to select the proper shovel. Plastic blades are lighter than metal, thereby decreasing the total load lifted. Smaller blades force you to lift less snow. Carrying a smaller load more often is safer for your back than a heavy load less often. Curved handles are more ergonomically correct than straight ones. Once you get a shovel, spray some silicone or cooking spray on the blade to prevent snow from sticking as much, making it easier to unload. Most importantly, you should use proper technique when shoveling:

• Do not grip the handle with your hands close together. Some distance between your hands gives you more leverage and makes it easier to lift the snow.

• Lift properly. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart. Keep the shovel close to your body. Bend at the knees, not at the waist. Tighten your stomach as you lift, to brace your back. Do not twist to dump the snow; turn your whole body and dump the snow in front of you.

• If there is a lot of snow, remove it in parts. Take off an inch, rest, and then do another inch.

• Wear good boots and / or spread sand or salt to help you maintain your balance.

• Switch hands frequently to work both sides of your body evenly.

Dealing with snow removal is a part of life here in Wisconsin. Some simple preparation can make it safer and more comfortable for you. If you do suffer a back injury from shoveling, call us at (414) 774-2300 as soon as possible. Injuries heal faster if they are cared for as soon as possible.


Abitol, Jean-Jacques, MD and Spinasanta, Susan. "Digging Your Way Through Winter: Tips for Snow Shovelling." Online at

"Shovelling Snow: Tips to Avoid Back Injury." Online at

"Shovel Snow Safely: Get the Scoop." Online at

Breast Augmentation – Why Women Do It

Breast augmentation. In a society where men are obsessed with the size of a woman’s breasts it is no wonder that more and more women are having theirs enlarged. But being more attractive to a man is not the only reason women have their breasts enlarged. In this article we are going to discuss some of the psychological and not so psychological reasons that women get their breasts enlarged.

Let’s start with the obvious. A woman with small breasts will typically feel less attractive to a man, especially when she is surrounded by other women who are more endowed than she is. Not so much because of the women themselves, though they can be a bit obvious in their actions, but more because of the actions of the men around them. You don’t have to be a brain surgeon to see that most men will pay infinitely more attention to a woman with larger breasts than a woman with smaller breasts, or worse, hardly any at all. This woman feels so low about herself because of this, that ultimatel,y in spite of all the dangers, health risks, possible reactions and everything else involved, she will have her breasts enlarged. The ends justifies the means, no matter what the risk.

Then there is the woman who has her breasts enlarged for a completely different reason. This is the woman who feels she will get ahead faster in the business world if she has larger breasts. Take a look at many of your young movie starlets. It’s hard to find a one of them who isn’t well endowed. Certainly not all of them were naturally born like that. The truth is, and nobody tries to hide this fact, most women in Hollywood have some kind of cosmetic surgery, with breast augmentation being right up at the top of the list. In today’s society it is almost expected.

But Hollywood isn’t where it ends. Other women climbing up the corporate ladder also have breast augmentation done. Their thinking is that if they look like more of the stereotypical beautiful woman they will get farther in their professional lives. This stereotype isn’t helped out much by Hollywood who portrays the successful businesswoman in films in this manner. The main point here is that a woman applying for an important executive position feels, especially when being interviewed by a man, that if she is more physically attractive to her interviewer that she will have a better chance of getting the job. The sad thing is, she probably will have a better chance. It may not be fair but it’s the way things are.

And then there is the woman who just wants to feel better about herself. Maybe she’s recently divorced or has had some other kind of setback. Maybe she just wants to do something that will make her feel more like a woman. Breast augmentation is one of the first things she will think of if she’s not naturally endowed, especially if she decides she wants to get back out into society. Why not do it with a new body?

There are other reason women have cosmetic surgery of this kind. In some circumstances, say if you want to work at Hooters, you have no choice but to get your breasts enlarged if you want to get the job. That’s just the way things are.

In the next article we’re going to discuss the various methods of breast augmentation.

Fully Automatic Residential Elevators

With the advent of advanced technologies and gadgets, life has become easy and comfortable. Fully automatic residential elevators provide a great deal of independence to mobility impaired individuals. Several models of automatic-elevators are available from various manufacturers for new as well as existing homes. One of the major advantages of residential elevators is that these can be installed without altering the existing structure too much.

A Variety of Safety Features

A fully automatic residential home elevator incorporates several safety features. The system has a remote control facility. These systems have many advanced features such as automatic cab on / off lights, digital display, self-contained drive system, automatic doors, photoelectric eyes, home landing feature and more. Most of the automatic elevators combine features such as:

o Modular rail
o Energy efficient motor drive system
o Recessed gate pocket
o Digital floor indicator
o Voice trigger controls
o Electronic keyless access
o Emergency stop
o Power backup facility
o Safety interlocks
o Emergency communication facility

Automatic Elevators Enhance the Value of Your Residence

Leading manufacturers such as ThyssenKrupp Access, Savaria Concord, and Federal Elevator provide several models of fully automatic home elevators. Lev Home Elevator, Rise Elevator, Infinity Luxury Elevator, Eclipse Elevator, and Renaissance Elevators are some of the affordable and automatic residential elevators. Its installation is simple and quick. Besides being convenient automatic operating systems, these residential elevators enhance the value of modern residences.

Automatic residential home elevators are less expensive than commercial elevators. Established suppliers offer reliable and affordable residential elevators along with excellent installation and maintenance services. They provide various residential and commercial solutions such as stair lifts, vertical and inclined platform lifts, portable wheelchair lifts, ramps and pool lifts.

Chain-Plate Assemblies for Ship Models

One of the more interesting assemblies on a ship model build is the chain-plate assembly.

The chain-plate assemblies and deadeyes were part of the standing rigging of a sailing ship. These were for attaching the lower ends of the shrouds to the side of the ship. The shrouds were the roads that steadied the masts and held them neatly into place. The routes of the shrouds went through the holes in the deadeyes. This way they could be periodically tightened without letting up the strain on the masts. Conveniently enough, the shrouds provided a ladder of sorts, ratlines, enabling the sailors to climb to various levels of the masts.

Plates were used by all countries in the early 17th century. Chains then became prevalent until until the mid-17th century after which some countries like Britain reverted back to plates. Chain-plates get their name from the old wooden ships that used to use tarred manila or hemp rope in conjunction with dead eyes and lanyards to tension the rigging. Chain-plates could be one of a number of strips of iron, chains, or a combination of iron links and straps. One dead eye would be attached to the end of the stay while the other dead eye would be shackled to a chain or a link which would have been connected to a plate that was fastened to the wales (hull). This plate was called the chain.

By using chain-plates and other apparatus of rigging, sailboats are better capable to support complex rigging systems and components. The weight of shrouds and other places on a sailboat are spread across the hull, along the deck, and against framing components through the use of chain-plates and deadeyes. Several holes in the body of a chain-plate allow displacement among multiple bolts where the chain-plate is attached to the hull.


A chain-plate is the thick iron plate bolted to the side of the ship to which the chains and deadeyes are attached. The chain plate and chains typically consist of 5 parts, the lower deadeye and upper link, a middle link, a toe link, bolts, and a preventer link (or chain plate). The upper link surrounds the lower deadeye, the middle link connects to the upper link on the top and the toe link on the bottom. The toe link is connected to the preventer link. The preventer link was bolted to the outer planking.

The lower dead eye has to be undermined with metal. The length of the loop of the metal on the bottom depends on if you are using plates or chains. Also consider that the channel or chain-wales are used to keep the assembly some distance off of the hull so make sure they are wide enough on your ship model. Interestingly the mizzen mast channel was quite rudimentary and many times did not even exist. If you are using chains, the loop should be long enough to go well below the lower side of the channel and act as the first link in the chain. If you are using plates, the loop just needs to be long enough to hang just below the channel and to allow the plate to hook into it. The ship modeler can form the strop using wire and starting from the bottom of the dead eye and moving up. Start off by creating the loop then fit the wire around the dead eye ending at the top. Drill two small holes in the top of the dead eye and run the ends of the wire into the holes.

The lower deadeye can sit in a slot on the channel, directly on the channel or raised just above the channel depending on which era of ship model you are building. The first chain-plate should be perpendicular to the mast beginning from the bow end and moving towards the stern. The balance of chain-plates should be slightly angled as the assembly moves sternward.

The ship modeler has a number of options when it comes to structuring chain-plate assemblies. Like usual keep in mind the era and nationality of the ship model you are building. If you choose to use a solid piece of metal, regardless of the shape there needs to be at least two holes, one above the other, in order to fasten it onto the wales. And do not forget to simulate caulking around the bolt holes using drawing ink. The upper middle and toe links can be the same size or vary in length. Often the toe link will be the shortest.

Prepare Food in the Wilderness With Camping Stoves

Most camping enthusiasts love to make food outdoors, but it's not always as easy as it sounds. Anyone who has tried to prepare food over a campfire knows how difficult it is to avoid burning everything black.

Today there are lots of alternatives that are much better than your classic campfire. Just try to take a look in the many outdoor shops and see their wide selection of camping stoves. Not only are there classic gas stoves, there are also multi stoves and much more.

Not only is it easier to use a camping stove than it is to use a campfire. In many cases it is also the only alternative since campfires are illegal in many places because of the risk of fires and so on.

When you have to buy a camping stove, you must consider many different things. First of all, you have to consider where you are going to use it, how long you are going to use it and what you will use it for.

As you can guess, you do not need the same camping stove for an expedition to the Himalaya Mountains as you do for a short trip with your friends in your backyard. Think about how much bulk you can carry and what kind of fuel capacity you will need.

It's bad luck that you can usually carry less on long trips – and that's when you probably need the extra fuel capacity unless you have a way of finding fuel on the way. It might there be a good idea to consider a camping stove that can use many different types of fuel or one that can work with natural materials like dry wood for example.

As previously said, you also need to think about what you will use the camping stove for. Will it only be used to heat water or do you want to prepare gourmet food on it? Depending on what you want, you will need a different kind of camping stove.

If you just need to heat water for tea, you will probably be able to find a simple pot and a lit. That's all you need to heat water, so why carry any more than that? Quite the opposite is the case if you want to make excellent food while out camping. If you want to make great food, you will need several pots, pans and so on, but always remember to think about how much you can carry.

My personal preference is something in the middle. More than the pot to heat water for tea in, but not as much as a complete gourmet solution with lots of pots and pans. In my experience, it's quite possible to make excellent food with a simple camping stove. All you need to do is to prepare some of the ingredients before you leave, so you do not need to juggle with the complicated parts of the menu when you feel tired and hungry after a long day in the wilderness.

The Best Blender – What to Look Out For When Buying a Blender

The best blender is one that does everything you need it to do and a bit more. Blenders can be multifunctional kitchen appliances that are used to create smoothies, shakes, soups, dips and dressings. The best blenders have enough power to make crushed ice, and some even are so powerful that they can make fresh peanut butter.

To determine which blender is best for you you first need to ask yourself, “What will I use it for?” Once you have answered this question then here are a few things to consider when shopping for your blender.

  • Review your wants and needs – What do you want to do with your blender? Answering this question will help you decide what kind of blender you should be looking at. For example, if you want to use ice cubes and hard frozen fruit then you will need one that can handle this process well, i.e., has more power.
  • Blender power – The more horsepower / watts, the more powerful the blender will be. The advantages: your fruit and vegetable drinks will be creamier and smoother, and if it has enough power you will be able to make fresh peanut butter from peanuts. Or you can turn ice cubes into crushed ice for frozen drinks.
  • Blender speed – Blender power is more important than speed. You don’t really need a 10 speed blender. Most jobs can be done with just three speeds and a pulse option.
  • Blender blade – They are either integrated into the pitcher or are detachable. Detachable blender blades can be easier to clean, e.g., when making thicker sauces. However the more moving parts the greater the chance for leaks and wear and tear. Most high-end blender pitchers have integrated blades. Blender blades come in different shapes, widths and lengths too. Blender blades are two, four or six pronged.
  • Blender pitcher/jar – They need to funnel food or liquid down to the blades to provide an even blend and mix. Common material used for blender pitchers are glass, polycarbonate and stainless steel. Each manufacturer has their own graded material; some are brake resistant, dishwasher safe, scratch resistant and commercially rated. Glass blender pitchers are much heavier than polycarbonate pitchers but are also less scratch resistant. Stainless steel might look sleek and does not break, but you can not see what is inside. Some blender pitchers are wider than others. When working with food wider is generally better, less clogging.
  • Blender pitcher/jar capacity – Most range in pitcher capacity size from 40 to 64 ounces (1.2 – 1.9 liters). If possible, always buy a larger blender pitcher. You do not want your blender to overflow. Your family size or portion size might be an important factor when deciding, which is the best blender for your needs and lifestyle, e.g., baby food, entertaining friends, or preparing meals for the entire week.
  • Blender pulse – Blenders with a pulse button can be used for crushing ice and can prevent over mixing or over processing, therefore providing more individual control.
  • Blender design – Most machines are countertop units, so remain displayed on kitchen countertops. Aesthetics are very important for many; however remember if your blender does not do what you need it to do you will not use it. Some come in various colors. Note, some are very tall and therefore don’t fit under standard cabinets.
  • Blender type – They fall in one of three categories: home blender, professional blender and commercial blender. Most professional units are for home use, for frequent use. Some are professional bar blenders mainly for mixing drinks, some might be commercial certified. Commercial units are certified for commercial usage.
  • Blender warranty – They vary from one-year to seven-years. Most professional blenders have the longest warranties. Some brands provide longer warranty on the motor than pitcher.
  • Savings – Blenders can save you time, money and space. Blenders can save you time by easily chopping and mixing up food for your meals – a quick way to make a healthy meal or drink. Blenders can save you money by giving you the option of eating and drinking healthier instead of spending money on fast-food. And in some cases blenders can replace other kitchen appliances and thereby not only saving you money but also saving you cupboard or kitchen countertop space.
  • Healthy lifestyle – Making a rich and notorious smoothie with fresh ingredients only takes a few minutes, and is the healthier option than most processed and fast-foods.
  • Versatility – If eating fresh food or drinking fresh shakes as often as possible is important to you then a blender can enrich your cooking and preparation experience. Many different ingredients can easily be mixed together and blended into incredible drinks, dips, sauces, dressings, and soups. Some blenders are even that powerful to turn nuts into butters, or whole wheat grains into fresh powdery flour.

Fast and Easy Installation of a Garage Door Insulation Kit

In the days when garages were structures that were separated from the house, it wasn’t really important to keep the environment within them cool or warm. They housed a vehicle, kept hail from damaging it, and blocked the harsh rays of the sun. Now that most garages are merely extensions to a house, it has become more necessary to maintain a temperate climate. This can be done by adding garage attic insulation, insulation in the walls, air-tight windows, and insulation in the garage door itself. Without all of this protection from the elements, your garage is going to let in a lot of cold air in the winter and hot air in summer.

A hollow-core steel garage door is one of the worst culprits when it comes to trying to maintain comfortable temperatures in this out building. If your door isn’t insulated, there’s no cause to fret, though. Numerous brands of door insulation kits are available for installation to take care of just this problem. The best time to install insulation is before you first hang the door, but it can be done afterward if necessary. If you purchased your home with the door already in place, there’s not much else you can do but work with the situation you have.

Different insulation kits come made with a variety of different materials. The one you choose might have panels might have two layers of aluminum or vinyl-coated foil wrapped around a core of insulation, or polystyrene or fiberglass, both of which have plastic covering both sides of every panel. All of these will have different R-values making them more or less of a conductor of heat or cold. In the industry, these grades are known as high, medium, and low depending on their performance in slowing down heat and cold transmission. A kit which contains insulation rated high will give you the best maintenance of a more temperate environment. When purchasing your kit, you will need to consider door size and design as well as the material it is made of.

Insulation is an excellent addition to steel doors, because metal incurs less damage than a wooden door does. No matter what kind of door you have on your garage, the better care you take of it, the longer it is going to function well for you. It doesn’t take long to install a garage door insulation kit. It might take you an hour at most, and excellent kits will only cost around $70. You will be improving the energy efficiency of both your home and garage substantially as well as creating a safer space for storage, a tool bench, or yard equipment which means that your money will be well spent.

Ab Workout Routine That Will Get You Ripped

You want to have a great ab workout routine , because you want to look good and ripped. Everyone should compliment you on your physical appearance and you will also be healthier. But if you've found that dieting alone simply is not cutting it when it comes to ab definition, then here are a few beginner to intermediate ab workout routines that are sure to help you achieve that six six pack.

Exercises you start doing on Monday
The Bicycle (or Air Bike): Lie face up and lightly support your head by placing your hands behind it. Next, bring your knee into your chest and lift your shoulder blades off the floor without pulling on your neck. Rotate to the left by bringing your right elbow toward your left knee, then alternate by bringing your left elbow to your right knee. Continue switching sides, somewhat like a pedaling motion.

The Butt-Up Exercise: Begin a push up, but leave your elbows on the ground resting on your forearms (they should be at a 90 degree angle). Arch your back slightly, then raise your glutes up while squeezing your abs tightly and exhale. Lower back down slowly and repeat the motion.

The Ball Crunch: Lie down on your exercise ball, making sure it is positioned under your lower back. Next, cross your arms over your chest and contract your abdominal to lift your mid-section off the ball by pulling the bottom of your ribcage down toward the hips. Keep the ball steady as you curl up and then lower back down.

Exercises you do on Wednesday
The Vertical Leg Crunch: Get down on the floor and make sure your legs are straight up into the air with your knees over each other or crossed. Now, you should put your hands behind your head and contract your abs to lift your shoulder blades off the floor. Keep your legs fixed in that position for a moment before lowering them and repeating the motion.

The Reverse Crunch: Lie on the floor and place your hands and arms beside you. Bring your knees in toward your chest until they are bent to about 90 degrees, keeping your feet crossed. Contract your abdominal to bring your hips off the floor, reaching your legs up toward the ceiling. Lower and then repeat.

The Plank: Lie on the floor with your face down, make sure to rest on your forearms, and your palms should be flat. Push up off the floor, resting on your elbows and raising up onto your toes. Keep your back in a straight line. Hold for 20-60 seconds before lowering and repeating the motion.

Exercises you do on Friday
The Alternate Heel Touch: Lie on the floor with your knees bent and your arms along your side. Crunch over your torso forward to the right side and touch your right heel, holding the contract for a moment. Go back slowly and do the same repetition with your left side this time. Continue alternating sides.

The Legs on Exercise Ball Crunch: Lie flat on your back with your knees bent and your feet resting on the exercise ball. Point your toes inward until they touch. Then, while resting your hands gently on the sides of your head, push your lower back down toward the floor. Next, begin to roll your shoulders off of the floor and continue to push down with your lower back. Hold the contracting for a moment before slowly going back down and repeating the motion.

Do this ab workout routine and within a couple of weeks you will be ripped and the envy of many of your friends.

Engagement Party Checklist and Planning Ideas

This is a comprehensive engagement party checklist and some ideas to help in planning your engagement party.

Upon Engagement

* Engagement notice in newspaper, Facebook etc

* Arrange Engagement Party (easy to create an event in Facebook to invite your friends)

Engagement Party Checklist

* Date & Time (most Engagement Parties are held on a Saturday night, but a Sunday breakfast or brunch option is also a popular option. Always check any events held locally or nationally that may clash with your date, you don’t want to find out you’ve chosen the football grand final – unless you want to include it in your theme!)

* Guest List (not usually as many guests as the wedding, but it’s entirely up to you! Also don’t forget about whether children can come)

* Location (usually a parent’s home or your house, but venues can be great for fuss free entertaining, or even a River cruise!)

* Budget (it’s hard not to get carried away when your excited by the wedding, but try and look at the entire amount you can afford and work backwards from there. For example if you have a $1200 budget and 40 people, then you have $30 per person, which will determine whether you can get catering etc.)

* Dress code – Casual/Formal/Black tie etc (remember to include on your invites)

* Theme & Color Theme (good time to introduce your wedding theme on a smaller scale and try out some ideas)

* Entertainment/Music (Hire a Band/DJ or even a jukebox)

* Food & Catering (another way to save money is to get guests to “bring a plate” instead of gifts, but there are many options such as a barbecue, or getting it catered for with a spit roast or cocktail style. Some caterers supply just platters of food, which can be a good option to “top up” what you may already be providing)

* Alcohol & Drinks (guests usually expect some alcohol, wine and beer are the most economical with some fruit juices. Also a good time to introduce a “signature cocktail” to be used at the wedding, or try a few out and get guests to vote on the best one!)

* Cake (to save money DIY, or enlist family or friends instead of a gift. Cupcakes are another option you can make yourself and freeze ahead of time, you can defrost them and decorate the day beforehand. Some bakeries allow you to buy “blank” cakes which will save the time in cooking and you can just decorate and ice. Fresh flowers are great for an instant and effective decoration on a cake)

* Invitations (a lot of people just email invites now, and you can get email templates or customisable printable invites from Etsy and Madeit, alternatively you can have them printed professionally)

* Decorations (add instant colour with balloons, most party shops can do custom helium designs quite economically, or hire your own cylinder, enlist some friends and do them yourself depending on your climate the later you have to do the balloons, the hotter the less time they last. Try to do your decorating the day before, it’s also important that if the party is at night to see what the venue is like then, you may need to add in some hire fairy lights, uplights under trees, candelabras and bamboo torches etc to set the mood. Another option is flowers in vases, you can often buy in bulk at market sellers, and just sprinkling masses of rose petals around tea light candles on tables, gardens and the driveway can make a cost effective but amazing impact. Most party shops have disposable plates, crockery and cutlery which will make cleaning up a lot easier too! )

* Gifts (consider how far away from the wedding the party is, as you don’t want to impose on guests too often. If you are already set up in your house, money in lieu of gifts is OK to ask for on your invitations. Guests will need some direction so making it easier for them on the invite is the best way, donation to a charity is another option)

* Organise any Hire items – such as tables, chairs, lighting, crockery & cutlery etc. (Party hire places have many options that you might not be aware of such as small, good for rain marquees, carpet runners for your entrance, archways, vases, lighting, eskies, fabric draping etc for decorating. Most have a price list you can download or get them to email you so you can find out all your options before purchasing items)

* Videographer/Camera (ask a few guests who have video cameras if they would mind videoing through the night, try and follow up with friends afterwards for photos. It can be a great regret later in life that you didn’t capture everything that you wanted to on the night. If you budget allows a videographer can be a great way to capture memories. If you’ve found your photographer already for the wedding, a lot of them offer engagement photos as part of a package which can be great for invitations and keepsakes as well)

* Games/activities (depending on your guests and venue you can add in some fun activities such as wine and cheese tasting, karaoke machine, Trivia contests, Twister, Wii or PlayStation contests etc. If this is the first time your families are meeting, then you might just have to gauge the night as it goes along, but it’s always good to have something preplanned if you may need to “break the ice”. Don’t expect to do everything you’ve thought of, but you might be surprised at how happy guests are to indulge in some fun once they’ve had a few drinks!)

* Contingency Plan (If your party is outside you may need extra cover for rain, or to move to a completely different venue. You can check the previous year’s weather at the Bureau of Meteorology, but always be prepared no matter if it’s “never rained that time of year”)

* Do a run sheet (all event organisers have run sheets which is basically a time line of what’s happening when, it also includes all your suppliers and contact details and numbers on one page of all the relevant and involved people. You will need an overall run sheet that has each item listed on a table with two columns, one for whether it’s been organised and the second for confirmation and payment. A run sheet for the week and day leading up to the event is handy also (depending on how involved your party is). If you have friends/family doing (delegated!) certain things for you it’s good to give them a checklist of their own if they have multiple things to do.)

For example:

1 week out – bake cake and freeze, clean driveway, hair cut, check RSVPs etc.

Day before – decorate cake, pick up hire items, check weather forecast, get flowers, set up lighting and check that night etc

Day of (this list needs to include the time as well) – Pick up balloon decorations, put drinks on ice, set up tables and chairs etc.

The easiest way to make a run sheet is to literally look at each item on your list and work out what needs to be done in relation to it – for example –

* Venue (Mum and Dad’s house) –

1. Clean patio

2. Get Dad to fix the gate

3. Draw up lighting plan give to Brother

4. Put flowers and extra toilet paper in bathroom etc

* Me –

1. Find a dress and accessories to wear

2. Get hair done

3. Take emergency kit to Mum and Dad’s (makeup, hairspray etc)

Notes – If you are doing a lot of the setting up yourself make sure you allow time to have a shower and freshen up before your guests arrive, and don’t forget to eat and hydrate! If budget allows a Event Organiser is always a good option, but ensure you have solid ideas on what you want beforehand to save you money. A “mood board” of pictures you’ve found, cut out and placed on some pages to give them a visual idea of what you want also is a great help. You may find that family and friends want to “say a few words” at your Engagement Party, make sure you talk to those people first to ensure there aren’t any surprises on the day. Most of all have fun, and see this as a “dress rehearsal” to the next exciting event – your wedding!

Stair Banisters – Protect Your Family

A number of posts known as balusters support the upper rail of the stair banisters. Places like museums, manor houses and public buildings have huge balustrades. These balustrades are often made up of concrete or stone. Balustrades are known to be the oldest form of banisters. As compared to the banisters of yesterday years, banisters of today's era are far lighter in weight.

Often the first thing that a visitor looks at when he / she enters your house is the staircase. Here you need to take that extra bit of care in maintaining your staircase. By making use of the banisters, you can make your staircase look nothing less than stunning. Usually, when we are thinking of improving the house or about renovating the house, we often forget about the staircase. You need to make sure that you give your staircase its due respect.

Having a good looking staircase can add a lot of value to your house. You can yourself be very creative when it comes to designing your staircase. You can choose the right kind of banisters for your house. You can opt for an old, antique looking banister in case your house has a lot of old furniture. On the other hand, you can even go for a new, modern looking banister if your house demands so.

Wood is the material that is commonly used for making banisters. Wood helps in giving the banisters a rich and glowing look. The best thing about a wooden banister is the fact that, banisters made up of wood look good both in the old form as well as in the new contemporary form. Apart from wood, material like maple, oak and beech is also used to make banisters.

Another material that makes the stair banister look elegant is Wrought Iron. Initially, wrought iron was only used in the making of doors. Later on, wrought iron was used for stair banisters. Wrought iron is known to be a highly decorative material. Nowadays, people prefer having wrought iron balusters with wooden banister handrail. The combination of wood and wrought iron gives the stair banister a perfect look.

Staircase is something that is often neglected when it comes to styling. You need to make sure that you invest some time and money to make your staircase look beautiful. A good looking staircase will only increase the charm of your house.

Stair Banisters serve as protective measures for the people who use the stair cases. Stair Banisters are nothing but railings which are located at the side of the stair case. Banisters prevent death and injuries as they prevent a person from falling. You must be meeting stair banisters almost everyday. Stair banisters are available in many different styles. They are available in modern complex structures and at the same time they are also available in simple pipe like structures. You can choose a stair banister according to your taste and the structure of your house.

Glass Company – Give Energy to Your Bathrooms, Offices and Swimming Pools

Gone are the days when infrastructure was planned keeping in mind only the safety and purpose of a building. Now style elegance and sophistication have marked a high position in planning. One of the solutions for this beauty and functionality has evolved in the form of glass usage in various features of a building like staircase, balcony, kitchen, bathrooms etc. This maximizes the perception of space through a modern minimalist appearance retaining original views.

Now days all over the world glass companies are manufacturing innovative products like glass back splashes, glass pool fences, glass balustrades, glass shower screens, glass sliding doors etc. All these products can be found in various styles and designs.

Glass pool fencing is becoming extremely popular. They are safe and secure along with being cost effective that gives you a sense of relief. With such glass pool pools fence pool environment becomes clear and unobstructed. Also they require less maintenance as compared to steel or aluminum that is protected in external environment and gets eroded very easily.

While working in an office, you definitely need privacy for your work and comfortable environment. Various innovative solutions including movable or statutory glass partitions, office enclosures, conference room dividers grant you sense of solitude without making you feel cut off and isolated. Moreover they bring a feeling of space and openness to a room. Transparency of glass partitions diffuses external light in interiors that keeps you connected with outer world also.

In kitchen, bathrooms and laundries glass splash backs have replaced the traditional tiles splash backs. Along with a sleek kitchen environment it adds color, interest and enhanced light. These splash backs are being very popular and refreshing and are available in varied attractive colors. Being very easy to clean and maintain, they give an outstanding impact.

Bathrooms have evolved from those tiny dingy cubicles to the large room sized with the best decors where one can relax. These days glass companies are adding more options for your bathroom interiors. Glass shower screens provide privacy with a touch of elegance to your bathrooms. They are designed in every shape and size with a fantastic range of hinges and shower configurations.

While on a staircase, you always have a question of safety hitting your mind. For this, one use steel or wooden balustrade. But now glass companies have come up with the idea of ​​glass balustrades which add value and prestige along with safety and security. In this, glass is mounted on ground or in aluminum structural channels giving a classic and uninterrupted look. With glass balustrades in your balcony you feel connected to the environment.

So just try something at your places also, to add beauty and elegance. Your choice of glazing can define your choice and character. You can search the concerned companies on internet and order them there only. These glass companies have excellent services all the way through and one can certainly say that you will have full satisfaction.

Calf Muscle Exercises

Your calf muscles are found in the lower area of ​​your legs and are often deficient in exercise routines where emphasis is placed on exercises for the larger leg muscles eg squats and lunges. By performing this great exercise, not only will your calves look toned but this exercise will help to strengthen the ankle area so it's an important one to include in your routine.

You will have already worked your thighs and your bum muscles when performing the squat and lunge routines that I have provided in previous articles so this is yet another great exercise to add to your repertoire!

Initially you do not require any equipment for this although dumbbells can be included once you have mastered the basic level.

The Method

-Stand on the first step of a staircase with the balls of your feet at the edge of the step. Position the rest of your feet so they are off the step. Feet should be shoulder width apart and your toes pointing forward.

-To help you balance you can place a hand on a supporting wall or banister, anything that's solid enough to keep you from falling over. As you get more comfortable and confident with the exercise you can try performing it without support.

-Slowly let your heel drop as far as you comfortably can, this is your starting position.

-Keep your knees straight but not locked. Rise up onto the balls of your feet as far as you can.

-Pause at the top of this movement and slowly return to the start position. Congratulations you have just performed 1 repetition of a calf raise!

-It's important that you keep your knees straight (but not locked) during the exercise otherwise you start to use the larger muscles of the legs such as the thigh muscles which will result in less work for the calves.

-Aim to perform 3 sets of 10-12 reps.


-To increase the intensity of the workout you can perform the exercise with a set of dumbbells in each hand.

-Make sure that you comfortable with your balancing before you proceed. Variations

-To target the inside area of ​​your calves, place your feet farther apart that shoulder width and lift up onto the inside balls of your feet.

-If you need to target the outside area, place your feet in close and lift up on the outside balls of your feet.

-Keep your toes pointing forward otherwise you'll be putting extra stresses on your knees.

One Legged Calf Raises

This is a great variation to perform and increases the intensity of the exercise even further.

Simply follow the instructions that I have already given in section titled 'The Method' except you hook your right ankle around your left to perform the reps, then swap legs and carry out the same number of reps.

TEAM – Together Entrepreneurs Achieve More

"I wanted to be a neurologist. That seemed to be the most difficult, most intriguing, and the most important aspect of medicine, which had links with psychology, aggression, behavior, and human affairs. effort gets painful is the man who will win. "

~ Roger Bannister, Athlete, Physician

"Impossible is just a big word thrown around by small men who find it easier to live in the world they've been given than to explore the power they have to change it. a declaration. It is a dare. Impossible is potential. Impossible is temporary. Impossible is nothing. "

~ Muhammad Ali, Professional Boxer, Activist

We learn various essential elements of entrepreneurship from the Roger Bannister story. Bannister had the determination and physical drive to break the 4-minute mile. While he was pursuing this goal, and attending medical school, he was consistently warned by "professionals" that it was humanly impossible to run that distance in such a short amount of time. He was told his knees would give out and his heart would fail.

We all hear certain platitudes in our lives. People often tell us just to accept things the way they are. This is a declaration of war against the entrepreneurial spirit. We are designed to break the norms and what is deemed as status quo. Our minds are Socratic, programmed to question the reality around us without ceasing.

After failing at the 1952 Olympics, Bannister spent two months deciding if he was going to give up running. He absolutely chose not to let failure guide his course. He realigned his focus and moved forward.

Bannister believed in doing what others claimed was impossible. It is important to note that he had a larger vision; His goal was not, "I can break the 4-minute mile." His goal was, "Mankind can break the 4-minute mile."

Here is what was key: Roger did not just write a great speech or publish his research on breaking the record; he did it. On May 6, 1954, with minimal training under his belt, Bannister broke the 4-minute barrier, running the distance in 3: 59.4. He modeled the behavior necessary to bring about the results he desired, and moreover, he showed others what was possible for not just him, but for them. True change comes from a spirit of adoption when people can see living examples of what is possible. Many people have broken Bannister's record since, setting new standards for runners to complete the mile. His record recorded only forty-six days.

How did Bannister do it?

Here's something we do not often read about in history: Bannister ran the race with two of his closest friends, Chris Chataway and Chris Brasher to help pace him to a historic victory. Bannister is the one we hear about in history, but it was not Bannister who broke the impossible; it was the team.

We often see the front person receiving the credit for their great creations. People like Steve Jobs and Walt Disney are entrepreneurial icons in the success of Apple and Mickey Mouse. However, Jobs did not create the first Apple I Computer; Steve Wozniak was the creator, and Disney was not that great of an artist when it came to drawing.

Entrepreneurial success is usually comprated of great teams that bring together the ideas of several talented people. Steve Jobs stated that the Beatles were good when they were solo, but was really great when they were together. They canceled out the negatives in each other and created an excellent product, music, as a team. As entrepreneurs, we must possess the intuition to surround ourselves with people who are greater than us in certain areas; those who challenge us to higher levels. It is with the right team that we can accomplish a goal that, alone, was impossible.