Using a Palm Sander to Sand a New Staircase

Building your own wooden staircase is a great way to save money, gain a unique and personal addition to your home and to get the satisfaction that comes with a job well done. The great thing is that it's not as difficult as many people think and with just a moderate amount of woodworking skill, the right tools and a good set of plans almost anyone can actually build their own personal staircase.

One of the main problems that people have when undertaking major woodworking projects at home is actually finishing the job, when the major part of the undertaking is complete many individuals feel an anticlimax and neglect one of the most important jobs of all. I'm talking about completing the fine detail of the job, I'm talking about what can be the most laborious part of the staircase building, I'm talking about sanding. Hand sanding a full set of stairs could take weeks and that's not the only problem; the main problem is sanding to a smooth enough finish while retaining an even flatness across the stairs and retaining the good edges that are an important safety feature of staircases. The answer is to go mechanized; the answer is a palm sander.

The palm sander, known in the US as a detail sander, is one of the most versatile and useful of all power sanders. It is called a palm sander because it's small enough to fit into the palm of one hand and is light enough to be used like that for extended periods of time. But do not let that small size give you the wrong impression, despite its diminutive size the palm sander is a real workhorse that'll save you hour and hours of precious time in almost any woodworking project.

Right now back to that staircase, imagine that you've finished the job, all the stairs are in place, the riser is fitted, the banister is perfect and the whole thing looks great; from a distance. But look up close and you'll see a quite different story, the flat panels of the stairs are still rough pine, all splinters and rough edges. Now imagine the thought of hand sanding all that flat wood; does not sound too good a job right? Well you do not have to, because with a palm sander you'll make short work of all those flat surfaces and keep your edges nice and sharp. Each step, instead of taking a couple of hours at least, can now be sanded in just a few minutes to a great, very smooth surface and with the minimum of effort.

So for any sanding job, big or small, it's time to get mechanized with an electric detail sander.

How to Be a Trendsetter in Changing Times

Bob Dylan sounded pretty convincing when he said the times that they are a changing. But few of us back then would have believed that we'd experience change at blink-speed.

When Bob Dylan was at the peak of his popularity, Trendsetters were little more than a blip on the outer extremes of the radar screen. In the blink of an eye, the blip became a bulge. This group is now championing some significant social changes.

In the pre-Trendsetter era, life progressed along a traditional and predictable linear path. People went to school, got a job, got married, had kids, retired, went on a holiday of a lifetime, and got their affairs in order awaiting the imminent arrival of the Grim Reaper. Post-retirement life expectancy was about two years. In the US today, Trendsetters number more than 80 million and are increasing at a rate of one every second. This group controls about 70 per cent of the wealth and accounts for more than 50 per cent of consumer spending. Their shopping lists can include anti-aging cream, hair color, facelifts, nose jobs and other cosmetic surgery, Viagra, botox, luxury goods, and big toys such as RVs and Harleys.

If you're a trendsetter (or about to become one), here are four essentials for you to consider and hopefully take on board.

Champion the change.

One of the gross misconceptions associated with Trendsetters is that they are set in their ways and have difficulty adapting to change. Trendsetters are change-champions which accomplishes are hardly those of the stay-put and stodgy. Trendsetters have

* been to the moon and back many times;
* led many workplace reforms and flexible work practices;
* fueled the plastic surgery boom;
* introduced telecommuting, which, in turn, motivated the need for better technology;
* made multi-millionaires out of fitness club owners; and
* demonstrated the need to build friendships among people of all ages.

Follow Gandhi's advice: Be the change you want to see in the world.

Believe and Achieve.

Roger Bannister recorded the first sub-four-minute mile (in May 1955); yet, by the end of that year, seventeen others had equaled or bettered Bannister's mark. The main barrier was not four-minutes: it was belief. Not only do Trendsetters know that a positive attitude towards aging is one of the secrets of increased longevity and life quality, but they also must believe it and act accordingly. An increasing number of studies demonstrate that aging can be retarded through changes in self-perception.

Be Flexible.

A familiar observation associated with aging and the speed of life has been that once you're over the hill, you begin to pick up speed. Trendsetters, however, insist that the view from over the hill is spectacular. Many Trendsetters claim that they've been there, done that, and got a sweaty T-shirt to prove it. What they'd like to know is, 'What else is in store for us?'

Of this we can be sure. Trendsetters are an Internet-savvy group, who

* pride themselves on their surfing-the-Net discoveries;
* have developed a voracious appetite for online learning;
* pursue paid, volunteer, or both types of opportunities for work;
* make use of the many available online facilities;
* scour the Net for travel bargains; and
* devote themselves to new hobbies and interests that they discover during their online explorations.

Look forward to the next phase.

Trendsetters know that achievement does not have a use-by date. And they have an impressive list of role models which achievements help to reinvent that message. Examples include the celebrated conductor Leopold Stokowski, who signed a six-year recording contract when he was 94; Ichijirou Araya, who climbed Mount Fuji when he was 100 (he had climbed the mountain in each of the four previous years); Coco Chanel, who admitted to being 70 when she was actively involved in designing; and Sean Connery who was 59 when he was voted the sexiest man alive.

George Burns erred in his observation that people who live to be 100 had it made, because very few people died past the age of a hundred. Times certainly are changing. An increasing number of people are making it to 100. This phenomenon, however, should not be interpreted to mean that people want to live for ever. Even though Seneca observed that one is never so old that one does not honestly hope to live another day, moving on is part of life in progress. Beside, the mythical Tithonas and the Struldbrugs of Gulliver's Travels all found that immortality was not all it was cracked up to be.

Innotek IUC – 5100

The Innotek IUC-5100 is a great system that adds a remote correction feature to the Innotek IUC-4100. To accommodate the remote correction, the collar is about 50% bigger. So it is not quite as streamline as the 4100. It is also not a whole lot more expensive. It is a very effective training tool but should not be used by people that do not have much training experience.

The Innotek IUC-5100 shares all the same parts as the Innotek IUC-4100 except the collar. It is also rechargeable, waterproof, and has the same collar fit feature.

5100 Remote Training

As well as being able to use the collar with a dog fence, you can use it with the remote control to give your dog a correction. Remote training is popular with the hunting dog set, who use it very typically to train incredibly well turned out dogs. It is not as simple as just pressing a button, you really need to be structured with your training and know what you are doing otherwise it is easy to do more harm than good. But if you are experienced with training, this can be a great tool. The 5100 remote training is not as good as a dedicated unit, it has a range of only 100 yards and is not as responsive. You definitely would not use this for training hunting dogs, but it will do just fine for the more domestic applications.

You activate the unit by holding the remote to the collar and pressing the dog selection button. You will know that you have it activated because this second light on the collar will go on. You can use the remote correction on up to two dogs, and each dog can be corrected separately with 9 different levels. Once you are in correction mode, the battery on the collar does not last nearly as long, you only get 2-3 days instead of the month that you get when the collar is in regular mode. So you want to switch off the remote correction mode when you are finished using it. If you are going to use the remote correction, I would wait at least a month after you have done the basic training to avoid the dog getting confused or overwhelmed.

As well as the remote correction, you get the twisted wire and the lightning protection in the box with the IUC-5100 which make it good value if you need these things and can live with the larger collar. Ultrasmart Collar is a very similar and also reliable collar with the rechargeable lithium ion battery and the collar fit feature. It is about 50% larger as we mentioned before. We would not use this on dogs under 20 lbs. The long / short and training prongs are also provided in the box.

Transmitter Box

The transmitter box is exactly the same as on the sister 4100. All the same controls:

– boundary width adjustment knob – that control how close they can get to the boundary wire

– correction strength – you have three setting and the correction is progressive so the strength will increase the closer they get to the wire

– field size – to adjust the system for installations up to 25 acres

– battery backup – In the back of the control box, there is a spot for 8 AA batteries that give you a couple of days of power backup for the control box in case there is a power failure. It has the same limitation as the 4100, that you can not individually adjust the correction level for each dog while in dog fence mode, so look at other systems if you have a Doberman and a Westie.


You can use the Innotek 5100 with the indoor and outdoor zone. This indoor zone creates a circular exclusion zone from 2-12 feet in radius to keep the dogs out of rooms or off the furniture. The outdoor zone also creates a circular exclusion zone, but can also be used with up to 100 feet of wire to keep the dogs away from flower beds or other small sections of the garden.


Overall, this is a very good system. Just make sure if you are going to use this that either you have experience with remote correction or you can work with a good trainer who will help you use it in a smart and safe way.

Frontal Baldness – Treatment For Frontal Thinning Hair With Rogaine, Propecia, And A Hair Transplant

If you have started to notice your hair thinning and frontal baldness beginning then you need to know that it is not the end of the world. Frontal male baldness is a condition that, if dealt with quickly and properly, can be cured. Frontal hair loss is something that over 75% of men will deal with at some point in their lifetime. Of course if you are a younger man then this can be more difficult on you psychologically and socially. No one wants to be the only guy at the party with frontal thinning hair. Luckily today I will tell you about a frontal baldness treatment , including some good information about Propecia , Rogaine , and frontal hair transplant options.

Frontal hair loss

Frontal hair loss can occur in both men and women. You may start to notice the peak of your hairline slowly receding back. Some men experience a widow's peak as the hair on the side of their forehead looks to fall back into the scalp. Do not be too worried about this. There are lots of very handsome celebrities with frontal baldness like Jude Law and Jack Nicholson. They have shown off their thinning hair with strength and courage.

Frontal male baldness

Of course men lose their hair more than women do. This is due to an excess of testosterone in men that causes the hair to die off quicker. Just think of yourself as being more manly if you do not have a lot of hair on the frontal part of your head.

Frontal baldness – Provillus

Provillus is like Minoxidil as it will help stop your hair from falling out or slow down the process. Unfortunately men have experienced mixed results with this kind of treatment. Some say it works wonders, but then others have been complaining that it causes chest pain and heart conditions. I'm sure you already know that there is not any fool-proof cure. If there really was one then frontal baldness would not be a problem at all.

Frontal baldness – Rogaine

Rogaine has been used for frontal baldness for years, as it is the most trusted anti-hair loss drug. The thing is that Rogaine works much better on baldness in the crown areas than it does for frontal baldness. That is why I would feel much better recommending the following drug.


Propecia is most likely the best cure for frontal baldness. Why do I say that? Well, Propecia will stop the whole balding process right in its tracks. It is well-known to slow down baldness and even to make hair grow back in some instances. Frontal thinning hair has also been seen to grow back after using Propecia, but as I said before, it is much more useful for other kinds of hair loss.

Frontal Hair Transplant

The most drastic frontal baldness treatment you can choose is a frontal hair transplant. What is this? Well, what they do is cut a patch of skin off the back of your head that has hair growing on it. They then stitch that up, leaving a thin scar that is not visible as long as you do not shave your head. They then take that patch of hair and surgically implanted it onto the front of your head where the frontal baldness is occurring.

The Cheesecake Approach to Investing in Raw Land

Mike Fisher from the Redfield Group joined us to talk about profiting from Raw Land. Mike is an accomplished auctioneer who specializes in land auction. He shared with me some very unique and simple ways to profit from land. Let's take a look at what Mike talked about to understand better what the steps are to get started in raw land.

Finding Raw Land – This part may seem like the toughest part but in reality I think it really comes down to a numbers game as Mike mentioned. Just like with single family houses you have some choices to stir the pot.

1. MLS – go out on the MLS or work with a realtor to find available tracts of land. Unlike single family homes you are not looking for the lowest price deals here. Because of the cheesecake principle (more on that later, or even better listen to the show) you can buy the land close to or at the selling price and still make big money.

2. Newspapers – check out the classifieds. A lot of people who sell land like to do it themselves so they advertise in the paper or on the internet such as Craig's list to sell their land.

3. Public records – do not forget people inherit properties and go into foreclosure on land just like houses. Keep an eye at the courthouse. Odds are the other investors are passing it by.

Keep in mind no matter who it is or what they are selling the land for the really critical element is they are motivated. You want someone who will let you tie up their property for a period of time for a small amount of money out of your pocket. They do not have to be on their last leg, but they do need to want to sell.

How much is it worth? – This is the one I had the hardest time getting my arms around. Houses are easy. You have an appraiser look at the house and then everything else that sold and you get a number. Land is a little different. Mike cave we two great FREE ways to get a price.

1. Call the county – Call up to the courthouse and tell them about your land and ask for some assistance on what has sold recently. They probably will not have something the same so ask for some larger tracts, and most importantly some smaller tracts.

2. Call banks that finance land – Now do the same thing with a bank that specializes in land (Mike has a list in his course) Not only will they give you a price you now know the deals can get financed for that amount so you can refer your buyers to these banks!

3. Calculate your price – If you are purchasing 100 acres you can get the value of that tract from the big tract prices above. That is your purchase price. Then when you decide what size parcels to sell off you can use the little tract prices to get your selling prices.

4. Profit – The difference between your purchase price and the sum of your entire small tract selling prices will be your potential profit.

How small do I make the tracts? – This is the key to Mike's system. It may go by unnoticed unless you have tried to subdivide land before. You need to call the local land use department for the county the land is located and ask an important question. "What is the smallest tract of land I can develop that is exempt from county regulations?" This answer is the smallest you want to create without you feel like going through zoning regulations, land use meetings and possibly some really large expenses. Listen to Mike's interview to find out how this could save you a couple million dollars, no kidding.

How else do I know if it is a good piece of land? – You can look at a couple of other basic characteristics of the land other than how small you can make it. First look at the road frontage. The more frontage the small the lots and the more you can create in most counties. Second look at other usability issues such as where it is located and access to the land, including what is around it. (Remember from Mike's talk, it does not need to be located in a hot area.) Lastly look at features. Does the land have creeks or lakes or other natural amenities that are appealing to buyers.

If you are interested in raw land get all of the info at

Landscaping With Stone Veneer

Think about coming home from a long day and spending a little time unwinding in a sanctuary that's your very own – dining outdoor on a delicious meal prepared in your own outdoor kitchen or relaxing by the fireplace in an outdoor living room. If it sounds too good to be true, think again.

You can create beautiful outdoor living spaces by building and landscaping with stone veneer. Sure, it is not a load bearing material, but it's beautiful, practical, and less difficult to work with than natural stone. Let's find out more about it.

A lot of us are looking for ways to personalize our homes, so they reflect our personalities more accurately and act as comfortable places to unwind. However, a lot of projects, like complex brick and stonework, are more effort than most of us want to put in, plus they require a lot of specialized training. That's why stone veneer, made from polyurethane, is such a great idea. These faux panels are made from a heavy duty type of polymer sheeting that has a durability you might not associate with polyurethane, and they look just like real stone.

You'll be amazed at how realistic they really are. It is hard to tell without you're extremely close to the piece of veneer. Generally this faux veneer is made between five eighths of an inch thick to more than three inches thick, depending on texture and the use to which it is to be put. Stone veneer type materials are far more versatile than you may believe, and they're easier and faster to install, too. You'll save a lot of time and money just by using it.

Installation is simple – just measure carefully, cut your material with ordinary carpentry tools, and fit the panels into each other. It's like putting together a puzzle! Use adhesive to attach these veneer panels to your wall, then use a caulking gun to seal up the seams. It's also a good idea to use screw fasteners to attach your stone veneer panels more effectively. These panels work indoors and out. They also make great landscaping accents for your outdoor spaces.

Since it's actually a variety of vinyl siding (even though it looks just like stone) you do not have to worry about the longevity of your stone veneer . Caulk it correctly and it'll be water tight, and it resists UV damage. Skip shingles or conventional siding and try faux stone panels instead – you'll be amazed at the difference. You can cover concrete work with a fake stone facade that's really convincing. Rough and dressed stone styles are available, so it's easy to make everything look the way you want.

Stone veneer is incredibly versatile. Many people think about just using it as exterior home siding, but it can do so many other things. Use stone veneer to cover outdoor tables, bars or low walls that create the boundaries of your outdoor living spaces, for instance. Use it inside, or as a landscaping element. There are so many options with faux stone panels, especially when you take it into your outdoor space. It looks great, adds texture and color to your home, and increases perceived value and curble appealing.

Soldering Tattoo Needles

As a tattoo artist, you are more than likely to have found that the costs of tattooing can be great. However, some costs can be cut back considerably if you have the time, and knowledge to do so.

Making your own tattoo needles can save you money, but is it worth the time? That is something that you will need to ask yourself. Every artist will develop their own technique in needle making. Although, it is more common to purchase pre-made, and pre-sterilized tattoo needles.

Tattoo needles are formed by soldering a grouping of needles onto a needle bar, or back stem. The needle bars length will range from 4.5-5 inches in length. All needle bars made for tattooing have a loop, or eyelet at one end.

The groupings of needles can be made in several different sizes and shapes, however the more common groupings are rounds, flats, and mags (magnums). Rounds are more commonly used for lining, or portrait work. Flats for shading, and mags for fill work.

Rounds are made by soldering the needles in a circular pattern, tighter rounds are more common for line work while looser rounds are more suited to shading. Flats are soldered side by side in a row, and can as well be either "loose" or "tight" configuration, although most artists prefer a looser grouping of needles. Mags can be single, or double stack much like flats that are soldered side by side, however they are separated into upper, and lower rows, or they are double stacked.

Making your own needles is a meticulous process, and you will need to have the proper set up to do so. Remember, just because you are making your own needles there are still sterilization steps that need to be taken. Whether pre-made needles bought in bulk, or self-made needles they will need to be packaged individually and autoclaved before use.

Ideas to Tone Your Stomach

The majority of men and women across the nation want to tone their tummies every year before the swimsuit season comes. If you've failed at this within the past, then you know just how frustrating it definitely can be. That said, by following several points, toning your stomach muscles is feasible. Losing pounds is never simple, but you do not need to simply stay with the additional flab. It is feasible to lose the weight.

Crunches may be the fastest and greatest method to strengthen your ab muscle tissues. So that you can maximize your workout, train with a individual trainer to create the ideal form. Quite a few folks do not do crunches correctly, and this will prove to become a training program with no outputs. Crunches should be fluid and controlled at all times, and in case you are unsure if you are doing them correctly ask a professional for support so you do not waste you time or even worse, hurt yourself.

One more good tip for toning your abs would be to operate the rest of the entire body utilizing off-balanced routines. Once you do a move that demands managed stability, you torso acts as that manage, which strengthens your core ab muscle groups. It's like obtaining two routines in 1 this way!

Also keep in mind to do the job out of your back muscle tissues, which will aid in enhancing your posture. Slumping causes your ab muscles to weaken and looks sloppy in general. When you've got stronger back muscle tissues, you'll be a lot more likely to stand up straight, quickly appearing thinner as a result. Your physicistought to be able to give you ideas about improving your posture.

Needless to say, when you want to be able to determine the muscles that that you are making, it's crucial to take a wholesome diet too. Switching to low-fat and low-carbohydrates diet options will help you instantly see benefits, and this includes skipping the alcohol, which really does cause a beer belly. Slow down while you eat to assist your tummy problems at the same time and leave the carbonation and artificial sweeteners out of one's diet. Eating swiftly will lead you to swallow air, and certain items lead to intestinal gas, that will instantly make you appear bloated.

In general, do not be concerned about what a scale says simply look from the mirror to determine outcomes. Set weight loss targets for yourself and practice a healthy lifestyles and it should not be difficult to suit your needs to tone your tummy in time for that warmer weather.

Tooth Extraction: Causes, Procedure and Aftercare

A tooth extraction is one of the most feared procedures in dentistry. Patients have an assumption that it's a very painful procedure that is built by the horror stories they heard around. The fact is that tooth extraction is a routine procedure for most dentists and a simple extraction procedure should leave you with nothing more than minor discomfort.

Causes of extraction of tooth

You might be wondering why the dentist wants to remove your tooth when there seems to be no apparent problem with the tooth. Dentists are professionals who can identify dental diseases and conditions and decide to remove a tooth only when there is no hope of saving the tooth. If the tooth is not removed, the dental disease can progress and cause further detrimental effects in the affected region.

Various dental diseases and conditions warrant the removal of tooth. Some of them are:

-Tooth decay which has progressed to involve the furcation areas of molar teeth.
-Tooth decay which has destroyed so much portion of the tooth that it is impossible to reconstruct the tooth using dental materials.
-Mobility of the teeth caused due to bone loss around the tooth.
-Decidous teeth which have been retained and preventing the eruption of permanent teeth.
-Extraction of a healthy tooth to make space as part of orthodontic treatment.
-Teeth which are affected.
-Mal-positioned teeth which are causing trauma to surrounding structures and can not be treated with orthodontic treatment.


A routine tooth removal procedure can take anywhere between 5-30 minutes. The procedure for extraction of a tooth is as follows.

-Administration of local anesthesia which desensitizes the tooth. This is administrated in the oral cavity in proximate to the tooth that is to be anesthetized. The desensitized tooth does not pain upon confidential tooth removal.

The dentist uses an instrument known as elevator to separate the ligament fibers that attach the tooth to the socket. This is a instrument with a blunt tip.

-After the fibers are severed, an appropriate forceps is selected to engage the tooth to be removed. The tooth is then removed carefully by the forceps. The dentist then makes sure the tooth is removed entirely from the mouth. He checks for any leftovers roots that may be remaining inside the bone.

-There are some risks associated with an extraction. A good dentist makes sure the procedure is optimally done without any damage to the adjunct teeth or structures.

Tooth Extraction aftercare

The site of extraction usually heals in a few days. There may be some degree of pain and swelling associated with the extraction of the tooth. It usually subsides by applying cold packs and taking pain killers.

Do not rinse your mouth for the next 24 hours. After this, rinse your mouth with normal saline water. -Take soft foods and avoid hard and hot foods.

-Take your medications as prescribed.
-It will be ideal to take rest and not strain yourself.
-After extraction socket is filled up with a blood clot vital spitting or similar activities may dislodge the clot and which may lead to a condition known as by dry socket.

The socket from which the tooth has been extracted heals overtime and fills up with tissue and bone.

Cheap Data Recovery

The average computer user has only a vague understanding of how their data is stored. They know they have this "hard drive thingy" inside the computer and they know that's where their data is kept. That's about as far as it goes for most users. Many do not even know what a hard drive looks like.

However, when you are faced with data loss, you quickly learn a lot about hard drives. Not only do you begin to get an understanding about how complex they are, you also find out how expensive it can be to get your data back. At least once a day customers will ask "Why does it cost so much? I only paid $ 100 for my hard drive". Yes, data recovery can be that expensive. My answer is simply this, if you had a million dollars sitting in a $ 50 safe, and you could not get to it … does it really matter how much you paid for the safe? Data recovery should only be taken, if the value of the data exceeds the cost of the recovery.

Data Recovery Costs

On average a reputable data recovery company is going to charge anywhere from $ 400 to $ 700 for a logical hard drive recovery. A logical recovery is where there is damage to the file system, or partition table and the data becomes inaccessible. This can be caused by an accidental format, electrical issues, viruses, etc. In some cases physical issues with the drive can also cause this problem, especially if the drive has weak or deteriorating read / write heads. A logical recovery can typically be performed without having to make any repairs to the drive.

Physical recoveries can be priced all over the place. It really just depends on who you call. A physical recovery actually requires the hard drive to undergo some type of repair before the actual data recovery process can begin. In most cases a physical recovery entails swapping out the read / write heads, repairing the electronics or transplanting the platters. There are a handful of companies out there that are very skilled at performing this type of recovery. A word of caution though, for every one good company, there are probably five dozen others out there that will make the situation worse.

Budgeting Your Data Recovery

If data recovery is not in your budget now, and the data is not time sensitive, one thing you can do is just keep the drive stored somewhere safe. This gives you time to save up money in order to have a competent lab recover the data for you. You should look for a lab that offers free evaluations, and will give you a firm quote in writing before they start the recovery process. That way if the price ends up being too high you can just have the drive shipped back to you, and you would know the exact amount you would need to save up in order to get the recovery done at a later date. It's not going to hurt the drive, or make the chances of a recovery any less possible if the drive is stored somewhere while you save up to have it recovered. Keep in mind that any reputable company will not charge you anything if the data is unrecoverable. This is one critical thing to verify with any company you contact. Consumers can be paying a lot of money for data recovery services, and still do not have their data when it's done. It's not uncommon for some companies to charge $ 150 to $ 300 for parts, lab fees, attempt fees, or whatever they want to call it even on cases where the data is not recoverable.

Things You Can Do Yourself

If you suspect your hard drive has failed there are a couple of things you can try on your own to avoid the costs of shipping the drive to a data recovery lab. First of all, if the drive is clicking, knocking, or making any unusual noises, you are out of options to try yourself. Those cases definitely need professional data recovery service. Regardless of what you read about putting drives in freezers, opening them up, or whatever, anything you do in a case like this can only make the situation worse. If the drive makes any unusual noises at all, it's best to just immediately power down the drive.

If the drive sounds ok, you may want to try it in another computer. It could be an issue with your motherboard, or even the cabling in your computer. Make sure all connections are secure to the hard drive. If you do not know what to look for, see if you can find a family member who is knowledgeable with computers to help you.

If the drive is in an external enclosure, like a backup hard drive, and it no longer powers up, remove the drive from the enclosure. Check for signs of an electrical short. If it was enough enough, you will smell the burnt electronics. In a case like this, a data recovery professional would be needed. In most hard drives today, you can not simply replace damaged electronic boards from one hard drive to another. There is unique, adaptive information that is stored on various chips on those boards and the data will not be accessible without it.

If there are no obvious signs of physical damage to the drive, then you might want to find another computer or another hard drive enclosure and try the drive in that. It may have been an issue with the drive enclosure that preceded the drive from powering up. If it still has problems, then chances are you are going to need a data recovery professional help you.

Cheap Data Recovery

Try to avoid companies that price themselves too low. You would not have brain surgery performed on you by the doctor who bid the least would you? In a way, it's the same thing with data recovery. Consumers do not realize how difficult data recovery actually is. Some of the information out there does not help, and will often times tempt users into trying to perform the procedures themselves. YouTube videos, even the ones that we have out there, one of which is titled Western Digital Head Swap , simplify the process and make it seem easy. Our videos were never intended to be instructional. They were meant to give our customers an overview of the process when we repair hard drives for data recovery. There is a lot more to data recovery than will ever be shown in a video. If the data is worth it, and many times our pictures, business files, and intellectual property is priceless, then it will be worth it to go with a company that you have confidence in. Not just some fly-by-night company who says they can do it for $ 199. Sometimes the parts alone can cost that much.

In closing, while data recovery can be expensive, cheap data recovery can cost you more in the long run. Do your homework, study the industry, and choose a company you feel comfortable with.

Benefits of LED Technology and the TIR Lens Manufacturing Process

Benefits of LED technology

LED or Light Emitting Diodes have potentially replaced the traditional lighting source for its cost and size advantages. It was initially used as indicator lamps in a number of electronic devices. However, continuous development in LED technology had led to embrace this technology in all types of general lighting.

LEDs are extremely energy-efficient and can consume up to 90% less power than conventional fluorescent bulbs. As such they help to massively cut power costs. Because of low power usage, LEDs are becoming popular light sources in remote areas that use solar panels. LEDs also have long life of up to 60,000 hours compared to 1,500 hours for luminous bulbs. Moreover, they are durable and can withstand shock, vibration and extreme temperature. You can also improve safety by using LED since they produce 3.4 btu's per hour compared to 85 for incandescent bulbs.

People are using LEDs in a variety of applications, including residential lighting, aerospace, architectural lighting, automotive, aviation, broadcasting, electronic instrumentation, entertainment and gaming, and more.

Especially in the micro-projection system, use of LED optics will increase over the years. It is because lighting uniformity and efficiency on spatial light modulators or SLM are two most important factors to gauge performance of micro-projection system. People often use tapered light pipe (TLP) and square compound parabolic concentrator (SCPC) as a beam shaper in LED-based micro projection system. By this, you will get SLM with uniform and efficient illumination.

However, TLP or SCPC has some disadvantages the primary one being insufficient compactness induced by the working length of TLP or SCPC for the lighting system. To overcome this problem, one can use TIR or Total Internal Reflection lenses.

Definition of TIR lens

TIR or Total Internal Reflection lenses are cone-like lenses that usually have rotationally symmetrical designs to distribute light in a rounded pattern. You can use TIR lens to collimated light or to generate a preferred uniform illumination.

TIR lens manufacturing process

During TIR lens manufacturing, often the designers do not pay attention to color uniformity, which also limits their application. You can however address this problem through effective color mixing, and use a phosphor-converted white LED module integrated with a compact modified form to get compact size and high angular color uniformity (ACU).

Manufacturers design total internal reflection lens with an optimization method to combine and transfer most of the light emitted from LED optics into a rectangular target plane or RTP representing SLM. Typically, TIR lens has six surfaces controlled by seventeen dimensional parameters. Design takes place optimizing dimensional parameters with general algorithms. In order to keep RTP in immovable position with pleasing illumination uniformity and efficiency, designers consider lighting uniformity and efficiency on RTP during the optimization process.

In the Tracepro program, the simulation result of LED illumination system with the optimized TIR lens shows that the illumination efficiency and uniformity has achieved 61.9%, 76% considering the limit angle of light (15 degrees).

You can manufacture these lenses for multiple LED applications. Manufacturing of different sizes of TIR lenses depends on its optical performance, so one can not specify FWHM angles, etc.

Barriers to Communication – Why Communication Fails

Isn’t it frustrating when you tell something to someone, or email them about something, and they didn’t understand, or they don’t remember?

A barrier to communication appeared, and your communication failed. You told them, but they didn’t get the message or didn’t process it or take action on it the way you wanted.

When we speak or write, communicate, our message, what we are saying or meaning to say is not what is heard or understood. When you listen to someone talking or read what they are writing, you don’t necessary hear or read exactly what they meant.

The reason is that we all have filters in place – Kind of like a strainer that separates water from spaghetti noodles or a water filter that filters out all the particles we don’t want to drink. Our filters interpret the messages that we are receiving. This is true for the people we are communicating with as well.

All communication is filtered through past experiences, frustrations, and perceptions of the people communicating. On top of that what’s going on around you and the person you are talking with impacts how the message is received and what the message is received.

These filters act as barriers to communication. Some of the filters or barriers that can impact how your message is received and processed include:

  • workload
  • physical aches and pains
  • tiredness
  • distractions
  • family
  • culture
  • verbal and non-verbal cues, like tone of voice and body language

For example, it’s obvious that if you are trying to have a private conversation at a rock concert, that the noise is going to be a barrier. Well that same affect is true if the other person has a lot happening in their world at the time, or if they are tired or hurting, or if they come from a completely different culture than you do.

The words we use, and how we say them also make a difference in our communications. The way we are communicating certain words hold very different means. Take the phrase “I hate you”. Said in anger it is hurtful and inappropriate. But said in jest and with a smile, it is fun and a tease. So your tone of voice and body language give the meaning to the words.

In email, you lose the benefit of body language and tone of voice, so the other person has to completely run what you are saying through their filters and experiences to try to understand what you mean. Email leaves a lot of room for misinterpretation.

What I’m writing to you in this article is going your own filters – your past experiences, frustrations, and perceptions. And how you interpret what you just read just went your own filters. The same goes with every bit of communication you have with others.

By being aware of these barriers to communication or filters, you are less like to have your communication fail. If you consider the barriers that can arise and adjust your message for them, you are the road to effective communication with those around you.

Fireproof Hard Drives and How They Work

The computer hard drive or hard disk drive is one of the most important pieces of hardware for both personal and business use. Today we store all of our precious family photos, videos as well as business and research data on external hard drives for many reasons and backing up data from the primary hard drive to a backup drive is a simple process that can be done manually or with software to automate the process. The important thing to remember is that backups occur on a regular basis.

Hard drives are mechanical devices (with moving parts) and will eventually stop working. This can be due to overall use, virus or even a natural disaster such as fire or flood. Because of the nature of hard drive failure, it is very important to backup data to an additional hard drive or external disk drive to ensure complete recovery from loss of data, corrupt files or the complete loss of your storage device.

External fireproof hard drives provide a common sense approach to data backup and offer additional data security from fire, flood, water sprinkler systems and fire hoses. Since the majority of fires also has water present this combination of protection essentially provides an insurance policy for your precious data. Although fireproof hard drives vary from model to model, they typically are built to withstand fires up to 1700 degrees F and can do so from 30 minutes up to 1 hour.

Today, there are many fire safe hard drives available in the market that you can purchase for about the same price as a regular external drive. Most importantly it is beneficial to understand how a hard drive operates inside a fireproof safe to overcome the buildup of heat. Storing hard drives (active electronics) inside a fire safe is a new technique that has been developed over the last decade. In comparison to traditional fire safes where you would store a hard drive inside, the newer fire resistant hard drives can be directly attached to your computer, laptop or PC so you can easily backup directly into a USB storage device.

During normal operation the hard drives remain cool with airflow going through specially designed air chambers. Once the temperature of a fire starts to rise, tubes melt and seal off the outside heat from fire from entering. While the fire burns outside, water that is embedded into the insulation surrounding the hard drive begins to evaporate, creating a cocoon that keeps the hard drive cool. Once the fire has been extinguished by the fire department, the drive can be opened and the disk inside is functional. This means that the data inside can be recovered from the drive and used as if the fire never occurred. If a fire disaster does occur, all manufacturers of the external hard drives offer data recovery services and replacement hardware.

No matter what type of fireproof hard drive you choose, it is always beneficial to consider the pros and cons of all hard drives and backup your data on a regular basis. There are many independent consultants, computer stores and electronics retails outlets that can provide you with exceptional advice and guidance to determine the best storage solution for your unique needs. From the perspective of the homeowner or business owner that is currently paying for fire and flood insurance premiums, a fireproof hard drive can be a valuable investment.

Wall Mural Manufacturers

Wall Murals are large sized, scenic graphics, which are affixed on a wall. They are similar to wallpaper. The murals have 2 to 8 panels, so that they are easy to mount on the wall. They bring about a dramatic change in the ambience of the rooms. People use them to render a finishing touch to the decoration of the house. These accounts for the immense popularity of the wall murals.

The popularity of this wall art has led to a rise in the number of the manufacturers. The manufacturers cater to the popular demand by producing a variety of wall murals. These include painted murals, tile murals and ceramic murals. They are further categorized into natural, wildlife, outer space and children murals.

Some of the manufacturers provide unique collections of traditional murals depicting Victorian art and craft. The murals of some of these manufacturers are marked by detail and intricate styles.

The mural manufacturers cater to the specific needs of their customers, by making provision for customized wall murals. These murals are made according to the dimension and the design provided by the customer. They have a personalized touch and bear the imprint of the customer's aesthetic sense, along with the manufacturer's skill.

The wall mural manufacturers focus on the needs of different institutions, apart from residences. Along with the murals for home d├ęcor, manufacturers make murals for the hospitality industries also.

The mural manufacturers also address the demands for murals for children. They ensure that each design is different and adds to the ambience of the room. There are mural kits that give the children the unique opportunity to create murals out of their own imagination. The wall mural manufacturers create a variety of murals that satisfy the customer's artistic sense while remodeling the interiors and the exteriors.

Fireproof File Cabinets – Do You Really Need Them?

So you have bought sufficient fire insurance to cover your business in the event of fire, or you believe you have. Many individuals who own businesses and homes tend to live in the false notification that they have fully protected their business and home with fire insurance. This is far from the truth. What is deemed as the intrinsic value of your business are the most critical items for its survival. How much would you value valuable customer mailing lists, purchases and billing records as well as warranties? Priceless! And when you are faced with the harsh reality of losing them for good in a bad fire, you would probably seriously consider getting fireproof file cabinets.

Fire proof file cabinets are designed to insulate your documents and withstanding heat from a fire. Depending on the fire resistant rating specifications you can literally keep your paper documents, media and digital records safe for varying periods of time within these safes.

The most common and reliable reference is the Underwriters Laboratories approved fire resistant rating. This is an industry standards rating system and many reputed manufacturers exclude them and specify their fire proof file cabinets and burglary safes respectively. Take for instance a UL fireproof rating of 350 degree Fahrenheit means that the interior of the safe will not exceed 350 degrees F within one hour of the fire. This is the most common standards set for fire proof safes and cabinets.

For those of you who run a business at your home office, you might consider getting an additional fireproof media safe if your business entailing handling a large number of media and digital records as part of the daily activities. This is due to the fact that such files and records including tapes, CDs, DVDs, flash drives, USB drives, do not take to heat as well as paper items and they damage much more easily. Here, instead of 350 degree F, you will need a safe not exceeding internal resistant temperature of 125 degree F in the event of a fire.

Alternatives to having separate systems is to purchase a safe-in-a-file-cabinet system which houses all your important documents together at one place, making it easier to retrieve all your items at one shot in times of fire. While there is convenience, there are also risks of losing everything in the fire.

Having separate security systems for your documents as well as media records could help to spread your risks in times of disaster when you least expect it to happen. You also have a choice from a wide variety of designs and colors to choose from. Often, owners would prefer that the fireproof file cabinets and safes blend into the background of the office or home interior, to attract as little attention as possible. You can specify customization for the higher end products.