Solar Panel Glass – Tempered Vs Plate

When shopping for a solar panel brand, the issues at the forefront of people's minds are typically topics such as efficiency and wattage. An often overlooked issue is glass – and the type of glass used on a solar panel really does matter.

When you buy a solar panel, it's a long term investment – it should serve you well for decades. While most manufacturers offer lengthy warranties, some up to 25 years, it's important to note the manufacturer needs to be around to honor it. There's still many fly-by-nighters in the solar panel industry, cutting prices by cutting corners on component quality.

While a warranty from a solid company is a great insurance policy, there's also the inconvenience of needing to make a warranty claim – pulling the panels down, taking them in – it's all very disruptive and stressful. It's best to have peace of mind from the outside and you can only have that if every part of the panel is of the highest possible quality.

The dangers of cheap solar panel glass

Cheap glass can cloud over time. Clouded glass greatly reduces solar panel efficiency. Broken glass, aside from being a general safety issue and even if the glass only cracks, can allow water to penetrate and create a fire hazard – water and electricity simply do not mix.

When selecting either a monocrystalline, polycrystalline or amorphous solar panel, be sure to check out the type of glass being used. Look for panels that utilize tempered glass – this should be clearly stated in the panel specifications.

What is tempered glass?

Tempered glass, also known as safety glass or toughened glass, is anything up to six times the strength of normal plate glass. It is created by thermal or chemical means. We've witnessed panels using tempered glass flip over onto rock strewn ground with some force without breaking .. This is something we obviously do not recommend trying out, but it goes to show how strong the material is. When tempered glass does break, it shatters into small pieces rather than creating long and razor sharp shards.

Flat plate glass in solar panels

This is most often found in cheaper brands of monocrystalline and polycrystalline panels made by small, relatively unknown companies; however it can also be found in well known brands in amorphous (thin film) solar panels that have a glass plate component.

Most amorphous panels can only use flat plate glass due to the way they are constructed. Amorphous panels are usually created by applying special silicon rich gas called silane at high temperatures directly to the back of a glass plate or to a steel plate. Some manufacturers get around the comparative weakness by using thick flat plate glass, but this is still not as strong as using white tempered glass.

When buying solar panels, do not forget that this is an important point to check on – as mentioned, it should be clearly stated on the product specifications as to the type of glass used as it's an important feature. If it does not, the chances are it's flat plate glass and should probably be avoided.

Heating and Cooling Your Log Home

Needless to say, our forefathers didn’t worry too much about heating their log cabins. Big fireplaces had no problem warming up the one or two rooms they lived in. Of course now that log homes are family-sized, people often have the impression that there is something different about how they are heated, and the good news is that a standard system will work as well in a log home as a traditional structure.

Almost all log homes are built with at least one fireplace. Initially, we thought that our beautiful soapstone woodstove would heat the whole house, and we would use our forced-air propane heat as a backup. Alas, we were all wrong. Because we have a cathedral ceiling with a big loft, the heat from the stove goes directly upstairs, requiring two ceiling fans to recirculate the warm air. We expected this, but we also thought the heat would expand sideways into the rest of the open floor space (dining room and kitchen). Not on your life! Even sitting on the couch about 15 feet from the stove, I need a coverlet. I’m uncomfortably chilly in the kitchen. I think that if we had a regular ceiling, the heat might have gone where we expected it, but the volume of the cathedral ceiling threw off our calculations. Also, the soapstone stove is designed to be run 24/7, and because we both work for a living, the stove doesn’t get fired up until the evening. This woodstove needs to be heated up slowly at the risk of cracking the stone, so by the time it’s really cooking we’re ready for bed.

Old-fashioned fireplaces traditionally sucked all the warm air out of the room, but modern designs are more efficient at recirculating the heat. The most energy-efficient fireplace is built in the center of the house, so the stack heat is not lost to the outside. Outside stacks can create back drafts if the fire is extinguished, making a new fire more difficult to light. If you are planning multiple fireplaces, putting two of them back-to-back (facing adjoining rooms) will give you the opportunity to build one chimney with two flues. Or you could put a fireplace above your furnace, again allowing two flues in the same chimney. A direct-vent fireplace will eliminate the chimney, but you’ll have to figure out how to hide the vent on the outside wall. Or, if you use a wood-stove, you could run the pipe through the wall and straight up the outside, building a box around the pipe to simulate a chimney. Depending on the look you want, you may want to leave the pipe inside the room and send it through the roof. This will give more heat.

It’s a good idea to consider your heating and air-conditioning needs early in the design phase. Although log homes are naturally energy-efficient, it’s not wise to skimp on your system. You may be able to heat your whole house with a huge fireplace or wood stove, but the township will probably have minimum standards to meet before they issue a building permit. Also, you need to consider resale value. I know of one person who tried to sell a million-dollar handcrafted log home without a furnace, and as you might suspect, the buyer never came along. The house was listed as unfinished, and installing the heating system after the fact was too daunting a task. A similar problem exists if you try to get away without central air conditioning. Yes, log homes do stay cooler in the summer, but those “dog days” of August can give you a perfectly miserable night’s sleep, and a potential buyer will probably not be as tolerant as the original owner. Indeed, our mortgage company would not consider granting a construction loan if we didn’t include central air conditioning.

If you want to preserve ductwork space, you can use forced air heat, with the same ductwork serving the air conditioner. Propane or oil are usually the fuels of choice in rural areas. If your interior wall space is limited, there are companies that specialize in very small, high-pressure duct systems that fit into tight angles; these systems usually require a much higher initial installation cost. When using traditional ductwork, you want to keep the angles at a minimum, so it helps to design first floor walls that will conveniently carry the air straight up to the second floor. An open floor plan offers a challenge, because you must bear in mind that the upstairs rooms need to be heated somehow, and you will need both supply and return vents to create an efficient air flow. If you want to use full log interior walls, you’ll have to find another way to run the ductwork, electric, and plumbing. We made that mistake, and there are not enough return vents in our bedroom. The air is stuffy in the summer time, even with the windows open.

Where do the vents go? Since all our exterior walls are full log, many of our vents were placed in the floor. If your interior walls are sheetrock or tongue-and-groove, you can put the vents where they normally go. One thing I wish we had done was go over the plan with the HVAC contractor, because he put the vents in places I found most inconvenient. Some times it can be helped, and some times it can’t.

If you are energy-minded and prefer to leave your thermostat at a minimum, you will find that the southern-facing side of the log home tends to be warmer than the northern exposure. Because the sun tends to sink closer to the horizon on a winter afternoon, it’s advantageous to arrange your large windows facing south; during the summer, the sun will cross over the roof, so it won’t overheat your house. However, you may find that the northern side of your house – which won’t get direct sun at all – could be noticeably cooler. The best solution is to install radiant-floor heating (if you can afford it). Although this system requires a boiler instead of a furnace, the in-floor heating spreads the warmth evenly throughout your home, eliminating the northern-facing blues. With radiant-floor heating, you need to keep the thermostat steady all the time; the system is not designed to be turned down when you go to work. Additionally, you can use the boiler to heat your hot water as well, eliminating the need for a hot-water heater. On the other hand, you will still need to install ductwork for the air conditioning.

Overall, the same considerations apply as in regular construction. We thought we could get by with only one zone of heating and cooling, but in retrospect, two zones would have solved a lot of problems. In the long run, it’s cheaper to do it correctly in the first place. Retrofitting a log home is not going to be a breeze!

How to Grill Fish From Your Grilling Fish Recipes

For a better grilling experience, try using cedar plank for your grilling fish recipe to add exceptional taste and flavor to your grilled fish recipes especially when you are planning to cook fish on the grill. Making use of these will place your grilling experience to the next level.

Using a wooden plank for grilling fish recipes is fantastic since it allows you to have a great steady surface to hold, whatever food you are grilling especially fish, and together giving you the smoked flavor that you want for your grilling fish recipe.

First, you will have to have a piece of wood, like an inch thick, which has not been used with other chemical stuffs. The food that you are going to grill for your grilling fish recipe should be fitted on the plank totally and make sure that the plank that you are going to use is wide and long enough so that there will be extra space and the food will not be overcrowded. Cedar, packed with smoky flavors, is the best type of wood for grilling fish recipes but still, you can use other kinds of wood which are also good but not great as Cedar. Alder and maples are often used too. Cedar wood planks can be purchased online at online stores that sell grill-ready planks or you can go to your local gourmet shop.

Because this kind of wood, Cedar, is not grateful, before using it, you must clean and soak it very well or else the fish or other food that you are grilling for your grilling fish recipe will catch fire and get burned and ruin the meal . Before using it, soak the wood plank, for an hour or more, in water to get it soaked until it is safe to use. There are times when the wood plank you use will catch fire; do not panic, all you have to do is sprinkle a little water until you get the fire out. Or, you can make a water spray for yourself and keep it beside you in case this thing happens. In addition, soaking the wood plank before using it will help the food that you are grilling, especially for fish, to be tender and juicy.

If ever you see you a plank smoldering and smoking, you do not have to panic, it only means that the wood plank is passing on the additional flavor to the food that you are grilling, fish for instance.

To keep the food from sticking onto the plank, use a little cooking oil and brush it up and down on the plank. Also, you do not have to flip the food over again and again in order to cook the food well because the heat that the plank produces is indirect. Moreover, you should know that grilling fish using cedar wood plank for your grilling fish recipe will take more time than the usual because of the indirect cooking. Seam the fish with butter or lemon juice to heighten-up the flavor.

Remove the wood plank from your grill using oven mitts once the fish is ready and place it somewhere safe. To cool the fish a little bit for your grilling fish recipe, use a fireproof or sheet serving platter. You will see the smiles on the faces of the people who are going to eat the fish ones you have served them the food, serve the food on the plate using a spatula.

Happy Grilling!

Richard Myers
Executive Director
National Grilling Institute

Planning the Ultimate Gift for Your Wife

When it comes to buying a gift for the wife, it is always the thought that counts. It does not matter if you are newlyweds or are looking at your golden anniversary, when it comes to a gift for your wife, preparation is the key. What kind of preparation, you may ask? Well, generally if you hand your wife a chunk of cash she may go out and buy something, but so what. She could have done that herself, that's what credit cards are for! But a gift that requires planning, now that is a gift any wife can love.

Tell the Story of Your Love

There are some really clever ways to show the path of your relationship in the gift you give her. Some of it is very obvious, like an engraved frame or key fob that says that special phrase you share or movie quote you both love. These seem like very simple gifts, but because you need to plan them, they mean so much more than just a simple picture frame or key fob. And the bragging rights come with them! Some are more adventurous, like getting that ultimate spa set, and then setting the night as "assist" in her enjoying it! Of course, with this kind of gift for your wife you get the pleasure of making yourself part of the gift itself. Or perhaps it is just the pleasure of being in the middle of it that makes it so romantic. Maybe she is the literary type who loves to curl up every night with her latest book. Did you know there are versions of Pride and Prejudice, Romeo and Juliet, even Wind in the Willows that you can order? They put the both of you right in the middle of the story! You just decide who is what character and they print it up with her sitting on the balcony saying "Where for art thou – Robert?" (if that's your name, that is) looking for her Romeo. Just think what fun that would be! You just may start a whole new tradition with this one!

Tell about Her Passions

If you know her, then you know also what she is passionate about (enclosed you, of course). Is it her garden, her church, or her clothes? Does she talk on the phone non-stop with every friend? What is it about her that you love, just because it is something she is so involved in? Now think about what that looks like. Because there are ways to create gifts that use that knowledge, if you take the time to create them.

There are charm bracelets that are made up of little silver, gold or glass beads. Each bead is its own little message; a little silver cat like the one she feeds every morning, a blue glass bead that reminds you of that first big vacation on the shore, a little silver and enamel paint palette for the artistic soul. Each bead is a memory of her, a gift for your wife that could only come from you. It is the perfect proclamation of just how much you treasure this woman and want the world to know.

These are the kinds of gifts any wife would love because they show that you know her and understand what she cares about. And you took the time to create this. That is such an important key to understanding what kinds of gifts for wife she would love to get from her husband. Love, knowledge and time are the secret weapons.

Brush and Satin Finish on Stainless Steel or Aluminum Railings

While at first glance deburring & finishing stainless steel and aluminum railings may seem somewhat a niche market it should be noted that with the correct Dynabrade tools, grinding, sanding and polishing products almost any weld shop can take on this type of work. It is hard to put a number on how many steel fabricators, welding shops, artists garages, etc. I have been called into because a nervous owner, foreman or project manager took on railing jobs that were above their expertise. Most thought they were going to lose their shirt once they got to the metal finishing stages on somewhat temperamental stainless or aluminum.

The best advice I can give anyone who wants to Brush Finish Stainless Steel or Aluminum Railings in a professional manner is set up your shop and your polisher with the necessary Dynabrade tools and Abrasives. If you are willing to allocate some of your time and hard earned money as an investment in yourself and your company the quality stainless or aluminum railroads you produce will come back to you financially many times over. The most common abrasives questions I get asked for these metal finishes are some of the easiest to answer. That's not to say I have not seen some interesting challenges over the years. I have been in over 1,000 shops that work on all types of metals and woods.

A consistent finish on stainless or aluminum railings steel fabricators want to achieve is a brush, satin or # 3 finish or # 4 finish. Most steel fabricators order the stainless steel or aluminum pre-finished to this specification and only need to bring the areas they have welded back to a nice clean satin finish which will match the rest of the metal railroads original finish.

I like to see anyone who is serious about working with metals such as stainless or aluminum own at least two Dynabrade tools for their shop. The first is a Dynabrade Dynafile. There are many variations of the Dynafile which Dynabrade Manufactures. They are as follows: The Original Dynafile model 14000, the dynafile II model 40320, and the Electric Dynafile model 40590. Either one of these Dynafiles will do the job. I prefer the Dynafile II series air or electric. They seem to be the most versatile. You can position the rotating sanding belt head in many different positions depending on the angle of your work piece. The Electric dynafile II and the Air Dynafile II also accept over 20 interchangeable contact arms which will hold sanding belts and surface conditioning belts 1/8 "to" "in width.

The Dynafile's primary function is to grind and polish hard to reach areas on a metal work piece. Some examples of this are the corners or where the welds join together two or more parts. The second Dynabrade Tool I find to be a necessity from Dynabrade is from the Dynastraight Family. These tools include: The Dynastraight model 13204 7. hp 3,400 RPM or the Dynastraight model 13505 1 hp 3,400 RPM.

I like these models because they are rated at the proper RPM and have male 5 / 8-11 threaded wheel arbors which are standard and allow for many different abrasives to be mounted and used on them. If you want to use a dynabrade inflatable rubber drum with sanding belts or surface conditioning belts on it the Dynabrade Pneumatic Wheel part number is 94472. I also recommend a combination of unmounted 6x1x5 / 8 flap wheels in assorted grits for either Dynastraight to help bring the Railings back up to the # 3 finish or # 4 finish.

Stairs and Railings – Beauty or Function?

Have you really paid much attention to the stairs and railroads in someone's house? I would guess most of us have not. Usually we only think about stairs as a means to allow us to go from the main floor to the upstairs floor. When you're in your own home or someone else's, take a moment to have a look at the railings, balusters, and newel posts. What you'll find are some remarkable designs and brilliant craftmanship.

There are a multitude of styles and materials used in the building of both elegant and purely functional stair cases. Whether the stairs and railings are made from wood, metal, or concrete, their primary function is to move pedestrian traffic from one level of a building to another, up or down. Interior stairs and the attached interior stair railings are often a focal point utilized by the building architect to draw attention to the other features of the room, or to draw attention away from some other aspect of the area.

Interior stairs can be something simple like a quick access to the second floor directly from the front entry way, to a more elegant presentation when placed across a wide open room using one or more landings. This type of stair can often be seen in the grand homes of southern plants or high-end mansions such as Hearst Castle.

While the stairway itself can capture your attention, what really gets noticed are the interior stair railroads. Smooth flowing and often curved and carved, hand railroads serve to guide the observer and their line of sight to visually transport them from the lower level to the second story level, and sometimes beyond.

Some interior stair railings are very straight and rigid with little to no ornate qualities. They lend a feeling of strength and functionality and scream that they are not there for beauty, but they are just for structure and stability. Other railings just radiate beauty with their intricate joinery, sweeping flow of curves, and show off the talents of their manufacturer.

Intricate carvings, scroll work, large pieces of beautiful exotic woods such as Katalox, Maple, Rosewood, or even Jatoba, all with their rich and contrasting grains accentuate the hills and provide a thing of beauty for all to see.

Another class of interior stair railings are those made from metal. An experienced iron worker can take raw iron and bend, weld and twist the strips to form inticate patterns not only for the railings but for the balusters also. Wrought iron railings flow smoothly and set off a circular stairway like wood can never do.

The designs can range from southernwestern, to oriental, to anything the owner or architect can imagine. While wrought iron railings often have iron handrails and newel posts, they can also be adorned with highly polished wood handrails and lavish ornate newel posts.

Interior stair railings are as important as a grand front door, window placement or any other cosmetic enhancement in a home or office. The chosen style or railing and the materials used both go to fulfill the designers desired end goal.

Big bulky railings denote strength and functionality while lighter weight yet ornate railings add a feeling of airiness and practicality. Between those two are the railroads that speak to the observer that the owner has wealth and power and wants to convey that message as soon as someone enters their home or business.

Safety With Glass Railings

Glass Railings

Glass railroads look beautiful and add luster to your decor. It is possible to fix up a glass railing all by your self and that too with minimal costs. The article gives you the details of working with glass railings

Safety With Glass railroads

Storing and transportation of Glass: The transportation of glass and glass railing require some care. If care is not taken while transporting, all that you get the end of the job, a shattered glass with the possibility of injury if handled carelessly. Take the following precautions while transporting and handling the glass items such as glass railings and glass sheets:

  • The glass should never be transported horizontal. The glass plates and sheets should always be put in vertical position. If you transport the glass items horizontal, all that you might get at the end of journey is glass dust.
  • The glass should be packed so neatly that it can withstand the transportation. Special packing material is available in market for this purpose.
  • The bumps will be minimized while transporting glass railings. The speed of vehicle should be reduced to minimize or avoid the damage.

Safety While Handling Glass Railings

Your safety is as important as the safety of the glass railings, in fact more important. While handling glass or glass railings make sure that you wear hand gloves. It is also important to use sufficient number of persons so each one handles the load he / she can safely carry. In case this is not done and the load carried by one person is transferred to other person quickly, it has a domino effect and the glass item being handled will get broken at the same time the shards of glass can injure many persons at the same time .

Safety While Fixing Glass Railing In Position

The fixing of glass railing is a delicate affair. Any mistake while fixing glass or the top railing will damage it. Specialized materials have been developed so that the glass becomes fixed in its place and there is no possibility of shifting the glass once it is fixed in position. Rubber grommets, rubber shoes, and beading around the glass are used and are very effective.

Types of Glass Railings

Glass railings may be just the top balustrade, or complete sheets of glass used instead of any other metallic supports, or figurines in various forms on the staircase with the top railing made of glass. The imagination of the deck designer [] is the only restraint. The glass railings can take many forms and in each form, it adds to the beauty of the space, it covers.

Care of Glass Railings

The glass requires little care; just wiping the dust is sufficient in most cases. The toughened glass is used in most glasswork used in public place. The life of glass is infinity and it is not affected by most acids and alkalis. The only acid that can affect glass is hydrofluoric acid. Since this acid is not in common use, the only care you might have to take is avoiding the company of boisterous children bent on breaking glass items.

Glass Figurines

Glass railings etched with glass figurines look very good. The work is done with hydrofluoric acid or with help of grinders. The artwork and geometric forms are normally done with etching and straight lines can be done with grinders.

Glass railings add to the atmosphere of the showroom and reflection from glass adds to the atmosphere of any area where it is fixed.

Fixing a Loose Wood Screw – Four Ways to Do it Yourself

A common home improvement task is maintenance of connections made with wood screw fasteners. Specifically, they tend to come loose on things that are frequently used. Whether it's a door hinge, lock set, wall mounted banister, door stop or coat hook – once they start to work themselves loose, they only get worse, so you must take action.

Here are four suggestions for getting wood screw fasteners tight again:

  • Plug the hole with wood matches or toothpicks. It's simple and effective. It really averages to jamming soft wood into the hole to take up the space that is creating looseness. Wooden match sticks (not the heads) are a soft wood that make plugging the hole easy. You can also splinter a piece of lumber as well. Simply tap in enough wood pieces to fit snugly in the hole and break them off flush with the surface. Then, replace the screw and tighten it in place.
  • Drive a wooden golf tee into the hole. This works much like suggestion # 1 above, except the golf tee is usually made from hardwood, so it's good for jobs where you have a larger and deeper hole to plug, and the wood screws are larger than average.
  • Use wood glue. For screws that are just starting to get loose, you can insert a little wood glue into the hole to bond the screw to the adjacent wood. Apply the glue with a syringe, small nail or toothpick, and tighten up the screw. This is known as "screwed and glued" and it's not uncommon for making good tight connections. Think of it as "lock-tite" for wood.
  • Find a larger or longer screw. This is a variation on plugging the hole. Instead of using wood to plug the hole, you find a wider diameter screw or a longer screw. In either case, the larger / longer screw will find new wood to bite into. Just be certain that the larger / longer screw is compatible with what you're securing with it and the depth of the wood you're screwing into.

If these methods do not help, you'll probably have to look at other alternatives like a mounting plate, using a plastic wall anchor, or using adhesive to put things in their place to stay.

Having the Correct Golf Mentality

You may have wondered, in a moment of idle reflection about this game, why more people do not play better golf than they do. It should be a simple game. You are hitting a ball that does not move.

You are swinging clubs that have been designed with a great deal of care, involving time, money, and engineering skill. No one does anything to hinder you, either, or even to distract you.

One reason most of our scores stay high is our mental approach to the game. We are beaten before we start. The golf game has defeated the player for so many generations that the player now has an inferiority complex that would defy the combined skills of Freud, Jung, and Adler. To the man who habitually goes around in 93, the thought of breaking into the 70's is the height of absurdity.

A complete reorientation is necessary in golf. This has been completed in other sports, particularly in track and field. The four-minute mile, the seven-foot high jump, the sixty-foot shot-put are only three examples. It would take a superman, the track experts said, to run a mile in under four minutes. But once Dr. Roger Bannister did it a new plateau was established, onto which many other milers soon proceeded to climb. Back in 1920 Dick Landon won the Olympic high jump with 6 feet 4 inches. At Rome in 1960 a leap of 7 feet 14 inch was good for only third place.

The point here is that mental barriers were broken, as well as those of time and altitude. The normal golfer has a similar mental barrier, and it, too, must be shattered. Once you believe you can improve your golf game, it will all become much easier.

Naturally, Dr. Bannister and the other pioneers in the track and field record-breaking did not set their marks purely by thinking they could. The new marks stemmed from improved training methods and, especially in the field events, from vastly better techniques. This is true in golf.

Here we come very close to golf. Golf is a game of techniques. Training, in the sense of physical conditioning, is reliably not of great importance, unless we are engaged in tournament play. The average man, once he gets out on the course a few times in the spring, finds no physical difficulty in playing an eighteen-hole round. Often he is fresh enough to play eighteen more holes, or nine, anyway.

So get the best advice and practice as much as you can. Your golf game will improve no-end.

Using Music as a Matrix for English or Foreign Language Learning and Recall

Music to Soothe the "Savage" Learner

"Alex" leaned back in his seat, closed his eyes and let the sounds take him. At times he would hum softly. Other times his head would move in a distinct rhythmic pattern. No question about it, music was his life. It could also be a way to reach him and teach him English like almost nothing else could.

If you find that most of your learners have a high musical tolerance you're not alone. Not only that, but did you know that learners can be "programmed", so to speak, to improve their mental function in a classroom using a musical background environment?

Types of Music

You probably do not need me to tell you that all music is not created equal. That being the case, there are both "good" and "bad" types of music that can be employed in an EFL or foreign language teaching and learning setting. First, some "positive" music types useful in lowering learner Affective Filters (Krashen-Terrell, 1983).

o Classical – a cornucopia f musical selections by the likes of Brahms, Beethoven, Mozart, et al can be very effective when used as background music for learners

o Instrumentals – with the obvious exception of heavy percussion, intensive trumpeting or marching music, instrumentals can be very useful in the language learning classroom

o Jazz – no matter how much they may pooh-pooh it at first, carefully selected Jazz instrumentals are not only highly effective, but the learners often like them as well The exclamation, "THAT? S jazz?" is a frequent one in some of my classes. Learners often do not realize the breadth and range of musical genres outside of their normal listening venues

o Foreign Language Vocals – another useful musical background venue is playing background music vocals in a language unknown to the learners. Try using Hindi vocals with European learners or Chinese ones with Latin American learners, Portuguese and French vocals can work well with North American, Asian and other language group learners too

Types to Avoid

However, in addition to music types which have proven to be useful, there are those which may tend at times to work against what you are trying to achieve. Some possibly "negative" music types tend to include:

o L1 vocal songs – the last thing you want in most cases, is to use music and songs in the learners' first language. Why? Because they'll simply code switch into their L1 without any effort at thinking or functioning in English or the foreign language you're trying to get them to work in

o English vocal songs – if you're using musical background, songs in English, even if you're teaching English, may at first be disorienting or confusing. You want to use an Affective Filter lowering matrix, not generate a sing-along

o Heavy Metal music, Hard Rock music, Trance – while music of these genres maybe pleasant or interesting to some of the learners, it is often not conducive to a positive learning environment. Not necessarily all of it is so, but a generous amount of screening may be called for to get a series of musical selections that are suitable for your purposes. The effort to screen lyrics and music are frequently not worth the hours I have to spend in advance to do it so I just avoid these genres in favor of easier ones to set up

o Reggae, Rap, Hip-Hop, etc. – Again, music from these genres may not help to produce the desired classroom effects with using music as a background matrix for English or foreign language learning. This though, may well depend on where you and your learners are

In the next segment of this theme, we'll consider some useful requisites for selecting music and genres that will promote foreign language acquisition in the English language learning environment. We'll examine the use of music and its effects and exactly how music effects the brain functions in language learning and acquisition.

Parietal Lobes – Their (Dys) Function When They Suffer Injury

Just behind the frontal lobes are the parietal lobes, and they are located on top of the head – just where the "crown" would be, for those barbers out there. They are divided into two lobes, the left and the right, and they serve a variety of roles with regards to the "perceiving" part of the brain.

  • Visual attention
  • Touch perception
  • Goal-directed movements
  • Object manipulation
  • The integration of various senses enabling the understanding of concepts

While the first function of these lobes is to integrate sensory information making cognition (understanding) possible, their second function is to provide us with a spatial relationship with the world around us. "Individuals with damage to the parietal lobes often show striking deficits, such as abnormalities in body image and spatial relations (Kandel, Schwartz & Jessel, 1991)." Personally, I have difficulty figuring out what size container it takes to hold leftovers in the fridge. You would not believe how many times I've had to either get a second, bigger container, or would have a huge dish for just a little bit of soup! Over the years, though, I've gotten better, I think because of doing it over and over.

Damage to the left parietal lobe can cause difficulty with left-right confusion, mathematics, or difficulty in writing. As I've mentioned before, the capacity for language and making word-choices (aphasia) can be affected here. When I took the PSAT or the Pre-Standardized Aptitude Test only months before my accident in 1989, I scored a 79 out of 80 possible in the math section! No lie, I only missed one question in the math section, which put me in the 99th percentile. Yeah, I was that good.

And along comes April, and I survive (barely) a severe traumatic brain injury, and my math skills are gone. No longer could I add multiple numbers, multiple numbers in the hundreds, or divide large numbers – all in my head. I was devastated, but I did not know how bad it was until I started multiply numbers on paper, and would bring the zero down, and forget to carry numbers, etc … I had not confused a good number of rules or shortcomings which when used at the appropriate times, could speed things along while providing the correct answer. It was awful. And I was equally confused as to why the synthesis of these rules – which I was persuaded were right – were not working to provide the answer. Even now, I have a hard time balancing a checkbook, so it's a good thing I married someone who is both smart and beautiful!

Damage to the right parietal lobe often causes many survivors to neglect part of the body or space. Like a painting, the left side may be filled in beautifully, but on the right third there is nothing. This can also include the survivor not washing one side or the other. Often they may forget to shave part of their face. Damage here can also cause the survivor to deny his weaknesses. "I'm just as good as I was before my injury," can often be heard from someone who has sustained damage to the right parietal lobe.

If someone has damage to both sides they may have difficulty controlling their gaze, like their eyes may shift involuntarily, or they may have problems picking something up that they're looking at. They may misjudge distances or even be off target while trying to reach for the object.

While damage to any part of the brain can be catastrophic, injury to the parietal lobes – especially the right lobe – affects the survivor's memory and personality. God knows I have had major changes to my personality. While I've always been gregarious and outgoing, my TBI has only accentuated these characteristics. At the same time, I never had a problem with anger prior to my injury. Since 1989, I have flounced into a rage at times and did not know why. Now if I do lose my temper in front of my son, my wife always tells him that it is my TBI and not me yelling. So I start over … and do better.

Keep getting better, and I'll talk to you soon!

Nokia 6555 – Multi Media Handset

Nokia 6555 has been called the opulent phone because of its downy back fold design. It has a Quad band connectivity. This mobile has a captivating feature; it has an analog clock on the frontage panel, underneath the camera lens. This mobile can be called a sole intermingle of artistic design and impressive set of features like Camera, Memory Expansion and Bluetooth.

Specifications of Nokia 6555

Mirror External Display: -The large display consists of two hundred and sixty two colors, display feature of 128 * 160 resolution and high quality TFT.

Usability: – Great ease of use is provided with a reasonably sized scroll keys and heftily sufficient key mat. Wireless Connectivity: – For the intention of connectivity 3G Technology and Bluetooth 2.0 is brought into use. 3G technology permits downloads, browsing, streaming and video sharing at a very high speed. On the other hand Bluetooth 2.0 provides cable free connections to headsets, car kits and PCs leading to a real wireless experience.

Elegant Affordability: -The looks and worth if Nokia 6555 are reasonably comprehensively balanced. This mobile bestows technology and features within the reach of the lots.

Integrated MP3 Player: – This device is a perfect amalgamation of a music player and a phone. With the provision of 4GB of expandable memory, music listeners can have a good moment in time storing what they like the most. The Bluetooth stereo and stereo handset provides awe-inspiring music experience. All these features along with the feature like the design can make a user to stand apart from the crowd. The placement of the phone is just right from ear to mouth. The most style statement feature is the analogous watch on the display.

Music and Multi Media features

1.Album Graphics can be flaunted.
2.Selectable pelts are available according to the feel of the user.
3.Music of the types MP3, AAC, eAAC + and WMA can be played.
4.Artist list, play list and Album List are provided.
5.Integrated Video player with the feature of streaming is at the exposure of the user.
Nokia 6555 is an elegant phone with all the classy features.

DIY Fireplace Mantel Surround and Fireplace Stone Facing Remodel – A Great "How To"

Ideally, your fireplace and mantel system should complement the design of your home as a mantel is frequently the key focal point of a room, if not the entire home. We like to think of a mantel surround as a three-sided picture frame and the brick, stone or tile fireplace facing that surrounds the fireplace opening can be thought of as a mat inside the frame. For the last 30-odd years, fireplaces were commonly built with a simple brick facade (facing) and there may not have even been a mantel or if there was a mantel, it might be a simple frame mantel or a mantel shelf that needs a makeover. Fireplaces like this let you start with a clean slate to design a look you like and one that fits with the decor of your home!

When considering returning or upgrading your mantel we suggest you also look at renewing the fireplace facing, too. As shown in most images of fireplace mantel systems, wood mantels that surround wood-burning fireplaces typically have a non-combustible facing (eg, tile, brick, stone, marble or granite), which completes the design from an aesthetic as well as a safety point of view. Most damaged, chipped, stained, outdated or uninspired fireplace facings can easily be removed or covered with something more appealing and when coordinated with a new mantel you can truly design your space!

Fire codes vary across the country but most require five to six or more inches of non-combustible facing between the opening of a wood-burning firebox and the leg of a wood mantel and codes commonly call for ten to twelve inches of non-combustible facing between the top of the opening of a wood-burning fireplace and the bottom of a wood mantel header. In addition to facing on the wall around a fireplace opening, wood-burning fireplaces require a non-combustible heart that extends beyond 18 to 20 inches in depth from the fireplace and 8 or more inches to either side of the fireplace opening. Always check local building codes concerning minimum clearances!

Note that gas or electric Fireplaces typically usually require less facing on the wall around the opening than wood-burning fireplaces and the fireplace owner's manual (or its manufacturer) can provide minimum clearance information. (Clearance information is sometimes detailed on a tag or sticker attached to the fireplace itself.) TIP: For optimal aesthetic appeal we recommend that gas or electric fireplaces also have several inches of facing between the fireplace opening and the mantel and a stone hearth on the floor under the mantel! This will help it look more like a natural, wood burning fireplace.

Granite Fireplace Facing is popular because of the variety of colors available and because it is much more durable than most marbles or ceramic tiles. Also, granite is much more stain resistant that other stones and it can bring a luxurious, color-coordinated design to your home! Popular granite facing colors include: absolute black, tan brown, sparkling pebble verde and golden sand, and there are others, as well.

Full granite slabs (vs. 9 "x 9" or 12 "x 12" tiles) are preferred by most homeowners and interior decorators and designers since full slabs provide a customized fireplace facing system without the need for individual tile fitting and grouting seams that you have with square tiles. Most granite facing kits are available at at least two sizes and custom cutting services are usually offered for proper sizing! Standard facings sets typically include four pieces, a Header, two Legs' and a large Hearth for the floor. Optional Risers are also available, too, for use in situations where the bottom of your fireplace opening is raised above the floor / hearth.

How do you install granite fireplace facing? For an entire fireplace facelift many homeowners will simply use construction adhesive (one specifically labeled for masonry applications) to apply new marble, granite or stone facing right on top of the existing brick. Others will remove some of or the entire existing surface before installing new facing stone. After the new fireplace facing is in place you can install a new wood mantel on the wall. Most mantels are designed to overlap the outside edges of a stone facing for a clean / professional installation and for an updated and truly designed look!

Many mantel sources offer multiple wood fireplace mantel designs, usually broken down into collections based on general pricing guidelines, priced from $ 400 to $ 2000 or more. Mantels can usually be ordered in your choice of wood (suitable for painting, like Poplar or Birch, or if you prefer to see the natural beauty of wood grain, you can get many mantels in furniture grade Maple, Cherry, Mahogany, Walnut, or Oak woods. You sometimes have your choice, too, of ordering your mantel either unfinished (for finishing on site during or after installation) or for a modest increase, many on line retailers will professionally finish your mantel at the factory with a wide selection of finish colors.

Some retailers offer only standard sizes but the best sites will also offer custom sizes to accommodate the width, height and depth of your stone facing. The outside edges of the facing are typically overlapped / covered by the inside of the wood mantel and any remaining space between the facing and the back of the leg is neatly and professionally concealed after installing the scribe molding that is included with the mantel.

You can be assured that your mantel will fit, if you go with a reputable company that provides a line dimensioned drawing of your custom mantel before charging you or starting to build your mantel. Nearly Twenty Years of experience have helped Design The Space develop a near infallible system of designing and building properly sized mantels for our clients. If you provide us all the requested fireplace dimensions we will guarantee that we will design a mantel to fit your space!

If your fireplace is different and does not seem to match up with any "regular" illustrations fill out the form as best you can, and submit a few photographs. As we all know, a picture can say 1000 words! We have built mantels for almost every situation and would be happy to work with you on your project as there is probably a variety of mantel design solutions for your unique fireplace.

Aoyue 2702 Soldering Station – Review

I have already worked with Aoyue 2702A soldering station and everything went smoothly.

It is a really complete soldering system; very fast temperature response, lots of accessories. I have been using this soldering station when soldering very fine surface mount components (SMD) in sizes 0402, 0603. The station maintains a constant temperature when the set value is reached.

The Aoyue 2702 system consists of:

– iron

– hot air gun

– de-soldering gun

Soldering iron comes with a smoke absorber.

AOYUE is a leading manufacturer in China and Europe. This is a top of the line machine with all the latest technology.

The Aoyue 2702 soldering system package contents:

Main station with hot air gun, de-soldering gun, air nozzles (1124,1130,1197, 1313, 1919), G001 IC popper, Z003 hot air gun holder, soldering iron with T-LF-2B tip, soldering iron holder with solder wire stand, 3 de-soldering tips (s, m, l), vacuum suction pen and power cord.


– All digital controls

– 500 watt metal heater for hot air

– 70 Watt soldering iron 200-480 C (392-896 F)

– 15 minute stand-by auto sleep mode temperature range 100-480 C (212-896 F)

– Air flow 23 L / min (max)

The 24 volt soldering iron is compatible with the composite tip design by connecting the ceramic heater, sensor control unit and tip as one.

Vacuum pump in the de-soldering tool comes with zero crossing circuitry preventing electrical surges.

The Aoyue 2702 is great $ 250 soldering system – the combination of high quality and great price. It is a great solder workstation for repairs on all types of boards.

I give 5 out of 5 stars to this The Aoyue 2702.

Reasons Why You Should Re Grout As Opposed to Re Tile Your Bathroom

Before you decide to go about tearing the tiles off your bathroom wall, you might want to think about merely re-grouting the present tiles to take your washroom back to perfect condition!

Everybody knows precisely what we are referring to – once the grout in between the bathroom tiles begins to turn dark and smell. It might be ugly, be pungent and even cause significant water ingress resulting in considerable damage and even resulting in you being a lot poorer. During the eight years I have been a tiler, mouldy grout and weak silicone may be the primary root cause of major leakages and water damages to apartments directly below.

Once the grout inside your shower area or around your bath becomes mouldy and dark coloured, fractures will develop and start letting water through to the plasterboard behind, which can subsequently soak it up like a sponge creating even more damage, and this could start costing you a great deal more of your hard earned cash. This may go undetected for a long time should you not be aware of tell-tale signals and odours, by which time it’s too far gone and the downstairs ceiling has collapsed! I’ve come across it so frequently and I think the majority of people A – will not understand just how much damage may result and B – will not appreciate just how straightforward it is to repair. These are the two reasons why I’m going to demonstrate the correct way to address the problem. It cannot just help you save money but totally transform your mucky, stinky bathroom back to the way it was all those years back.

I think many people squander a pile of cash on completely re-tiling the areas involved. However re-grouting is often a economical D.I.Y. solution to overcome the issue making your bathroom easier on the eyes and nose. There are various reasons why re-grouting can be a popular alternative to re-tiling, including price, time frames, and also the time frame the shower will be out of use whilst works are being carried out.

The re-grouting procedure is straightforward, takes a couple of hours, makes it 100 % leak-proof and helps make your bathroom appear completely new again, all for less than £100. Sounds good? Well in this post we’ll be looking at precisely how to undertake this project as well as the advantages it offers along with the reason why employing a qualified professional might in fact help you save money in the long term.

Tools Required

All can be purchased through your nearby DIY shop

  1. grout float
  2. waterproof anti mould grout for showers and wet rooms
  3. mixing tub
  4. mixing knife or mixing attachment to drill
  5. Bosch 180e multi cutter with grout cutter attachment
  6. tiling sponge
  7. anti mould silicone (if sealant looks black and mouldy)
  8. grout spray sealant from the good tile store
  9. gloves
  10. dust mask
  11. goggles
  12. silicone (anti mould)
  13. silicone gun
  14. masking tape

Re-Grouting the tiling work

Get rid of the old and add some new!

Before starting work you need to wear your dust mask, gloves and goggles. Safe practice at work is important!

1. To get started you need to begin by fixing your grout removal blade to a ‘bosch’ or ‘dremel’ multi-cutter and gradually slice up every one of the damaged grout lines slicing away the grout up until you can easily see the initial colour once again, or if you decide you can actually eliminate all of affected grout back to the plasterboard according to seriousness of problem.

2. Wash down all of the dust coming from the cutting ensuring you get the sponge directly into the grout lines eliminating all the dust and dirt since the grout won’t hold fast if left.

3. Mix up the grout adhering to manufacturers recommendations. Utilizing your mixing knife scoop some grout onto the end or edge of the grout float and begin working in diagonal sweeps pressing the grout directly into the lines covering each line several times to make certain it has loaded the entire depth of line. Not filling up the entire depth may result in cracking not to mention water ingress.

4. Leave for 10-15 minutes according to manufacturers’ recommendations, after that wipe down with rough side of the grout sponge alternatively you can run a finger down the lines making it very smooth.

5. Leave it to dry out for 24 hours, just before completing using a transparent spray sealant which will make it 100% water resistant for many years.

Renewing your silicone sealant around bath or shower

1. Get rid of all old silicone by using a Stanley blade to eliminate the main lines after that a single blade to clean out the remainder. In my opinion I have discovered this for being the most effective way to clear out old silicone.

2. Work with Masking tape to cover the top and bottom of where the fresh lines are likely to go.

3. First cut-off the top of the silicone tube, affix nozzle, determine the thickness the bead has to be and slice a 45 degree angle on the nozzle.

4. Secure the gun with a 45 degree angle whilst gradually pressing the trigger and edge down the lines stopping the gun at any time when needed. This alone is very challenging however the masking tape prevents the bead from going all over the place.

5. Take away the masking tape and lick your finger. Ensuring it’s completely wet, work your finger slowly and gradually down silicone line, stopping and re-licking should any silicone begins sticking to your finger. This will leave a nice sleek water-tight seal.

Why to get a professional plumber or tiler

Many reasons exist why you ought to find a professional to handle the task. To begin with, the expense because they will certainly already have all of the tools necessary to do the job, which can help you save over £100 easily. Second, purely the fact they have in all probability carried out the very same job 100s of times and will usually guarantee the work they do, offering you the reassurance that no downstairs neighbour will likely be rapping at your doorstep yelling about their ceiling leaking water. The professional’s expertise furthermore will leave the job with a top quality finish. Convenience is another main reason. Employing a plumber or tiler enables you to take it easy as there are no necessity for you to add yet another demanding task to an already hectic schedule, since the plumber or tiler will provide you with a precise deadline to when the job will likely be finished. Though working with grout appears moderately straightforward, it is usually difficult knowing the best time to wipe down the grout once placing it, perhaps leaving behind undesirable grout on the face of the tiles indefinitely.

Now you know the fundamentals to re-grouting, you might want to check out your very own bathroom and figure out if you believe you have the self-belief to tackle the task. Or, have assurance that it could be finished for a reasonable price by calling a professional plumber or tiler.