All You Need to Know About Gaudi's Sagrada Familia

1. Gaudí was not the first choice for the project lead architect

Sagrada would not be the same without the mad genius of Antoni Gaudí. Therefore, it's hard to imagine he was not the first architect asked to supervise the project. Initially, the official architect of the diocese, Don Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano took charge of the construction. He came up with his neo-gothic plans and the works began in 1882. Gaudí previously joined the team in 1883 as Villar's junior assistant. However, Villar barely managed to finish the crypt before he left the project because of disagreements with the Association of Devotees of Saint Joseph who mandated it. Gaudí became the lead architect of the Sagrada Familia project in 1884.

2. Gaudí knew he will not live to see the church complet

Since taking on the project, Gaudí was aware he will never be able to see Sagrada Família stand in all its glory. Therefore, he created impeccably detailed plans to make sure the construction could go on without him. To honor the fact that he was a small part of something greater than himself, he made it possible for the facades to be constructed individually. Here, every new generation of architects could give the church a touch of their own style that reflects the era.

3. Sagrada Família is a basilica, not a cathedral

Many people refer to Sagrada Família as a cathedral. However, that is not true. It's easy to make a mistake since its size and decor equals or surpasses one of a cathedral. The real cathedral in Barcelona is The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia on the gothic city center.

Sagrada Família was intended to be just a neighborhood church devoted to worship the holy family. It's Antoni Gaudí's vision that turned it into a unique piece of art. Thanks to its grandeur and popularity, Pope Benedict XVI consecrated the church to be a minor basilica in 2010.

4. Every Facade Narrates a Story

The Nativity Facade tells the story of Jesus' birth. It's the only one of three Gaudí finished himself. The eclectic elements and sculptures of this facade not only describe the early years of Jesus' life, they also depict many references to nature.

The Passion Facade is notably simpler in design and features the stages of Christ's crucifixion. Multiple architects worked on it respecting Gaudí's structural designs while giving it their own artistic touch.

The third one is the Glory Facade which is still in its early stages. Once completed, it will be the largest and most important of the three since it will give way to the Sagrada's central nave. Its construction only kicked off in 2002, so it's really not very far along. This facade is devoted to the glory of Jesus and his rise to heavens. Gaudí's rough sketches of the facade features a few general representations of death, final judgment, glory, and hell (warning for those that lose their path).

5. The Angles are Shaped by Gravity

Sagrada Família's column and tower angles were defined by nature. How? Gaudí constructed a model of the church using strings and weights. He outlined the foundations of the church on a wooden board, hung it on the ceiling and attached strings to the points where the columns should stand. Then, he weighed them down with small sacs of weight, attaching them strategically to the gravity-created arches created by the strings. Taking photographs of this model, Gaudí could calculate the nature-given angles of every column and arch. A copy of the string model hangs in the museum below the church.

6. Every Tower has its Meaning

Gaudí thought every aspect of the church through and through. Here, the towers, too, serve as symbols. When completed, Sagrada Familia will pride itself on 18 towers in total; 12 represent the 12 apostles, 4 represent the Evangelists, one for the Virgin Mary and, the tallest one in the middle, will represent Jesus. Nonetheless, so far there are only 8 towers standing

7. Gaudí cave it all!

The Basilica of Sagrada Família was Gaudí's life's work. It is not so just because he sent a year building it, but also because he had this project absolutely everything physically, mentally, as well as financially.

What's interesting, Gaudí was not at all a very religious man when he got started with the church. His faith grave deeper the more he studied the liturgy. When the construction run out of funding, Gaudi proposed to work without pay provided he had a complete artistic freedom. According to a rumor, he often tried to raise the funds himself in the streets of Barcelona. In the end, his professional, as well as a spiritual obsession with the church, overtook his everyday life. He slept in his workshop, barely shaved, shaved or ate. His appearance was so neglected that it took people three days to realize that the "homeless man" killed by a tram was the great Antoni Gaudí himself.

Nowadays, Sagrada Família is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site as well as the most popular tourist attraction in Spain. With impressive three million visitors a year, it has surpassed the enchanting Alhambra in Granada and the Prado Museum in Madrid. So, if you are thinking of visiting, make sure you get your Sagrada Família tickets in advance!

How to Remove Corrosion From Stained Glass

Corrosion on stained glass is commonly referred to as white mold. It appears on the lead or solder lines, leaving the stained glass piece spotted and unattractive. The corrosion or white mold is frequently the result of flux residue that was not thoroughly removed.

One method used to remove the corrosion is to scrub the art glass piece with cleanser. This will remove the corrosion, but it may also cause scratches on the glass.

The best way I have found for removing the corrosion is to use baking soda. Baking soda is not as abrasive as cleanser and will not scratch the glass.

You will need a small scrub brush or very fine steel wool. First dampen the scrub brush or steel wool with water. Then liberally sprinkle baking soda over the piece. Using the dampened scrub brush or steel wool, scrub the glass piece vertically, horizontally and in a circular motion.

Once all the corrosion has been scrubbed off, thoroughly rinse off the baking soda and dry the art glass piece. If the piece had a patina finish, you may have to re-patina the piece. This will depend on how much corrosion had accumulation on the piece.

After the piece is completely dry, use a finishing compound to protect and polish the art glass piece.

This process works very well, though it takes time, work and reapplying finishes. If you have a stained glass piece with corrosion, you really do not have a choice. For future reference, you can avoid corrosion from occurring by properly removing flux when constructing your next piece.

The common cause of corrosion is flux. Never leave flux on a piece for more than a few hours. There are a variety of commercial flux removers that you can use. Be sure to follow manufacturers’ directions.

I have found CJ’s to be a good commercial flux remover. Following manufacturers’ directions, I liberally spray CJ’s on one side of the glass piece. Using a soft scrub brush, I scrub the glass in a circular motion, then, rinse the piece with water. Then, following the same procedure, do the other side.

Using baking soda and dish soap is an alternative for commercial flux removers. First, sprinkle the piece with baking soda, then apply a small amount of dish soap to the piece. With a soft, damp scrub brush use a circular motion to scrub the piece. Rinse with water and then do the other side.

After the piece has been cleaned and rinsed with water, pat the piece dry with a soft clean cloth and let it air dry. Once it is completely dry, patina can be applied. The last step is to apply finishing compound to both sides.

Do not rush the cleaning and finishing. A good cleaning and finishing will save you time, work and expense later.

How to Make Your Penis Bigger Naturally With Cavernosal Artery Exercises

There are a number of different methods for enhancing the size of one’s penis, and while many of them are effective, there are just as many if not more that do little to nothing. If you are searching for a cheap, natural, and effective way to reliably increase the length and girth of your penis, you have likely tried several different products and methods with mixed results.

Fortunately, there is a simple way to enhance the size of your penis using a number of different exercises. Here, we’ll go over how Cavernosal Artery exercises can provide a significant increase to overall penis size when combined with other exercises, so that you can see the benefits for yourself.

The Cavernosal Artery is one of the three primary arterial branches that come off the common penile artery, which is responsible for delivering blood to the penis. This artery is crucial to penis size and sex in general, because it largely determines the overall length, girth, hardness, and duration of a man’s erection. The Cavernosal Artery is also known as the deep artery of the penis, because it runs along the interior of the penis (the external arteries are known as the circumflex and dorsal arteries).

In order to exercise the Cavernosal Artery, gentle pressure should be applied with the thumb and forefinger, with one on top of the center of the penis and the other underneath. Work your way from the base of the penis to just below the head, then back down, gently moving your fingers in a circular motion while applying pressure. Follow this with a hot compress (not too hot) for ten minutes, and then repeat again once or twice.

This exercise causes the Cavernosal Artery to expand, which allows a greater degree of blood flow into the interior of the penis. This blood then travels to the corpora cavernosa, which are sponge like masses that soak up that blood, making the penis larger and more rigid. When combined with corpora cavernosa exercises, Cavernosal Artery exercises can provide a significant boost to the size and rigidity of the male erection.  Now that you know how to make your penis bigger, just remember…

The effects can last for up to an hour, and will also make it easier to maintain an erection while the effects continue. If you want to enhance your sex life, then Cavernosal Artery exercises and other erectile exercises provide an easy and effective way to boost the length and girth of your penis.

Rope Socket

There are many types of rope socket in most common use: Knot type, teardrop type and braided type. The rope_socket is required to make connection between wireline and toolstring. The basic toolstring components are rope_ socket, knuckle joint, stem, mechanical jars, etc.

The teardrop (also called a 'no-knot' or 'wedge' type) is designed for 0.092 ", 0.105", 0.108 ", 0.125" and is designed OD for 1-1 / 4 ", 1-1 / 2" 1-7 / 8 ", 2.1 / 8," 2.1 / 2 ".

The standard body of teardrop has an internal taper to accept the thimble. However a thimble eye is available to convert the older style of rope socket.

The end of the wire is bent to fit the curve at the bottom of the teardrop, with the short side slightly shorter than the side of the thimble.

The groove in the thimble of this socket is not deep enough to accommodate the total thickness of the wireline. As the security of the wirelne depends upon its being pinched between the thimble and it body. Care must be taken to ensure the correct size of socket is selected for the wireline in use.

As the internal components of the teardrop rope socket do not permit the wire to rotate, it is essential to include a swivel immediately below it.

Do not substitute a knuckle joint in place of a swivel. A swivel has 11/2 degrees to 5 degrees of lateral movement, where a knuckle joint is not designed to rotate

under load and has 15 degrees of lateral movement. In the event of it being necessary to fish the rope socket, a knuckle joint will allow it to lay over against the side of the tubing wall at an angle which may make latching difficult / impossible.

Making Money Online – 4 Easy Ways to Leave Your Day Job For Good

Getting bored to work from 9am to 5pm? Nowadays, with the technology advancement, getting employed is not the only way to make a living. You can have great income by making good use of the internet at a very low cost.

Many people do not know how powerful internet is in assisting them to generate income. Let me share with you FOUR easy ways you can apply so that you can generate cash income easily at home.

· Create your own blog or website

Develop a unique website for yourself. It can be a blog or a website with detailed information about your products or services. How can you make money from there? You are suggested to sell the advertising space of your own website to other website owners who want to bring website traffic to their sites in the long run. In order to make your website more marketable, you are recommended to create a designated web page that will show your traffic statistics on weekly and monthly basis.

· Run an e-commerce store

The best thing about online business is you don’t need to pay rental for opening a store. No operating cost involved at all. You can sell any stuff you like in an e-commerce store. What is more challenging here is how to get your customers at the initial stage. It may take some time for you to attract visitors to your website. It will be good if you are selling niche products which are “special and unique” in the point of view of the buyers. Once you have a regular stream of customers, you will be able to earn money easily. Orders will be coming in from time to time.

· Affiliate marketing

To start an online business, it is not necessary for you to sell your own things. Don’t waste your time in creating your own products if you haven’t got ready- made products to be sold online. Affiliate marketing is your alternative. You will be able to earn cash fast by selling other people’s products or services. You will be paid with commission or marketing fee by referring your friends or other people to certain products or services.

· Be a freelance web writer

Do you have good command in English? If yes, you are encouraged to write as many interesting online articles as you can. Then you can refer the readers to the sites of the products or services using affiliate links. You will get paid by the web owners. In general, you will be able to earn $3-$5 for writing one article. In general, the web owners are willing to pay more if your articles are able to generate more sales to them. Some web owners like to maintain same writers in the long run if the articles written are good and convincing.

By going through the practical tips above, are you ready to make money online now? Start working on your business plan from today onwards and say goodbye to your boss!

Various Kinds of Tumble Dryers and Their Uses

Most of the people prefer drying their clothes mechanically using tumble dryers rather than using natural solar energy. Tumble dryers are very efficient as they dry the clothes very quickly. They are also inexpensive and rather easy to use.

Technological advances over the past few years have also lead to the production of more sophisticated ones, which are more efficient and at the same time it also consumes comparatively less energy.

Tumble dryers today come in a variety of shapes, color and sizes. They can be selected according to one's needs ie if your family is a big one, then you might need a larger dryer so as to accommodate more clothes and then saves time. Although, there are many different types available, it can be broadly classified into three types ie the vented type, gas run type and the condenser type.

They also come in different colors so as to match the theme of the house. Here, it can be purchased accordingly. In the condenser type of dryers, water or moisture is removed from the clothes by passing hot steam through them. When steam is passed, it also removes the condensed water molecules which are removed and collected separately.

This water can be drained out separately. In the vented type of dryers, hot air is forced into the machine through a small inlet or a telescopic hole in the wall. However comparatively, the gas run models are cheaper and faster.

Apart from all this, the basic type of dryers dries the clothes by rotating them along an axis. They are also called entry-level dryers. They usually spin the clothes only in one direction. Many problems arise out of this like tangling of clothes and such. This made the clothes more wrinkled and that difficult to iron. To avoid this problem, the new dryers now spin the clothes in both the directions at the same time. Since they are moving in both directions, the clothes can easily untangle themselves.

To save energy, many of these dryers are also fitted with sensors that can indicate when the clothes are completely dry. Therefore, it can avoid unnecessary waste of energy. For woolen clothes, there is also an option called crease guard. This will enable the woolen clothes to dry faster without any creasing.

The new dryers are also equipped with more and more revolutionary features like timers, manual temperature settings etc which make our job much easier. Although the combination of washers and dryers are more convenient, they are efficient when they are used alone. This will lead to quicker and efficient drying.

Although some combinations can maintain the performance of the dryer, they are reliably more expensive. Therefore, careful choices have to be made accordingly.

Stained Glass Domes: Illumination Options

All stained glass domes showcase the talent and creativity of the artists who crafted them. However, it is only when they are illuminated that their full depth and beauty are disclosed. Therefore, making sure these magnificent elements will be lit for at least part of the day so they can be fully enjoyed should be a priority for anyone planning to add one to an interior space. The three main illumination options for architectural domes featuring glass art work and the pros and cons of each are described below.

Illumination Option # 1: Natural Light

Overview: The dome is installed below a skylight that allows natural light to stream through.

Pros: This illumination option has several advantages. One is that it will not result in increased electricity costs. Another is that because the quality and intensity of sunlight naturally varies through the day, the dome will have a slightly different appearance in the morning, afternoon, and evening.

Cons: The obvious downside of relying solely on natural sunlight for illumination is that the dome can not be enjoyed at night. Also, the dome's appearance will be at its most spectacular when the sun is shining; it may be less brilliant and vibrant on cloudy days.

Illumination Option # 2: Artificial Light

Overview: LED, fluorescent, or incandescent lighting is installed behind the dome.

Pros: This method allows for installation almost anywhere, with no need to create an opening in the roof of the structure. The stained glass art work can be enjoyed day or night, and can be controlled with a simple light switch if desired.

Cons: This method will result in some energy costs, which could be significant if less energy-efficient forms of lighting are used. It's also very important to have a professional look after backlighting to avoid unsightly shadows and dark areas behind stained glass domes.

Illumination Option # 3: A Combination of Artificial and Natural Light

Overview: Art glass domes are illuminated using a skylight during the day, and with an artificial light source at night.

Pros: This approach allows stained glass domes to be expected around the clock while taking full advantage of natural sunlight whenever possible.

Cons: Like the second option described, this choice for lighting stained glass domes will result in some expense, although it will be minimized by the fact that a free lighting source (the sun) is being used during the daytime hours.

Ultimately, the decision about which approach to use is a personal one. Some feel that stained glass domes look best with natural sunlight streaming through, and they may want to avoid the expenses associated with energy usage. For others, however, the small amount of money needed to install and use energy-efficient backlighting so stained glass domes can be adjusted at any time and in any weather is well spent. Whichever option is chosen, all eyes will inevitably be drawn towards art glass domes the minute they are illuminated and their full radiance is revealed.

Solar Film for Commercial Premises

Safety, privacy, sun control and style – these are some of the benefits of applying window films on glass windows. Sun control is one of the most common reasons why commercial concessions choose to get tinted windows. Commercial buildings tend to have a lot of glass and installing tinted film which can result in significant savings on energy bills.

There are two types of solar film. The first one is designed to keep the sun out. It is a tinted window film that blocks out the sun, keeps the temperature low and so reduces the need for cooling. This is a popular concept and many commercial buildings opt for this method. Applying tinted film can also have significant benefits in terms of savings on energy bills.

It also has aesthetic benefits. Tinted windows provide privacy and look more sleek and professional. By blocking UV rays, this film can prevent the fading of furniture, carpets and upholstery. Tinted window film is available in many colors and textures, such as frosted glass and etched glass. Applying film on existing windows is also a much more cost effective alternative to replacing windows, or getting colored or textured glass.

The other type of solar film falls into the category of solar power generation. Solar power technology has largely remained inaccessible, due to costs associated with it. A more affordable system of solar power generation is available in the form of solar films. These films are basically very thin solar panels that can be fitted on to a surface, almost any surface that is exposed to sunlight, whether it is the roof, walls or even windows.

Traditional photovoltaic panels are much more efficient compared to solar film. But solar film does have some advantages over PV panels. It is much more lightweight, can be installed almost anywhere, and is strong. It can even be walked on! Being a reliably inefficient technology, this requires a lot of surface area to generate a significant amount of energy. But for buildings where surface area is available, it can be a useful technology and can help keep heating costs down.

The field of renewable energy and the technology associated with it is a very relevant area. Funds and resources are being translated into research in alternative fuels, and new innovation is constantly happening. Just until a few years ago, the solar film available was much less efficient than what is available to us today. It is fair to expect even more efficient solar films technology in the near future.

Solar films of both kinds have their own advantages. Commercial buildings predominately opt for solar film installation. In case of sun control film, this is because commercial concessions have a lot of glass surfaces and can benefit from lower air-conditioning costs, increased privacy and enhanced aesthetics. In the case of solar energy film, this is because only large commercial buildings can benefit from this type of technology, as it requires vast amounts of space to become cost effective.

Overcoming Communication Barriers in Organizations

Although all communication is subject to misunderstandings, business communication is particularly difficult. The material is often complex and controversial. Moreover, both the sender and the receiver may face distractions that divert their attention. Further, the opportunities for feedback are often limited, making it difficult to correct misunderstandings. The following communication barriers in organizations and ways to overcome them will be the main topic of this article.

1. Information Overload. Too much information is as bad as too little because it reduces the audiences ability to concentrate effectively on the most important messages. People facing information overload sometimes try to cope by ignoring some of the messages, by delaying responses to messages they deem unimportant, by answering only parts of some messages, by responding inaccurately to certain messages, by taking less time with each message, or by reacting only superficially to all messages.

To overcome information overload, realize that some information is not necessary, and make necessary information easily available. Give information meaning rather than just passing it on, and set priorities for dealing with the information flow. Some information isn’t necessary.

2. Message Complexity. When formulating business messages, you communicate both as an individual and as representative of an organization. Thus you must adjust your own ideas and style so that they are acceptable to your employer. In fact, you may be asked occasionally to write or say something that you disagree with personally. Suppose you work as a recruiter for your firm. You’ve interviewed a job candidate you believe would make an excellent employee, but others in the firm have rejected this applicant. Now you have to write a letter turning down the candidate: You must communicate your firms message, regardless of your personal feelings, a task some communicators find difficult.

To overcome the barriers of complex messages, keep them clear and easy to understand. Use strong organization, guide readers by telling them what to expect, use concrete and specific language, and stick to the point. Be sure to ask for feedback so that you can clarify and improve your message.

3. Message Competition. Communicators are often faced with messages that compete for attention. If you’re talking on the phone while scanning a report, both messages are apt to get short shrift. Even your own messages may have to compete with a variety of interruptions: The phone rings every five minutes, people intrude, meetings are called, and crises arise. In short, your messages rarely have the benefit on the receivers undivided attention.

To overcome competition barriers, avoid making demands on a receiver who doesn’t have the time to pay careful attention to your message. Make written messages visually appealing and easy to understand, and try to deliver them when your receiver has time to read them. Oral messages are most effective when you can speak directly to your receiver (rather than to intermediaries or answering machines). Also, be sure to set aside enough time for important messages that you receive. Business messages rarely have the benefit of the audiences full and undivided attention.

4. Differing Status. Employees of low status may be overly cautious when sending messages to managers and may talk only about subjects they think the manager is interested in. Similarly, higher-status people may distort messages by refusing to discuss anything that would tend to undermine their authority in the organization. Moreover, belonging to a particular department or being responsible for a particular task can narrow your point of view so that it differs from the attitudes, values, and expectations of people who belong to other departments or who are responsible for other tasks.

To overcome status barriers, keep managers and colleagues well informed. Encourage lower-status employees to keep you informed by being fair-minded and respectful of their opinions. When you have information that you’re afraid you boss might not like, be brave and convey it anyway. Status barriers can be overcome by a willingness to give and receive bad news.

5. Lack of Trust, Building trust is a difficult problem. Other organization members don’t know whether you’ll respond in a supportive or responsible way, so trusting can be risky. Without trust, however, free and open communication is effectively blocked, threatening the organization’s stability. Just being clear in your communication is not enough.

To overcome trust barriers, be visible and accessible. Don’t insulate yourself behind assistants or secretaries. Share key information with colleagues and employees, communicate honestly, and include employees in decision making. For communication to be successful, organizations must create an atmosphere of fairness and trust.

6. Inadequate Communication Structures. Organizational communication is effected by formal restrictions on who may communicate with whom and who is authorized to make decisions. Designing too few formal channels blocks effective communication. Strongly centralized organizations, especially those with a high degree of formalization, reduce communication capacity, and they decrease the tendency to communicate horizontally thus limiting the ability to coordinate activities and decisions. Tall organizations tend to provide too many vertical communication links, so messages become distorted as they move through the organization’s levels.

To overcome structural barriers, offer opportunities for communicating upward, downward, and horizontally (using such techniques as employee surveys, open-door policies, newsletters, memo, and task groups). Try to reduce hierarchical levels, increase coordination between departments, and encourage two-way communication.

7. Incorrect Choice of Medium. If you choose an inappropriate communication medium, your message can be distorted so that the intended meaning is blocked. You can select the most appropriate medium by matching your choice with the nature of the message and of the group or the individual who will receive it. Face-to-face communication is the richest medium because it is personal, it provides immediate feedback, it transmits information from both verbal and nonverbal cues, and it conveys the emotion behind the message. Telephones and other interactive electronic media aren’t as rich; although they allow immediate feedback, they don’t provide visual nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, eye contact and body movements. Written media can be personalized through addressed memos, letters, and reports, but they lack the immediate feedback and the visual and vocal nonverbal cues that contribute to the meaning of the message. The leanest media are generally impersonal written messages such as bulletins, fliers, and standard reports. Not only do they lack the ability to transmit nonverbal cues and to give feedback, they also eliminate any personal focus.

To overcome media barriers, choose the richest media for no routine, complex message. Use rich media to extend and to humanize your presence throughout the organization, to communicate caring and personal interest to employees, and to gain employee commitment to organizational goals. Use leaner media to communicate simple, routine messages. You can send information such as statistics, facts, figures and conclusions through a note, memo or written report

8. Closed communication climate. Communication climate is influenced by management style, and a directive, authoritarian style blocks the free and open exchange of information that characterizes good communication.

To overcome climate barriers, spend more time listening than issuing orders.

9. Unethical Communication. An organization cannot create illegal or unethical messages and still be credible or successful in the long run. Relationships within and outside the organization depend or trust and fairness.

To overcome ethics barriers, make sure your messages include all the information that ought to be there. Make sure that information is adequate and relevant to the situation. And make sure your message is completely truthful, not deceptive in any way.

10. Inefficient Communication. Producing worthless messages wastes time and resources, and it contributes to the information overload already mentioned.

Reduce the number of messages by thinking twice before sending one. Then speed up the process, first, by preparing messages correctly the first time around and, second, by standardizing format and material when appropriate. Be clear about the writing assignments you accept as well as the ones you assign.

11. Physical distractions. Communication barriers are often physical: bad connections, poor acoustics, illegible copy. Although noise or this sort seems trivial, it can completely block an otherwise effective message. Your receiver might also be distracted by an uncomfortable chair, poor lighting, or some other irritating condition. In some cases, the barrier may be related to the receiver’s health. Hearing or visual impairment or even a headache can interfere with reception of a message. These annoyances don’t generally block communication entirely, but they may reduce the receiver’s concentration.

To overcome physical distractions, try to prepare well written documents which are clear, concise, and comprehensive. When preparing oral presentations try to find a setting which permits audience to see and hear the speaker clearly.

The Benefits of Fireproof Home Safes

A home fire can destroy your house and all your belongings. You probably have smoke detectors on every floor, have a family escape plan, and know to call 911 in a home fire emergency. But have you protected your valuable possessions?

A fireproof home safe is an easy way to protect your most important documents and belongings in case of a home fire. A safe deposit box at your bank, however, is the safest way to store your important papers. But if you need more space or would just like to keep your important belongings at home, you need a fireproof home safe.

Most safes are fire-resistant, not fireproof. The fire-resistant safes are rated by the Underwriters Laboratories. They rate safes based on how long they can protect paper in a fire at different temperatures. Class-C fire-resistant safes will protect paper from a 1,700-degree fire for one hour, a class-B safe for two hours at 1,850-degrees, and a class-A for four hours at 2,000-degrees. You will need a specialized safe to protect computer documents like disks from fire.

Small fireproof safes start at around $ 50. These hold only a few hundred cubic inches and weigh less than 20 pounds. If you need more space, then you will need to spend more money. Larger fireproof home safes start at around $ 200, but can cost thousands. Fireproof safes that are expensive are usually for guns or commercial use.

Many Internet retailers sell fireproof home safes, many at low prices, but you may have to pay for shipping. Try to see the safe in person before you buy it, since returning the safe will be expensive. Check out your local home security stores. Remember, you are putting your most important documents in the safe. Make sure it is the one you want.

How To Choose Wallpaper

After several years of being avoided, wallpaper is again in favor for a home decor that is contemporary, sometimes exotic, and sometimes pop. You can find wallpaper in many designs and varied quality, there are even many brands of designer wallpaper.

If you have been wondering how you should choose your wallpaper this article will help you in your decision making process.

Choose by rooms:

First let's look at the room where you will be using the wallpaper, some characteristics might have more importance than others.

Living rooms and bedrooms do not present any particular problems and any type of wallpaper is acceptable. Whether the paper you choose is vinyl covered, or fabric flocked, any motif, or pattern or quality is appropriate as long as it fits your aesthetic appeal. This is only a matter of personal preference.

Bathrooms and kitchens are frequently exposed to humid conditions, even grime deposits, you should prefer a paper that will be easy to care for. Washable wallpapers are perfect for these difficult areas as they can be washed without deteriorating your decor.

In hallways and stairways it is important to have a very durable wallpaper that is also washable.

Choose by colors:

You can also choose by color. You can never forget what else is or will be in the room when choosing a color. You either choose a contrast color or you harmonize it.

For a more elaborate look you might select blends, or different shades of the same color.

A relaxing atmosphere can be obtained by using different tones in the same color group.

For a totally pop look contrasting colors and opposition of darks and lights will be more effective.

Remember that colors will affect the perception of space and volume. You should use it to your advantage.

Small patterns and light colors will give the impression of a larger room. While dark colors make it look smaller and more intimate.

Choose by quality:

Quality is another important factor when selecting a wallpaper. Today's washable wallpapers are covered with a thin layer of pvc and are very durable. They are easy to clean with a damp sponge.

You can find textured wallpaper that have the texture of wood or brick and many others. There are also flocked wallpapers for people who like the softer texture of velours.

The newest fad is metallic papers. They are very popular with the tech generation, although most are quite expensive are they are in designer wallpaper collections.

You must also consider how many rolls you will need. This will depend on the size of the area to be wallpaped and on the motif you choose. Usually you should measure the area then add 20% to 25% to cover cuts and scraps. It is better to buy a little more than to run out in the middle of a project.

Why Is a Fireproof Cabinet Highly Secure?

In many business establishments fireproof cabinets play an important role. This is primarily because of their highly secure features. Although most corporate offices are eager to do paperless transactions, and reliably on digitized data these days, no one can completely do away with paperwork. Here a fireproof cabinet is a must-have in business firms and is essential in disaster management.

There is a whole lot of difference between a normal cabinet and a fireproof cabinet though they may look the same.

Some businesses make the mistake of storing important contracts, confidential company records, deeds, financial documents, etc in a common filing cabinet. But the truth is that these cabinets will only prevent unauthorized access. They will also help you store your valuable documents in an organized manner. However, they will not protect your beloveds in the eventuality of a fire mishap. If you invest in it your documents will be safe and secure because they are tested and designed for their fireproof security.

We have already mentioned that a fireproof cabinet is the first step towards fire safety. This is because they can resist damage due to fire for up to two hours.

Let's see what happens when you store paper in a normal cabinet. Paper gets ignored at high compression. The temperature inside a common cabinet will rise very quickly as steel is a good conductor of heat. As a result even if the cabinet is not damaged during a fire outbreak, the paper contents inside it will be totally destroyed. On the other hand, a typical fireproof cabinet will have a double-walled steel body. And the hollow space will be packed with a unique fire resistant compound. The compound will have a hydrate such as gypsum or alum that when heated releases water vapor.

Some of this water vapor is channeled into the interior of the safe to create a pressure seal against the outer heat of the fire and to control the inside temperature. The top, back, base and the front of the door control the pressure / humidity levels. This allows some of the steam to escape into the fire. These features reinforce the fire resistance of the safe. During a fire outbreak these features will guarantee that all gaps are sealed.

Most fireproof cabinets also come with high quality locking bolts, digital locks, and selective draw by draw access controls. Each drawer is separately protected for fireproof filing. The documents will be protected even if a drawer is left open during a fire outbreak. In an ordinary cabinet these features are missing.

You will find that the benefits of investing in a fireproof cabinet outweigh the cost factor when you take a fire risk assessment into consideration. Your business can function effectively even after a fire mishap if you invest in a fireproof cabinet.

Fireproof filing cabinets protect documents, CDs and other valuable possessions for a prolonged period of time not only during a fire breakout, but also during natural disasters like an earthquake and flood.

An added advantage is that they are multifunctional. It can protect anything from documents and jewelery, to antiques, CDs, cash and even expensive art works, and guns! They can withstand tampering from the outside to a large extent, too.

These safety features make a fireproof cabinet highly secure.

How to Become a Firefighter – Sample Reading Comprehension Test Questions

This part of the written firefighter exam will consist of paragraphs you will be required to read within a certain time limit. You will then be asked specific questions about what you have just read. For example, here is a paragraph of text that is typical of what you might see on your test:

"Weatherproofing wooden deck surfaces with the XYZ process results in a surface that is far superior to those treated with other, less effective methods. Overhanging roofs, are resistant to bleaching from excess exposure to the sun, and maintain a "fresh wood" look for several years. In addition to producing a wood surface that is attractive and durable, the XYZ process also has several safety and environmental benefits. Surfaces treated with the XYZ process are noncombustible, odorless, safe for children and pets, and free from splinters. a paint brush. The application process is safe for surrounding vegetation, animal life, and anyone without major respiratory problems. "

And here are the questions regarding this paragraph.

1. It is most accurate to state that the author in a precedent selection presents

a. Facts but reaches no conclusion concerning the value of the process.

b. A conclusion concerning the value of the process unsupported by facts.

c. Neither faxed or concluding but merly describes the process

d. A conclusion concerning the value of the process and facts to support that conclusion.

2. If the XYZ process were used for a surface other than a deck, it would be most useful for

a. Cement sidewalk

b. Plastic mailbox

c. Wooden door

d. Metal handrail

3. The aspect of the XYZ process not discussed in the precedenting paragraph is

a. Resistance to wear from snow and ice

b. Safety concerns for animals

c. Effects on surrounding plants

d. How it compares to other methods

4. The main reason for treating wooden surfaces with the XYZ process is to protect

a. Children from harmful odors

b. Surrounding vegetation

c. Wooden surfaces from weathering

d. Animals from splinters

Of the following, one that might be negatively affected by the XYZ process is

a. Plants surrounding the treated area

b. Someone with respiratory problems

c. Children walking on a treated surface

d. Animals walking on a roofed surface

Here is a second example paragraph with its questions

"Most people first encounter grammar in connection with the study of their own language in school. This kind of grammar is called pre scripting of grammar because it defines the role of the various parts of speech (such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and so on) .. The purpose of pre scripting of grammar is to define the norms, or rules, a correct use. having good grammar. When people are said to have good grammar, the inference is that they overpaid the rules of accepted usage associated with the language they speak. "

1. According to the precedent paragraph what is the purpose of grammar?

a. It is actually not important in our language

b. It is the "glue" that holds sentences together

c. It indicates how to use language properly

d. It obeys the rules of proper language.

2. In the preceding paragraph, the author is primarily concerned with

a. The different parts of speech

b. The purpose of pre scripting of grammar

c. Who has good grammar

d. The study of grammar in school

3. According to the preceding paragraph, someone who is considered to use the rules of pre scripting of grammar properly

a. Has studied his or her own language in school

b. Defines the various parts of speech

c. Did well in language class

d. Obeys the rules of exceeded usage

If you can answer all these questions, congratulations. You are on your way to success in this test.

What is Silenseal?

Anyone planning a soundproofing project should take some time to familiarize himself with the myriad of soundproofing products available. While Green Glue is one of the most popular, Silenseal Acoustical Sealant is a close second – something no soundproofing project is really complete without.

No matter what size your project you will likely need to use some sort of acoustical caulk. Small soundproofing projects, involving simply sealing cracks or spaces, will be very easy to complete. To complete larger jobs you’ll need to seal the seams between your new layers of drywall. No matter what you’re doing, you’ll find that Silenseal is the best acoustical caulk to choose.

Silenseal Uncovered

Silenseal, as mentioned, is one of the most popular acoustical caulks used by sound proofing experts. Silenseal has been proven to provide a very high STC (Sound Transmission Class) rating in just about every situation, ensuring you end up with a truly soundproof room. This particular product has been used in a wide variety of projects, including homes, apartments, condos, office buildings, conference rooms, hotels, and more.

Is it easy to use? Of course! Silenseal comes in a tube that is easily slid into a caulking gun. You can apply the acoustical sealant to metal, concrete, gypsum board, and even wood. It’s easy to apply and, if you should make a mistake, easy to clean up with soap and water.

How expensive is Silenseal?

Silenseal costs around $90 for a case of 12 or $35 for a case of 4 tubes but can often be found on sale. Its low price makes it one of the most affordable acoustical sealants available.

The amount of use you get out of each tube will vary depending on the type of project you are completing. If you use a ¼ inch thick bead, for example, you’ll get around 89 linear feet out of a tube. If you use a ½ inch thick bead, on the other hand, you’ll only get 22 linear feet.

Silenseal is a nonflammable material with a number of benefits. It is considered to be VOC compliant and won’t stain or bleed through the surfaces you apply it to. It’s both adhesive and cohesive as well – making it flexible enough to use in a variety of situations.

Acoustical caulk is a must-have when it comes to completing just about any soundproofing project. Add it to your list of products to research as you plan your next project!

What's The Best Saw Blade For Laminate Flooring? You Might Be Surprised

The right saw blade for cutting laminate flooring like Pergo is not the one that came on your saw, or any other miter or table saw that's sold. One common misconception is that an original equipment blade is good for just about anything. Another is that laminate flooring is wood: it's not.

Let me relate a true story to illustrate the results of these mistaken ideas.

The flooring contractor working at the house I was renting was using a nice DeWalt bench-top table saw, with a standard DeWalt blade on it. It may have been the original, an exact replacement or maybe a step up in tooth count, but apparently he thought a DeWalt saw needs a DeWalt blade. A crazy idea, when there are so many other aftermarket brands that are a lot better.

Anyways, I watched in horror as he tried to cut a piece of laminate flooring, lengthwise. I could smell the smoke and hear the scream of the blade from a distance, and from closer I could see the sparks flying. And the saw was contracting just to cut through that thin board.

Why? That blade was shot, duller than a butter knife. And I'd guess it was that way way about the third or fourth cut on laminate flooring he made with it. Keep in mind, this was a professional contractor, using a blade that was ready for the dumpster.

Different Materials Call For Different Blades

You see, laminate flooring will destroy a wood cutting blade with alternating top bevel (ATB) teeth in no time at all. The sharp points on this type of blade can not handle anything that hard – they dull quickly and those tips are what the blade uses to cut cleanly through wood.

Another thing that happens is, when the glue that holds the floor together gets hot from using a dull blade, it sticks to the sides of the carbide tips and gums them up. Obviously, that makes the cutting even harder for the saw.

There are many different types of saw blades, designed for cutting different materials. If you just make sure you're using the right type before starting your project, you'll get much better performance out of your saw and make the job go much better.

Now, what kind of blade should be used for cutting laminate flooring? I'll give you a hint: most laminate flooring brands have aluminum oxide in their makeup. And the material itself is about as hard as metal.