Finish Contractor – Handrail Construction

Interior finish work includes everything from installing baseboard to the solid construction of the main stairway and handrail. The main staircase is usually considered a piece of furniture. By this I mean, it takes an experienced Tradesman to make everything fit together flawlessly.

There is nothing more disappointing than grabbing the main Newel post as you start your way up just to find that it is loose and is cracking the handrail connection. This has always been an important step for me as a Carpenter. I usually sink the primary Newel into the floor framing through the subfloor. Before doing this you must expose the framing by cutting out some of the floor right where the newel will go: not a big deal if you know what your doing.

What a Finish Carpenter does after this can mean the difference between a rock solid connection to a pathetic attempt. Don’t get me wrong,although this is an extremely important step..the Carpenter or Contractor must spend some time planning and making sure the stair ends up where it is supposed to. Building codes have to be strictly maintained in the construction process.

The rise and run of each tread and riser must be consistent and should not vary even 1/16 of an inch. Those are my standards. Ever walked up a stair and accidentally tripped on one of the treads? This may have been caused by an improper install or someone trying to correct a measurement so the stair meets up with the top floor. Very important this all comes together properly. That’s why it is so important to check clearances,all measurements,wall and floor levels.

The final step is to install the handrail and this better be done right. A nice flowing appearance and solid connections are a must. Nothing worse than someone trying to fill a bad connection with putty or some kind of wood filler. That will show up “Ugly” after the finish paint or clear lacquer is applied. So much care needs to be taken in the handrail construction because parts and material are very expensive. The Carpenter or Contractor could make good money on the job or end up losing drastically if things go wrong.

Learning About Deck Railing Styles

Installing Deck Railing Easily

Installing your deck may sound like a complicated affair, but it's easier than you think with easy to follow directions. Sometimes, the most difficult parts of making a deck are choosing from the different deck railing styles available today. If you're not the DIY type of person or do not have the correct tools and equipment, you may want to hire a deck contractor or get help from a friend experienced in installing a deck. However, with good directions, installing a deck is not that complicated.

Installing Deck Railings

Deck trains serve two purposes: to provide safety for your family and friends and to bring beauty to your deck and home. They are the most visible part of your deck so you want them to be attractive. They also need to meet the requirements set by the law involving the distance (maximum 4 inches) as well as height requirements (between 36 and 42 inches). When installing your deck railings, you'll find many different styles and designs available. If you have the correct tools and skills, you can have your deck railing installed in a couple of days.

Baluster Spacing and Installation

When installing your balusters, it's important that you space them even on your deck. Assuming the distance between two posts is 60 inches, your baluster width is 2 "and the required spacing between the two balusters is 4", you add 4 "to the 2" to get a total of 6 "Divide 60" by 6 " and you get 10. This is the total number of balusters that you'll need for your deck railing. To figure out the exact spacing, multiply 10 (number of balusters needed) by the width of each baluster (10×2 = 20). This figure from the distance between posts (60-20 = 40) Divide this number by the number of spacing plus one (10 + 1 = 11 then 40/11 = 3.64 inches). have basic math skills and a tape measure.

Working with Railing Posts

Installing the rail posts includes measuring the distance required for the posts and cutting them with a circular saw or table saw the required length, making sure to cut a 45-degree bevel on the outside bottom of the post. Be sure the post is flush against the joist and drill two holes through the post and the joist then secure them together with a 5-inch long carriage bolt. The balusters need to be cut from 2X2 stock. Clamp together 6 pieces and cut them all at the same time. Install the top and bottom rails 2 "thick and 4 inches wide spaced the correct distance apart. back and admire your work.

Choosing the Right Balustrade For Your Home

A balustrade is a molded shaft that is designed to support the coping of a balcony handrail, parapet or even the handrails on the staircase. Initially made from stone, these balustrades were first designed from Italian architecture and this is the reason why they add so much style to any building.

Apart from supporting the hills of staircases and balconies, balustrades also give the room a different look, adding beauty and elegance to the room it is placed in. This is why nowdays almost all the buildings we see have some kind of balustrading done and it has become a great part of interior as well as outdoor designing.

Balustrades are available in a number of different designs and you can also get them in different materials. The most common materials used nowdays are wrought iron, cast iron, glass, wire and wood. Deciding upon the kind of material you want to use depends on what look you would like to give the building. If you want something which gives the room a rustic feel, getting softwood balustrading can be a great option. For a more contemporary look, glass balustrading is perfect and it also is one of the best options to go in for.

In the event that you do not like any of the designs that are available in the market (which is quite illegally), you can find places that make your own custom design. Custom designing may seem like a great choice, but it will definitely be a lot more expensive than getting a ready made design.

Matching the design of your building with the balustrade design is a very important thing. If you end up getting a nice looking balustrade design which does not match the design of the building or interiors, then the whole place will just look odd.

Choosing the material is another important part of installing a balustrade. If you are planning to get balustrading done for the outdoors, then getting something that will last you is a better idea. Steel, Iron and Glass are a few good options, but steel and iron would require some kind of coating in order to prevent rust or scratches. This is why glass balustrading is the best option for outdoor purposes.

Another great thing about glass balustrading is that you will not have to compromise on the view. If you usually like to sit in the balcony and enjoy the evening or morning view with a nice cup of tea then glass balustrating is the best option since any other material will certainly obstruct the view of the surroundings.

Why Use Oak For Your Staircase?

If you are thinking of updating your wooden stairs by replacing the banisters, it's worth spending some time considering which timber to use. After all, stairs are a predominant architectural feature which can make a big difference to the overall look and feel of your hallway.

Oak staircases, in particular, are becoming increasingly popular with home owners looking for a premium, durable product that will not easily go out of fashion.

Oak sources

Strongly associated with quality and luxury, oak is grown mainly in Europe and North America. The trees are carefully nurtured in large forests and can take up to 120 years to mature, with only the largest and best specimens considered suitable for the construction of high-end products such as furniture, flooring, doors and staircases. The amount of time and effort spent on cultivation ensures that oak will always remain a premium option.

White oak versus red oak

There are two main groups of oak wood: red and white. Both types are extremely hard and durable, but white oak is generally considered the most desirable because it matures more slowly. This produces a straighter, denser grain, making the timber nearly water-tight and highly resistant to rot. For this reason white oak is a bought-after material for use in boat-building and outdoor structures.

Red oak, being faster growing and more abundant, is a little cheaper to produce and has a more open grain which is pre to swirls and wavy lines. It should only be used for indoor items such as furniture and cabinets.

Many home owners choose white oak rather than red not only for its good looks, but also because it has fewer variations in color and grain pattern. This makes it easier to match new staircase parts with existing white oak fittings such as doors, floors and skirting boards to complement the rest of the decor.

American white oak is particularly popular, with a lighter colouring and lower production costs than the European equivalent. Shades range from pale yellow-brown to a light tan color. The straight, knot-free grain is ideal for creating attractive and hard-wearing stair parts such as handrails, newels, base rails and balusters. It also accepts wood treatments very readily, so can be easily stained, varnished, waxed or painted.

Tips on fitting oak stair parts

Firstly, white oak is acidic, so isiable to corrode any metals that contain iron. To avoid the resulting bluish discolouration you should only use non-ferrous fixings such as stainless or zinc-coated (galvanized) screws and brackets when assembling your stair balustrade.

Secondly, as oak is a natural material it is likely to shrink and expand according to the temperature and moisture content of the surrounding air. For this reason you should always leave new oak stair parts to acclimatize in the room where they are going to be stuffed (or somewhere close by with similar humidity) for at least 48 hours before installation.

Finally, if you are planning to varnish, wax or stain the banister rail, try out a small amount of the treatment beforehand on a stair component that will not be visible after – the base of a spindle, for example – to make sure you still like the color after it has dried.

A Guide to Stamps of Australia

Stamp collecting is on the whole a very popular hobby all over the world. This also rings true in Australia where many types of people have a strong interest in philately. There is a good variety of common and collectible Australian stamps issued each year. It is often surprising to see which stamps are most popular amongst collectors. The most popular in Australia is determined each year as thousands of locales vote for their favorite design. First place receives the distinguished Australia Post stamp design award. Some past winners include:

Sports treasures 2005: this line was popularly popular with sports lovers (Australia is a great sporting nation), and included pictures of Donald Bradman's baggy green, Marjorie Jackson's running spikes, Lionel Roses boxing gloves and Phar laps racing silks.

Working dogs 2008: this line featured images of working dogs such as German shepherds and border collies. The most popular of these was a working dogs stamp issue which depicts a border collie.

Australian songbirds 2009: this was a particularly beautiful range and included images of the mangrove golden Whistler, the Green catbird, the Scarlet honeyeater and the noisy scrub bird.

Rare Australian stamps.

Like stamp collectors from around the world Australian philatelists thoroughly enjoy finding the most rare and valuable Australian stamps to add to their collection. These are generally older stamps with distinct or memorable designs despite having said that, age is not the only factor in determining a stamps value. If a stamp was produced in large quantities and many copies still remain, this will of course drive the price down. Scarcity is the most important factor in determining the value of a stamp. Here are a few examples.

Inverted swan stamp 1855: this stamp is extremely rare and was one of the first to ever feature an inverted frame error. The Black Swan on the stamp was inadvertently printed upside down. With only 15 of these stamps remaining in existence they are currently valued at US $ 60,000 each.

King George V head stamps: many stamps depict King George V, but these are not all valuable. King George V stamps which include a dull green seahorse issue stamp 1913 and a turquoise royal cipher stamp 1912 with an inverted watermark are examples of some of the rarer issues.

Sir Charles Kingsford Smith 1931: Sir Charles Kingsford Smith was the first living Australian to be shown on an Australian stamp. A set that was presented to Sir Charles by the Australian postmaster general is one of the rarest of these.

Where to buy Australian stamps

As with stamp collecting in any country there are many different options and places to find and buy common, collectible and rare Australian stamps. Stamp bulletin features pictures of and information about a wide range of stamps and includes a mail order catalog in each issue. For locals there are specialty shops where stamps can be bought though these are becoming fewer and less since the advent of the web. There is also a wide range of online stores providing wide ranges of common, collectible, and rare Australian stamps.

What's my collection worth?

There are many ways to obtain valuations for your Australian stamp collection. Local stamp collecting clubs and communities can be a fantastic source of information or if you are lucky enough to have a local specialty store which opinion you trust this is also a good place to start. Some websites offer valuation services because they may require you to be a member first.

Stamp forgery

Many Australian stamp collectors may be unaware of the number of past attempts to forge rare Australian stamps. Possibly the most famous of these attempts occurred in 1932 when a fraudster tried to forge the very rare 'two pound kangaroo on map' stamp.

Australian philately looks to have an interesting and colorful history and continues to be a delightful hobby for both beginner and expert collectors alike.

10 Great Android Apps For the Business Traveler

There seems to be a new Android smartphone being released almost monthly and the number of Apps continues to grow. These GPS enabled smartphones now provide significant processing power in our palms, something we could only have imagined only a few years ago. Tools are now available to help us share updates, files, directories, location check-ins, access location specific services, and a ton of other things. If you're traveling on business, these tools are a necessity to not just being able to stay in touch with home, but also to remain as productive as if you were back in the office.

The Android platform is already an established industry standard, backed by Google and providing a viable alternative to the iPhone. You can now depend on your Android device to gain extra productivity time while on the road or at home; Whether you need access to files from multiple devices located in different locations, or finding a restaurant in a foreign city.

Here are 10 useful Apps for the Android Smartphone:

1. Barcode Scanner

For when you are doing a little shopping on your business trip. Simply scan the barcode of a product and the app will bring up retailers and locations to purchase or, online retailers and product prices.

2. ALOQA -Travel Companion

ALOQA (Always Be Local), which uses GPS to first pinpoint your location and then find activities, events, stores, restaurants and a host of other things in your vicinity. This is particularly useful if you are new to a city and just staying a few days. This app helps you get the local feel or get into the local vibe of a city.

3. GoAruna – File Sharing Management tool

For the business person traveling light (without a laptop), you can access your laptop files via GoAruna. Just drop your files into this app before leaving the home or office and you'll have access via your Android phone. With all the hassle of checking in and baggage security at airports, leaving the laptop behind is a great advantage.

4.VNC Viewer from Google

VNC lets you safely log in and connect to a remote machine, so you can make easy changes without having to actually store anything on your smartphone.

5. Meeting Notes by EverNote

This is a great app for taking notes in meetings and includes voice recordings (useful for voice memo reminders), and pictures. How many times have you wanted to take a picture of that White Board after several hours in a meeting? This App allows you to organize all your clips, find them and even email them. The picture element is also useful for capturing and organizing a copy of your plain ticket and other expired receipts.

6. Cab4Me

This is another useful free app, which is able to find the cab companies near your GPS location and includes reviews of the services – a very useful tool for the business traveler.

7. Talk to Me

This is a great translation tool and a must have if visiting a foreign country. You speak and the phone talks back to you in another language. Your very own interpreter in your pocket. Current languages ​​covered in this app are: English, German, French, Italian and Spanish. And it's free.

8. TripIt

If you are a frequent traveler, TripIt is a great tool. And another must have. It organizes flight, hotel, restaurant and other itinerary information in an easy-to-read form, as well as giving you GPS directions. It can come in very handy if you have connecting flights to worry about, by alerting you to a Gate change for example.

9. Currency

This App can convert up to 160 currencies using real-time foreign exchange rates with a calculator. You can also track trends, charts and get news.

10. Cashbook

Cashbook is an expense tracker, a vital tool for the business traveler. It lets you easily track your weekly and monthly balance as well as your mileage.

With these 10 Apps you are likely to be well covered for your next trip, from travel updates to local information, to remaining productive while away from the office.

T-2 Turbo Tornado Wind Car with Frontal Horizontal Vortex Pull Propulsion

Is it possible to create a vortex airflow in front of an automobile to get it to go down the highway? The vortex airflow would suck the car along down the road. Of course the car would have to be made of lightweight materials and it would take quite a bit of engineering to make it happen, but if everything came together, would it be possible?

Most people who have heard about this scheme do not believe it will work. Yet it seems to me that it could work if it were done properly. The question is how much energy does it take to create a frontal horizontal vortex pull propulsion system for an automobile? And how much would cost to make.

Since no one has ever designed anything like this, no one knows for sure. But theoretically it would be possible and you might call be finished prototype; A Wind Car. Now then what can we use to create the vortex?

Well, I recommend using a laser to start the vortex spinning and a half moon leading edge blocking the relative wind from blowing away the vortex or mini-tornado, the entire mechanism would be set on arms extending past the front of the car. Next the front of the car would shaped like a concave front.

The Horizontal flow would suck the car along and there would be slots in the leading edge allowing the relative airflows as the car moves forward to keep it going once it got started? Just a thought on the Wind-Car Idea and why not, if you can dream it, surely someone can build it. Consider this in 2006.

Commercial Land Development

Owning land has always been a wise decision, especially if you have invested in commercial land in time. Your property is gaining more value day by day, this typically happens when the local real estate markets witnesses large scale development in your local neighborhood. A very famous saying by Mark Twain – Buy land, they’re not making it anymore.

Owning a commercial land

Owning land property and knowing the real value is important. Well planned and timed commercial investments would pay rich dividends in the future, making you richer and wealthier. As a land investor it is very important to view a wide horizon, keeping in mind the future developments that would take place in the local neighborhood. In a country like India, most of the commercial land is zoned and auctioned by the local government authorities; you could pick your choice and bid your offers, or keep your commercial real estate broker informed of your interest in commercial land investment. A good broker could offer you a lucrative land deal through second sales, you may be lucky to latch on to a land deal which is in a consolidated format with a good frontage along a national high way. Or has access, frontage of two major roads. Consolidated land formats could give you very high value returns in the future.

Selling Land

As a commercial property investor / owner you have a choice, which you can use to get higher returns on your investments. Property investors do not hold on to properties for a very long period of time, as they aim to get returns on their investments faster as possible, most of the investors exit during this stage. It is noticed large business houses and industrialist invest in commercial property, with a view to either sell it and gain profit margins or develop the commercial land and expand their business operations to the new locations, targeting a larger volume of customers to boost to their business.

Joint Venture Development

Commercial development also gives a steady cash flow to the owners / investors. You could still maintain the ownership of the land though a JD (joint development). There are real estate developers, private equity funds, investors who are more than willing to undertake a joint development on approved sites. The options can range from commercial offices, business & IT parks, strip malls, hospitals, resorts and motels and mixed use development of commercial and star rated hotels. Entering into a JD for a land owner is not very difficult and is commonly viewed now days, the developers are more than happy to partner with commercial land owners. This is a process where commercial real estate agents, legal consultants, property valuers etc work side by side to structure the joint venture, giving consideration to the viability and feasibility of a proposal.

Commercial or residential land is always a better property investment option than any other property format; land appreciates faster and gives you better and faster returns.

Clean and Clear? Your Stadium and Your ROI

The external building envelope (including the façades and surrounding space) make up a large percentage of the stadium’s environment. If this is allowed to weather, fails, become inconsistent or soiled, the stadium space becomes irreconcilably at odds with its core brand values and is likely to open up discussions around product pricing, value for money or visitor experience.

Without a holistic maintenance approach or attention to detail within the built environment, profits may decline as stadium visitors search for new experiences and positive environments in which to spend their time. Visiting a stadium is often a special occasion for many people, so the façades and built environment need to match the desired experience of the visitor. As a result we can ensure that the visitors return home and gush about their day on social media as well as with family and friends, ultimately marketing the stadium and events for the owners.

I believe a clean, cared for and well maintained stadium environment has a direct impact on the visitor’s level of positive experience and therefore the stadium’s ability to retain customers, attract new visitors or events to generate further profits, ROI and a sustainable stadium and business space for the future.

With the leisure industry competing increasingly for the monopoly on our spare time, the need to proactively clean, maintain and protect the external building façade has never been more important. Those stadiums that show commitment and consistency in delivering a more holistic solution and visitor experience will win the profits and ROI battle.

A positive and clean building envelope also provides a tangible reason for stadium owners and managers to increase their premiums. This enables them to deliver a greater visitor experience or to use the extra funds to clean and maintain the environment. Entering into a positive cycle of proactive façade maintenance will protect the asset and the life-span of each material for the future, thus reducing maintenance costs and increasing ROI.

So as well as reaping the benefits of a positive visitor experience, the stadium owners and managers are likely to spend less on reactive maintenance or material replacement as the façade materials are maintained and may outlast their predicted life-span.

I believe that the stadium owners and managers don’t necessarily feel a need to think about the direct link between the façade environment and profits. They may commoditise the process of cleaning or maintaining a building façade as it’s a reactive task constrained by budgets within traditional procurement frameworks.

Stadiums and events spaces need a more holistic and proactive façade and environment management programme. Through a more site/elevation specific and detailed procurement approach, stadiums can manage the environmental condition more effectively and therefore create opportunities in the future to generate further income and positive experiences for visitors.

The Soldering Iron for the Craftsman

It is common for the electricians to have the soldering iron. It is because the tool will help them to fix the broken wire in the electronic devices. The main function of the tool is to melt the metal like wire and blend it together. The shape of this iron looks like the pencil or knife. You should hold it to use it.

The tool is used combine with the flux. The flux is the corrosive agent which can clean the surface of the metal. Mix the flux with some of the water drops to get the flux paste. You need to apply the flux paste before you can use the soldering iron. It works effectively to fix the wire. But, actually the iron can also be used to make the jewelry which uses the metal as the basic material.

You can make your own jewelry or fix your jewelry in your home. If you are beginner, it is better for you to start the process with the earring especially the metal jump rings. You need to find the right flux that can work effectively for your metal. The metal jump rings will be the best material to have your practice since they have the cheap price. You will find it easy to work with. To decorate the jewelry you make, you can use the crystals and gemstones.

With the help of the tool, you may also apply some styles to your jewelry. The popular style of the jewelry is the simple braiding metal wires. You need to choose the metal which has the lighter weight and thinner in the shape. It is because the wire which has the thicker wire will be difficult to be braided.

Another function of the soldering iron is helping you to make the wire baskets. The function of the basket is to keep your item safely. It will add the aesthetic value in your home. You can create the wire baskets which are suitable with your home condition. You can choose the wire with your favorite color to suit your home's situation.

Tips for Keeping a Massage Table Warming Pad Clean

The electric Massage Table Warming Pad are used by thousands of massage therapists and they have some distinct advantages over other types of warming pads. However, keeping an electronic Massage Table Warming Pad clean can be a little tricky since most of the time they are not washable.

If the massage table pad that you want to use isn’t washable there are ways that you can keep it clean and sanitary without having to wash it constantly, although you will need to check the warming pad everyday to make sure it’s not spotted or stained. Here are some tips from massage therapists who love using electric warming pads on keeping the pads clean and soft for a long time:

Spot cleaning

Keep some baby wipes in a drawer or in your purse and whenever a small stain appears on the warming pad dab it with a baby wipe. If you can clean the stain before it sets the fabric should dry as if there were never a stain there. If the stain is lipstick, face powder or other cosmetic stains as a result of contact with a made up client use make up remover pads that are designed to clean makeup in order to prevent permanent stains.

Dry cleaning

You can dry clean your Massage Table Warming Pad at home with an at home dry cleaning kit. Using a dryer based dry cleaning kit will also freshen up the warming pad when it starts to look and smell stale. A good home dry cleaning kit will last through several cleanings and is well worth the cost, so make sure you pick one up when you’re shopping. Make sure that the dryer is not set too high in order to make sure there is no damage to the fabric.

Steam cleaning

You can remove stubborn stains by holding a steam iron close to the fabric with the steam on. The steam will loosen dirt and stains and bring them to the surface so that you wipe them away with a baby wipe, makeup remover, or washcloth. Make sure that the fabric doesn’t get too moist from the steam and make sure you let the pad dry for at least a few hours before you use it for a client.

Upholstery cleaner

Spray upholstery cleaners, the kind used for cars, can also be used on massage pads to fight really bad stains. Follow the directions on the bottle to get the deepest possible clean.

Kinesiology 101: Joint Movements

Kinesiology is the study of human movement. Most people attempting to pass a musculoskeletal anatomy or kinesiology class or a personal trainer exam must understand the basic joint movements of the human body.

Synovial joints, or those that are functionally classified as diarthroses, are the primary joints that have considerable movement compared to the sutures in the skull or the teeth fitting into the gums.

There are 6 subcategories of synovial joints including hinge joints, ball and socket joints, pivot joints, saddle, condyloid, and planar joints. Because most large or gross movements occur at the hinge and ball and socket joints, I’ll focus on these.

There are several common hinge joints worth considering. They are the elbow joint where the humerus (arm bone), radius and ulna (forearm bones) meet. The ankle or talocrural joint occurs where the distal ends of the fibula and tibia (leg bones) join with one of the bones of the foot, the talus. Another common hinge joint is the knee joint – the articulation (joint) where the tibia (shin bone) and the femur (thigh bone) come together.

All three of these hinge joints are capable of flexing and extending as their only actions. For example, the action of straightening the leg is considered to be knee extension. The opposite action, flexion, is signfied by someone bringing their heels toward their buttocks. In the elbow example, flexion is bringing the hand up toward the chest/shoulder area from a straight elbow position while extension is straightening the forearm at the elbow. The ankle joint is unique in its description of flexion and extension. When one stands in a position known commonly as “on the tippy toes”, s/he has plantar flexed (extension at other joints, but a special name for this action at the ankle). Moving the toes toward the shin, is dorsiflexion of the ankle joint.

Flexion is defined as decreasing the angle between the bones comprising the joint. Extension is described as increasing that joint angle. I consider, when trying to remember which is which, that flexion is always moving a body part “forward” while extension is just the opposite – moving it backwards. This “rule” holds true for every joint THAT IS CAPABLE of flexion and extension with THE EXCEPTION of the knee joint. At the knee joint, flexion is moving the heels BACK toward the buttocks while extension is the opposite.

The two ball and socket joints, the hip and the shoulder joints, are capable of moving in flexion and extension as well as medial (internal) and lateral (external) rotation and adduction and abduction. To flex the shoulder, one would move the arm as if reaching out to shake hands with someone. To extend the shoulder, a person would reach back as if they were accepting a baton in a track relay race. The act of punting a football would be flexing the hip, while moving the hip in the opposite direction, would be hip extension.

Due to the structure of the shoulder and hip joints, they are able to rotate. If a person stood erect with feet facing forward, arms to the side but palms facing forward (defined as the anatomical position), and then proceeded to rotate the arms so that the palms touched the sides of the thighs, this would be medial rotation of the shoulder joint. The opposite, rotating the arms back to the original position described above, would require lateral rotation of the shoulder joint.

Imagine a person standing erect BUT pigeon-toed or toes turned in. I liken this to having rotated the hips medially. The only way to have turned the toes in, since there is no rotary movement at the knee or ankle, would be to rotate the hips. I remember lateral rotation of the hip, as being opposite, where a person stands erect in the anatomical position BUT with the toes pointed OUT.

Finally, both shoulder and hip joints are capable of abduction or moving the arm (s) away from the body (assuming a starting position that is anatomical) and adduction or moving the arm (s) toward the body. Abduction at both hips and shoulders would be demonstrated by performing the first HALF of a jumping jack where thighs are spread and arms are over the head. Adduction would be evidenced when executing the second HALF of a jumping jack. The “spread” arms and thighs would return to the original starting position of the jumping jack – shoulder and hip adduction would have occurred.

By using the descriptions and definitions of joint actions for the hip and shoulder, the knee and ankle and elbow above, a person should be able to analyze basic human movements.

The Business of the 21st Century: Review

Robert Kiyosaki, the author of the best-selling series of “Rich Dad, Poor Dad” books has recently published a new book. This is a review of this latest book, “The Business of the 21st Century”.

He introduces the book:

“In The Business of the 21st Century, I’m going to show you why you need to build your own business, and exactly what kind of business. But this isn’t just about changing the type of business you’re working with; it’s also about changing you. I can show you how to find what you need to grow the perfect business for you, but for your business to grow, you will have to grow as well.”

The premise of this book is that you can STILL experience success in business. Despite the “tough times” that are present due to the worldwide economic crisis, fortunes will be made.

But the qualifier is that you must choose wisely.

It is a current reality that American workers are competing with workers in every country in the world. Many of these workers are HAPPY to do the same work for one-tenth (or less) of your current wage!

For this reason – and many more economic factors – we are living in an era of unprecedented unemployment levels. The rates are often correlated to “The Great Depression” but that is not a fair comparison.

While the percentages of people who are unemployed may be similar to Depression levels, we live in a completely different world. The level of education, technology, and mobility are a hundred times more advanced that in the 1930’s. And yet, tens of millions of Americans are unemployed – or “underemployed” and working in jobs far below their education and experience. This is especially true of “Baby Boomers” who have very slim chances of matching their old jobs.

Robert Kiyosaki touches on this realityin his description of “The Cash Flow Quadrant”. He says ALL income earners fall into one of four categories, or four corners of “The Cash Flow Quadrant”.

The four divisions are:

Employee: These people are looking for a good job with benefits. They are also 100% at the mercy of their employers, who are at the mercy of global competition. The goal of every employee is to have some money left after paying all their expenses.

Self-Employed: These are small business owners and sole proprietors, characterized by “Mom and Pop” stores and service providers. Unfortunately, many displaced workers have tried to open a business only to find that they merely “bought” themselves a 100-hour per week job. They also quickly learn that when they stop working they stop earning.

Business owner: These people understand that maximum earning potential is only attainable by leveraging the efforts of many, many more. A business builder creates a “machine” that operates around the clock, without their direct input in every stage of the process.

One of the HUGE differences in the wealth creation potential of a business owner is the legal and ethical ability to record expenses on a “pre-tax” basis.

And the fourth quadrant is the Investor. The Investor has achieved sufficient wealth so that their money now “works” for them! This is the goal that all people strive for, if only to reach the point where they can someday “retire”. Unfortunately, today the vast majority of Americans can never retire without a drastic reduction in their lifestyle.

According to Kiyosaki, Business owners and Investors represent less than 20% of the productive population. More than 80% of workers are not free to direct their own schedules – they are tied to their job or their store.

Robert Kiyosaki advises that EVERYONE should have the goal of being a self-employed business owner. He then writes WHY network marketing is “The Business of the 21st Century” for these reasons:

1. Network marketing is the easiest business model to transition from employee to business owner. You can also start part-time and transition to full-time. In addition, the cost of entry is very low – usually as little as a few hundred dollars.

2. Network marketing is a system that provides leaders who have a vested interest in YOUR success. These leaders – and the available marketing systems – ALSO provide extensive training to make you successful. In most cases, these training resources are available for FREE or at a very low cost. Note: it is ALWAYS less expensive to purchase the accumulated wisdom of successful people than to repeat their mistakes!

3. Network marketing provides the most effective means of promoting a product – that is, by using personal relationships to provide recommendations. (Today these recommendations extend online to thousands of “friends and followers”)

4. Network marketing leverages the efforts of dozens, hundreds, and even thousands of others. All of these people are working on THEIR business but also are creating a stream of residual income for you.

5. Network marketing provides almost unlimited opportunities to increase your knowledge and develop your personal skills – which makes you more valuable as a leader and resource to others. It also places you in the circle of influence of other leaders who are in the top 1% of income earners and opens up additional opportunities.

6. Network marketing is a scalable enterprise. There are many avenues open to successful network marketers. All of these can be expanded to increase the business, across the country or around the world.

7. Network marketing creates not only wealth creation but an asset. The business you build is legacy. You can create a business that will outlive you.

8. Networking marketing is one business that creates residual income. You also create multiple streams of income – unlike more than 80% of workers who have one paycheck and are helpless when that ends. Residual income means you earn even when you are not “working” and you can hardly turn it off! For these reasons, network marketing truly has no income ceiling!

9. Network marketing has no education prerequisites. You can even participate if you are over-educated! There are no barriers based on race, age, background, or any other factor that may make you “unemployable” in a typical job search. Today, hundreds line up for one job opening as a janitor. In network marketing you can bypass every hurdle and start immediately.

10. Network marketing is perfectly positioned to take advantage of modern technologies. While the industry has been successful for decades using only face-to-face sales methods, these new technologies expand the opportunities exponentially. In particular, the growth of social networking gives you access to thousands, even millions of people. It is also a fact that millions are looking for ways to increase their income at any one moment.

For ALL these reasons, Robert Kiyosaki concludes that network marketing IS “The Business of the 21st Century”.

Experimentation in Photography

In 1825, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, a noted inventor, who also designed the world’s first combustion engine, experimented with a camera obscura (a box with a hole in one side, in which external light passes through the hole and is reproduced upside down onto a surface, creating an image, sort of a precursor to the pinhole camera), and created what is believed to be the world’s first known photographic image: View from the Window at Le Gras.

Primarily an image of a courtyard that is illuminated on both sides, due to the lengthy exposure time, the overall image is grainy and looks nothing like the photography we are familiar with. In fact, the image resembles a charcoal drawing; a far cry from a photograph.

This crude image of a courtyard spearheaded the photographic revolution, quite different from what we know today. Without a lens, or film for that matter,it took Niépce 8 hours to create this first photographic image; something that takes a fraction of the time with today’s digital cameras.

Niépce didn’t study at a photography school (they didn’t exist at the time), and while there were other experiments prior to his 1825 photograph, this particular image stands out as does such artistic inventions as the first motion picture, the first use of color photography, and so on.

Niépce’s creation set the standard, a revolution to be exact, for photographic experimentation. As experiments in photography advanced throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, photographers continued to use ‘old school’ devices (pinhole cameras, for example) to create photographic art so that in a sense, the old techniques have never really gone out of style.

As a student in photography school, I used black and white 35mm film with a Minolta 7s still camera from the 60s, which despite taking it all over the world and dropping it a few times, remains incredibly durable, they just don’t make them like that anymore. I was able to concentrate on compositions more than utilizing techniques as dodging and burning.

Most photography schools allow for experimentation. As a student, I had free sessions where you could spend the entire day in the photo lab. A teacher’s assistant would walk you through the whole procedure of developing the film, taking out your negatives and then making prints on an enlarger, and placing the photographic paper in fixer and stop bath prior to drying the completed prints. While more interested in actual compositions, my negatives tended to be scratched and my photos more faded than anything else. No real explanation for this, just the frame of mind I was in at the time.

Analog photography is more of an art form, something you learn in photography schools. This rather arduous procedure was fulfilling, because it allowed for creativity to explore what was possible within the photographic realm. You experiment with different f-stops and different film speeds. Sometimes the end result would be disappointing; especially when something you set up didn’t come out the way you expected, too dark, too overexposed, or you left the lens cap on!

5 Inexpensive Marketing Tactics That Work With Smaller Budgets

New marketing strategies and channels are growing fast as our digital world evolves with each year. An entrepreneur on a limited marketing budget should first identify the best possible method and tactic for marketing. What in essence will deliver the most bang for the marketing dollar. The following marketing tactics are a great start for entrepreneurs wanting to create momentum for their brand.

Make Organic Search Engine Optimization (SEO) a Marketing Priority

A company website is one of the most important tools if not "The" most important tool for a business. It is often, where potential customers get their first impression of a brand. SEO campaigns help brands drastically improve their website when done right. When optimizing a website for SEO campaigns, almost all aspects of a website are improved. Therefore, the website increases in quality. SEO campaigns are created to have a brand's website appear in the top search results of dominant Search Engines such as Google, Yahoo, and Bing organically. This means, it is not shown in search through paid advertising, but in the organic search results. They are more reliable and yield a much greater click-through rate.

Google's free AdWords tool helps entrepreneurs identify what keyword phrases yield the most traffic online. Those should be considered for optimization and SEO, but competitiveness should be kept in mind. At times, smaller niche markets are easier and faster to reach. AdWords will be able to provide all those details for entrepreneurs.

Use Google Analytics Constantly to Gain Valuable Insights

Too often entrepreneurs fly blindly. This means, they do not really know what is happening to their website and marketing efforts. Without factual data, a business is not able to measure their efforts. With Google Analytics and other third party tools, entrepreneurs can get quick reports, statistics, and measurements of their marketing efforts.

Entrepreneurs must embrace tools such as Google Analytics to successfully launch and manage marketing campaigns. Even though there are many other tools, Google's Analytics and Webmaster Central are essential to online success and should be frequently utilized by website operators and entrepreneurs. Intelligence information is crucial to understanding once marketing efforts.

Content Marketing Campaigns Can Yield Great Results Online

Many entrepreneurs neglect the importance of content marketing efforts. Content marketing is one of the most beneficial marketing tactics, can be free or small investments, and the publishing and distribution is free as well on many websites. Entrepreneurs can create quality content, publish it, and distribute it with very small investments or free.

Content marketing is considered the creation of articles, blog articles, press releases, videos, and Images such as Infographics. Once created, they are uploaded, shared, and distributed across many channels such as Social Media.

It is a critical method of marketing, very results oriented, and also one of the least expansive techniques to market online.

Find Your Target Market Online and Join them

For a business or entrepreneur to have success through marketing, the target market should be identified, studied, and found online to join them. This means, a brand should become visible where the target market spends time at online. There are many third party tools that allow a brand to search articles, websites, news, and much more that is relevant to the brand. These are the places that the target market and potential customers are digitally speaking.

A business should become visible there as well, if it wants to have greater success rate with marketing efforts. There are third party tools that let a brand search based on keyword phrases, which websites are best. Such a tool that works great is called Link Prospector by Citation Labs.

Communicate with Your Key Customers

Once all the marketing and sales efforts have succeeded and a business has gotten customers, a brand must keep the customers (good) loyal. Not all customers are good customers, but the key customer relationships must be nurtured by a business.

Receiving valuable feedback, insights, and information from customers is invaluable to a brand's marketing efforts. Key customers can generate referrals, be a reference, provide testimonials, and much more. Opening up communication with customers can benefit a business in many ways.

These are 5 methods and tactics that entrepreneurs and organizations can utilize for successful marketing. All of them are free or very inexpensive and companies should put them to use to succeed with marketing campaigns.

When companies are not sure, one tactic that is often used is the consulting services of an expert. Marketing consulting services can greatly enhance an organizations ability to make better decisions with marketing and avoid costly mistakes.