Tips on Choosing the Best Cookware For You

The variety of pots and pans available in the market can be quite confusing for the average Joe or Jane. There are just so many kinds, so many names, so many brands, and so many metal or metal combinations to choose from, that it can be quite difficult to figure out which one is the best in the market. So, which really is the best cookware of all?

As you already know, different people have different needs and preferences. What you should ask first is, which would be the best cookware for you. Here is a bit of a guide to help you choose:

• What is your cooking preference? If you like sauces and saucy foods, for example, you might prioritize investing in a high quality sauce pan.
• How many people do you cook for? Cooking just for two or cooking for 8 everyday would dictate the size of cookware that you should be looking for.
• How often do you entertain guests, and how much storage do you have? Professional chefs have ample amount of space to store their cookware, but if you have limited space, you might consider looking for those that can be easily stored. Also, this could dictate whether you should buy single pieces or a whole set.
• How much maintenance can you take? Some kinds of cookware require less maintenance than others.
• What is your budget? The price of pots and pans depends heavily on the kind of metal used and the brand.
Remember these tips:
• The best cook wares are the ones that distribute heat evenly to ensure even cooking of food.
• Make sure that you buy cookware that is lined with non-reactive metal – this means that the metal that touches your food does not react to acid or alkaline.
• Choose one that you can use for both stove top and oven. This saves time as well as cleaning up.
• Make sure that the handles are heat-proof, and that the lid fits snugly.
• The best cookware is the one that will last for a long time. Choose quality. And quality cookware usually comes with the manufacturer's warranty.
• If you are using (or going to use) an induction stove, make sure that you buy one that is magnetic.

It is, of course, wise to look at catalogs online and check the reviews made about the products. By spending some time on in-depth research, you could find the best cookware to suit your lifestyle.

The New Sony Xperia P – An Introduction To Design And Display Technology

In January 2012 Sony announced details of the Xperia S, the first smartphone that the company is set to release without the help of Ericsson, the manufacturer who they have developed numerous devices with over the past decade. Sony have been quick to add further models to the new Xperia range and the latest handset to be confirmed is the new Sony Xperia P, a mid range device designed to offer more features than the entry level Xperia U at a more wallet friendly price than the flag Xperia S. We take a look at design and screen technology on this brand new model.

One surprising aspect of the design on the new Sony Xperia P is the material from which the body is constructed. The models that sit above and below this new handset in the range are constructed from a plastic material but this device offers a very attractive aluminum body. A single piece of this material is used to make the neatly curved back panel while the screen that dominates the fascia is made form Gorilla Glass, a new type of glass that is much more durable than traditional types and therefore perfect for use on a device such as this. This model makes uses of a large 4.3 inch screen which means that handset is larger than the Xperia U device. The dimensions of the model are 122 x 59.5 x 10.5mm and the phone weighs just 120 grammes. One feature that this new handset does have in common with its sibling devices is that it incorporates a striking transparent band benefit the screen. This band houses a series of LED bulbs which illuminate to notify you when you receive incoming calls and texts. This is very different to what any other mobile device currently offers and it will divide many consumers with some loving the extra appealing while others will view it as an unnecessary addition.

In terms of screen size the Sony Xperia P sits nicely between the Xperia U and S with its impressive 4.3 inch display. This puts the phone in direct competition with devices like the Samsung Galaxy S2 and the screen technology present on this device specifically helping it to impress more than many of its rivals. The screen is capable of displaying a resolution of 540 x 960 pixels which equates to a pixel density of 275PPI. This standard of screen is also known as qHD and Sony have added some technology of their own to ensure that it can display the highest quality of image possible. This technology is known as WhiteMagic and Sony report that it helps the phone to deliver a brighter image than any other mobile display currently on the market. This helps the screen perform very well in sunlight which is an area where many smartphones can experience problems.

The new Sony Xperia P completes a very impressive new range of phones from Sony. The model benefits from an attractive metallic finish and offers a great display that features the excellent new WhiteMagic technology.

Planking the Deck of a Model Ship

The first stage to planking the deck is to fit the false deck to the frame. The false deck is usually made from 1mm plywood and will need to be slightly adjusted for the various bulkhead notches if supplied with your kit. Mark the centre line on the deck from bow to stern ensuring that it is lined up squarely with the false keel and that the bulkheads fit through the notches on the false deck. This fit should be neither snug nor loose. The false deck will allow the deck planking to fit easier and lie flatter and more evenly.

The false deck is cambered from the midline to both the starboard and port sides. The amount of camber is usually shown on the waterline drawing that comes with the kit the dimensions of which should be marked by the builder on the bulkheads as a guide. If the plans do not indicate the camber, the general rule is ¼” rise to every foot. Thus in our 1:48 example from the last article where the breadth (beam) is 56 feet, the rise would be 13/32″ or 10mm from the centre line to the edge of either the port side or starboard side. Make sure that the sheer plan (length) matches the body plan (depth) and remember that deck curvatures do not always follow the same curvature of the hull sheer exactly. This is because the stern of the ship sits lower in the water than the bow. The level mid point between the stern and the bow is about ¾ of the length of the ship between the stern and the bow. If the plans do not match make adjustments or else fittings like cannons will not sit properly on the deck (cannons should be pointing slightly down). You should also measure the distance from the waterline to the top of the false deck to ensure accuracy with the hull. If need be you can soak the false deck in warm water or warm water with ammonia in order to get the rough curvature that you need. Remember when soaking wood, you should only use warm water and leave the piece in the water for no more than 15 minutes. This way the cells of the wood will be pliable but not broken down.

Once you are happy with the camber of the false deck, make sure that it fits snuggly up to the false keel adjacent to the sternpost or rudder post. Using wood glue and pins adhere the false deck to the bulkheads. Once the false deck is firmly in place, mark and cut out the openings previously marked for the masts, hatches, gratings and companion ways. It is better to do this after the false deck is in place because of the camber of the deck.

Now you are ready to apply planking to the false deck. The decks were usually light coloured. The width of the plank for our 18th Century model is between 8 inches and 14 inches scaled to on average 5.82mm however not all deck planks on a ship are of equal width so any width between 4.23mm and 7.41mm would be acceptable. The thickness of the planking varied from deck to deck. The lower decks were up to 4″ thick (2.12mm) and the upper decks 3″ thick (1.59mm.) Remember that the length of the board should not exceed 5.5″ (140mm).

The deck strakes (planks) were joggled, especially at the rounded edges close to the bow. The end of the plank equals 1/3 of the plank width and the length of the snipe is equal to not less than twice the width of the plank. As far as plank shift is concerned, there are three, four and for French ship, five, plank shifts. As an example, this means that there would be four planks shifted equally between the first and fifth planks in a four plank shift arrangement. It’s helpful to create a cutting jig to ensure that all of the planks are cut evenly and at the correct length. You can also use this jig for the nail pattern.

On a full size ship a gap of 3/8 ” wide (.2mm scaled) was left between the deck planks both lengthwise and at the butt ends to suit the caulking iron. Decks were nailed down next and then caulked with oakum (a mixture of animal hair, sphagnum moss or hemp and tar) and the seam was paid with pitch. There are a number of ways so simulate the tar lines. Depending on the method you use, tar lines should be applied prior to fastening the deck planks onto the false deck.

o Black thread can be glued between the boards.

o Another method is to darken the edges with a marking pen, which you would have to test to be sure the pen does not bleed into the wood and give you a fuzzy line.

o Another method is to use a soft black lead pencil and darken the edges. With the use of a pencil the caulk lines will not be perfectly even and will tend to fade in and out. This does give a realistic appearance.

o By standing the planks on edge and gluing them to a sheet of black paper then cutting them apart will give you a perfectly even caulk seam.

o To produce a subtle appearance simply space the planks ever so slightly apart and allow the glue to ooze up between the planks. You can leave the gap and allow it to fill in with whatever finish (stain, urethane or paint) you intend on using or wipe the seams with a mixture of colored glue, or fill the seams with a graphite paste mixture (used for leak proofing gasket joints). It is a little difficult to maintain an even gap between the planking because as the planks are glued to the hull they require clamping which may cause the planks to shift.

o You can also use black grout as long as your planking material is hardwood.

The nailing or tree nailing pattern depends on the width of the plank The traditional method for adding treenails is to use bamboo strips or hardwood dowels pulled through a draw plate to form the nail. Alternatives would be to use the bristles from paint brushes, whisk brooms, push brooms, wall paper brushes or anything with bristles. Materials composed of copper, brass or silver wire or plastic rods available in many sizes and can be applied by hand or spring loaded nailing tools. Once you form the tree nails, drill holes in the deck planks in the pattern you choose then glue the nails in place. Once complete, give the deck surface a light sanding.

Once you are happy with the deck, it should be sealed either with paint, stain or urethane. If you use urethane, remember to dilute the first two coats by 30% with a thinner (70/30 mix) and apply the third coat full strength.

Tips on Decorating Your French Country Kitchen

You stare out the small white framed window and gaze at the rows of lavender. The soft rays of the sun rest at the base of the horizon, as the day surrenders itself to the beginnings of dusk. Your hands remain under the luke warm water as you carefully rinse the last of the ceramic dishes. You shake off the excess water from one of your hands and open the window a crack. The smell of fresh late spring air fills the room, followed with a hint of fresh lavender. Although you may not be staying among the rolling hills of the intimate french countryside, you can certainly feel like you do, with your own french country kitchen.

The french country kitchen with its' worn rustic look, can be the ultimate family gathering place to begin the day, break for lunch, or retreat after a long days work. And there are not many better ways to bring the family together, than the aroma of delicious cuisines and an atmosphere unique to the countryside of France. This is one reason why the french country kitchen remains a cooks dream. So, how do you decorate your dream kitchen?

The country french kitchen uses a distinct palette of warm and cool colors. The colors include soft gold yellow, weathered rust, cheerful greens and cool blues. Some french country kitchens will have an emphasis on the warmer colors, while more traditional country french kitchens, will have an emphasis on cooler colors. Iron, charcoal or black can be used as accent colors. The color of scheme of your kitchen is a great place to begin brainstorming.

Natural and hand-made accents are important when decorating your kitchen. This helps give the kitchen an authentic and worn look, which is characteristic of the country french style. Accents may include wooden ceiling beams, plastered painted walls, worn wooden window frames and dark unfinished wooden flooring to name a few. By keeping a worn look, you will be keeping true to the authentic country french style.

Country french furniture is an important part of the french country kitchen. No kitchen would be complete without the wooden island, the dining room table, ladderback chairs and a cupboard full of porcelain dishes. If you want to put extra emphasis on the worn look of your kitchen, you may purchase your furniture used and save extra money. You may also purchase brand new country french furniture which is made to look authentic.

By following the above tips and unlocking your imagination, you can be living your dream in your own french country kitchen. Just do not forget the vase of lavender.

How To Upgrade From A Wood To A Wrought Iron Baluster On A Staircase

Wrought iron balusters add a decorative touch to a wooden staircase that is both contemporary and traditional. The wrought iron baluster has a number of advantages over wood ones. Plus, they're not as difficult as you might think to install into existing wood stair railroads.

Wrought iron has a long and colorful history as a manufacturing material. Its earliest uses were mainly as tools and weapons.

Its very name exemplifies its purpose. This type of metal was preferred for fashioning tools and weapons because it was reliably easy to manipulate. The material was (and still is) "wrought" or worked to create a desired shape.

It is highly ductile (capable of being rolled or pounded very thinly). It is also malleable (can be pounded using force). Malleability allows it to be hammered into various configurations without breaking or denting. These characteristics make it both practical as well as artistic to work with.

Wrought iron is still used today, but other materials have replaced it for use in many tools and weapons. Instead, it has become the material of choice for many types of building and construction applications. The wrought iron baluster is one of these. However, it can also be commonly seen in other parts of building construction, like wings.

The spindles (another word for balusters) of a staircase tend to take a lot of abuse. The spindles are subject to a lot of bumping and jostling. This takes a toll on both their appearance and their functionality over the years.

Spindles made of wood are especially vulnerable to the everyday beats your stairs receive. It does not take very long for them to become denied and scratched. Because they're soft, they will wear at the joints. Sometimes they may loosen or break away from their joints. This is true whether they are glued, nailed or drilled into the wood stair railroads.

These types of balusters are advantageous over the wood spindle when it comes to wear and tear. They do not scratch or dent like wooden spindles. A wrought iron baluster can stand up to a great deal more abuse over the years. It will not show dirt or stain as easily, either. Plus, a wrought iron baluster needs little upkeep to maintain its appearance.

Are you ready to switch out a wood spindle for a metal baluster? Here's how to do it:

1) Start by removing the old spindles. One of the best ways to do this is to see about three quarters of the way through the wood. Then pull it light toward you. It should pop out fairly easily without doing any damage to the wood stair railings. If not, work it very gently with your hands to loosen it.

2) Measure the distance between the old holes. You can also use the old spindle as a guide for cutting the new one. Just make sure you add enough extra so that you have ends to insert into the old holes. Cut your new spindles.

3) Use epoxy glue on the ends of each baluster and insert the ends into the railings.

4) Use a baluster shoe at the base of each baluster. This stabilizes the spindle and covers over the hole.

Some stair cases have balusters that are glued or nailed to the railroads instead of being inserted into drilled holes. If this is your case, you'll have to drill holes in your existing wood stair railings to accommodate each new wrought iron baluster. Simply drill the holes in the same spots where the old spindles joined to the railroads.

Different Kinds of Balustrades

Balustrades are commonly used in offices, homes, buildings, porches etc. A Balustrade is basically a railing, which includes an entire row of balustrades. They are widely used for staircases, terraces and porches. They enhance the beauty and outlook of your area.

You can find different kinds of balustrades in the market. There is a huge variety available in different kind of materials that it gets difficult for someone to select the best among the available options. They are also used in apartments having balconies and for external stairs of huge buildings.

The most important thing to keep in mind while selecting a balustrade is the security. You can always select the most beautiful one, but make sure it fulfills all of your needs and provides security for the area that you want to use it for. There are different kinds of balustrades, and they are available in various materials such as steel, wood, glass, stainless steel and wire.

You can also get custom made designs in your favorite material for the balustrades. While selecting a balustrade, you should always keep in mind that it compliments the area. Whether you are selecting it for the porch or staircases, it should look good. Following are the most popular and popular types of balustrades that are mostly used in homes, offices and other places:

1. Steel Balustrade:

Steel Balustrade is one of the best options when it comes to buying balustrade. It is very reliable and beautiful. You can find them in any shape or design that you want. You can get them custom made according to your own requirements. You can also get steel balustrades in a lot of designs; or you can opt for a plane staircase or terrain railing if you plan to keep things simple.

2. Timber Balustrade:

Timber Balustrade looks extremely beautiful and elegant. It gives the entire room a beautiful look and, at the same time, it is very durable. You can get them in any shape or design- whatever suits your requirements.

3. Glass Balustrade:

Glass Balustrade is something that changes the entire look of your porch, staircase or wherever it is used. It is not very safe but it looks outstanding, regardless of being used indoors or outdoors. It can be used in residential and commercial areas both. It is not very reliable like wood or steel balustrades; however, you can go for it if you want to give your home a beautiful look.

Getting a balustrade is not a very difficult thing. All you need to do is to decide the budget first and then start looking for it according to your needs. With all the material and variety available in market, you can certainly find something that exactly matches your requirements. Do keep in mind that every kind of balustrade has its own advantages and disadvantages, so you have to make sure that you are investing in the right thing.

November Reminder: Kennedy Assassination had Mississippi Roots

On Friday November 22, 1963, news bulletins hit the airwaves as rifle shots interrupted President John F. Kennedy's Dallas motorcade. The resulting three-day news marathon concluded only after the young president was buried.

Reporters moved on to the investigative phase of JFK's assassination but finally left the topic for fresh news. Yet conspiracy theorists and others have kept the debate alive over what happened forty-two years ago, who was involved, and why.

Interestingly, there are numerous asides to Mississippi's civil rights story but although none quite so compelling (and less known) as this: Seven years before JFK was assassinated, the magnolia state's Sen. James O. Eastland met for the first time with Guy Banister, a controversial CIA operative and retired FBI agent in charge of the Chicago bureau.

Banister – remember him as the man who "pistol-whipped" David Ferrie in Oliver Stone's film "JFK" – was later linked to Lee Harvey Oswald and Mississippi's senator through Eastland's Senate Internal Security Subcommittee or SISS (sometimes called "SISSY") .

The New Orleans Times-Picayune on March 23, 1956, reported that Robert Morrison, a former chief counsel for Sen. Joseph McCarthy's House Unamerican Activities Committee or HUAC, and Banister traveled to Greenwood, Mississippi, to confer personally with Senator Eastland for more than three hours. Describing the conference as "completely satisfactory," Morrison told the reporter that "Mr. Banister has completed liaison with the committee's staff which was the main object of our trip."

Appropriately cozying up to Eastland and "SISSY" was Banister's goal. And it worked.

Known as a notorious political extremist who was later described as the impetus for James Garrison's 1967-1970 Kennedy assassination probe, Banister earlier became a brief focus of Mississippi's secret spy agency, the Sovereignty Commission, when it was proposed Banister should be hired to set up an "even tighter" domestic spying system through the state.

A second Eastland operative, private investigator John D. Sullivan of Vicksburg, made this suggestion to the commission just months after the JFK assassination, according to released Sovereignty Commission records.

Former FBI agent Sullivan had worked under Banister (both inside the FBI and privately) and as a private self-employed investigator who often did work for hire for the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission; the private white Citizens Councils, of which he was an active member; and for SISS, as had Banister and Lee Harvey Oswald.

When Sullivan reportedly filed suicide following the assassination, Sovereigny Commission investigators tried to acquit his library and files, but most of his confidential files were either reportedly burned by his widow or they were being lent out, and she "could not remember" who had them , Sovereignty Commission files distinguish.

Then some twenty-nine years later, in testimony before the Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board during a Dallas hearing on November 18, 1994, the late Senator Eastland was directly implicated in the president's assassination by one of the author / theorists invited to testify.

"Lee Harvey Oswald was quite possibly an agent of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and he was doing the bidding of [Sen. Thomas J.] Dodd and Eastland and Morrison," author John McLaughlin swore.

Documentation that could support or even discredit such assertions could possibly be present in the Eastland archives at the University of Mississippi, but no objective scholar has been allowed to search these archives since the day they arrived on campus. Instead, Eastland's records were managed for years by a former associate and devoté who followed the papers from Washington, DC to Oxford.

Finally in 2005, after an unsuccessful Freedom of Information Act or FOIA request by this author, a historian was hired to organize the archives based in the James O. Eastland School of Law at Ole Miss. But there would still be a waiting period before any of the files could be viewed, according to the school's dean.

The plan was to release first all press releases, according to the historian who also confirmed that "many important files" were probably missing – that the files looked "cleaned out."

(The Dean of the law school, when presented a FOIA for access to Eastland archives, asked while laughing if he could "just show the rejection letter written to the last person who asked for this information." Later it came back to this author that "people at Ole Miss were really angry" over the FOIA request.)

——–
Notes

[1] "Banister, FBI Chief Since February, to Leave Post Nov. 30," Chicago Daily Tribune, Nov 19, 1954, Part 2, p.

[2] Citation for this newspaper article ("NOTP, March 23, 1956, p. 1") comes from the online Jerry P. Shinley Archive "Re: Jim Garrison and the SCEF Raids."

[3] William Davy, "Let Justice Be Done," (Jordan Publication, May 12, 1999), 1. On the weekend of the assassination, Banister pistol-whipped his employee Jack Martin, after Martin accused him of killing Kennedy. Martin ever spoke to authorities.

[4] Sovereignty Commission documents SCR ID # 7-0-8-89-1-1-1 and SCR ID # 2.56-1-20-1-1-1.

[5] Sovereignty Commission documents SCR ID # 99-36-0-2-1-1-1 SCR ID # 1-16-1-21-1-1-1, SCR ID # 1-26-0-5- 2.1.1, SCR ID # 2-2-0-19-1-1-1, SCR ID # 1-24-0-11-1-1-1

[6] After the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, AJ Weberman, a "Dylanologist," "garbologist" and Kennedy conspiracist wrote that he received this communication from Sullivan's grandson, Jeremy Sullivan: "I was told that he committed suicide but my Dad did not think so. He told me there was an investigation and the FBI was involved. They deemed it suicide. The story I heard had changed depending on who told it, I believe that they had been out fishing all day and John Daniel had been drinking. After they got home, he was alone in his room and there was a gunshot and he was found dead. " Also, Weberman stated that Jim Garrison had an undisclosed case against Sullivan in 1961. Per a "Memo for the Director" by Betsy Palmer on April 19, 1978, regarding the "HSCA." From AJ ajweberman and Michael Canfield, "Coup D'Etat in America, The CIA and the Assassination of John Kennedy," (New York City, The Third Press, 1975) Nodule II.

[7] Online minutes of testimony before the Assassination Records Review Board, November 18, 1994. Dallas, Texas. Testimony of John McLaughlin aka John Bevilaqua, Harvard University graduate and systems analyst, also a Kennedy assassination theorist. McLaughlin was testifying why he needed to see documents from HUAC and SISS. He had also requested military records of Wycliff P. Draper, head of the Draper Committees and Pioneer Fund. Mississippi had been the benefactor of Draper money in its fight against the Civil Rights Act of 1965 and in funding of private white academies per Sovereignty Commission reports.

[8] Eastland's name has also been associated with the murder of civil rights leaders Medgar Evers, Dr. Martin Luther King, US Senator Robert Kennedy and with the mass murder at a US Army base located in Mississippi of potentially 1,000 black soldiers during World War II.

[9] The former Eastland aid has since retired.

Dr. Walter Freeman's Frontal Lobotomies at Athens (Ohio) State Hospital

Few chapters in the medical history of Athens County, Ohio, are more notorious or fascinating than that concerned Walter Freeman, MD, and the more than 200 frontal lobotomies he performed at the Athens State Hospital in seven visits between 1953 and 1957.

Until the middle of the twenty century, treatment for most inpatients in large state hospitals, like that in Athens, was limited to providing a safe and humane environment. Effective drugs for mental illnesses did not become available until the late 1950s and early 1960s.

In 1936 Egas Moniz, MD, a Portuguese physician who will ever be a Nobel Prize for his work, reported the results of his earliest frontal lobotomies in a French medical journal. Dr. Walter Freeman, a neurologist at George Washington University in Washington, DC, who had met Dr. Moniz a year earlier, was impressed with the report. Within the same year Dr. Freeman teamed with a neurosurgeon to perform the operation, and over the next decade the partners operated on many more cases. However, Freeman became frustrated with the operation's limits. In 1946 he developed an alternative procedure that could be done more quickly, outside an operating room, and without anesthetic drugs.

He used electroconvulsive therapy to produce drugles anesthesia. After the patient's convulsive movements subsided, Dr. Freeman operated.

Lifting an upper eyelid, he inserted a long, metal pick between the eyeball and the eyelid until it reached the bony roof of the eye-socket. He pounded the pick through the bone into the braincase where it entered a frontal lobe of the brain. He repeated the insertion procedure on the opposite side. Then, using the outer ends of the picks as handles, he made sweeping movements which marked and destroyed the frontal lobes. He finished before the patient awoke from the after-effects of the induced seizure.

Dr. Freeman performed this procedure in state hospitals nationwide that were understaffed, overflowing with patients, and very receptive to any new treatment that held promise. Every state hospital of that era could give electroconvulsive treatment, and the hospital did not have to provide an operating room. A minor procedure room sufficed.

Freeman met with families of patients, explained the risks and benefits of the procedure, and answered questions. Some families agreed and others did not. Assisted by the local medical staff, and with a succession of patients filing into and out of the procedure room, Freeman typically operated on his own case-load in just one day. Charging $ 25 per patient for his services, he departed within a few days for his next destination.

Freeman visited the Athens State Hospital more times than any of the other state hospitals in Ohio. On his first visit in 1953 he was treated as a minor celebrity. The Athens Messenger of November 16 reported his arrival with the headline "Lobotomies to be performed: surgery may treat mental illness of many patients at state hospital." A follow-up article on November 20 – entitled "Dr. Freeman, pioneer in trans-orbital technique, demonstrating method: lobotomies are performed on 31 Athens State Hospital patients" – shown pictures of Freeman with the local staff, including Superintendent Charles Creed, Assistant Superintendent Hubert Fockler and Drs. Beatrice Postle Fockler, Wayne Dutton and Genevieve Garrett Dutton.

The surgeries were performed in the Receiving Hospital, a separate building constructed in 1950 which is now the eastern-most portion of the main building.

Wolfhard Baumgaertel, MD, longtime general practitioner in Albany, Ohio, was present for Freeman's third visit to Athens in October 1954. Dr. Baumgaertel watched the procedure on the day's first patient, and then provided after-care for this patient and all the others who followed.

His his familiarity with surgery, Dr. Baumgaertel recalled being surprised by the procedure, saying, "I do not remember which made me more aghast while watching this – the hammering of the picks into the brain or the simultaneous movement of the picks' handles in the doctor's hands."

Describing his after-care of Freeman's patients, Dr. "At regular intervals the patients arrived in the recovery room, my domain during this, to me, unknown and incomprehensible event. the patient woke up. We had no major complications.

"I do not remember any immediate or late post-operative deaths in the patients I attended to. Most returned to their floors in the asylum within one to two weeks. Of course, none of them were able to recall the event, but there were also no questions. I remember having been surprised to the point of being shaken when I discovered a total absence of wonder on the part of the patients as to what happened to them. "

Geneva Riley, RN, who was director of nursing at the Athens State Hospital 1975-1993, witnessed the same procedure at another facility. She likened the noise made by the picks to the sound of cloth tearing.

In the mid-1990s the author encountered one of Dr. Freeman's former patients at Doctors Hospital of Nelsonville in Nelsonville, Ohio. His computed tomographic (CT) scan showed large areas of damage to the frontal lobes. The radiologist, unaware of the patient's prior history, interpreted the abnormalities as due to strokes.

But the patient and his wife had a different story to tell. Emotionally traumatized by combat in World War II, the man was an inpatient at Athens State Hospital in the 1950s when Dr. Freeman came to town. The patient was functioning at a low level, dropping to the ground at any sudden noise and smoking cigarettes benefit a blanket. His wife agreed to the procedure which was complicated by hemorrhage. Even so, he improved and was discharged from the hospital after three months. For many years he operated heavy equipment without difficulty except for an occasional seizure.

Asked if she had regrets, the patient's wife said, "No. I still think I made the right decision."

To see pictures related to this article, visit: http://www.cordingleyneurology.com/lobotomiespictures.html

(C) 2005 by Gary Cordingley

Red Flag Land Developments – Physical Limitations

It is important to be able to determine early in your screening if a specific parcel may be worthy of further investigation as a potential land development. However, it may be even more important for you to be able to identify fairly quickly those properties on which you should not be spending any time and effort. The problem may be with the parcel itself. On the other hand, it could have been a property having the wrong seller, one that's in the wrong municipality or just bad timing. You could have any combination of factors translating into a "red flag" potential real estate development, ie, one that's not economically feasible or where you would have to grab a tiger by its tail. As the title suggests, this article discusses scenarios where a physical character of the parcel is the problem.

Every real estate parcel can be used for something. The second and third articles in the Land Development Values ​​series discuss how uses are permitted under the current zoning either automatically or upon meeting certain conditions. Those articles also explain when other types of real estate developments may be possible by obtaining some sort of change, such as a variance or a rezoning. Sometimes, however, what is permitted or possible (even if favorable to the type of land development you want to do) becomes almost irrelevant because the land parcel has some incurable physical defect. Here are some examples.

Landlocked Parcels
Municipal zoning and development ordinances typically will not permit a subdivision or development of a parcel (other than a single residential building lot) without the property owners frontage on an existing street. This defect, therefore, can not be "cured" by gaining access to the street by an easement through an adjoining property because an easement does not transfer ownership rights to that land area. It purely gives the recipient some rights to cross over or use that portion of the neighbor's property for a specific purpose over a certain period of time. You've got to purchase adjoining land with a sufficient amount of frontage and tack it onto the parcel you wanted to develop. This could negatively impact the feasibility of the deal.

Too Little or Too Much Frontage
Municipal ordinances usually spell out minimum lot size and width requirements for flag parcels (ie, those with a narrow strip fronting on a street). A land parcel with hundreds of feet of frontage on one or more streets may not be the answer, except your goal is to simply subdivide the property into individual residential building lots without the need for a new road. If you're contemplating a retail or office development and not subdividing, the municipality will probably require improvements along the frontage that could make the ultimate development costly. These could include widening the road along each frontage, installing curbing and sidewalk, relocating existing utility poles, or providing turn-only lanes.

Wasted Land Area
Sometimes the usable portion of a parcel is just not enough because land area is lost (ie, can not be developed) due to physical characteristics such as floodplain, slopes, wetlands, woodlands or other "protected" resources. Common sense dictates that it may be difficult or impossible to achieve an efficient land development layout (one that maximizes the parcel yield while minimizing the cost of horizontal improvements) if the parcel has an irregular shape.

Non-contiguous Land Area
It is not unusual to find parcels with the same owner that are separated from each other by either existing roads or properties owned by somebody else. The amount of contiguous acreage becomes relevant where zoning ordinance provisions specify minimum parcel area requirements for certain land uses.

Suppose you were thinking of buying two parcels from the same owner. Parcel "A" is 20 acres and Parcel "B" is 30 acres but they are across the road from each other. The ordinance requires that a site developed into a particular use have at least 50 acres. The seller's property may consist of a total of 50 acres, but for purposes of determining if it meets the site area requirement, it will be treated as two separate parcels. So unless you were able to purchase enough land adjoining either "A" or "B" to have contiguous land area of ​​at least 50 acres, the type of real estate development that you wanted to do would probably not be possible.

Ventilated Facades Vs Masonry Facades – What Are the Benefits? Part 1

The main benefits of ventilated façades can be categorized among two: aesthetic and technical.

Technical benefits: There are many significant advantages of ventilated facades, as applicable with respect to masonry façade. First is the fact that, since this kind of construction is layered, one can evaluate the benefits of different layers to arrive at the benefits of the total system.

The four layers of a ventilated façade are:

1. Building enclosure walls

2. Thermal insulation layer

3. Air chamber

4. Cladding

The other layers that may be included are:

5. Sound insulation

6. Waterproof sealing

1. Thermal control: The second and third layers affect thermal control. The main function of the air chamber is to strike a balance between the external and the internal temperature. The external temperature is sure to go up because due to the direct sunlight falling on the cladding panels. As the temperature rises, there is an upward movement of hot air contained within the chamber. This causes fresh and cool external air to enter through the lower section of the façade or the open joints among the panels, in an attempt to maintain a balance of temperature.

This phenomenon is not experienced during winters, as outdoor cool air, when entering the air chamber, cools it down, as a result of which the first layer of enclosure walls gets cooled. This cooling can be avoided by using a second layer, providing thermal insulation. This needs to be attached directly to first layer, the purpose being to prevent cold outdoor air from coming in contact with the enclosure walls of the building.

You should understand that it is due to the second layer that the first layer acts as an accumulator of internal heat during the winters, while during the summers it brings the loss of cool internal air through the façade. One can save twenty to thirty percent energy with help of ventilated facades, depending on the glass surface.

2. Sound insulation: For providing an integral acoustic insulation, we need to provide an acoustic layer on the second layer, which needs to be counted from the inner side, meaning between the enclosed space formed by the walls and the thermal insulation. Such cover necessarily needs to be collectively attached to the walls forming the enclosure, enabling it to absorb the vibrations as a result of the excessive external noise.

3. Waterproofing: Waterproofing is generally innate to any acoustic or thermal insulation. You can enhance the level of safety by using another watertight insulation. Typically, it is necessary where a thermal insulation is not provided on the external walls of the enclosure, but instead it is provided within them. Under such circumstances, a coat of waterproof paint is generally applied with the help of rollers. However, it's important to check the specification and follow the manufacturer's instructions, as it is desirable for this to remain breathable from inside out, in order to prevent condensation.

How To Solder Silver – Tips For The Complete Novice

When I was first interested in learning to solder silver, I was very intimidated by the scope of the endeavor not to mention the flame. So I started very small with few expectations about the results. My biggest tip for the novice is to not expect it to go the way you think it should. Take your time and learn what it will actually do and not do. Be prepared to melt things beyond repair. You learn your best lessons from your worst mistakes.

For my first modest foray into silver soldering, I bought: a butane powered mini-torch; a magnesia soldering block; easy solder in wire form; a few 18 gauge, open jump rings (8 or 9mm are easiest to handle at first); pickle; copper tongs and flux. You will also need a jar of water for quenching, safety goggles, a pair of heatless tweezers and a pair of wire cutters. Always wear safety goggles.

To begin, set your magnesia block (I prefer these to charcoal because of the less cost, they take less time to heat and they cool faster) in an open area with nothing flammable around it. Push back your sleeves if they are long and tie back your hair as well, if it is long. It is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the operation of the torch before soldering your first jump ring. Turn it on and off several times until you can do it easily.

Take a clean jump ring and make sure that the ends line up exactly and that they are touching each other. Solder will make a join solid, but it will not fill gaps. Apply flux to the place you want to join. When the solder melts it will follow the flame and flow where the flux is. Do not put flux anywhere you do not want the solder to go.

A few words about fluxes are in order. There are a lot to choose from. I use either a paste flux or a liquid flux depending on what I want to do. Flux has two purposes; to help the solder flow and to help protect your silver from firescale. When you heat your sterling to soldering temperatures, you bring some of the copper in the alloy (92.5% silver, 7.5% copper) to the surface. The copper is essentially what makes sterling silver tarnish so quickly and is responsible for the firescale. Firescale shows itself as a black coating on the surface of your sterling. A number of "how-to's" on silver soldering will tell you to flux the entire piece in order to limit the firescale. But This sometimes makes the sold go where you do not want it and it is not always fun trying to remove the solder later. Paste flux holds where you put it and liquid does not always stay put. But paste flux can become very hard and glassy after heating and requires more time in the pickle to eliminate it all. You really will not have a problem with your first jump ring soldering project and may use any type of flux that you like, but these are a few things to remember for later; if there is a later. I caught the "bug" right off and have not regretted it.

Now, take your wire cutters and cut off a small piece of easy solder. About an 1/8 of an inch should be more than enough. Place the solder on the magnesia block. Place the join of the jump ring on top of the solder so that it forms a cross. Turn off any direct lighting on your work area and use only room lighting. Light your torch. Bring the torch slowly closer to the jump ring so as not to blow the jump ring off of the solder.

If you are using a paste flux and you set the jump ring quickly down upon the solder, you can let it dry a bit and the two will stick together. If you are using a liquid flux, do as I recommended in the previous paragraph.

By not brightly lighting your work, you will be better able to see the changes in color of the flux and the metal as it heats. Learning about these color changes now will help you later when you make larger projects.

When the area of ​​the magnesia block that the jump ring is resting on and the jump ring and solder reach the melting point of the solder, the solder will flow. Move the flame around the circumference of the jump ring. As you see it start to turn pinkish, concentrate the flame mostly on the join. You will see the jump ring drop level on the surface of the block and you will see the solder become very shiny and flow up the join. You will have to look quick for that last part. Remove the flame as soon as you see those two things happen. Leave the flame too long and you will melt your jump ring into a nice ball. When I first made this error, I then had a lot of fun making balls from scrap silver. They can be useful in some designs. Also, remember that the solder will follow the flame, so take the flame away straight up; not sideways. Otherwise, the solder will follow the flame over the jump ring and coat part of your ring.

A quick word about heat sinks. Everything your work touches soaks up the heat of the flame and takes it away from your work; including the air in the room. Never try to sold anything large together by dangling it in the air. I know one person who tried this and failed. You can not (and do not want to) heat all the air in your work room to soldering temperatures. Small items like jump rings or finger rings work fairly well, though.

Pick up the jump ring with the heatless tweezers and dunk it in the quenching water. It will hiss and spit a bit. Dry the jump ring and inspect the join. A small lump at the join is acceptable. A large lump is not, unless you want to make it a design element. Ideally, the joined place should not be obvious. It will take some experimentation with the different gauges of wire and amounts of solder to get to the point where you can make a nearly invisible join.

Take your copper tongs and place the jump ring in the pickle solution. Pickle is basically a week acid that will turn the copper firescale into a white coating that can be easily polished off. Do not drop it into the pickle. Also, do not put it in the pickle if it is still quite hot. Even though it is a reliably weak acid, it will still burn you and put holes in your clothes. Not immediately, though. They tend to show up after you wash them. You must use copper tongs because any ferrous (iron bearing) metal that comes in contact with the solution will electrolyze it and you will end up plating copper onto your silver. Remove the jump ring with the copper tongs also. Rinse it well in your quenching water. Or have a jar of water with baking soda added to it standing by to completely neutralize the acid.

If you do not want a hard, bright, shiny polish on your jump rings, you can use a brass brush to remove the white coating. Dip a soft brass brush in a solution of dish soap and water and thoroughly rub the jump ring. The soap keeps brass from depositing on the silver. If you want a bright shine, you will have to use a buffing wheel of some sort charged with a polishing compound. Only a very aggressive polishing compound will remove firescale. If you do not pickle your silver long enough, then you can try a bobbing compound. But remember, this will remove more of the silver and if you have surface detail, you will lose some or all ot it. It really is best to pickle your item long enough that no hint (a yellowish color) of firescale remains.

Even someone who has been soldering silver for a long time can learn something new; usually the hard way. Recently, I learned that you can not sold brass to sterling silver. I did some research and learned why. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Silver solder is an alloy of fine silver, copper and zinc. So, if you are trying to solder brass to sterling, the zinc and copper in the brass turn the sterling silver to solder, basically. And it just looks like a mess. You can, however, solder copper to sterling silver as I have done, without this problem. Also, you can solder copper to brass. I was trying to combine copper, sterling and brass with no luck at all.

So have some fun. Get out there and light that torch! In no time you will be moving on to bigger and better things.

Gains Over 40 – My 5,000th Workout

BEEN TRAINING SINCE THE "IRON AGE"?
Q: I've been lifting for about 20 years now, and I often struggle with joint pain and flexibility issues. How can I modify my workouts to still benefit from them?

A: "Age is just a number", some people will tell you. Yeah, tell that to your joints. After some 25 years of training hard and heavy in the gym myself – plates piled on top of one another in my daily battle against the iron – I often surprise people when they learn I'm 46.

Jim Stoppani, Ph.D., author of "Encyclopedia of Muscle & Strength" (Human Kinetics, 2006), co-author of the New York Times Bestseller, "LL Cool J's Platinum 360 Diet and Lifestyle" (Rodale, 2010) says your experience level and goals are the most critical factors of how you train. This is especially true for beginners, he adds, since there is not much difference in how beginners of different ages should train. But as you become more of an intermediate and advanced lifter, you should start thinking about age-appropriate training. If you're an advanced older trainer, it's time to consider other areas of focus.

MODIFY YOUR ROUTINE FOR ADDED BENEFITS
Followinglining hormone levels, specifically testosterone and growth hormone, contribute to a 3% -5% reduction in muscle mass per decade after the age of 25, you likely will not make dramatic changes in your physique regardless of how often you train, Stoppani says. You also will not lose what you have as long as you hit each body part once a week. I suggest incorporating more endurance activities, such as cycling and running, to boost your cardiovascular health, something men in their 40s and older should be concerned about. And in terms of flexibility take on activities that increase your range of motion and flexibility, such as martial arts or yoga. Exercises such as the clean and jerk and the snatch will increase your range of motion, flexibility and balance, since they involve an exaggerated range of motion.

One factor you certainly do not want to take for granted as you age is joint health. In fact, research shows that while heavy training can increase cartilage breakdown, light training can boost joint regeneration, meaning always going heavy is a recipe for sore joints. That's why I recommend alternating heavy and very light workouts for a particular muscle group.

LET YOUR AGE WORK IN YOUR FAVOR
Maximize your testosterone and growth hormone levels by following these guidelines:

  1. Utilize extended warm-up and cool-down sessions.
  2. If you've been training for many years, back off your training frequently but substitute other physical activities to increase cardiovascular health as well as flexibility.
  3. To maximize testosterone, choose multi joint exercises performed with low to moderate reps (3-8) and longer rest periods (about three minutes), while avoiding high-intensity techniques like forced reps and supersets.
  4. To maximize growth hormone levels, use slightly higher reps (10-15) on multiple joint exercises with slightly shorter periods (1-2 minutes or less), and use a variety of high-intensity techniques.
  5. Follow every heavy workout for a muscle group with one using very light weights (about 15-25 reps) to stimulate joint recovery.
  6. Use negative training every 2-3 months to stimulate the replacement of old and weaker muscle fibers with new and stronger ones.

Worktops – What Height Are the Electrical Sockets Fitted Above the Worktops? (5 Essential Points)

The first thing to do is discuss with your chosen electrician where about on the kitchen plan you want your sockets and any switched spurs to be placed.

Your electrician will then tell you whatever what you want is within the current regulations and for anything that is not an alternative can be suggested.

By law all electrical work has to be done by a competent electrician. Amongst other qualifications in the UK the electrician needs to be Part P compliant. Part P is a government building regulation rule covering domestic installation. When all electrical work is finished they will give a certificate to the house owner stating that all alterations that have been done are incompatible to all the current regulations.

When the electrician is laying all of the cables in place, with the old kitchen removed, any cables going vertically up to sockets above the worktop can be left in a long loop and return back down to keep the ring main unbroken. Then the cable is run horizontally along the wall, just above the floor, until it is below the next socket where the cable can then vertically back up the wall and again, left in a long loop and returned back down. This continues up to any socket above the worktops until the ring main is finished

These loops are temporarily clipped to the wall while the kitchen base units and any tall housing units are fitted. Once all of the units are leveled in and fixed back to the wall the final positioning of all of the socket back boxes can be worked out. When the worktops have been cut into place but not joined together the socket positions can finally be worked out.

Tip if you have some spare worktop or a length of wood the same thickness as a worktop this can be placed on top of the base units to aid the marking out so that the socket back boxes are cut out and fitted before the main worktop is fitted .

It is a good idea to know what tiles will be used or at least the height so that a full tile or two, depending on the height of the tile, passes beneeth the socket back boxes. If the tiles are 100m / m high then two tiles high is best but if the tiles are 150m / m high then one tile high is ok.

Next make sure the socket comes on a vertical joint so that when the tiling is being done only a corner is taken out of each of these tiles.

To get the vertical joint positions work out which end of the wall you will start tiling from and take the width of a tile plus one grout thickness and using multiples of that measurement measurement mark on the wall the closest joint to where you want the socket.

This means that when the tiles are fixed only the corners need to be cut out to fit around the metal box.

Now draw an extremely accurate, level line everywhere there is a socket. The socket has around a 5m / m cover over the size of the metal box so the tiles need to be cut fairly accurately.

Once all the back boxes are fitted if the wall is solid the wires will need to be chased down the wall to below the worktop and then put into conduit before the chases or channels in the wall are filled.

Meeting Your Online Date for the First Time

it's fun to find potential dates online. You can chat and find out what the other person is like. Your imagination may run away with you. Of course, there are web cams that help you get to know another person better. Still, meeting someone in person is very different from meeting them online.

And since this preparation, it can still be somewhat stressful to meet and go out on a date with somebody you only chatted with. How can you impress? How can you keep the first date from being the last date? Confidence is key. Be confident and yet be natural at the same time, because pretensions are never good.

Do not put too much pressure on yourself or your date. Remember that this is going to be a night of fun, whether you just expect to have an enjoyable evening or you're looking for your dream partner. Be enthusiastic and do not pile too many expectations onto your date; just enjoy the company of the other person. This could be only the first of many subsequent dates.

Confidence is a state of mind. Think of yourself as confident and confidence is likely to follow. Do not put unrealistic expectations on yourself. You're not expecting all heads to turn to you and your date when you arrive at a party. You do not have to be handsome or beautiful or incredibly sexy to have self-confidence. In fact, when you are self-confident, beauty and sexiness can follow.

Alexandra Penney and Norman F. Stevens, Jr., the authors of the book "How to Make Love to a Man" interviewed over 200 men from many different backgrounds and ask them what experiences turn them on in a woman. The words they most often heard were "self-confident," "composed," "intelligent" and "feminine." The authors concluded, "If you ask 100 men what is sexy, 99 of them will probably say 'self-confidence.'"

The reverse is also true. When Michael Morgenstern, author of "How to Make Love to a Woman," asked women what they found to be sexy in men, the most frequent reply was also confidence or self-assurance!

Typically, you will also find yourself most compatible with people who share at least one of your interests. This will provide a source of conversation as well as suggest activities that you could enjoy together.

You are a special person and you deserve to find someone equally special with what you can be happy. Do not be insecure; instead, remind yourself of your individual strengths and talents. Be gutsy, and meet people with boldness and self-confidence.

With such an attitude you will be well on your way to finding the life partner you have been looking for.

The Best Way to Chip the Golf Ball

In a perfect golf world, the chip shot would never even need to be used. All of our approach shots would land softly on the green and nestle themselves closely enough for an easy, makeable putt.

Obviously, this scenario is rooted much more in fantasy than reality. For the average golfer, the chip shot is used many times in a round. It can be a very valuable tool in lowering your handicap if executed effectively.

So, what’s really the best way to chip the golf ball?

The answer is…the way that makes it end up closest to the hole on a regular basis.

For me, and keep in mind I’m a golfer who is forced to utilize the chip shot more than most, the best way to chip the ball is as follows:

1) Using your regular pitching wedge, choke down on the handle a few inches and step up to the ball as if making a putt.

2) Open the face of the club so that it will slide easily under the ball on contact.

3) With very stiff arms, “putt” the ball with your wedge.

4) Follow-through by pointing the bottom of the club at your target, arms still stiff.

This may sound confusing, but I assure you it works.

The goal is to keep your arms stiff through the entire motion, and base your follow-through on the distance you need the ball to go. A shorter distance will be little or no follow-through, and a longer distance would be a longer follow-through.

By chipping with this putting-type motion, I find the ball pops up nicely and I have a good deal of control over its direction. There will be certain lies where this chipping style isn’t warranted, but I find it works very well in most situations. It just may take a little tinkering around the putting greens to get the distance control. In the end, you’ll save yourself at least a few shots per round.