How to Make Mosaics – Is Hardboard a Proper Foundation For Mosaics?

Hardboard makes a good foundation for your mosaics as long as you limit the size of the overall mosaic, limit the tesserae size, and don’t display the mosaic in a wet environment. Avoid hardboard for outdoor applications because of the potential for deterioration. Assuming your tesserae are the size of a quarter or less and the overall size of your mosaic is less than 24″x24″, I have found that 1/8-inch thick hardboard provides an adequate foundation. If your tesserae are small, it’s surprising how flexible the mosaic is, even with grout, which means it can withstand some warping before the grout cracks or glass pieces pop off. If your tesserae are big or if you incorporate large pieces of stained glass into your mosaic, the thickness of your foundation must be greater because the mosaic can’t withstand as much warping (i.e., the thicker the wood, the more resistant to warping). For example, suppose your mosaic is 24″x24″ and you use a single piece of yellow stained glass to represent the bright sun lighting up the world. Suppose the sun’s diameter is 10 inches, which makes up a good chunk of the mosaic. It’s easy to see how a little warping can stress that single piece of glass causing failure (i.e., breaking, popping off). It’s like ceramic tile on a concrete-slab foundation. As the concrete cracks and moves, stress is applied to the ceramic tile and, if the stress is great enough, the tile breaks. Therefore, you must consider the tesserae size when choosing the thickness of your mosaic’s foundation.

Over the years making many wall mosaics that are 24″x24″ or less, I have found that my favorite foundation is 1/8-inch hardboard. It’s the dark-brown stuff that pegboard is made from but without the holes. It’s slippery smooth on one side and rough on the other. I use this material only for dry, indoor, wall mosaics that will not be exposed to moisture. I use this material because it’s: 1) Relatively thin, 2) Relatively lightweight, and 3) Rough on one side so the glue grabs hold of it well.

The 1/8-inch thickness allows the finished mosaic to fit in a standard pre-made frame. My glass tesserae are about 1/8-inch thick, so the total thickness of the finished mosaic is only about 1/4-inch. This allows me to buy a ready-made frame for almost nothing. I plan my indoor wall mosaics to be 16″x24″, 18″x24″, or 24″x24″, which are common sizes for pre-made frames. If I were to use 3/4-inch plywood or MDF as the foundation, I would then have to use a custom frame with enough depth to cover the entire thickness of the mosaic (i.e., 3/4-inch wood foundation plus 1/8-inch tesserae equals almost a 1-inch thickness). Custom frames cost up to five times more than standard pre-made frames. For example, by taking advantage of their biweekly 50% sale at my favorite hobby store, I can get a pre-made 18″x24″ frame in a lovely style and color that best suits the mosaic, have the mosaic installed in the frame, have the hanging wire installed, and have paper backing installed, all for less than $25. That’s right! Less than 25 bucks. A custom-made frame might cost as much as $150.

Not only do I save on framing costs, the hardboard is cheap compared to 3/4-inch plywood and MDF. I buy a pre-cut section of hardboard instead of a full 4’x’8 sheet. The pre-cut section is 24″x48″. Knowing the height of my indoor wall mosaics is typically 24″ (which is the width of the pre-cut section), this allows me to cut the hardboard giving me a 16″, 18″, or 24″ width for my mosaic foundation. For example, suppose I want my mosaic to be 18″x24″. The pre-cut width of the hardboard I buy is 24″. I measure and cut 18″, which results in a piece of hardboard that’s 18″x24″. The piece fits perfectly in a standard 18″x24″ pre-made frame. I measure and cut the hardboard using a standard circular saw and a “rip fence” that I make by clamping a 3-foot level to the hardboard with two C-clamps. The rip fence allows me to push the saw along the straight edge of the level to ensure a straight and accurate cut.

I prepare the hardboard foundation by painting it with two coats of white primer. The main reason for painting it white is to get a white background onto which the glass tesserae will be adhered (Note: I always adhere the glass to the rough side of the hardboard). Although I usually use opaque glass, the white background helps brighten it up. The dark-brown color of the hardboard makes the glass pieces appear dull and dark, even though the glass is supposed to be opaque. The secondary benefit of painting the hardboard with primer is that it seals it. I don’t know if sealing hardboard does anything, but it makes me feel better believing it’s sealed. I don’t know the material or chemical properties of hardboard and how it’s manufactured, so I don’t know if it needs to be sealed, but painting it gives me a nice, warm-and-fuzzy feeling. I have a habit of sealing everything whether it needs it or not.

After applying the tesserae and grout, you’ll be surprised at how flexible the mosaic is without causing glass or grout failure (assuming your tesserae are relatively small). When I first used 1/8-inch hardboard as the foundation for a mosaic, I experimented and found that I could bend the mosaic a full two inches without affecting the glass and grout. I was too afraid to bend it more than two inches! After the experiment, I assumed if the mosaic can bend a whopping two inches, then it can survive any warping that might occur. Then, after the mosaic was installed in the pre-made frame, I realized that the mosaic was installed in such a manner to inhibit any warping at all. The mosaic was pressed and held in-place with the little fasteners in the back of the frame to keep it from falling out. The only way the mosaic can warp is if it’s strong enough to cause the frame to warp with it. I’ve never had a problem with any indoor wall mosaic warping when using 1/8-inch hardboard installed in a standard pre-made frame.

1/8-inch hardboard is also lightweight enough so the weight of the overall mosaic isn’t so heavy that you have to remodel your home to create a support structure stout enough to hold the weight of a mosaic. Generally, my 24″x24″ (or less) mosaics are light enough to adequately hang by means of a picture hook and nail installed in drywall. I don’t have to cut into the drywall to install 2″x4″ pieces between the studs and then replace the drywall. This is extremely advantageous, especially when selling or giving away the mosaic (i.e., you won’t lose customers that you might otherwise lose if you tell them they have to hang the mosaic by doing something more than pounding a nail into wall).

What Is Skip Trowel?

What is a Skip Trowel and Other Interior Finishes

Home improvement projects can include many different finishes, including a skip trowel texture. This actually refers to a method, which can be used to create a specialized texture on walls and ceilings. It is not as extreme as some of the popcorn textures that were once making it to walls and ceilings, but it's a minority and enticing look that can add a lot to your home.

In order to do a proper skip trowel texture you will have to prepare the walls well. The walls must be initially prepared using sheet rock, mudding, and a final phase that includes taping. You are trying to prepare the wall to take what amounts to a light adhesive nature when you apply the formula. Many people either have this phase done by a professional or they go to their local home improvement store to get a crash course on the preparations. That way, when reading directions online the whole process just makes more sense.

There is an actual product called a skip trowel texture compound. Diluting the compound is often recommended to avoid any kind of caking or unpleasant thick areas that can happen when the product is used straight. You do not need much water, and the right consistency will depend on the brand and the amount that you have purchased. Typically, you can use a separate bucket to do the mixing because you do not want to dilute the entire mixture right away.

Do not mix enough water in to make it runny, as you will have your texture product running down the walls and dripping off ceilings as you work. You just want it to be pliable enough to be easy to manage.

You can use a paint roller to put the product on the surface. At this point you are not creating the final look. You are creating the popcorn look that you actually want to avoid. Once the material is on the wall, you have the opportunity to shape it. Shaping it with a trowel creates the nice textured look that is much more subtle and appreciated. Alternate the sweeping motions as you create semicircle "etchings" in the material. This makes a nice look that is great for all sorts of rooms.

The skip trowel texture is just a single look. You can use finishes with sand or small beads in the mix to create texture as well. Smooth or matte finishes can accentuate a ceiling that has been textured. Of course, paint and wallpaper are typical finishes that can still add a great pop to a room with a little bit of decorating creativity.

13 London Disasters

1. The Fatal Vespers, 1623

In the early part of the seventeenth century, the French ambassador's residence was Hunsdon House, Blackfriars. On the afternoon of 5 November 1623, more than 300 people were gathered in an upper room of the house to take part in a religious service contracted by two Jesuit practices. The floor beams, not designed to support the weight of so many, cave way and large numbers of the congregation were plunged into the room below. Ninety-five people, including the two practices, were killed and dozens more injured. The disaster, which has been often called 'the

Fatal Vespers ',' The Blackfriars Downfall 'and' The Doleful

Evensong ', was assumed by many Londoners at the time to be the judge of God on the French Catholics who had offended the Almighty with their idolatrous practices.

2.Execution of Lord Lovat, 1747

The Jacobite Lord Lovat, the last man to be executed by beheading in Britain, faced his death on Tower Hill in 1747. Huge crowds had gathered to see him die and grandstands had been ejected to allow spectators a better view of the executioner's block. One of these stands became so crowded that it collapsed and twenty people were killed. Lovat, waiting to approach the block, witnessed the disaster and appeared to be grimly amused by it. The mair mischief, the mair sport ', he is reported to have said.

3.The London Beer Flood, 1814

On 17 October 1814, in the Horseshoe Brewery in Tottenham Court Road, a huge vat burst its hoops, rupturing other vats, and more than a million liters of beer swept through the brewery walls and into the streets. The sea of ​​beer carried away neighbouring houses and drowned nine people. After the disaster the brewery was brought to court but the judge, deciding that the beer flood qualified as an Act of God, refused to hold it responsible for the deaths. The site of the Horseshoe Brewery is now occupied by the Dominion Theater.

4.The Sinking of the Princess Alice, 1878

On the evening of 3 September 1878 the pleasure steamer the Princess Alice was returning from a day-trip down the Thames with more than 700 passengers aboard. Near Woolwich, a collier called the Bywell Castle approached the pleasure boat and the captain of the Princess Alice made a tragic mistake in manoeuvring his ship. He ran

directly across the path of the collier. The Princess Alice as almost cut in two and sank in less than five minutes. ^ More than 640 people drowned in what was the worst e ^ ver river disaster in Britain.

5.Hebrew Dramatic Club, 1887

Ifn March 1886 the Hebrew Dramatic Club, the first Ft> urpose-built Yiddish theater in London, was opened in Princes Street (now Princelet Street), off Brick Lane. Less tthan a year later, disaster struck the theater. During a performance of an operetta called The Gypsy Princess on 118 January 1887, a fire was mistakenly believed to have tbroken out. As the audience panicked and stamped for title exits, seventeen people were crushed to death.

6. The Albion Disaster, 1898

On 21 June 1898, the Duchess of York arrived at the Trhames Ironworks dockyard in Canning town to launch tthe Royal Navy cruiser HMS Albion. Thousand of spectators had gathered to watch the launch and several hiundreds, ignoring danger notices, made their way onto a * temporary bridge that had been identified by the side of smother ship in the dock. As the Albion travelled down tlhe slipway and hit the water, its momentum created al ^ arge wave which smashed into the temporary bridge aind plunged many of those standing on it into the water. Trhirty-eight people died. The Scottish 'poet' William M4cGonagall, a connoisseur of Victorian disasters, wrote 0) f the Albion tragedy in his own inimitable bad verse: 'Just ais the vessel entered the water the bridge and staging brave way / Immersing some three hundred people which caused g> reat dismay / Amongst the thousands of spectators that Were standing there / And in the faces of the bystanders, Were published despair. '

7. Trhe Silvertown Explosion, 1917

AV fire broke out at Brunner Mond's chemical works in Siilvertown on 19 January and ignited 50 tons of TNT that were being stored there. The resulting explosion was devastating, destroying many of the surrounding streets and killing 73 people. A memorial to those who died still stands in North Woolwich Road, El 6, near the site of what was once the factory.

8.Bombing of the Cafe de Paris, 1941

One of the worst disasters of the Blitz took place on the night of 8 March 1941, when a bomb fell on the well-known and fashionable nightspot, the Cafe de Paris in Coventry Street, while the band, led by Ken 'Snakehips' Johnson , was playing. Eighty people, including 'Snakehips' and several members of his band, were killed.

9.Bethnal Green Tube, 1943

During an air raid warning on 3 March, crowds were making an orderly way into the station when they were panicked, probably by the unfamiliar noise of a new type of anti-aircraft rocket being launched in nearby Victoria Park. A woman carrying a baby lost her footing. Those behind her kept on coming and bodies began to pile up in the stairwell. One hundred and seventy-three people died, mostly from suffocation. Although the government acknowledged immediately that an accident had happened at a tube station, the name of the station was not officially released until two years after the disaster.

10.Ronan Point, 1968

On the morning of 16 May, a gas explosion destroyed much of a twenty-three-storey block of flats called Ronan Point which stands in Clever Road, Newham. Four people died in the disaster (another person died later injuries sustained in the blast) and Ronan Point had an acute impact on housing policy in the city as those who expected to high-rise blocks found the perfect argument against them.

11.Moorgate Tube Crash, 1975

Just after 8.45 on the morning of 28 February the Northern Line train from Drayton Park, packed with commuters, drew into Moorgate station. Instead of coming to a halt at the platform, it seemed to accelerate and carried on into a dead-end tunnel, crashing into the brick wall at the end of it. The driver and forty-two passengers were killed. Mystery still surrounds the cause of the crash.

12.The King's Cross Fire, 1987

Thirty-one people died in the devastating fire of 18 November 1987, which began when rubbish and grease under one of the old, wooden escalators were ignited, almost certainly by a discarded match or cigarette end. Full of commuters even at 7.30 pm, when the fire broke out, the station quickly became a death trap as a fireball swept up the escalator and into the ticket hall. One of the victims of the fire was not identified until 2004. Alexander Fallon, a homeless, seventy-two-year-old man was so severely burned that it was impossible for forensic scientists to identify his remains until, nearly seventeen years later, new evidence emerged to link him with the fire scene.

13.The Marchioness Disaster, 1989

On 20 August, a collision between the dredger Bowbelle and the pleasure ship the Marchioness just upstream of Cannon Street Bridge resulted in the deaths of fifty-one people. Most of the victims were young people who were attending a party and disco on the Marchioness, and there has been much controversy, still unresolved today, about the exact causes of the disaster, the worst on the Thames since the Princess Alice sinking 111 years earlier .

Rent apartment Buckingham Gardens

Buckingham Gardens

Richard Parkes Bonington – The English Romantic Landscape Painter

The English 'Romantic' landscape painter, Richard Parkes Bonington or Richard Bonington, was born on October 25, 1802, in Arnold, near Nottingham, England. The only child of Richard Bonington, a dabbling painter & a prison guard, and Eleanor Parks, a teacher, the artist showed interest in drawing & acting, since his early childhood. He gave to the world an astonishing mix of classical flairs, modernized with finesse.

Bonington's father traced him on watercolor painting and at the tender age of 11, he had his first exhibition at the Liverpool Academy. After his father lost his job, the Boningtons decided to migrate to Calais, France, in 1817. Here they started a lace factory, with Richard simultaneously being trained on English watercolor paintings, under the painter, François Louis Thomas Francia. In 1818, the Bonington family moved to Paris to start a lace retail outlet. Richard disliked working at the factory and favored painting and sketching. To pursue his artistic interest, he joined Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris for 1819-22 session, against his father wishes, and studied under Baron Antoine-Jean Gros.

In Paris, Richard Bonington befriended Eugène Delacroix and also got an opportunity to learn watercolor painting from the famous painter, François Louis Thomas Francia. In 1821, the painter traveled to Normandy with his friend and a fellow student, Alexandre-Marie Colin. During his trip, he recorded the scenes of fish markets and architectural ruins, selling his works later to two Paris based dealers. Richard Bonington had his first successful exhibition at the Salon in 1822, where Société des Amis des Arts bought two of his paintings. His admirers included none other than the artists of high caliber, like Corot, Delacroix, and Gros. At the age of 20, Richard went to Italy for eleven weeks with Baron Rivet and drew "The Leaning Tower, Bologna." In 1823, he began work on his lithographic series on architectural ruins, "Restes et Fragmens," which fetched him a gold medal at the Paris Salon, in 1824.

Richards Bonington became influential in England and France, as a master of 'Romanticism.' His works were generally poetic in essence and were famous for their technicalities & the vivid use of colors. Richard regarded Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), the leading artist of the French Revolutionary era, as one of his greatest influences. "The Harbor, Le Havre (1821), La Seine A Mantes (1824)," Place Du Molard (1826), "The Bridge and Abbey at St. Maurice d'Agaune" 1826), and "Souvenir De Venise (1828)." The destiny however, harshly nipped the surging phenomenon called Richard Parkes Bonington. Tuberculosis, coupled with work initiation and sunstroke, claimed his life at an early age of 26, on September 23, 1828, in London.

A Guide to Crystal Chandeliers

Buying a crystal chandelier is similar to buying a diamond. Not all crystal is created equal. Crystal may be machine-cut, hand cut or molded. The cost of your chandelier can fluctuate drastically depending on the quality of crystal you choose. Most fixtures are available in four qualities of crystal.

Lights of Distinction – the Crystorama Lighting Group and James R. Moder are two of the largest manufacturers of Crystal Chandeliers.

Strass Crystal:
Strass Crystal is considered the finest in the world. Strass is manufactured by Swarovski AG in the Austrian Alps. Strass is an optically pure crystal, clear as spring water, totally free of flaws, unique in purity and brilliance. Strass crystal is characterized by razor-sharp cutting of faces (surfaces) with the lead content in excess of 30 percent. Cutting and polishing are done by machine to achieve perfect optical clarity. Strass crystals are treated with an invisible coating, which eliminates dust attraction and makes it easier to clean and maintain. Each crystal (over 12mm) has the distinct STRASS® laser engraved signature, identifying it as a genuine STRASS® Crystal.

Swarovski Spectra Crystal:
A passion for perfection has made Swarovski the world leader in the production of cut crystal. Swarovski & Co., manufacturer of Strass Crystal, has created a new alternative quality crystal. Swarovski has used advanced technology with olde world knowledge to produce a brilliant crystal with precision cutting and superior light reflection. This crystal type is designed for a crystal connoisseur demanding quality at an affordable price.

Imperial Crystal (Available only through James R Moder):
Imperial crystal dressed chandeliers contain brilliant crystals created by precision cutting sourced from Austria, Egypt, Turkey and the Czech Republic. The Imperial crystal is a combination of quality crystals to ave a great look at an excellent price point.

Regal Crystal (James R Moder) / Majestic Wood Polish Crystal (Crystorama):
This crystal is cut by hand in two stages on an iron and then a sandstone wheel. Each crystal is then polished on a wood wheel with marble dust. These methods go back centuries. If you look closely you will notice false passages of the wood-wheel attesting, the concentrated labor of the artisan. This is a mark of authenticity. Each piece is a unique and original masterpiece.

Italian Crystal:
Italian crystal also known as Venetian Crystal (from the glass-making regions in and around Venice) is molded not cut. You will notice a round of edges that comes from fire polishing. Molded crystal, although never as brilliant as cut crystal has a similar charm and is an exceptional value. It is an ideal budget crystal for heavily dressed chandeliers.

Kate Spade – 10 Fun Facts About Her

You mention “Kate Spade” and visions of designer handbags instantly come to mind; however, she has broadened her horizons once again to now include designer style Kindle Covers. No more “nerdy”, plain, unattractive covers for Amazons newest generation e-reader. Now it’s style all the way with the Kate Spade Kindle Covers.

This isn’t the first time Kate has expanded her horizons. Starting out designing handbags based on the simple fact that she couldn’t find what SHE wanted when she shopped, she took her designing abilities long strides since those beginning days and has created quite the designer empire. While her newest product line may be the versatile Kindle covers, she has everything from handbags to jewelry, perfumes to bedding and everything in between. But she doesn’t do it alone…from the very beginning she’s held tight to her man and he’s played an important part in her life as both business and life partner.

So who is Kate Spade? Here are 10 Fun Facts

Kate Spade was born Christmas eve in 1962 as Katherine Noel Brosnahan in Kansas City, MO.

Kate Spade has been in business with her husband, Andy Spade, since January of 1993 when she decided to design sleek, utilitarian handbags she had been searching for to buy for herself for years.

Kate’s brother-in-law is the one and only comedian, David Spade – hmmm, wonder if THAT’S why her handbags are often spotted on the David Spade comedy series “Just Shoot Me”?

Kate was a former accessories editor/senior editor of accessories at Mademoiselle Magazine from 1986 to 1991.

The Kate Spade Company prides itself with “utility, wit and playful sophistication” as hallmarks of their style and creates handbags, stationery, home products, shoes, perfume and more (including the newest Kindle 6″ covers)!

Kate’s husband is the main man in charge of the “Men’s Line” of complimentary items. The men’s line is called ‘Jack Spade’ – a fictional name and compliments many of the items available in her line.

In 2007 the company was acquired by design powerhouse Liz Claiborne, becoming an American Icon with a strong backing of an established company; while using their core values and exclusive styles

Kate Spade Kindle Covers are designed with a touch of “playful sophistication” in mind… focusing, as always on color and design they also honor some of the great classics like “The Great Gatsby” and “Great Expectations”. But what makes them truly unique is the fact that they are built for protection of your Newest Generation 6″ style Kindle with knapsack like features, a strong locking mechanism that holds the Kindle in snug without fear of dropping out and includes a storage pocket. The covers are much like the rest of her line of goods, completely usable, sturdy and serve a purpose while looking designer fantastic!

She has a strong voice for women and her company has taken part in an organization called ‘Women for Women International’. The organization speaks out and helps organize women in need from many countries such as Bosnia, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Rwanda and more to encompass women’s talents with the abilities of large corporations such as Kate Spade NYC to create a better life for women in these countries. By utilizing their talents and employing them in their countries, they can sustain a livelihood. In the end Kate Spade NYC provides a market for the goods and talents of the women in countries with deplorable conditions.

The couple had a daughter in 2005, Frances Beatrix Spade which is the apple of their eye. I wonder if she will be the inspiration of a new “Children’s Line” to compliment the already beloved Kate Spade styles?

Avoiding a Heart Attack While Shoveling Snow

Winter brings blessings by the fire, holiday cheer, warm eggnog … and snow. The first flakes of snow are exciting, as kids become giddy and adults speed up their plans for the holidays. But few of us think about the actual perils of shoveling that snow off our walkways and drives.

People who research this sort of thing tell us that the number of heart attacks increases substantively during winter months. I recently read that heart attack deaths triple among men 35 to 49 years old during cold weather. They also tell us that people with cholesterol build-up in their arteries, or coronary heart disease, are at higher risk in the winter months.

It seems that the reason for this is that the treaties tighten up in cold weather, which slows blood and reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the heart. The body also overexerts itself getting oxygen and staying warm … not to mention the physical exertion of shoveling snow.

People at Risk

  • People who have a history of heart problems.
  • People with coronary artery disease.
  • People who have high blood pressure (hypertension).
  • People with cholesterol problems.
  • People who eat a lot of holiday party food, which is usually not very heart healthy.
  • People who smoke.
  • People who are experiencing a great deal of stress.
  • People who are overweight – especially if by 30 percent or more.
  • People who consume excess alcohol.
  • People who are normally sedentary.
  • People who have type II diabetes.

If you fall into any of these categories, it is recommended that you do not shovel snow, and instead, get a friend or family member to shovel for you. If necessary, hire someone to shovel your snow … that cost is nothing compared to experiencing a heart attack.

Steps to Prepare Against Heart Attack

  • Eat a heart-healthy low-fat diet (of course we should do this year-round).
  • Do not eat a big meal or drink alcohol before going out to shovel snow.
  • Do not take stimulants such as caffeine or nicotine because they constrict blood vessels.
  • Dress warmly; especially protect extremes of nose, ears, hands and feet. Cold weather can reduce circulation and aggravate your heart. Try to dress in layers so sweat will not build up and then chill your body.
  • Warm up your circulatory system by taking a walk around the block before starting to shovel. This is also a good time to stretch your arm and leg muscles to reduce stain or injury.
  • Use a shovel with a small blade. It is not a contest, and it is better to take more small shovels-full than try to manhandle large mounds of snow. Lighter loads prevent injury.
  • Pace yourself. Do not race with yourself to get everything cleared as quickly as possible. A good break every 15 minutes could save you a trip to the ER.
  • Stay hydrated. It is important to drink plenty of water regardless of the temperature.
  • Shovel often. Go out and clear your areas when no more than two inches of snow accumulates. Light workouts over an extended period of time are much safer than tackling a mountain of snow all at once.
  • Shovel smart. Spread your hands on the handle for better leverage, stand with your feet hip-width apart, then bend and lift at your knees rather than your back.

And, above all: if you experience chest pain; shoulder, arm, or neck pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; fainting; or nauseaa – stop immediately and seek emergency medical assistance.

The important thing to remember is that this is the holiday season – the time of year we should all enjoy ourselves, and each other. Spending time in the hospital is not the way we want to spend part of our winter season. So, please proceed with caution and preparation when shoveling snow, and observe the warning signs of overexertion. Have a safe and enjoyable winter.

How to Purchase Forklift Parts

All forklifts have certain common components. These forklift parts are vital to the performance and operation of the equipment. Due to constant use and wear and tear, some parts such as forks, brakes and transmissions components have to be replaced quite often.

Usually forklift parts are purchased from different sources. Both new and used parts are available. There are many dealers who have printed catalogs listing all the parts that are available with them. Also there are a number of different manufacturers exclusively for forklift parts. A company that manufactures forklifts also produces replacement parts.

The most important component of the forklift is of course the forks. Without quality forks, the forklift may not be able to transport the materials quite efficiently. These forks are also called blades or tines which vary from model to model. The other important part of a forklift is the brakes. Forklift brakes operate in a similar manner to the brakes of an automobile and they have many parts in common. Brake shoes and break drums are among the most commonly purchased forklift brake parts.

Forklift transmissions are vital to the machine's operation. Forklifts can use either manual or automatic transmissions. Manual transmissions are probably more common and are easier to fix, but many people prefer automatic transmissions because they are easier to use. Many forklift parts dealers have both new and used transmissions for sale.

The Roll Clamps is also another important part of a forklift. There are various models of roll clamps which are available to handle all types and sizes of paper rolls including newsprint, Kraft paper and tissue and coated papers. The models of roll clamp include rigid arm, pivot arm, slide arm and spilt arm clamps all of which are designed to meet the different requirements.

The Carton Clamps is another important attachment for handling multiple unpalletized products such as appliances, furniture, cartooned, canned or frozen goods. Large rubber faced pads gently squeeze the side of the load (containing numerous cartons) until it can be lifted, and then transported to either the warehouse or trailer.

The Rotator is also one of the most important forklift parts. The rotator is used to aid the handling of skids that may have become excessively tilted and other specialty material handling needs. Some forklifts are fitted with an attachment that allows the tines to be rotated. This type of attachment may also be used for dumping containers for quick unloading.

It is very important that only good replacement of the forklift parts is purchased in order to keep the machines in good running condition. Many forklift parts dealers offer extensive warranties on their products. Most forklift parts of every model and make are available in the market so a replacement for a part of a particular make or size can be easily found.

Residential Elevators – A Practical Addition in Multi Level Homes

Residential elevators are indeed a practical addition in multi-level homes not only to help mobility challenged and aged family members to move from floor to floor, but also to carry groceries, laundry, and other loads. These elevators provide smooth vertical transportation. Installing residential elevators offer various advantages since these products:

o Increase the value of your home
o Add elegance and value to every level
o Increase your standard of living
o Enhance convenience
o Offer safe, easy and comfortable ride

Residential Elevators in Simple Designs with Easy to Operate Functions

Many individuals suffer from various disabilities with growing age, and in such cases home elevators are of great utility value. Federal Elevator and Savaria Concord offer excellent residential elevators for your practical use. Panorama elevator, Renaissance elevator, Eclipse Elevator, Infinity Luxury Elevator, Profit Voyager and Telecab are some of the models that come with great looks and a number of standard features.

Features of Federal Elevator's Residential Elevator

o Loading capacity of 1000 lbs (454 kg)
o Maximum speed of 50 fpm
o Maximum stops: 8
o Travels at a maximum height of 60 ft (18.29m)
o Manual or automatic swing entrances
o 1: 2 cable hydraulic drives
o Stainless steel control panel
o Instantaneous safety device
o Emergency battery lowering & car lights
o Hydraulic pump unit of compact design

Choose Savaria Concord from a Variety of Sizes and Finishes

Savaria Concord's Infinity Luxury Elevator is available in a large variety of sizes, finishes and colors. It has a travel capacity of 60 feet, standard weight capacity of 1000 lbs with a possibility of six stops, a maximum number of openings: two and 1: 2 cable hydraulic drive system.

Get the Best Dealer

Today, there are many accessibility equipment manufacturers and professional suppliers, who provide installation, maintenance and repair services in addition to distribution. If you wish to purchase a residential elevator model, choose the best one that suits your needs.

Pavements – Their Architectural Terms and Meaning

Pavements

From antiquity to modern times, pavements take many forms; from simple flags of native stone to vast 'carpets' of limestone, terracotta, marble or mosaic.

As early as the 4th Century BC, Egyptian traditions had vast areas of stone flooring – conveying godly power and permanence. Early Christianity continued the tradition, paving basilicas and churches with floors laden with secret symbolism. Landmark buildings have always used stone pavements to impress and to provide a durable surface for the passage of feet.

Through color and pattern, pavements have also carried messages to those provided to read them. Egyptian architects, for instance, depicted mystic energies using geometric black and white stone. We can trace the development of this idea through history … black and white floors became icons of locations as diverse as Europe's great cathedrals, Flemish merchant homes and Masonic Halls. The meaning behind this and other designs is lost to many, but the aesthetics remain as vivid as ever.

Pavements: Cosmati

A unique form of classical mosaic, Cosmati is extraordinarily decorative, with swirling bands of intricate stone and glass and gilded mosaic contrasted with highly polished white marble. Often used for pavements, Cosmati also decorates architectural elements such as walls and columns.

Inspired by Byzantine mosaic, Cosmati was a technique exclusive to three generations of the Cosma family, working in Rome from the 12th Century. Central to Romanesque architecture, fine examples of their work can be seen through Italy … but are concentrated in Rome where they had the patronage of the Pope.

Surprisingly though, London is home to two exceptional Cosmati floors. In 1269, the newly appointed Abbott of Westminster traveled to Rome and was dazzled by the richness of the mosaics. Returning to England, he commissioned workmen and materials from Italy to create Cosmati pavements for Westminster Abbey. The masterpiece is the 'Great Pavement' in front of the High Altar, completed in 1268.

Pavements: Opus-Sectile

Instead of being made up from small tesserae, Opus Sectile uses larger, specially-shaped elements in stone or tile. These are fitted together to create inlaid patterns or pictures on walls and floors.

Earliest examples of Opus Sectile work come from Ancient Egypt and Asia Minor. It reached an artistic height in Rome, from 4th- 6th Century, often used to create heroic images such as the chariot depicted in the basilica of the Roman Consul Junius Bassus ..

Roman high fashion moved on and Opus Sectile moved East, becoming a feature of ornate Byzantine churches. It was not forgotten in Europe though, and by 12th Century, Opus Sectile techniques had become part of the vast repertoire of mosaic skills used by the Roman Cosmati family. Today, it is still practiced by a very select few specialist craftsmen.

Does Your Pool Cue Matter? The Truth About Modern High Technology Pool Cues

I started playing pool at the young age of 7 years old, during the winters growing up in northern Maine when the temperature reached 50 below zero and it was too cold to ski. The rec room at Loring AFB had a couple of pool tables, and as a very athletic kid I had a natural curiosity about the game, and after watching a few games I was invited by one of the airmen to play a game with him. He showed me how to hold the cue stick and make a bridge, and got me a little wooden box to stand on so I could reach the table. It didn’t take long for me to become addicted to the game, and soon invited my friends to play. We spent many a cold winter day inside that rec room, playing for hours, making up our own rules and games, and eventually even betting nickel candy bars on the outcome. Yeah, we were big spenders!

When summer hit, we put the cues away and played baseball all day long. My dream, since I was 5 and saw the Dodgers play in Los Angeles several times before my dad was transferred to Loring, was to be a pro baseball player, and I eventually got a baseball scholarship to college in Texas, where my dad retired in 1966. Through the years, every spare hour not spent practicing baseball was spent in a pool hall, and after my baseball career ended with a torn pitching shoulder, pool became my number 1 interest. I won my first tournament when I was 17, at a bar that my sister worked at, and won a cue stick as first prize. I was thrilled beyond belief, until I screwed the stick together and rolled it across the table. To my horror, it rolled like a corkscrew, being so warped as to be unplayable! Back to playing with a bar stick!

For the next 20 years, I hustled pool where ever I was working at the time. I drilled oil wells all over the country, and made as much money hustling the roughnecks after their shift as I did from my salary. As a mud engineer, I was responsible for checking many different rigs daily, and got to know, and play against, hundreds of different pool players each year. Moving around the country to different areas on a yearly basis, I was able to keep under the radar and remain a relative unknown, so it was never any trouble to get a money game going. I don’t think I ever met a roughneck who didn’t play pool, and most of them had a pretty high opinion of their game. That usually changed when it came time to pay up!

In 1989 I met the Alexander brothers on a golf course in Dallas. Nick, a lawyer, had founded Clicks Billiards many years before, and now had a total of 20 pool halls from Phoenix to Florida, with his original pool hall right there in Dallas at Abrams Rd. and Northwest Highway. Greg, his brother, was the General Manager, and responsible for hiring managers for all 20 of their pool halls. By this time I had retired from the oil business, and made my living on the golf course and pool halls every day. Greg and Nick were both members of Sleepy Hollow Country Club in south Dallas, where I hustled golf every day. Greg was a 3 handicap, and after I had played with him 3 or 4 days a week for several months ( and took quite a bit of money from him), he asked me if I played pool. Heh heh heh. “A little bit”, I said, and he took me that night to the original Clicks Billiards, to try to win a little of his money back.

After he paid up the hundred I beat him out of that night, he offered me a job, as assistant manager of the original Clicks. He knew I had never bar tended before, but assured me I would pick it up quickly, and would fit right in with the pool players who made up their core customer base. Was he ever right! I took to it like a duck to water, and ended up meeting most of the best pool players in Dallas, and some of the best in the country. Clicks had several exhibitions, including one by Grady Matthews, and one by Ewa Mataya, the Striking Viking. Clicks was also where I met CJ Wiley, the road player who won the ESPN Ultimate Nine Ball Challenge in 1995 or 96. There were many, many top notch professional players at Clicks, with many a $1,000 game of one pocket going on day and night, with lots of major Dallas bookies bankrolling a lot of the action, and sweaters on the rail by the dozens, just watching…or praying, lol.

CJ rolled into Clicks in 1990, and proceeded to terrorize the local pros. He was an instant legend, steamrolling every major player in town. Guys who scared the dickens out of me would not even touch CJ when he offered them the 5 and out. His rep grew, and his ranking did too, eventually reaching #4 or 5 in the world of Pool. Working there, I became fast friends with CJ, and when he opened up his own room in Dallas, CJ’s Billiard Palace, I eventually quit Clicks and went over to manage CJ’s place. When he opened up, 90% of the action, and pro players, went with him. He had 12 Gold Crowns, as opposed to the 4 at Clicks, a kitchen, and was open 24 hours. The action never stopped.

So what, you ask, does all this have to do with the title topic? I bought my first cue, a Thomas Wayne model, in 91, and while it was beautiful, with lots of gorgeous inlays, and very responsive, it really did nothing to improve my game. I played with it for 3 years until it was stolen, and I loved the cue, but I could play just as well with a bar cue, providing it was the right weight and had a good tip. I spent 700 dollars for the cue, but I really didn’t need to. It did not give me any advantage over a house cue.

I had a severe back injury in 1994, that made me quit playing golf and pool. I didn’t want to risk an operation, and it wasn’t until 2008 that I got some non-narcotic medication from the V.A. that let me bend over the table again without excruciating pain. By this time, Predator Cues had come out with a 10 piece shaft that was hollow at the tip, significantly reducing cue ball deflection at impact…or so they claimed. Having been away from the game for 14 years, I had read little about these cues, and was intrigued, to say the least.

For those of you reading this who don’t know what cue ball deflection is, here it is in a nut shell: When a cue ball is struck to either side of the vertical axis…the center line….the cue ball will deflect, or “squirt” in the opposite direction. So if you hit the cue ball using right ‘english’…hitting the cue ball right of the vertical center line…the cue ball will deflect to the left, and vice versa.. The amount of deflection varies, depending on speed of the stroke, the distance from the center line (or tip offset) the cue ball is struck, and the mass of the tip. In other words, the more english you apply, the harder the stroke, and the bigger the mass of the tip…..these factors will all increase the amount of deflection, or squirt. This squirt must be compensated for when aiming, or you will miss the shot quite often.

This is where the Predator technology comes into play. With a small hollow space at the end of the tip, the reduced mass drastically reduced the amount of deflection by allowing the cue ball to push the shaft out of the way at impact, instead of the shaft pushing the cue ball out of the way. The 314 shaft became very popular immediately with professionals, and the Z shaft reduced deflection even more by reducing the tip size from 12.75mm to 11.75mm. A shorter ferrule also helped reduce mass, and therefore reduce deflection even more. Independent testing has the Z² shaft and the 314² shaft from Predator as being the #1 and #2 shafts in the world in causing the least amount of deflection. Predator cues and shafts are used by over half of the top 40 professionals, 3 of the top 5 women professionals, and over 35,000 players worldwide, according to the Predator web site. These professionals are not paid to play these cues. They play them because their living depends on their playing ability, which is enhanced with this high-tech equipment.

Since Predator led the way in the mid 90’s, many companies have now joined the technology revolution. Lucasi Hybrid Cues offers the Zero Flex Point shaft on all their hybrid models. This shaft has technology similar to the Predator shafts to drastically reduce deflection. They offer these shafts with many joint types to fit most cues made today. World Champion Thorsten Hohmann from Germany now plays Lucasi Hybrid.

The OB-1 and OB-2 shafts also offer low deflection technology, and John Schmidt recently changed to the OB cue. He said he ran over 400 balls playing straight pool, the second day he used the OB shaft.

I had to try out one of these cues myself, and I must say: I love the new high-tech pool cues. I play with a Predator 5K3, and despite not having played in 14 years, my game has ascended to a level way higher than I ever played before. The reduced deflection makes the hard shots using english much simpler, by reducing the amount of compensation for squirt.

In summation, the advance of technology has shortened the learning curve for beginning and intermediate players by reducing cue ball deflection, and requiring much less compensation for the squirt effect. And the pros, who make their living with a cue? Nearly all of them play a low-deflection shaft of some kind. Why wouldn’t they? If they don’t, their competitors (who all do) will take the money.

While Predator remains the benchmark for low deflection, they are also not cheap. The retail price for a Z² shaft is nearly $300, but the new Lucasi Hybrid Cues, with similar technology (and also new grip technology to reduce impact vibration) are a good lower priced alternative. For less than the price of a Predator Z² shaft alone, your can get an outstanding Lucasi Hybrid [http://www.poolsharkcues.com/product_info.php?cPath=6&products_id=78/] that has advanced low-deflection technology and plays fantastically well. If a World Champion like Thorsten Hohmann is playing a Lucasi Hybrid, you KNOW it is an outstanding cue.

So think long and hard when purchasing a new cue stick. If you don’t use a cue with modern low-deflection technology, chances are your opponent will be. Everything else being equal, a modern low-deflection cue, or an older cue with a new low-deflection shaft, is going to win the vast majority of the time. Greatly improved accuracy will make it so.

Identifying Mercruiser Parts

Introduction:

Mercruiser is an advanced marine propulsion system and is available in recreational and commercial vehicles ranging from 1.5-liter displacement to 14.0-liter displacements. These are generally two stroke diesel engine vehicles and are termed as inboards or stern drives depending on the vehicle design.

Mercruiser parts:

This water vehicle contains the following major parts.

Mercruiser Engine:

These are the heart of any vehicle and are available in 4, 6 or 8 cylinders capacities, especially for stern drives. The engine rating and displacement or fuel system are also important for a specific purpose motorboat. These are the important Mercruiser parts and every engine contains a tag specifying details of the engine.

Carburetor:

Carburetor is attached to the fuel delivery system and filters and regulates the supply of fuel to the engine. The carburetor can be identified by its design (filtering and regulating fuel) or matching its design from the catalog or manual provided with the boat.

Exhaust Manual:

These Mercruiser parts are used for removing combustion gases from engine through exhaust manifold. These are attached to the exhaust system.

Water and Fuel Pumps:

Raw water pumps or circulating water pumps are used for cooling outboard engines by continuously circulating water. These pumps are supplied with full instructions and can be replaced easily. Fuel pumps are small nozzles through which fuel, which is generally diesel, is injected to the engine.

Marine Mufflers:

These are the silencers made from fiberglass and are designed for backpressure compensation and resistant from corrosion. These are in cylindrical shape from varying diameter of 1.5 "to 12" inlet and outlet. These are suitable for below waterline installation and can easily be replaced.

Fresh water System:

These are the complete pump and pipe system for circulating fresh water used for cooling 2 stroke outboard engines. These systems are available with complete instructions and can easily be replaced.

Oil Coolers:

These are the cylindrical coolers used for cooling oil and these are available in varying sizes from 5 "* 1" to 12 "* 1.25" and sometimes two cylinders attached together are provided as dual coolers.

Motor and Gear Lube:

Service manual provides the complete instruction to change engine and gear oil at particular interval and the oil should be changed as per the direction given in manual.

Some other important mercruiser parts include electrical system; power steering, couplers and stern drive parts.

Identifying the mercruiser parts:

A tag is attached to identify engine model, serial number of engine, transcom assembly serial number and drive serial number. Similar for inboard transmission, model and serial numbers are provided on a tag on the top or side of transmission. You should verify the tag details to the manual provided to you by the manufacturer and both the details should match.

Once you have located the correct model number with specified transmission details, you should see the parts details as figure of each part has been provided. You should identify the figure from catalog or manual provided to you or you should visit the web site of the manufacturer. Once the parts corresponding to the figure has been identified, you should note down the serial number provided in the catalog or web site. Once you are able to locate the exact part number and corresponding serial number, it is easy for you to purchase these parts directly from manufacturer or resellers.

How To Avoid Your Bathroom Renovation Costs From Blowing Out

The cost of a bathroom renovation can vary enormously. The scope of your project, your selections and any upgrades are just a few factors that can substantially impact on the overall cost of your bathroom renovation. Let’s discuss a few tips on how to keep costs down:

Do It Properly

The term ‘false economy’ applies here- if you have to do it twice, it’s not cheap. Often people think they are saving money by re-using utilities such as the bath, by using “friends” as tradesmen, or by project managing the job themselves. There are no winners in this scenario. Using friends as tradesmen can backfire massively if they incur an error and you feel uncomfortable asking them to rectify it. Not to mention waiting endlessly for them to squeeze you in on a Saturday! As for re-using items such as the bath with a few minor chips in it, yes it will save you the cost of a bath but when you’ve already spent $20,000 on a new bathroom, what’s another thousand? Especially when you are soaking in the old tub in the brand spanking new bathroom!

As for project managing the job yourself, unless you’re a builder, or have successfully renovated properties previously, don’t risk it! Crucial stages such as waterproofing, tiling etc cannot afford to be missed or done incorrectly. Utilizing the services of a builder also ensures the work will be under warranty for seven years- worth every penny if something happens down the track!

If you are going to go the trouble and expense of renovating your bathroom, always do it properly and engage a qualified builder.

Retrofit

Also known as a cosmetic renovation, a retrofit will always be more economical than a full bathroom refit.

As soon as you make changes to the existing layout, your overall costs will increase. In particular, leaving the plumbing where it is will be a huge money saver. Maintaining the placement of your existing toilet, shower and vanity waste locations allows you to achieve a more cost-effective renovation. Within this you can increase the storage, introduce a walk-in shower and a stylish wall faced toilet to achieve a great visual impact at a lower cost.

Consider Tiling Carefully

Although a beautiful tile will lift your bathroom enormously, if you’re renovating with budget in mind, choosing the wrong tiles will blow your budget instantly. Here are a few guidelines to follow:

  • Extra small tiles add cost. Yes, your marble mosaic tiles will elevate your bathroom or shower wall, but they can be extremely pricey at over $200/m. They also cost more in labour cost to lay, as your tiler will spend much more time per metre laying them. Another cost factor with small-scale tiles is that they need to be laid on a perfectly flat and even surface- any imperfection in the surface will be amplified with small tiles. In a renovation, your tiler and builder will want the walls to be checked for level and straightened which could add more cost to you.
  • Extra large tiles add cost. Although using large tiles will make your bathroom appear larger, choosing an extra large dimension such as 450mm x 900mm or 600mm x 900mm or even larger, their heavy and awkward scale will mean it is a two person job for your tiler, which will incur cost. Sticking to a standard 450mm x 450mm or 600mm x 600mm tile should keep costs down.
  • Another way to quickly add cost to your bathroom is by choosing floor-to-ceiling tiles. This choice requires the ceiling cornice being removed and square set. To save on costs, some people will opt to tile just the floors and wet areas like behind the bath and shower. Yes, this will save you money but the floor to ceiling tiles make your bathroom look bigger.
  • Tile finish will add cost. When you are selecting tiles you will have the choice of selecting between a matt, lapatto or gloss finish. The matt is usually cheaper than the lapatto (semi-gloss) so choose this option when your aim is to keep your budget from blowing out. A matt tile is also generally easier to clean, ideal for a bathroom.

Don’t Overdo it

Less is more when renovating a bathroom. In such a small space, too many items will compete for attention and you will lose your impact. Not only will you save money by refraining from saying yes to every upgrade or accessory, you will create a better outcome for your project.

Instead, find a focal point or main feature in your bathroom you wish to draw attention to (for example, a feature shower tile, or a freestanding bath) and keep everything else to a minimum. Allow one or two accessories like a timber stool, some luxurious towels or an indoor plant to allow your chosen feature to shine. Top tip: choose a great mirror that doubles as a beautiful feature while serving a practical purpose.

Expense Recovery With Fatal Accident Claims

The law is contained in the Fatal Accidents Act 1976, and the Law Reform (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1934.

1. Expenses Incurred Prior to Death

The LRMPA allows recovery of funeral expenses by virtue of section 1(2)(c) which provides for the deceased’s estate to claim these. In addition, other expenses may also be claimed under the LRMPA. These are limited to what the deceased himself could have claimed had he lived. Section 1(1) LRMPA states:

Subject to the provisions of this section on the death of any person after the commencement of this Act all causes of action subsisting against or vested in him shall survive against, or, as the case may be, for the benefit of, his estate.

2. Defining “Funeral Expenses”

“Funeral expenses” are not defined in either Act. Neither does case law give us an exhaustive definition. What is clear from the case law is that in claims under both the Fatal Accidents Act 1976 and the LRMPA 1934, the funeral expenses must be ‘reasonable in all the circumstances’. The test seems to be the same under both Acts. The relevant circumstances will include the deceased’s station in life, occupation and racial origin (Goldstein v Salvation Army Assurance Society [1917] 2 KB 291; Hart v Griffiths-Jones [1948] 2 All ER 729 at 731 per Streatfield J; Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, [1980] 2 All ER 557, CA).

Some examples of what has been deemed to be (a) a funeral expense and (b) a reasonable or unreasonable funeral expense through the case law include:

Reasonable

St George v Turner [2003] CLY 936 – an exceptional case in which damages were recovered for funeral expenses in Japan exceeding £50,000, including a family Buddhist altar and fittings; funeral costs; the cost of a Buddhist renaming ceremony for the dead; payments for attendance by Buddhist monks; a gravestone and works; a memorial day reception; and an anniversary reception. A Japanese woman had been murdered by her English Husband. McGregor on Damages comments upon this case “It is thought that this is far too extreme to be upheld; even murder cannot influence the level of recovery for funeral expenses”

Smith v Marchioness/Bowbelle (27 January 1993) – a reception was allowed as reasonable. ‘A claimant cannot ignore the social obligation to provide some refreshments to guests’. Social decencies must be observed and the £400 spent was recovered. See also St George v Turner (10 May 2003, unreported). Contrast Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, CA

Gammell v Wilson (at first instance) – a headstone or gravestone would be considered a reasonable expense. Also, reasonable funeral expenses may include the costs of a burial in another country if that is from where the deceased comes (see also St George v Turner above)

Schneider v Eisovitch [1960] 2QB 430 – the expenses of two family members who travelled to France to arrange for the return of the (brother’s) body were reasonable. Paull J ruled that the services provided had to be necessary and as the expenses would have occurred in any event, they were reasonable.

Hart v Griffiths Jones [1948] 2 All ER 729 – embalming a four year old child’s body was a reasonable expense.

Goldstein v Salvation Army Assurance Society [1917] 2 KB 291 – the cost of a tombstone was reasonable.

Unreasonable

Harding v Scott-Moncrieff [2004] EWHC 1733 (QB) – funeral expenses did not include the expenses of a memorial service, solicitors’ fees, accountants’ fees and a valuer’s report.

Quainoo v Brent and Harrow Area Health Authority (1982) 132 NLJ 1100 AND Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, CA– expenses of an over-elaborate wake failed.

Gammell v Wilson [1982] AC 27, CA – The Court of Appeal upheld, with some hesitation, the trial judge’s award of £595 for a headstone in respect of a funeral which had taken place in 1976. One member of the court observed that “the tombstone… in this case was very near the boundary between a headstone and a memorial”. The Court of Appeal approved the approach ‘that there is a distinction between a headstone finishing off, describing and marking the grave, which is part of the funeral expense, and a memorial, which is not’. Expenses for an elaborate wake and mourning clothes were unrecoverable.

Stanton v Ewart F Youldon Ltd [1960] 1 All ER 429, [1960] 1 WLR 543 – expense on a memorial or monument was not in the circumstances reasonable but a simple gravestone would be allowed. McNair J said “‘The legal position is that a stone over a grave may properly be considered as part of the funeral expenses if it is a reasonable expenditure for the persons in the position of the deceased and of the relatives who are responsible for the actual ordering of the stone; but in so far as it is merely a memorial set up as a sign of love and affection, then it should not be included.a”

The claim also included £5 paid to the minister for attending the funeral, £8 for two additional limousine cars at the funeral, and £5 for removing the body to the house. These payments were also included as reasonable funeral expenses in the damages recovered.

Sadly, there is no definitive definition of funeral expenses, or, more importantly, reasonable funeral expenses. When considering these items in a fatal accidents claim, it will be a case of considering the case law and the two acts for guidance, and making a reasoned judgement based on this.

The English, Romantic Landscape Painter – Joseph Mallord William Turner

The legendary, 'Romantic,' landscape painter, printmaker, and watercolorist, Joseph Mallord William Turner or JMW Turner, was born on April 23, 1775, in Convent Garden, London, England. His father, William Gay Turner, was a barber. Joseph's mother, Mary Marshall, died in 1804. Not being to any school, his father taught him reading. For a better upbringing, in 1785, Turner was sent to his maternal uncle at Brentford, London.

In 1786, he went to Margate, Kent, for schooling, where the River Thames and its restless disposition, kept fascinating him creatively through his growing years. By the age of thirteen, William was exhibiting his art works on his father's shop window. In 1789, at the age of fourteen, the artistically illustrated painter, supervised at the Art Schools of the Royal Academy. Here, he experimented with coloring prints, designing theatrical sets, and architectural designing. In 1796, Turner's first oil painting, "Fisherman at Sea" was exhibited at the Royal Academy, a display trend that continued regularly for the next decade.

Concentrating only on English Landscape Painting, by 1799, Mallord had earned enough fame to secure himself financially. His first daughter was born in 1801, followed by the second in 1811, both from Sarah Danby. He never married though. In 1802, during an excursion of the European Continent, he painted "Calais Pier," and studied at the Louvre, in Paris.

Mallord's paintings were the unique results of extensive explorations for canvassing worthy scenes. His summers were spent hunting the theme and sketching, while in winters, he would return home to complete his unfinished pictures. His paintings of 1790s, depicting mountains & waterfalls he observed during his British tours, and those of 1840s sporting historical monuments & other works from his Venice trips, corroborate the trend. The vagaries of nature, such as fog, storm, rain, sunlight, & restless water bodies, and life enthralled him. His 'Romanticism' is well carried with diversity through his paintings. In his later years, his paintings turned 'Impressionistic,' swarming into imaginary spirituality, with light and radiance in the nature, representing God's blessings through his canvass. Therefore, he was also called the 'painter of light.' By 1840s, his oil paintings had more transparency and shinning clarity depicting spiritual purity such as in "Rain, Steam and Speed ​​- The Great Western Railway (1844)."

William's poetic sensibilities could have been distinguished from his paintings like "Snow Storm: Hannibal Crossing the Alps (1812)." During 1807-19, Turner worked on the series, "Liber Studorium," entailing landscape paintings in the historical, mountainous, pastoral, marine, and architectural ranges. From 1828 to 1837, he painted a series of figure paintings, which ended with "Interior at Petworth." In 1838, he created his famous oil, "The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up," followed by "Dawn after the Wreck" and "The Slave Ship," both in 1840.

Turner's reintegration was growing proportionally to his fame. During his later years, his style of painting was criticized from several quarters, with Sir Thomas Lawrence and John Ruskin as his ardent supporters however. In 1845, Turner had to stop traveling due to poor health. Exhibiting for the last time in 1850, he died on December 19, 1851, at Chelsea, London.

His paintings revolutionized the art world and were instrumental for the evolution of art movements, such as 'Impressionism,' 'Post-Impressionism,' and 'Abstract Expressionism,' of the late nineteenth and twenty centuries. Turner's esteemed works include "Dido building Carthage (1815), Color Beginning (1819), Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus (1829)," The burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons (1834) , and "Sunrise with Sea Monsters (1845)."