Who Invented The First Compaction Roller?

A compaction roller is an item of construction equipment used to compact surfaces such as concrete, soil, gravel or macadam during the construction of foundations and roads. They are also used for landfill compaction, typically with a sheepsfoot roller pattern with the aim to achieve a compacted surface over and above a smooth one.

Compaction rollers operate by using the weight of the vehicle to compress the surface they are driven over. Generally, initial compaction is performed by a roller with air filled tyres, which is better suited to the slightly un-even terrain of a newly laid road. The compaction roller with its smooth metal drum provides the final smooth finish.

The very first compaction rollers were likely to have been horse-drawn and it’s possible that they could have been in use by the Romans who were prolific road builders in the 2nd century BC.

In more modern history mechanised rollers were in use from the time of the invention of the steam roller, approximately 1859 and continued to be in use in the UK until almost a century later when, in the 1960s, they were superseded by internal combustion powered rollers. Some sections of the present M1 motorway were built with the help of steam rollers.

The first motor powered rollers were designed in the early 1900s. Hamm AG, which is now part of the Wirtgen Group GmbH, produced the first diesel powered rollers in 1911. Hamm AG was founded in 1878 by brothers Anton and Franz Hamm, who were both gunsmiths, to build agricultural equipment. In 1928 they took the brave step of abandoning all other product lines to focus solely on compaction rollers.

The gamble paid off and Hamm AG went from strength-to-strength, consistently providing innovative products to meet global demand such as the development of a tandem, all-wheel-drive compaction roller in 1951.

As motor powered rollers became more widely used the challenge was how to improve upon them. On November 5th, 1948 US patent 2677995 was filed by inventor W. W. Wood. The patent described using vibration to increase the mass per metre output of the current generation of compaction rollers.

But it was a newly formed Swedish company, AB Vibro-Betong, which took the initiative in 1953 with the launch of the first vibratory roller. The new compaction roller was quickly joined by similar offerings from competitors including Bomag, who launched their BW60 vibratory roller in 1957. AB Vibro-Betong still exists to this day but is now known as Dynapac and has been part of parent company Atlas Copco since 2007.

The compaction roller continues to be improved and a broad range of products are now available, from small compaction plates and remote walk-behind trench rollers right through to massive ride-on road rollers weighing 20 tonnes and costing more than 150,000 USD. Landfill units can be even bigger weighing up to a colossal 54 tonnes.

Nuts and Bolts of How to Make Money Online – For Real

You see a gazillion emails everyday bombarding you for everything imaginable about making money online. How do you tell the difference between hype and ripe?

Well to start off, it has to be simple. You should not have to create web pages, you should not have to create capture pages, you should not have to write auto-responder messages.

Everything should be done for you. Easy peasy, lemon squeeze.

It does not get any easier than this. All you have to do is learn to send traffic to a capture page to build your list so that you can follow-up and introduce them to you business floatpportunity.

Get them from skeptical visitor to getting them engaged by sharing your story. (And everybody has one). Your job is not to sell them on the business, but to build a relationship with the people on your list.

Learn to be a Leader. Get out of the learning curve. Find a strategy that works and … Master It.

If you've never grown a business before, if you have zero business experience, no internet experience … you're in the right place at the right time because there is nowhere better to learn all this … and now easier.

Do not get left behind – start your business online. It's very easy to be a leader in your own home business.

You're told … "We have everything here for you to help you develop the skills that you need to develop.

Helping other people to realize their dreams, helping other people to become healthier, helping other people to understand or find a solution to the problem they're having a nice reward – pretty sweet, (and it helps that you're making big money) .

That feeling is what you need to fall in love with. Fall in love with helping the people whom you introduce your business to. You need to put YOU into your business. Engage, Learn, Teach!

And here is a million dollar idea for you …

When you wake up in the morning the first thing you need to do is decide that you're going to have a GREAT day. Regardless of what went on yesterday, regardless of how good or how bad your results are, regardless of the amount (or lack of amount) is in your bank account, wake up and decide …

You're going to have a Great Day!

Unbreakable Padlocks and the Big Mistake People Make

Many people who are looking to buy a padlock and search for unbreakable padlocks are disappointed. Either they find a manufacturer or a seller of padlocks who claims they are unbreakable, or they find honest people who decline to offer them unbreakable padlocks. However, many make this mistake and fail. Why, we wouldn’t mind betting that some don’t even buy a padlock at all, after becoming disappointed and thinking themselves failures.

Here then are the 3 greatest errors that folks make whenever they start with a search for an unbreakable padlock.

First and foremost. although the quest appears to be a good one, it is also unattainable. Most people will tell you that there is no such thing as an unbreakable padlock, and they are right. A truly unbreakable padlock would remain unopened forever, no matter who tried to break the combination, and every conceivable method to break the padlock code or key would be employable, for as long as was necessary.

If this product existed would you be able to even afford such a padlock? So, if you search for an unbreakable padlock, think about what you really want, and we suggest that you redefine your search to something a bit more realistic.

The reason that this is very important is that there is no reason why you should not be able to buy a padlock which, while it won’t be completely “unbreakable” it will be hard enough to “break” to prevent your property being stolen. For, while avoiding this issue, you need to be aware that nothing is totally unbreakable.

Secondly, there was a story some years back when the new U-locks for bicycles appeared, which are too thick for bolt cutters to be used on them. That was great until someone found you could pour liquid nitrogen on them, then hit them, and they would shatter. This is sometimes a crucial point because if a thief wants in they will find a way. Cutting with a welders torch, grind through it with a grinder, freeze it, etc. To avoid the bad outcomes of this typical mistake you will want to be a little bit more realistic, some would say “down to earth”.

Last but not least, you will do probably as well as anyone can, by just buying a good quality Yale type padlock with a short shank, so that it would be hard to get a bolt cutter on it, and hope you catch the scum before they get a chance to rob you.

This problem occurs when there is nobody around to see what the villain is doing. If anyone was able to see what was being done with a whopping great set of bolt-cutters, it would look so suspicious that they would always take a good look at the offender.

So the problem is usually that the thief is able to be confident that nobody will see or hear them, and that being the case the offendor gains the courage to go and do it.

However, it occurs to us that this might be avoided by buying one of the new alarmed padlocks, with a motion detector, which have something like a 110 dB siren which would be activated as soon as the robber started to use a bolt cutter.

But, please be realistic about the fact that there are no such things as totally unbreakable padlocks, and insisting on buying one may just lead you to buying from an unscrupulous trader. So instead of insisting on an unbreakable padlock, ask for “the highest possible level of security at a reasonable price” and that way you are much more likely to get the padlock you need.

Truly, the idea of there being “unbreakable padlocks” on sale, anywhere, is an error.

You’ll want to very carefully stay away from these types of errors, when buying a padlock, as searching for an “unbreakable padlock”. As already explained, the seller would probably also fleece you for a lot of money at the same time. To avoid these mistakes, you could refer to the instructions above for carrying it out properly. You will then be satisfied that you have protected your property.

Stairs Made of Wood Versus Concrete Stairs

Wood is one material that has won the hearts of many homeowners when it comes to their interiors and furnishings. Every home is bound to have something that is made out of wood. After all, it’s a very classic material. Wood is timelessly beautiful. Even when it comes to stairs, wood still plays a key role in most homes and to further reinforce this, here are the advantages of a wood staircase versus concrete stairs:

Wood is definitely safer to use. Indeed, it is better to fall on wooden stairs than on concrete stairs. The reason behind this is pretty obvious, wood offers better cushioning in case something lands on it. This is indeed good news for homes with little ones who tend to regularly fall on their butts. Their chances in developing fractures and the like are lessened when using the stairs made of wood.

If you also talk about the building point of view, stair builders have a divided preference when it comes to the wood vs. concrete debate, although most say concrete is easier to work with. Besides, wood planks are more expensive if you replace them than redoing a concrete mixture.

When it comes to your interior stairs, wood definitely sets a homey ambience to complete a home’s look. Ever notice that welcoming feel you get in a home with lots of wood furnishings? The same goes for stairs made of lumber, nothing spells ‘home’ more than wood. It sets off a cozy tone as opposed to a the hard, condescending aura of concrete. For the offices, concrete spells “corporate” out quite well, but wood can also add a Zen touch, something the office could use to reduce stress in the area.

The wooden alternative will also cause less and will be easier to renovate and change as opposed to the concrete version. Renovating and fixing the stairs will be easier if it is made out of wood. Just in case your wood staircase needs fixing, you can visit your local home depot or a trusted online stair parts supplier to get the quality stair parts you deserve at a reasonable price.

Speaking of price, be it known that wooden stair parts are more expensive and they also cost more money, time and effort to maintain and to keep beautiful.

At the end of the day, it still depends on which attributes of wood or concrete are the ones which you prioritize. Your staircase is your investment. Make it count.

Auto Air Conditioning Repair 101

When your car or truck A / C is not blowing "cold air", the first thought is to panic. $$$$ signs are going through your mind. Your A / C is broken and the repair is going to be expensive. This article takes the mystery out of automated air conditioning and serves as a primer so that you can make common repairs yourself and save MONEY on professional repairs.

A / C Principles

There are books and publications that contain volumes of information on the subject of air conditioning repair. This information is often too technical for the you to learn how-to fix your auto air conditioning system.

In the nutshell, here is all that you need to know about the fundamentals of refrigeration so that you can fix your auto air conditioning system yourself.

Air conditioning is the process in which air inside the passenger compartment is cooled, discharged, and circulated. Heat is removed from inside the vehicle and transferred to the outside air.

All air conditioners wherever, it is an auto A / C, household refrigerator or home HVAC, work on the same principles. Namely, a liquid refrigerant is changed to a gas and then back to a liquid. If a change-of-state of the refrigerant is to take place, heat transfer must take place. The two (2) rules that apply to refrigerant are:

1. Refrigerant in a gaseous state collections, absorbs, and holds heat.
2. Refrigerant in a liquid state releases that heat.

A / C Operation and Components

For your auto A / C to blow "cold air", R-134A refrigerant must pass through and change state in three (3) components, one (1) receiver-dryer, and one (1) expansion valve that makes up the closed auto air conditioning system. The components of the system are:

1. Compressor – A device that pressurizes the heated refrigerant ..

2. Condenser – A radiator for refrigerant that transfers the heat that was absorbed in the passenger compartment to the cooler air.

3. Evaporator – Is a small radiator located under dash in the passenger compartment. Liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator creates a pressure loss. The liquid refrigerant absorbs heat from the air blowing across the evaporator. It then boils and changes state to vapor before it enters the suction port of the compressor.

4. Receiver-Dryer – Is a canister that stores the liquid refrigerant when the compressor is not running. It contains a desiccant that removes moisture from the system.

5. Expansion Valve – Is a metering device that controls the amount of refrigerant to the evaporator.

A / C Quick Check

A check that can easily be made to check the health of the A / C system is the "feel check". With engine running, turn the auto A / C control to "ON" and the blower on "high". Take a test drive to warm the engine until the A / C system presses stabilize. Raise the hood. With the A / C "On", locate the large tubing connected and routed from the compressor (low side) to the expansion valve (inlet side) of the evaporator. Next, locate the small tubing that is connected to the discharge-side of the compressor and routed to the outlet side of the evaporator. When you feel these two (2) lines, you should observe these results:

1. The low-side line should feel "cool" to the touch.
2. The high-side line should feel "warm" to the touch.

If the high-side tubing is not warm and the low-side is not cool, further tests will have to be made as the system is not doing any work. There is an internal problem; such as, a defective component or a leak in your A / C system.

Testing A / C System

Before system temperature tests can be made, a checklist should be followed (below) to setup for testing the A / C system:

1. Set the A / C "ON-OFF" switch to "ON".
2. Set the temperature control to "maximum cooling".
3. Set the blower on "high" or the highest number on the control switch.
4. Temperature inside passenger compartment should be stable and getting cooler.
5. Engine speed must be a minimum of 1500 rpm's.
6. All windows should be in the "UP" position.

Check Temperature

Your compact car or truck has a small capacity A / C system and a loss of "cooling" would be more noticeable than a larger capacity auto A / C system. If a noticeable loss of "cooling" capacity is noticed, a temperature check at the vent registers should be made. This check can be made with an instant read or digital temperature thermometer .. The discharge air from the vents in the passenger compartment should range from 38 to 42 degrees F.

A / C System Diagnosis

Assuming that the discharge air test measured at the vent registers is out-of-range, a system pressure test will have to be made. Professional A / C technicians connect a tool known as the manifold gauge set to the "low" and "high" side service valves of the system. For you to diagnose and look inside the A / C, it will be necessary to become proficient in the use of the manifold gauge set.

A manifold gauge set that is suitable for the needs can be purchased at most auto supply stores and Internet A / C tool and supply store fronts for less than $ 50.00. TIP: Look for a gauge set that has a built-in sight glass.

Locate the "low" and "high" side service valves .. Connect the hoses (they are a snap connector fit) to the service valves in the following manner :.

1. Connect the blue hose of the gauge set to the "low-side" service valve of the compressor.
2. Connect the red hose of the gauge set to the "high-side service valve of the compressor.
3. The yellow hose of the gauge set is connected to a vacuum pump or a refrigerant can add refrigerant to the system. The yellow hose is not connected to the system at this time.

Static Test

If you find an out-of-range temperature reading, the manifold gauge set should be installed on the "low" and "high-side" service valves. With the engine "OFF" and the compressor and clutch not engaged, the blue "low-side" and red "high-side" gauges should show equal readings of approximately 80 to 120psi. These readings would indicate that there is a refrigerant charge in your A / C system. If the readings were 50psi on each gauge, this would indicate that there is a refrigerant in the system but a LOW CHARGE. If the readings were 10 to 20psi on each gauge would indicate that there is little or no refrigerant in your A / C system.

Engine Running Test

Start the engine, .turn the A / C switch "ON" with the blower on "high" and run for a minimum of fifteen (15) minutes. Observe the reading on the manifold gauge set. TIP: A manifold gauge set with a built-in sight glass (mentioned above) will save you diagnostic time as most A / C systems do not have a sight glass built-in the receiver-dryer on the high side of the system.

With this feature, you look for bubbling refrigerant oil and refrigerant in the sight glass on the manifold. Oil moving through the glass would indicate that the compressor and clutch are engaged. Refrigerant is being moved from the low-side through the A / C system in the refrigeration cycle.

Low Charge

With the engine running, A / C switch "ON", and the manifold gauge set installed, a "low-side" pressure reading of 20psi over 150psi would indicate that your A / C system has a LOW CHARGE. The low reading of 150psi on the "high-side" gauge would be the tell tale that the system is doing very little work. A LOW CHARGE usually is an indicator that there is a refrigerant leak from a component on the "low" or "high-side" of the A / C system. A refrigerant leak in the system would have to be repaired for the A / C system to blow "cold air". TIP: REFRIGERANT DOES NOT WEAR OUT, IT LEAKS OUT. Some symptoms to look for a LOW CHARGE condition are:

1. Compressor clutch short cycling.
2. Clutch will not engage.
3. Little or no cooling.
4. Oily residue on hoses and components.

Leak Checking

For your A / C system to blow "cold air", refrigerant leaks will have to be found and repaired. Typically, leaks in an A / C system are minor and can be fixed with a screwdriver or hand tools. Most A / C systems use schrader valves for easy connection of the manifold gauge set. That said, these are no more than overgrown bicycle valves that use a valve core. When you are checking a system, the valves are the first place check for a leak. Other targets; such as, oil residue on hoses connected to the compressor is the second place that should be checked. TIP: When tightening the bolts to the suction and discharge ports of the compressor with hand tools, do not over tighten. Rubber 0-rings are placed on the suction and discharge ports of the compressor for sealing. The seals will create a leak when over tightened. Only tighten snug.

When your A / C system has a LOW CHARGE, a refrigerant charge will have to add to check for the leak. Refrigerant that contains a dye for leak checking a system is used for this purpose. The manifold gauge set, refrigerant, and a can tap valve will be needed to add refrigerant to check for a leak in the system.

Connect the manifold gauge set as discussed above. Connect the yellow hose to the can tap valve and front seat (turn clockwise) the valve. Close the blue gauge on the manifold gauge set. Open the valve on the can tap valve. Slowly open the valve on the blue or "low-side" gauge and let the refrigerant flow from the refrigerant can into the system until you see a reading of 60psi on the "low-side" gauge. TIP: Placing the refrigerant can in a pan of hot water will allow the vapor refrigerant to enter the A / C system quicker. WARNING: Do not invert the refrigerant can. Doing so will allow liquid refrigerant to enter the system resulting in a ruined compressor.

Professional A / C technicians use an electronic leak detector to find leaks in an system. Use a battery-powered UV leak detector kit and special UV glasses. This kit can be purchased at auto supply stores and Internet A / C supply store fronts.

The UV glasses should be worn when checking for leaks. Simply place the tip of the detector on a fitting or connection to each component to be checked in the A / C system. When a leak is found, a light green color will be seen through the UV glasses.

Air Flow

An often overlooked cause of your A / C system not blowing "cold air" is debris that clogs the condenser. Bugs, plastic bags, and leaves from city and highway driving will prevent air from passing through the fins of the condenser. The condenser should be cleaned with a cleaning solvent. Bent fins on the condenser should be straightened with a fin comb.


A restriction is a condition that is a blockage. Usually, it is traced to the outlet side of the condenser. Some form of debris has formed causing a restriction of refrigerant flow through the condenser tubes .. The passes in the tubes of most condensers that are used in compact cars and trucks are very small. An effective way to diagnose a restriction in your A / C system is the manifold gauge set. The "high-side" (red) gauge would move into the DANGER zone, over 300psi.

System Repairs

When a system has been opened, and a component removed, moisture has entered the system. For your A / C to blow "cold air", that moisture will have to be removed with the aid of a vacuum pump.

At this stage of the repair, you have two (2) choices to finish the repair of your A / C system. The first choice is take the car or truck to an A / C professional. At their shop, they will evacuate the system, check your work, and recharge the A / C system for a fee.

The second choice is to repair your A / C system yourself. You will need to borrow or buy a vacuum pump to finish the repair. A small 2-stage vacuum pump that is designed for auto refrigeration systems is available for less than $ 100.00.

After replacing a component, moisture has entered the system during the repair. For the A / C system to blow "cold air" the moisture will have to be removed. Install the manifold gauge set to your car or truck service valves as described above. After repairs, your A / C system is evacuated and recharged by applying the below steps:

1. Blue hose to the "low-side" service valve.

2. Red hose to the "high-side service valve.

3. Yellow hose to the suction port of the vacuum pump.

4. Close the hand valve to the vacuum pump.

5. Back seat (open) the hand valves on the blue and red gauges of the manifold gauge set.

6. Connect the electrical power to the vacuum pump.

7. Open the hand valve on the vacuum pump.

8. Run the vacuum pump for three (3) minutes.

9. The needle on the "low-side" gauge (blue) show should be in a vacuum at 28.3hg.

10. A system with no leaks will pull a void of 28.3hg in three (3) minutes.

11. If the needle of the blue gauge did not fall to 28.3hg, the evacuation will have to be aborted as there is a leak in your car or truck A / C system.

12. The leak will have to be found in the A / C system using the UV detector and UV glasses.

13. Once the leak has been found and repaired, continue the evacuation steps as described above for 25 minutes.

14. Front seat (close) the hand valves on the blue and red gauges and observe the needle on the blue gauge.

15. The needle should hold steady at 29hg, indicating a tight system with no leaks.

16. Any needle movement toward "0" on the blue "low-side" gauge would indicate a leak in the system and the evacuation would have to be aborted and conduct a search for the leak.

16.Look in the owners manual or service manual for the factory recommended refrigerant charge. It is usually from 16 to 28 ounces.

17.Attach the can tap valve to a can of refrigerant Make sure that the tap valve hand valve is front sealed (closed).

18. Turn the A / C control switch to the "ON" position and blower switch to "high".

19. Start the engine and run at 1500rpm's.

20. Place the refrigerant can in a pan of hot water. Warning: Do not invert the can for this process as liquid would enter the system and ruin the reed valves of the compressor.

21. Continue this process until the factory charge (approximately 2 1/2 cans) has entered the system.

22. Shutoff your car or truck engine and let the A / C system stabilize. When the readings on the red and blue gauges are equal, remove the blue "low-side" hose from the service valve.

23. Restart the engine and remove the red "high-side" hose from the service valve.

24. Close the hood and take your car or truck for a three (3) mile test drive.

25. Place an instant read or digital thermometer in the vent register in the passenger compartment.

26. The temperature should range from 38 to 42 degrees F on a 90-degree day.

Tools and Materials

1. Manifold gauge set
2. Vacuum pump
3. Hand tools
4. Battery powered UV leak detector
5. Can tap valve
6. 134A refrigerant dye
7. 134A refrigerant
8. Instant read temperature thermometer
9. Digital temperature thermometer

Foundation Repair

The principal function of a foundation of a home is to transfer the weight of a structure to its underlying soil and rocks. One of the factors that bring about the need for foundation repairs is improper foundation settling. Foundation settlement can devalue structures and also render them unsafe. Building on expansive clay, compressive or improperly contracted fill soils and improper maintenance in and around foundations are some of the major reasons of improper foundation settling. Another reason for improper foundation settlement is undetected or unsuspected air pockets in the ground below the area of ​​construction. These may cave in and cause the integrity of the foundation to be compromised.

General symptoms of a structure requiring foundation repairs are bulging or cracked walls and doors that do not close properly. Building on expansive soils is the main culprit for foundation settlement. When only one part of the foundation either settles or heaves, cracks are formed in the foundation. The exterior warning signs of improper floor settling are rotation of walls, displaced moldings, cracked bricks and foundation and separation around doors and windows from the walls. Interior warning signs of improper floor settling are cracks on the floor, sheet rock and misalignment in doors and windows.

There are many ways of doing foundation repair. Cement, stone, steel or wood were used extensively in past techniques. They would be forced into the ground in a bid to salvage the strength of these foundations. However, this type of repair work has been known to be futile. Two of the most successful ways of foundation repairs are slab jacking and the Piering method. Piering is also known as hydraulic jacking.

Slab jacking is the process of adding grout benefit a slab or beam. This produces a lifting force and restores the said beam or slab to almost its original elevation and adds to its strength. Care should be taken that the amount of sand should be perfect while adding grout.

During Piering, steel posts are driven through unstable soil. Hydraulic jacks are used to stabilize concrete clabs which are weakened due to the changes taking place in the underlying soil. Steel beams are used in the Piering method because concrete has great compressive strength. Although Piers are able to transfer huge downward loads without the help of reinforcing steel, steel is used in the piers for prevention of the pier from being rolled apart or sheared by forces of the expansive soils. The repairs normally take 21 to 30 days, however this time frame can vary depending on soil conditions and weather promises.

TIG Welding Certification Tests – Tips For Passing the Weld Test

What do Boilermakers, Pipefitters, and Aerospace welders have in common?

Passing a TIG welding certification test is usually required in order to be considered a qualified welder or to even be hired for the job in the first place.

For boilermakers and pipefitters a pipe or tube welding test is usually required and can be anywhere from 3/8″ to 12 inches in diameter and depending on the job, the material welded is usually carbon steel or stainless steel, or carbon steel welded with ER309 filler metal. (occasionally other alloys are welded but carbon and stainless make up the bulk of welding tests given)

Aerospace welders on the other hand might be required to weld practically any metal:

  • carbon steel / low alloy steel – 4130, 4140, 4340, 8630
  • stainless steel – 321, 347, 13-8, 15-7, 17-7, a286
  • nickel alloys – hastelloy x, inconel 718
  • aluminum – A355,356,357 castings, 6061, 2219
  • magnesium – az31b,
  • titanium – 6AL4V, CP
  • cobalt – L605, haynes 188
  • refractory alloys like columbium

Aerospace tig welding certifications tests are generally straightforward groove welds or fillet welds unless the special application provision of the American Welding Society D17.1 is used. Sometimes a simple groove or fillet weld test does not accurately represent the scope of welding performed.

In that case there is a provision for the welder to be certified using a scrap part, live part, or mock up test that represents the weld done in production. It is a more limited certification but it helps to certify a welder on tasks that adequately test the skill set required to do the job.

For Boilermakers and pipefitters, a tig welding certification test on tube or pipe pretty much represents the same joint done in the field.

Tips for passing any tig welding test:

  • purge…give lots of attention to getting a perfect purge by making sure ends are taped neatly and securely with a vent hole at the top for gas to escape.
  • Clean the metal…Whether welding a pipe joint or sheet metal butt weld, if you don’t clean the metal right, you will probably fail. Metals like aluminum and titanium are prone to porosity and filing the edge removes crud that will cause porosity…Some test inspectors will fail you on the spot just for not cleaning the metal.
  • For aerospace tig welding tests, make sure to file the sheared edge of the metal
  • Degrease with acetone or other approved solvent…give the rod a wipe too.
  • Follow instructions…Whether written or from you test supervisor, pay attention, read, and follow instructions.

A Brief History Of Tuscan Decor

Tuscan interior decor begins with an understanding of Tuscan architecture. Even a cursory page-flipping through the history books of Tuscany and its architecture reveals two impressions: Strength and Grandeur.

In the minds of modern day homeowners, these concepts seem to have translated into ‘security and permanence’, and ‘nobility of design’.

The book and subsequent movie, Under The Tuscan Sun, seem to have awakened a long dormant desire for the rustic, simple beauty found in the hill towns of Tuscany. Often described as voluptuous, sensuous, and seductive, this region of Italy has experienced an unparalleled awakening in both the European and North American consciousness.

The power of broad facades, massive stones, and symmetrically aligned square windows are once again the fashion of the day. Perhaps we are drawn to such strength of design if our own country of origin and its heritage are so young, so unrefined, and so seemingly impermanent when compared to Italy and the ancient Etruscan and Roman societies.

Thankfully, the ‘throw away’, ‘use it once and toss it’, light weight, impermanent mindset of recent decades has been abandoned in favor of enduring quality. The stark simplicity of contemporary design seems to have gone cold and lifeless. All now replaced by a quest for homes designed with a sense of history, luxury, rustic strength, and an air of permanence.

Tuscan decor says, “I’m here, I’m of the earth, and I will be here forever.”

The brilliance of using what we have –

Out of necessity, Tuscan architects utilized readily available materials, such as stone from local quarries. They adapted dwellings to the warm climate, and incorporated depth and strength of walls during warring times. Hence, we see massive stone facades, the most easily recognizable feature of Tuscan architecture.

There also seems to have been an innate love of simplicity and symmetry. This appreciation for beauty, evidenced in even the most humble buildings, is no doubt born of daily exposure to the pure elegance of the Tuscan countryside. Endless vistas of undulating green hills, gracefully thin cypress trees, lush olive groves, and intertwined grape vines have slowly evolved into the Tuscan decor so loved today.

Early Etruscan architecture was easily recognizable by its massive stones, the square forms of their edifices, and their heavy projecting beams, even when later embellished with Greek or Roman design elements. Often called Mediterranean (a broadening of the geographic area of design elements), Tuscan decor brings to mind sun washed colors, liberal use of stone, metal, square windows, and symmetry. Intricate details are often found that soften the strong, masculine features. There is always present a meticulous attention to quality craftsmanship, and stones marry with precision.

Even during the time of Michelangelo, who frequently combined rustic with polished, old with new, and Etruscan with Roman, builders faithfully retained the original elements of Tuscan decor. Before Michelangelo’s day, the earliest Etruscan architects, while originally designing almost solely for strength and defensive integrity, later gave way to including details that added nobility.

It’s no wonder that North Americans, as well as many other western cultures are craving a sense of antiquity, a longing for the rustic beauty, warmth, and functionality of Tuscan design. Discriminating homeowners are demanding not only design excellence, but also quality materials and furnishings to carry out those designs. Clever and knowledgeable modern builders/architects have learned how to weave the ancient concepts of the Tuscan builders into modern design. Using updated materials, they have been able to adapt the most basic elements of Tuscan design in order to meet the requirements of today’s savvy designers.

And so with a respectful nod to Michelangelo, we see that caring and ambitious home decorators can take the best from the past, blend it with the newest technological innovations of today, and build the dreams of the future.

Copyright 2008. Excerpt from Decorating in the Tuscan Style, the 162-page eBook packed with tips and techniques (and lots of photos) to help you transform your home and garden into the heart and soul of Tuscany. To learn more about Tuscan décor, visit http://www.intheTuscanstyle.com.

Eyebrows – How To Shape Them To Compliment Your Features

It has been said that eyebrows "frame" the face. However, just as the wrong picture frame can detract from a beautiful painting, eyebrows that are framed incorrectly, or are too thick or thin, can detract from your beautiful features. So how do you determine a good shape for your brows, one that will compliment your features? Should they have a defined, almost pointy arch? Or should they be softly rounded? Should they have a high arch, or almost no arch at all?

The first step in brow shape and design, is to determine the natural shape of your face. Pull your hair back so that you can see whether your face is more round, square, oval, heart-shaped, inverted pyramid, etc. According to expected makeup artists, there are 7 basic shapes, and most of us will fall into one of them. A simple rule to remember is that you never want to repeat a negative. So if you tend to have a very round face, you would not want to have brows that were very rounded. An arch that is higher and more angular will draw away from an extremely round face. However if you have fairly harsh and square features, a rounded brow will soften those features. Again, never repeat a negative.

Do you have a high forehead that you have always tried to conceal with bangs? Do not shape your brows with a high and pointed arch because this will only emphasize the highness of your forehead. A lower arch, or almost no arch at all, will make the forehead appear wider and "less tall." If you do have a slight arch, make sure it is placed towards the outer third of the brow. Again, this will widen the face and make the forehead look more in balance.

But suppose you have a feature that you want to accentuate, such as high cheek bones? Brows that are more angular will emphasize your high cheek bones. Placing the arch to the outer third of the brow will also help accentuate high cheek bones. Make sure you do not bring the tail of the brow down too low. This is a common mistake done when looking eyebrows, and will close the eyes in and draw away from the high cheek bones that you are trying to emphasize.

How thick or thin should your eyebrows be? Another simple rule to remember is that overall feature size should be considered. For example, If you have very full lips, then thicker and more dramatic links are in order. Large features require thicker eyebrows to be in balance, whereas a small petite face with thin lips, small nose, etc., requires thin and less dramatic eyesbrows.

Perhaps by now you have determined a shape, and whether you want your brows to be thick or thin. Where should the eyebrow begin and where should it end? Accepted makeup principals state that you should take a ruler or other straight object such as a pencil, and place it from the outside of your nose, straight up to the inside corder of your eye, and start the brow at the point where this line begins above the nose. Bringing the brows in closet than this can make you appear as if you are frowning. In most cases, this is where the brow should start. When needing corrective makeup, the brows can be brought in slightly closer if you have an extremely wide bridge. However again, overall feature size must be considered, because if you have a very wide nose or wide mouth, bringing the brows in closer can throw the whole face off balance.

Where should the eyebrow end? Again, take a ruler and place it at the outside of the nose and straight to the outside corner of the eye. Following this line above will show you where it should end. Again, do not draw the brows too low and "hook" them, as this will close in the eyes and make you appear older. Keeping the brows up high and out will take years off your face!

What if you do not have sufficient hair to shape your brows, or the hair is all in the wrong places? An esthetician with experience in makeup can shape and wax your brows for you. Topically applied makeup can give you any shape desired. If mimicking this shape every day with traditional cosmetic makeup is too much work for you, permanent makeup will make your life easier. Having the perfect shape tattooed on permanently could be the answer for you. Just make sure to choose an experienced artist and have them draw the brows on first to obtain your approval as far as shape.

How do you determine the right color for your eyebrows? Skin tones as well as hair color should be considered. It is generally accepted that if traditional makeup is being used, a color the same as your brow hair, or 2 to 3 shades lighter, will be most aesthetically pleasing. As far as permanent makeup goes, the artist must consider the client's skin undertones when choosing the pigment color. Your natural skin color, plus the color of the pigment being implanted, will be the final result. This can be tricky, so again, make sure you consult an artist with a good portfolio and references from former clients.

The few tips noted above will help you design beautiful eyebrows that compliment and frame your face. If you still feel a bit intimidated about changing your eyebrows, do not be afraid to seek the advice of a professional.

Getting a Construction Loan Vs A Mortgage Loan – Learn the Differences

Unless you plan to pay cash for your home building project, you will need to obtain financing for the construction and a mortgage for the outstanding balance when it’s finished. While you may have qualified for a mortgage loan before, getting a construction loan for your home building project can be a little challenging. 

Although it’s certainly possible to get a construction loan as an owner-builder, lenders may shy away from you at first, thinking that you aren’t qualified to handle such an undertaking. Consequently, it’s important to be very prepared and to show yourself in a capable, competent light when presenting your case to the lender. For example, don’t say, “I’ve never really done this before, but I’m willing to give it a stab.” Instead, be positive, prepared and professional. Never lie, but anticipate questions and concerns and have answers ready.

There are several types of construction loans to choose from, but one of the most popular for people building their own home is a construction loan that converts to a permanent loan once the home is complete.  Although there are no standard specifications for this type loan, as a guideline, most only require that you pay closing costs once. That saves some money and makes the process easier.  You don’t have to go through the qualification process twice.   The downside is that it is next to impossible to lock-in a permanent mortgage rate, since you won’t be closing the loan for six months to one year.

No matter what type construction loan you choose, you will likely be required to pay monthly interest on the construction loan amount during the construction phase. The amount you owe each month will depend on the amount you have “drawn” out of the loan, not the overall amount that you are allowed to borrow. If you are approved for a construction loan of $100,000 but you have only drawn $50,000 then your interest payment will based on $50,000. Typically construction loans are standard interest (not amortized) and are one or two percent over the prime rate, or whatever you have negotiated with your lender. 

Qualifying for a construction goes beyond the income and credit qualification requirements for a standard mortgage loan.  Bankers or lenders will want to know how you plan to tackle your project and that you are capable of building a home yourself. A thorough presentation to the bank will be in order. The following is an outline of what you will need to apply for a construction loan:

  • all the same financial information you would provide to get a standard mortgage loan (financial statements, income verification, credit report, etc.)
  • a set of your plans (they may ask for several copies)
  • detailed specifications (the materials and finishes you plan to use)
  • an estimate of the cost
  • an appraisal (ordered by the lending institution.  The appraiser will use the plans, specifications and lot value to determine the amount)
  • your lot information (whether you own it, etc.)
  • contractor bids (not necessarily required, but might be if this is your first project)

You might also consider providing any other documentation you can think of that will help indicate your ability and preparedness to complete your project. The bank is essentially becomes a silent partner in your project and will be concerned about the home being properly built.  Demonstrating your ability to handle the project is key here.

7 Steps to Building a Farm Pond

Just like everything else in life, building a farm pond takes, first getting the idea, planning, preparation, location the actual digging. After all the hard work we add our own personalities to the pond with needed equipment and accessories. Then finally nature will take over, but we can help with adding plants and fish.

Step 1

The Idea:

When did building a farm pond become the idea? For some people it is just that they need water for the cattle. Others may have had a swimming pool and just are tired of taking care of it. Building a farm pond you can still swim, but also raise fish for food, fish for pets like a huge aquarium. Bring nature back to the property. And many more wonderful things

Step 2


Once the thought has come and you have decided to act upon that thought: You will need to check to see if you need a permit. Most important you should check with the neighbors. They may have concerns, like little children. And if you need a permit or meeting is required from the local government or state there will be a larger circle of neighbors involved. It is better to come from you than a letter in the mail.

Step 3

Finding the perfect spot:

Building a farm pond will require a natural water source in order to fill and maintain the water level. This can be from under ground springs, small seeps, rain run off, or bypassing from a small stream. Is the spot located for your viewing pleasure and privacy, or displayed for everyone to see. A Lot depends on your use f the pond

Step 4


Finding the best spot is great but not knowing if the ground will hold water in that location is some thing that needs to be found out. Do this by digging test holes to determine the subsoil structure in the pond location. Other preparations will include what type of farm pond is being built. There are two basic ways and a combination of, Dug, Dam or a little of both.

Step 5

Do it:

Determine if building a farm pond is some thing you can do or want to do. Make the call to a couple excavating companies to get quotes and ideas from them. If you have the heavy equipment necessary to build the pond, still call and get some ideas or ask if they could walk you through the process.

Operating heavy equipment and building your own pond can be rewarding time, but the lack of experience and pond building know how will slow down the progress and if done improperly could lead to a failed pond.

Step 6

Accessories and needed equipment:

Accessories, equipment, wiring and piping should be budgeted in at the beginning planning stage. The ponds best friend and the plants and fish are oxygen. Will the pond be near an electrical source to run pumps for waterfalls or fountains? The pond may be secluded enough that a windmill or solar power equipment may be necessary. Decks, docks, boat or kayak for entertainment should also be thought of.

Step 7

Adding life:

Nature will provide life over time. This is your time to help get things started faster. Adding plants for color, shade and oxygen by adding lilies and depending on your location if they will be tropical or Hardy’s. Adding game fish for fishing and Koi for their vibrant colors, your enjoyment and they help to keep the pond clean. But be careful they like to eat the plants. Frog’s will come naturally within the first year. Other wildlife will find the pond too including bird’s ducks and geese.

This goes to show there are steps in building a farm pond. Skipping any of them could create major damage, hassles, or a pond that is not very enjoyable. For more in depth details take a look a my farm pond.com or the resource box below.

Floor Cleaning Made Easy With Floor Scrubbers

Today's floor scrubbers are the most leading floor cleaning machines distributed all-over the market. These floor machines such as Duplex 340, Duplex 420 and Duplex 620 are the only floor scrubber and carpet cleaner that is able to operate on any flooring surface in just one single pass.

Floor scrubbers are highly portable and easy to use floor cleaning machines ideal for wall-to-wall cleaning and suitable for a wide range of hard and soft floor coverings.

How it works?

Floor scrubber is a powerful carpet cleaner especially for high traffic areas and restores carpets like new again. Fill the two solution tanks with plain water, plug it in and select floor setting. On starting the floor machine, the dual large capacity clean solution tanks will dispense liquid even along the full-length of both agitator brushes at the speed of 650RPM. This will remove the dirt in both directions of the fiber and collects it in the central waste tank that can be emptied easily.

Benefits and Advantages of Floor Scrubbers:

* Fast and effective; replace mops, buckets, scrubbers, polishers and carpet extractors with a single compact unit.
* Has four brushes that can be changed to suit different floor cleaning task.
* Compact and highly maneuverable machine that will clean large carpeted or hard floor areas in no time.
* Under-mat surface is not wet during cleaning so reduce the drying time.
* Easy to use, no heavy pushing, pulling or lifting.
* Saves time and money

Floor cleaning machines are also an outstanding floor scrubber. It is an ultimate solution that deeply cleans all the small pores of uneven chemicals and stones. It cleans tiles as well as the grout. Unlike traditional floor cleaners and mops, Duplex floor scrubber does not recycle dirty water.

Ideal for:

* Small & medium size supermarkets and department stores
* Healthcare cleaning, veterinary cleaning; community and fitness centers cleaning
* Maintaining high levels of hygiene for hotels, kitchens and restaurants
* Airport cleaning, school cleaning; homes, offices, and commercial complexes cleaning
* Industrial areas and anywhere that needs a clean & spotless surface

A multi-purpose floor cleaning machine is sufficient that can be used efficiently on almost any floor surfaces including vinyl, timber, safety floors, profiled rubber and ceramic, natural stone, flotex and carpets. In this time, floor cleaning has never been so easy with floor scrubbers.

Time to Get the Raise You Deserve? Here's How!

There is no question that money plays a major role in our lives, yet a few of us were ever provided with good examples on how to approach this topic. Remember your first interview when everyone you know warned you not to bring up the "salary discussion", so in an effort to appear "polite" you avoided the whole money conversation?

Salary negotiation can certainly be overwhelming, especially for those without a great deal of previous work experience, but there are situations when it makes common sense to go over to your manager and say, "I believe I am worth this company than I am being paid at the moment; I would really appreciate a raise. "

Before you rush into your manager's office to discuss the possibility of a raise, consider the following three consequences: One, you may get the raise you really deserve. Two, you may find out you are not nearly as good as you thought you were; so you might as well forget about it. Or, three, you could lose your job since you made your boss focus on your weak performance.

There is no "acceptable" approach to ask for a raise since it's something that we are not trained to do, and it's rarely discussed. So how about we go through the following techniques that will definitely bring a better outcome than doing nothing or approaching this matter in the wrong way.

Ask for Extra Work

Get yourself in a position to ask for a raise. One effective way to approach this is to ask for extra responsibilities and link it to the pay raise you want, if not right away, then in the future. This is a mature approach that employers respond to better than if you simply asked for a raise without a solid argument to back it up.

Another smart approach to tackle this is to ask for a performance-related increase based on your achievement of better outcomes than your previous or expected levels. This will also be perceived positively by your employer because it shows that you are not just asking for more money, but you actually deserve it.

Research Salies in Your Field

Get a clear idea of ​​what your job typically pays, but do not forget that salies vary from one industry to another. Your performance evaluation combined with the research you've done on current industry salaries will determine the fair market value that you deserve. It's really important that you watch your tone when you discuss this issue with your manager; instead of you shouting "You're Underpaying Me!" try to tackle this subject as if it's a career-related discussion in which you're presenting a research paper.

Do not throw a tantrum if your request gets rejected; instead, ask what you can do in the next couple of months in order to make this discussion have a successful exit the next time.

Be a Good Sport

Whatever happens, keep your attitude and conduct professional at all times. Whether you get the raise or not, stand up and smile, shake hands and express your gratitude for your manager's time when the discussion is over. One of the most important rules of career advancement is that you have to be able to live with a NO. Unless you are prepared to leave your job, adjust to the current circumstances until you find a better opportunity.

Do not Quit Just Yet

If you can not get the raise you seek right away, you'll likely find it by switching jobs. This does not mean you should quit right away and start applying randomly for any job you find online. Looking out from the rock-solid base of a current job will always get you more job offers. And when it comes to job satisfaction, one thing is for sure; financial compensation is not the only factor that effects your job contentment, so do not let this minor setback stop you; achieve your goals and try again. A better opportunity will definitely come your way later on, if you really deserve it.

In our culture, money representations a lot; it reflects how successful, smart and powerful we are. Being able to determine your worth at work is a good thing, it will not only help you increase your monetary compensation, but it will also provide you with better self awareness about your role within any company you might join.

If you focus on your passion when choosing a career, you're more likely to select the kind of career path that will lead to the best career salaries. Money should not be your only goal; you want to be known as the best in your field. Make that the goal and the money will come along the way. Always remember that the best-paid careers are those that pay off not only in cash, but also in satisfaction and happiness.

Top 10 Reasons to Use a Breast Pump to Supplement Breast Feeding

If you plan on breastfeeding your baby, you may be wondering why in the world you would need a breast pump. Although for some, breastfeeding goes without a hitch and handles all of their child's needs, for many a breast pump comes in handy in numerous ways. Here are 10 reasons that you may want to supplement your breastfeeding by pumping.

1. If your baby is born prematurely or ill, you may not have access to breastfeeding in those early days. A breast pump such as the Avent Isis Breast Pump can be your savior. By spending those first precious days or weeks pumping, you can provide the hospital staff with your own breast milk to feed your newborn.

2. Although movies and media sometimes portray breastfeeding as the most easy, natural thing in the world, that's not always the case. Sometimes, babies struggle to form a proper latch and find breastfeeding painful and difficult. This leads to frustrated mothers and hungry babies. By pumping, you gain the ability to choose a bottle that works for your child while ensuring that they get the precious nutrients and antibodies found in breast milk.

3. If a mother can not keep up with her baby's hunger, a breast pump can be used to stimulate her milk supply. An automatic pump, such as the Medela Pump Style Advanced Breast Pump, features several different modes that simulate your baby's suckling and can raise supply to meet baby's needs.

4. While breastfeeding is a special bond between mother and baby, pumping breast milk into a bottle allows the father and other relatives to experience similar joy. Not only that, it can also give mom a much needed break while dad takes over a couple of late night feedings!

5. While low supply is a concern, the issue of over supply should not be underestimated. When a mother is producing more milk than her baby needs, it can lead to painful engorging and embarrassing leaks. By pumping excess with a Ameda Purely Yours Breast Pump, a mother's discomfort can be lessened or eliminated without having to wake baby for an extra feeding.

6. A common complication of breastfeeding occurs when mother and baby develop thrush or other infections that are passed from mouth to nipple. These conditions are uncomfortable to both. Until the infections are under control, pumping and storing milk can heal the pain and reduce the chances of re-infection from one to the other.

7. A breast pump that comes with a storage bottles and an insulted bag such as the Ameda Purely Yours Breast Pump allows a new mother to pump directly into containers which can then be transferred to freezer bags. Keeping a backup frozen supply is good practice and easily accomplished with a pump. An emergency may take you out of town or otherwise keep you separated from baby for a while. Having breast milk on hand can be a lifesaver.

8. The backup milk supply can come in handy in many situations. If a mother finds herself ill and in need of antibiotics or other medications, she may not be able to breastfeed due to the medications entering the milk supply. In these cases, milk can be pumped and discarded while the frozen supply from before the illness is used.

9. Occasionally, many mothers will have to return to work. However, that does not mean that the special connection of breastfeeding has to end. For instance, many manual breast pumps are quiet and discreet. Using a lunch break to pump when unable to be with her baby can keep a mother's supply active and allow her to breastfeeding in the evenings while having enough milk to send along with baby to daycare.

10. Lastly, although public breastfeeding done discreetly is becoming more and more accepted, sometimes a mother may find herself at an event or location where it would be uncomfortable. In these cases, carrying along a few bottles of pumped milk in a cooler bag such as the one offered with the Medela Pump Style Advanced Breast Pump can allow her to continue to feed her baby with nutritious breastmilk without having to leave an event early.

While exclusively breastfeeding works well for many mothers and babies, the advantages and security offered by a breast pump can not be taken lightly. Quiet, easy to use and readily available, a good breast pump can help mother and baby along in many situations.

House Painting and Human Personality

As our homes are precious to many of us it is important for us to put our mark on our homes and give them something which will portray our personalities.

Planning to give renovate your apartment / home or your office – a new look! If you're planning to paint your whole house remember that it'll be a physically strenuous project. It's exciting to get ready to paint renewate your apartment / home or your office the dream color that you always wanted. But you can not just dive into the project by throwing on a fresh coat of paint, thinking that it'll come out that beautiful color you envisioned in your head.

Choosing the right color, paint and the service provider can enhance the look of apartment / home or your office. Psychology associates human personality to color. Color mixing is one of the most difficult aspects of learning how to paint using acrylic or oils. You can choose an explicit color theme for your home such as aquatic, natural green, and many more. One good way of finding this out is by asking family members and friends whether or not they have had any good experiences with and painting or decorating carried out in their homes. Research says that children are more active in rooms with violet or purple paints I have personally seen a large number of people willing to give their home a modish look but a few of them succeed in their objectives of making their home a dreamy world. Painting gives your home an artistic look and feel.

It may be wise to consider hiring a professional painting company to do the work. Painting project requires a large amount of resources, time and energy. Painting contractors have specialized in painting house exiors for decades. They are experienced in many styles of surfaces such as aluminum, concrete, vinyl, cedar, and stucco. They know how to repair minor damage and choose the paintings and finish that work best for each surface. Be careful when hiring a painting contractor. Hiring a professional painting contractor for your residential home is a good idea for many reasons. His or her expertise can strengthen and protect your property value and offer decorating choices you may not have considered. It also frees up time so you can focus on your family, work and maybe even running in that marathon next fall. Like in many industries there are good ones and bad ones.


  • You can do wonders with your regular furniture such as table, stools, or chair. These ideas do not engross huge sum of money and easy to use as well.
  • Buy antique furniture and place them in a way that gives your home a spectacular appeal.
  • It is always good to make some innovative use of plants and greenery. Placing the indoor plants give a pleasant look and fresh air.
  • Wall hanging adds a pleasant look.
  • Keeping the apartment / home or the office clean, with dust free.
  • Change the painting color, if it is not giving your home / apartment or office a pleasant look.
  • With the development of environmental-friendly decorative materials, the idea of ​​health care has also attracted many people's attention.
  • If you intend to set aside money, but like spectacular expression of painting, you can decide on an experienced painters. Service that fit your wallet includes add-ons to acquire the personalized look. If you are looking for an experienced Painting services available in the Melbourne area. The right choice is to choose Color Your World Painting Services.