The Victorian Circus

It is known that there were hundreds of circuses operating in mid Victorian times around 1850-1860. Circuses were a part of culture and a unique part of western culture and what is known as Victorian culture and Victorian culture had important influences on Modern Culture. The skills whether that of the performers or the specific engineering and design work done in preparing the circus were important. It is known that there were aquatic circuses where the circus ring was flooded with water. It is known too that in Roman times, amphitheatres were flooded with water so that mock sea battles could be stopped. This article aims to describe the unique feel and culture of the time. It aims to elaborate on what is meant by the lewd and sometimes grotesque nature of circuses. Were circuses close to the theater and burlesque in some degree?

You can imagine the whole commercialism and excitement of Victorian circuses. The skills and daring involved was exciting and you can feel a strange freedom and beauty in this world. There was a certain American gentleman Richard Sands who ran a circus. He was an acrobat as well as what was known as a 'ceiling walker'. It is difficult to imagine ceiling walkers now. Firstly, the modern person may question whether such an ability is possible ie to walk on ceilings. Surely this can only be done through computers and some kind of illusionary effect. But Victorian circuses in this respect were not about illusion. They were about real skill and they aimed to evoke real excitation, a real circus effect. Richard Sands who it is known visited England from America in 1842 also bought a large stud of horses and equestrians. His circus was certainly well organized and its performers whether acrobats or equestrians were highly skilled. This was the 1840s, the early Victorian period. It is too difficult and presumptuous to mention circuses as part of a whole cultural development. The nineteenth century continued on the great Industrial Revolution and it is obvious that newventions and developments were used in circuses to develop new skills as well as new ways of captivating and entertaining an audience yearning for such enthralling circus acts.

Richard Sands was apparently able to walk on ceilings because of rubber suction pads attached to his feat. The Sands Circus returned to England in the 1850s and he did this act during this time. Unfortunately he was killed when performing this act in America because of loose plaster in the ceiling. Still what I am trying to evoke is a degree of danger in the circus but it was not danger in the sense of recklessness. The audience wanted to see danger performed in a structured setting and this setting was the circus. The color, the animals, the acrobats added to a new type of performance. This was not just theatrical performances or performances akin to plays in theater houses. It was a raw theatricality that only circuses can evoke. It was real human performance involving acts decidedly aimed at capturing the audience.

One of the central elements of Victorian Circus was Astley's Amphitheater. It is important to mention Philip Astley, a cavalry officer turned circus-manager who greeted the circus to a new level. And it is Philip Astley who the famous Astley's Amphitheater is named after. Astley's is considered the first real circus but it began before Queen Victoria came to the throne. You may wonder why the term 'amphitheater' was used. Note that the setting for the circus is not a theater but an amphitheater. Look back at famous amphitheatres in history! Think of amphitheatres like the open-air amphitheaters of the Roman era ,. Maybe the word 'amphitheatre' was used because it denoted assassination, true 'circus' excitement; This was how a circus was meant to be. It seems too much that Mr Astley's theater was mentioned in the Old Curiosity Shop by Dickens. If you look online at Victorian prints, you can find prints of Astley's Circus and although you can deduce from this that Astley's Circus was an important part of the Victorian World in England at least.

It is known that Philip Astley, who is considered the founder of modern circuses, opened a riding school in 1768. His main aim, it seems, was to develop a school for trick riders or horse riders who would perform daring feats on horseback. Astley developed an arena for the performing horse-men. He saw that the arena or performing area should be a particular shape with the audience around. Because of its circular shape, he called the area a circus. Still it is not confirmed that he called the arena a circus. He certainly saw that the performing area needed to be of a certain shape Ie circular so that horse-riders could perform in an optimum way and so that the audience too could see everything. This is the important thing about a circus! The circus is 'close' to the audience. The audience are mean to see everything. The performers perform for the audience. They perform around the audience .. They perform above the audience. The audience is meant to see. Victorian theater had this basic aim, for the audience to be close to the performers. And Victorian architects developed music halls and theaters on this premise. However circuses came before the large-scale construction of Victorian theaters. It is best not to emphasize the circus shape because the shape is really a common-sense shape for a raw theatrical performance such as the circus. And you should not of course over-analyze what is common-sense!

The amphitheater was located on Westminster Bridge Road in Lambeth, London. As a piece of architecture, Astley's Amhitheatre was certainly stunning and had rich effects. It was built in 1796 and then before the Victorian Age. Still Astley's Amphitheater was burned down many times and refurbished too and you can argue that the theater opened in 1770 when the first theater was built. However it was destroyed by fire in the early 1790s. It was known variously as the Royal Saloon and the Royal Grove and the building only became known as Astley's Amphitheater in 1795. Astley refurbished the building and made the building a center for his new circus acts and that is why the date 1795 is used. It was that built with obvious Georgian and Regency influences. However it is still an important theater to mention. In the Victorian age itself, the place was an important center for circus acts. The building had many names over time. It changed its name to Davis's Royal Amphitheater in 1823 and then the Royal Amphitheater (Astley's) in 1825. Then it had another name changes before returning to the name Astley's Theater in 1863. It was finally known as Sanger's Grand National Amphitheater in 1883 before the building was demolished as unsafe. Note how the name Astley's was associated with it through its history and you can feel that its rich association with circus.

Origin Of Collective Bargain

The term collective bargaining was coined in 1891 by Beatrice Webb in her work cooperative move in industries.

The employment term according to her can be determined either unilaterally by the state, unilaterally by employees, unilaterally by workers and by the combined efforts of the employers and their organs, workers and their organs and the state representatives.

C.I.B study text (1982:258) observed that since the 1960s there have been certain developments in the system of collective bargaining. It explains that negotiating arrangements have been introduced in many organizations at local or plant level, i.e. in “domestic” bargaining. For example, a union might negotiate minimum wage rates at a national or company level and then separate negotiations at plant level might be concerned with extra payments for special arrangements, such as a productivity agreement in the plant.

Before the advent of collective bargaining, employees bargain individually, through the interview i.e. individual contract.

Collective bargaining is therefore collective in the sense of multi-party involvement in form of decision making concerning a broad range of issues that effect all parties in the industry.

Contrary to Webb’s definition of collective bargaining as a collective equivalent and alternative to individual bargaining. Alan Flanders (1975:253) says collective bargaining is primarily a political institution because it is a rule making process, which involves power relationship between organizations or organized interest groups.

Dunlop (1958:302) drew attention to the dynamic of collective bargaining processes, he observed that the major activities of collective bargaining involves the determination of priorities within each side in the bargaining process i.e. there are disagreement within each side. Constant discussions, disagreement and compromise and exists from time to time in these processes.

Collective bargaining is an important technique or mechanism in industrial relations meant for resolving goal conflict. It is a joint activity where each side recognizes the right of the other to be present in equal terms. I.e. when you talk of collective bargaining, it is a forum where the employers and employees are to be present. The employer do not tell the employees to leave the negotiating table, they both have fifty-fifty chance.

Employees and employers through their representative come to agreement on pay and condition of employment. The process of negotiating is often referred to as COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.

The development of Collective Bargaining

The C.I.B study text (1988: 355) observed that before the advent of collective bargaining, employers bargaining individually through the interview i.e. individual contract.

It is also observe that since the 1960s there have been certain developments in the system of collective bargaining. Some of these are:

Negotiating arrangement has been introduced in many organizations at level or plant level i.e. in “domestic” bargaining.

Another is that more matters are now brought within the sphere of collective bargaining arrangement because negotiation now might cover not only pay and condition of service or employment but also promotion, training, agreement, job demarcation etc.

Finally, collective bargaining has been extended to more group of employees.

Factors influencing Collective Bargaining

According to the N.U.T study circle materials (1992: 68), some of the factors that influence collective bargaining are itemized below:

(i) The ability to pay

(ii) The mandate of the employers representative

(iii) The relative strength of the union and management

(iv) The sensitive nature of the job and the importance society attaches to it.

(v) Strategies adopted by the union officials

(vi) The quality of work.

(vii) Influence of international financial institution e.g. I.M.F.

(viii) Statistics, which are generally economic in nature, collective, collated and interpreted by the union officials.

However, the C.I.B study text (1988: 355) stated that one final point to note is that there is a complex of factors within an without the organization which affect the bargaining relationship and that although there is an agreement to go through grievances or dispute procedures (in a constitutional way) the majority of conflict in this country are unconstitutional, that is in breach of procedure.

Negotiation procedure

Standoher (1982: 217) defined Negotiation as the act of discussing, conferring in order to come to an agreement, arranged by discussion. He also defined bargaining as making a condition, or give up something in return for something else.

However, Yoder (1982: 471) wrote that the negotiating procedures consist essentially of advancing proposal, discussing them, receiving counter proposal and resolving differences. He asserted that it may involve elements of training, as concessions are granted bye ach of the parties.

Moreover, he stated that negotiation procedures are determined in part by the law, states and administrative board and courts decision regulate the particular issues that bargaining can decide. The law further requires that the parties negotiate their contract in good faith.

Formal negotiation according to yoder (1982: 471) creates the collective bargaining agreements. In formal negotiation, the parties met at predetermined times and places to exchange proposal, agreement and rebuttals. Informal negotiating he said is a continuing process arising out of the day-to-day interoperation, and application of the formal agreement. Representatives of the parties exchange ideas, and arrive at agreement with respect to the meaning of various clauses and appropriate programmed for putting them into effect.

He also observed that informal negotiation can be regarded as part of the total process of contract administration. It is highly important in the relationship established by collective bargaining: the degree to which informal negotiation takes place and how the parties adapt themselves to resulting changes may well be a measure of their maturity and effectiveness as collective bargainers.

Yoder stressed that the formal process of negotiating begins in several ways. If the parties are bargaining for the first time, sessions may follow union recognition by management or certification by federal or state agencies. If the parties have already negotiated one or more agreements, the timing of the negotiation process may be prescribe by existing agreement. It may call for formal, advance announcement by either party if changes are to be sought in a new agreement. The process may begin by an exchange of letters between the parties. Or one party may announce to become news. Negotiation continues until differences are resolved or until the parties find that they cannot arrive at a satisfactory agreement without assistance. Conciliation and mediation services may help in settling their differences. Certain unsettled issues may be submitted to arbitration. If agreement is not achieved in negotiation, employees may strike, in which case, settlement of the strike involves further negotiation.

They may, on the other hand, continue working without agreement while negotiation goes on.

Preparation for Negotiation

Yoder (1982: 472 observed that although the extent of advance preparation by both managers and unions differ, many of them spend month in getting ready for negotiation, unions study the experience with existing agreements in the investigate the financial condition of employers. Union members may be polled to determine their preferences.

He noted that many management undertake similar preparation for the negotiating process. They seek information on the nature of settlement made by other employers in the same or related industries. They study the operation of the present agreement to discover section in which they desire changes.

Moreover, he asserted that they forecast financial prospect and secure information on the labour markets in which they must shop. They try to anticipate union demands and have at the argument they may use in opposition to demands they regard as unreasonable.

Experience is reviewed to provide a basis for further negotiation.

Both management and union need fact as well as philosophy and policy to guide them in actual negotiation. Representatives know the basic policies of the organization they represent. They should be well informed on current practice in the industry and locality and on recent changes in practice. Both parties may require extensive statistical and other information with respect to their experience and that of other firms and unions.

Yoder finally noted an important objective in preparing for negotiations is determining the cost of changes in contract provision.

Strategy and tactics

According to Yoder (1982: 471), strategy refers to the overall plan of how to proceed at the bargaining table to achieve objectives. Examples would be to take a “hard time” or to be con-operative, tactics include the individual method that a party utilizes to implement its strategy. Example would be to table round, bluff or trade-off issues. The behavioral approach of Walton and Mckersie, outlined, lends itself to analysis of strategy and tactics. Strategically, most managers and union leaders view negotiation as a contest in which the “smart player” wins.

This comports with the fact that since most negotiations is distributive in nature, the parties are competing in an “win-loss” situation on individually bargaining items. Thus, negotiation is seen primarily as an adversary relationship.

Yoder (1982: 495) stressed that in applying tactics to distributive issues, both sides typically adopt extreme positions. The unions present a “laundry list” asking for the “sun, moon and stars”, and management typically, offers very little at the onset. He further asserted that both parties recognize the need to bluff.

They may make dire threat with no serious though of carrying them out. Negotiators sometimes fell a need to impress their constituencies that they have fought hard and avoided a catastrophe.

Bluffing may help to create this impression.

However, Standoher noted that one effective position for management may be to make demand of its own in bargaining. Underlying this is the adage that “the best defense is a good offence”. In recent years, management has sought to ease restrictive work rules, and ahs even proposed “take away” lowering or eliminating benefits that existed under the previous contract.

Strike and trade disputes

The C.I.B study text (1988: 380) defined strike as a temporary stoppage of wok in the pursuance of a grievance or demand. It explains that strikes are the most common form of industrial conflict and there are a wide variety of issues that can result into strike and mis-understanding in an organization.

The trade dispute Act, section 37 defines a trade dispute as “any dispute between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the term of employment and physical conditions of work of any person.

Rojenny, A Tourist Village In the Heart of Igboland

Still waters run deep. That adage aptly qualifies Rojenny Holiday Village, the single largest tourism resort in South-East Nigeria. Located in the serene town of Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of ​​Anambra State, just on the outskirts of the commercial city of Onitsha, along Owerri-Onitsha Expressway, and occupying a long stretch of land estimated at 8 sq. km, it is unduly a dream destination for holiday-makers from across the world.

A stop at the gate gives you no idea of ​​the buzz of activities that go on inside the concessions. Even the ROJENNY HOLIDAY VILLAGE engraved boldly on the gate does not reveal much. But as you step into the compound, you are amazed. First, the gentle breeze caresses your face, as if to say 'welcome to our world'. This sure is the home of African hospitality. You look straight ahead of you and behould a massive expanse of land, long stretch of trees, beautiful lawns, and gigantic structures dotting the length compound. You are awe-stricken. Wow! you exclaim, and the person next to you says you is not seen nothing yet.

This is where your tour begins. A walk around is even more eye-opening. You discover immediately that a day is not enough to see everything that there is to see. Where do you start? The tourist attractions are too numerous: the lush-green fields; the zoo (which habours such wild life as baboon, python, the green monkey, tortoise, lion, etc; rare birds such as peacock, eagle, flamingo, ostrich, etc; aquatic animals like turtle, alligator, crocodile, etc); the Ozo Village and Museum; the Rojenny International Stadium, which was said to have hosted seven continental matches involving Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Morocco, and Cote d'Ivoire during the time of Jasper United and Udoji United Football Clubs, and also camped Nigeria's Golden Eaglets under Fani Amun for two years and three months during the time of Ibrahim Babangida as Nigeria's Military President; the over 1000-capacity conference hall; the amusement park for children; the joy rides; the lawn tennis court; the basketball court; the volleyball court; the Olympic-sized swimming pool with elaborate and fully developed poolside; the Paradise Nite Club; among others.

More interesting is the fact that you never perspire while you are walking around. Although a manmade tourist center, Rojenny has a natural feel, which makes an all-year-round tourist delight. Coconut and other trees line the two sides of the avenues and ensure a regular supply of cool and gentle breeze, giving the environment the feeling of a temperate climate.

In case you get hungry, there is the newly developed Angelic Garden and Restaurant (which has sprung on the ashes of the African Restaurant and Bar) for your quick relaxation and refreshment, and there is also the English Bar for assorted wines. If you decide to stay the night, which of course is the ideal thing in a place like Rojenny, there is the Nwaezeora Lodge which has the beautiful and tastefully-furnished rooms for all guests, plus the new guest house which is currently at the furnishing stage. Beside these, there are also vicinity hotels which work in partnership with Rojenny to accommodate any number of visitors.

Again, Rojenny is a tourist destination. Modeled closely after Disney World in the United States of America, it provides at once all the things necessary for a tourist to stay busy as long as his tour lasts. It is developed in such a way to serve as a base for tourists wishing to visit other tourist sites in South-East Nigeria, like the Ogbunike Cave, the Umuahia War Museum, the Agulu Lake, the Igboukwu archaeological sites, the Njaba River, and so on. The position of Oba is also an added advantage. It is said to be at the center of Igboland, whether from Agbor in Delta State, from Nsukka in Enugu State, from Ndoni / Ikwerre in Rivers State, or from Ozuitem Abriba in Abia State.

Rojenny is also a place for spiritual tourism, irrespective of one's religious conviction. The Blessed Michael Cyprian Tansi Memorial Chapel provides a place of worship for Catholics and Christians of other denominations. There is the African traditional shrine for adherents of African Traditional Religion; and there is the Mosque for the Muslim brethren.

The quiet atmosphere of Rojenny makes it conducive for writers and researchers from any part of the world. The tourist sites are enough inspiration to any writer and can eliminate the so-called writer's block. Sitting very close to Tansian University, Oba, and just a few kilometers away from Madonna University Okija, Rojenny is certainly the destination of many research students who may wish to use the library facilities of both universities. Moreover, research students working on Igbo culture may have no better place to go.

Conceived and developed by Chief Rommy Amandi Ezeonwuka, a native of Akpo in Aguata Local Government Area of ​​Anambra State, Rojenny is indeed a wonderland, a multipurpose center with a complex mix of African culture and western civilization. It is a choice destination for excursions, sports recreation, relaxation, picnics, conferences and seminars, research, cultural entertainment, and so on. This tourist haven, constructed between 1983 and 1986 and opened to the public in November 1986, will soon host a Diaspora Tour, which is aimed at giving African Americans, which ancestors were taken away from Nigeria as slaves, an opportunity to visit Nigeria and have a feel of the land of their ancestors.

How Consultants Overcharge Their Clients

Consultants' 'Profit enhancers'

When an organization hires management or IT consultants, line managers must ensure that the consultants deliver the results promised. In this article, I summarize six techniques used by consultancies to maximize their own profitability. Some of these are just savvy business, some are dishonest, some are fraudulent – all are widespread throughout the consulting industry. By making organizations aware of these practices, I hope they will be better armed as they pay out their consultants' usually generous fees and expenses.

1. Excessive profitability
A junior consultant will typically be paid around £ 30,000 ($ 45,000) a year. So with social and other costs, the consultancy may be paying around £ 1,000 per week. But they will usually be charged out at £ 7,000 + ($ 10,000 +) per week to private sector clients – for larger public sector projects some consultancies will go down to £ 5,000 + ($ 7,500) per week. A more experienced consultant may cost the consultancy £ 2,000 ($ 3,000) per week, but can be bored at £ 12,000 + ($ 15,000 +) per week. So while many manufacturing businesses make gross margins of around 80% and retailers are at about 100%, management consultancies generally target gross margins of 500% to 800% – a rather striking and intense difference from the margins any of our clients would ever make. Surprisingly, very few clients do the simple mathematics and ask why they should be paying over £ 300,000 ($ 450,000) a year for an inexperienced junior consultant who is probably being paid just over a tenth of that.

2. Retaining travel expenses rebates
Last year three consultations agreed to pay a former client around $ 100m compensation, when they were sued for "unjustly enriching them at the expense of their clients The lawsuit was that for a decade the three firms worked with outside suppliers such as airline firms and travel agencies to obtain rebates of up to 40% on airfare and other costs that were not passed along to clients. "

The way this works is simple. The consultancy sets up a deal with a travel agent, hotel chains and the main airlines for an end-of-year rebate. The consultancy invoices the client for the full travel and accommodation costs, sometimes even adding on an administration charge. At the end of the year, the consultancy receives a rebate from the travel providers. None of this rebate is ever passed back to the clients who have paid for all the travel and accommodation in the first place. The defenders claimed they had "discontinued this practice" however this is disputed by a recent e-mail from a consultant from one of the companies, "Here's how we do it every time. 'expenses. Then we bill them for your air travel expense. One British consultant estimated that his employer had had stolen over £ 20m from just one client in this way.

3. Billing for non-client work
In most consultations, partners or directors divide their time up among their various clients and allocate a certain number of days each month to each client – even when this time is actually not working for that client. Moreover, you often find ordinary consultants being told to charge clients for time spent on internal consultancy business. To quote a consultant from a 100,000 plus employee firm, "I was at an internal meeting with more than 100 other consultants. we needed to make our numbers. " Just this one apparently innocuous decision will probably have cost the client over £ 100,000 ($ 150,000).

4. Overcharging for overhead
In many consultancies, clients pay for fictitious overhead costs. At one major consultancy an extra 10% was automatically added to consultancy fees supposedly to cover overhead costs. So, with each consultant costs £ 300,000 ($ 450,000) a year, clients would also be billed for another £ 30,000 ($ 45,000) to pay for administrative overhead. Yet the London office, for example, had about three hundred consultants and around fifty administrative support staff – secretaries, receptionists, human resources, bean counters, marketing support, resource managers, trainers, information center researchers and document production. Yet, with the 10% add-on, our clients were being charged for the equivalent of about three hundred administrative staff – hence the salaries of up to two hundred and fifty support staff were not being absent, as the staff simply did not exist.

5. Relocation staff
Many management consultancies are international and move their staff around the world at their clients' expense. On £ 2.3 million ($ 4m) project I helped sell in Britain to a regional health authority, the consultancy did not have sufficient UK based staff. As our CEO wrote in an internal memo, "the project took place at a time when we were still heavily supported by US expats.

So our NHS client had to pay thousands of pounds a week extra for these imported consultants in what a consequent official investigation described as "a financial fiasco."

6. Cheating on flat rate expenses
Frequently consultancies will agree with the client that expenses will be around, for example, 12% of fees. Each week the client will be billed for this 12%, then at the end of the project there will be a reconciliation between the 12% paid by the client and the actual expenses incurred.

On a project for a leading manufacturer of military aircraft, missile systems and satellites, we had agreed 12% but were actually only running at about 7%. The account vice president informed the rest of the consultancy that he had room to soak up expenses both from other projects and from our head office, rather than paying money back to the client.

Very often, clients would audit our expenses. If they found some real horrors, we'd just say there had been an administrative error and refund the minimum necessary to keep the client happy.

Understand the Causes of Termites to Prevent Termite Attacks

Termites are a bigger worry for homeowners than even fire or food. That alone should be sufficient for anyone to understand the capacity of these termites to wreck havoc in any house. They can destroy the wood in the house completely unless they are stopped at the right time. The best time to fight the termites is even before they attack your house.

Surprisingly most of the termite attack is caused by the actions of the home owners themselves. That is why it is important to understand things that encourage termites to attack your house, so that you can avoid them completely.

The most common reason for termite attack is the plants kept near the sides of house especially ones that have grown out of control. That is why you should always try to keep the plants away from the sides of the house. If you or your neighbor must keep plants, take care to ensure that no part of the plants including the root is touching your house.

The second most common reason of termite infestation is the use of wood, the choicest food of termites, to build shed or deck in the backyard. If you still decide to go ahead with the plan, then at least make use of wood that is less attractive to the termites. Cedar and juniper are few wood types that are less loved by the termites. Please try to for such wood items even though they tend to be a little more expensive than other wood items.

All the above reasons of termite attack had to do with availability of wood as a bait for the termites to attack your house. Moisture is another item that is equally attractive for the termites. Look out for any source of moisture near your home and try to solve the issue. If it is the rain water falling down from the roof then put gutters on the roof to catch the water and then divert it to a spot away from the side of your home. Leaking pipe lines is another cause of moisture around the home. Look for any such source of water in your yard and get them repaired as soon as you can.

I find it really stupid to expose your home to the attack of termites by ignoring such small details. Try to follow all the above advices to reduce the risk of termite attack on your home and furniture.

Use Cornstarch For Skin Rash

There are various skin infections that affect a lot of people these days. Plenty of athletes suffer from jock itch and athlete’s foot. Some women have feminine itch. A lot of children have skin allergies too. The increasing numbers of skin related infections shows that you need to know the best method to cure or relieve it. These skin irritations will surely cause a lot of discomfort. Rashes may occur on various parts of the body like in your palm, groin, neck, thighs and feet. One thing that you need to do is to keep the affected areas dry all the time. The microorganisms that cause these skin infections like to be in wet and warm places. Powder is commonly used. You have to know that you can also use a simple household item like cornstarch for the skin rashes that you have.

WASH THE RASHES FIRST

The first thing that you need to do if you have rashes is to clean these rashes first. Use soap and clean water. Some rashes are caused by chemicals. Soap will help remove these harmful chemicals from your skin. After washing the rashes, you need to pat the affected areas to dry them up easily.

SPRINKLE

You have to dry up the affected areas immediately after washing. Use clean towel or blower. After doing this, you need to sprinkle the cornstarch over the rashes. It will help in keeping the rashes moisture free. It can absorb the excessive moisture in your skin. This will ensure that the growth of the microorganisms will not be fast.

You have to cover the affected areas with clean cotton cloth after applying the cornstarch. You have to do this so that cornstarch will have enough time to draw out the moisture from your skin before being shed off due to friction with your clothes. Try to do this for at least twice a day to ensure that it is going to take effect sooner.

IMPORTANT REMINDER

You have to observe the condition of the rashes after a few days of using cornstarch. You need to assess whether the condition has become better or worse. It is very important for you to remember that yeast infections will not respond well with cornstarch. It can even make things worse. Therefore, you have to make sure that it is not yeast infection so that you can continue with the treatment. Do not apply cornstarch if it is a yeast infection. It will just feed the yeast to grow further.

You have to visit your physician if some unusual signs and symptoms appear. If there are skin irritations or rashes on various parts of the body, it might be due to some serious conditions. See your doctor if you see too much blisters, bleeding or pus on the affected parts.

Cornstarch can help you get rid of skin rashes or irritations. These rashes must be kept clean and dry all the time. This will ensure that rashes will be healed immediately. The tips will guide you in using cornstarch correctly to cure skin rashes.

Advice on Buying Antique Entry Doors

If you ever hear mention of salvage doors or reclamation doors, those are in reference to antique entry doors turned back to the 1715's to 1830's. 28 counts of imperial bricks made up the common door height up until the 1950's when they were replaced by metric bricks. Antique homes are harder to restore using a standard size contemporary door because it will not be the correct fit and then require a custom built frame. Old wooden doors also add elegance and history to streamlined modern homes.

1715's to 1830's Georgian and Regency homes had simple architecture, with stone work limited to upscale properties. A fanlight was the one embellishment common in these bare-looking antique entry doors with six non-glass panels. 1900's to 1920's Edwardian homes were the first to consume more space, with oversized doorways flanked by sidelites and decorated with art nouveau or neo-Georgian glass panels. Steps were built of either stone or thin metal. Fewer households employed house maids, resulting in the plain black covered, forged iron door handles.

Between the above mentioned periods, much celebrated 1830's to 1900's Victorian residences reflected the era of penchant for adornment. Hallways and entranceways were narrows from Edwardian but decked out with brass work on knives and hardware as much as for sitting room and bedroom furniture. Classic Victorian entry doors each consist of four or six glazed panels, with stained glass in grander homes. A dropped letter box is located at the bottom of the upper half, where it is not reachable by a stray dog, so the lower half usually ends up being shorter.

1920's traditional hardwood doors made use of heavy oak or mahogany, decorative glass panels and sidelights, wrought iron door furniture. Many modern homes hark back to those meticulously detailed colonial doors. 1930's moderne doors rated geometric glass panels, like sun rays or chevron patterns, either mirrored or colored. With chrome finishing easing out iron work, their vintage Hollywood appeal added glamor to antique entry doors. French windows with a grille embedded between double glass panes or layered over a single glass pane, including true divided lite French doors, are also popular choices.

Where Can We Find Art In Our Day-To-Day Lives?

After the controversial appearance of Marcel Duchamp’s “Fountain” in 1917, the world began to understand that art is not only to be found in a painting or sculpture, but rather can be made from anything around us. Later the enormous success of Pop art developed this theme. In other words, artists showed us that art is everywhere and we just need to train our eyes to see it and discover the potential in our world.

It is some time since art was exclusively the province of galleries and museums. While these remain main centers for art-lovers, the growth of street art, performance art, land art and many other innovative kinds of art have meant that it really can be something we see as we walk down the street, a part of our ordinary lives.

The world continues to change, and we become more demanding in our desire to bring some form of art to normal life. Furniture is carved or molded in unusual and creative ways, light fixtures can become works of art, while we expect a print if not an original work on many of the free walls we see on a regular basis, from our own homes to our offices to the doctor’s surgery.

Art rules our minds, it surrounds us on all sides. Going to work you can listen to a favorite piece of music through your earpieces, you can be inspired by a billboard or a piece of public art, or even recent graffiti. At lunch you may visit a gallery with a friend, or watch an art house film in the evening. One single day can include exposure to – and, if you are aware of it, appreciation of – so many different kinds of art.

Leonardo da Vinci said that there are three types of people: those who see, those who see when they are shown, those who do not see. Contemporary art tries to attract the attention of all these kinds of people, even the last type. Modern art is sometimes bright and flashy, but at the same time it is unexpected, it appears in displays we would never have thought about before.

Art is a way of finding beauty in the world, and adding a sense of joy to our lives. However it can also act as a way of dealing with the problems of existence that have bothered humanity for millennia. In a more abstract sense, it can influence the way you live and make your life itself a recognized thing of value. Somerset Maugham believed that life is an art, that every person creates a work of art just by living.

This is a powerful thing – in letting art become a part of our life and allowing it to form our lives, we can live in a world where everything can be art, or the inspiration for art, and where everyone can in some sense be an artist.

Taking A Look At The Main Parts Of An Excavator

Excavators are of great importance in construction sites. Excavators are made up of many parts that work together to get the job done.

Main Parts of an Excavator

As mentioned, an excavator has many parts that work together to get the job done. The most common parts are:

Motor : it creates the power used in moving an excavator. The motor can be powered by petrol, fuel or even electricity. It's good to note that while there are electric excavators in the market, they are very rare and they are designed to work in specialized areas.

The hydraulic motor is one of the most important motors in an excavator. This is the motor that rises and extends the excavator arm.

Excavator Arm : The arm is attached to the lower part of the frame chassis and has two main sections that are joined with a hinge. The sections have pistons that move them. When the first piston extends, the rod pushes against the arm and raises it then extending the section. The second arm then contracts and expands thus raising and lowering the second section. To help the excavator to scoop and dig, the arm has a bucket loader.

Tracks

They are rigid and fixed in one place. The tracks are stationed around a series of gears that turn after receiving power from the drive shaft that is connected to the engine. When the tracks are in gear they roll the excavator back and forward in a straight line.

For you to turn the excavator you have to stop one track and put the other in motion. To spin the excavator you have to put one track into reverse and the other into forward.

Taking Care of Excavator Parts

Since the excavator parts are involved in tough work, you need to take good care of them for them to last for a long time. One of the things that you should do is to regularly oil all the moving parts. Oailing not only promises rust, it also ensures that the parts move without strain.

In addition to oiling, you also need to regularly clean the excavator parts. For example, if you are working on a construction site you should clean the excavator at the end of the day. This prevails dust from accumulating that damaging the expensive parts.

Conclusion

This is what you need to know about excavator parts. In addition to taking good care of the parts you also need to ensure that you buy them from a reputable seller.

LOTRO Crashes – Learn How to Fix Lord Of The Rings Online (LOTRO) Crashes in Computer

LOTRO (Lord Of The Rings Online) is a popular game played worldwide, however, it is reported by its players that LOTRO crashes in PC. There are various problems linked to this game. Sometimes lotroclient.exe crashes and sometimes the game crashes while loading.

This article would brief you on how you can prevent and fix LOTRO crashes. Steps are outlined below but important thing is to keep the sequence while following steps.

Ø First of all you have to delete the File User Preferences. Follow these steps.

1. Click on the Start button.
2. Go to Documents.
3. In the Documents double-click on the folder named Lord Of The Rings Online.
4. Delete UserPreferences.ini file.
5. Restart game and now it should work.

Ø LOTRO may crash because of improper settings. To fix this problem, you have to restore all settings to default. Try these steps.

1. Click on the game to open.
2. Go to Launcher Options.
3. Press down arrow and restore the game settings to default.
4. Done.

Ø Security permissions may be the cause of Lords Of The Rings Online crashes. You can fix it by performing following steps.

1. Click on the Start button.
2. Go to Computer.
3. Program Files (C: Program Files).
4. Right-Click on Codemasters and select Properties.
5. Now move to Security tab and click on Edit.
6. Then click on Add.
7. Enter user name and press OK.
8. Check the box Full Control in Allow column and now click on OK.
9. Done.

Ø Uninstall the game.

Ø Download a registry cleaner and PC optimizer software.

1. Open a web browser.
2. Download Registry Cleaner and PC Optimizer.

Ø Reinstall game in another location eg (D: My Games LOTRO)

Ø Now run the registry cleaner and PC optimizer on your system.

Ø Clean system junk and optimize your browser with the above software for smooth performance.

Experts believe that using a third party registry cleaner on your system allows you to fix hidden Windows problems for smooth performance of games.

Famous, Sexy, Creative, and Funny Couples Halloween Costumes Ideas

Couples Halloween costumes are popular for many reasons. One of the reasons that couples costumes are popular is because it makes a statement that "we're together". Even if you socialize separately at the party, everyone will know that the Queen came with the guy in the King costume.

However, it does take some creativity to come up with a couples costume concept. If you are creative, you will have no problems. If you are not creative, you just might have some problems.

You can find inspiration for your costumes everywhere. Think of all the famous couples there are out there and you will understand the concept. If you can not think of a single famous couple at this point, you are not alone.

Here are some ideas to get you started: Peter Pan and Tinkerbell; Superman and Wonder Woman; George Bush and Condoleeza Rice; Robin Hood and Maid Marion; Egypt Frankenstein and his bride. Perhaps this list has given you some good ideas already. If not, there are still plenty of other great costume ideas available.

You can keep the costumes authentic or you can spice them up a bit to make the characters look sexy. Couples costumes that fit into this category include: a prison guard and prisoner; the Prom King and Prom Queen; a guy and girl cheerleader; or the Wolf and Little Red Riding Hood.

If you want a very creative couples costume idea, you may think about these ideas: a nut and bolt; mustard and ketchup; bacon and eggs; apple pie and the American flag.

Whatever costume you decide, it is important to have fun. For that reason, you may want to try some funny couples costumes. Fun costume ideas include: Annette and Frankie; Elvis and Priscilla Presley; Sonny and Cher; Granny and Jed Clampett; Gomez and Morticia Addams; Egypt Zeus and Aphrodite.

If you want to be unique, you may want to choose some of the more obscure couple costumes. If you go to a party dressed as Fred and Wilma Flinstone for example, you may find another couple dressed in those same costumes. If you go to the party as Little Bo Peep and a Sheep, you may not have that issue.

Accessories can really help to make the outfit. For example, the Morticia Addams costume would not be complete without a long black wig. Likewise, Gomez absolutely must be holding a large cigar in his hand. The prison guard should have hand cuffs while the cheerleaders will need pom poms and a megaphone.

You can take the time to make your own costumes. However, this could cost a lot of money and take a significant amount of time. This is especially true if you do not know how to sew.

7 Easy Steps To Avoid the Christmas Tree Needle Drop

Although fake Christmas trees are becoming popular, there is nothing quite like a freshly-cut Christmas tree. Sure, the latter requires greater maintenance and care, but if you do all the right things, you can be the proud owner of a fabulous Christmas tree!

One of the banes of setting up a live Christmas tree in the home is the infamous ‘needle drop’. Even the best firs and spruce trees can’t escape it. But there are ways in which you can minimise the drop and increase your tree’s needle retention.

Here are 7 easy steps to avoid the Christmas tree needle drop:

1. Choose your tree carefully. Ideally, choose a locally sourced and grown tree rather than one that has been imported from abroad. The most important condition for selecting a tree is its needle retention properties. The popular preferences for a live Christmas tree are the Norway spruce (traditional choice but with a quick needle drop rate); Nordmann fir (dark green and expensive but also boasts of a slow needle drop); Noble fir (the king of Christmas trees and again holds a better track record of needle drop than the Norway spruce); Fraser fir (excellent needle-holding properties and a lovely pine fragrance to boot and resembles the Norway spruce).

2. Have it ‘shaken’ manually or mechanically at the place of purchase itself so that you can judge the needle drop for yourself. This exercise also removes any insects, egg masses or trash that might have gathered on the tree. If green needles drop off, steer clear from buying that particular tree. It simply means that this tree has been cut quite some time back and has lost most of its moisture.

3. Carrying it home. Avoid exposing the freshly-cut tree to the wind as this may begin the drying process even before the tree reaches home. If you can, try and cart it in your car or if loading it onto a trailer, make sure you cover the top of the trailer.

4. After bringing the tree home, bang it on the ground to dislodge any needles which the tree in any case sheds as matter of natural course. This avoids a mess inside the house. Then, trim off an inch or so from below the trunk. This opens up the pores and allows water to flow easily through the tree thus keeping it fresh for a longer time.

5. For best results keep the tree in a cool place and delay getting it inside for as long as possible. Usually the weekend before Christmas is ideal. Till then keep it in a bucket of water and water it daily.

6. Avoid heat. Generally, Christmas trees are problem-free trees even indoors as long as they are kept away from heat as it is the greatest enemy of a freshly-cut tree. This includes radiators, fireplaces and even warm lights as they drain the moisture from the needles and hasten the ‘dropping’ process.

7. Water it religiously. Place your Christmas tree in a special tree stand inside the house and make sure you water it every day. These evergreen trees require a lot of water to remain hydrated and well, evergreen! Even a low needle drop tree requires as much as a pint of water a day to remain fresh through the Christmas season. All Christmas trees require regular watering twice a day in the first week, after which they start consuming less water but still need it on a daily basis nevertheless!

So, keep these tips in mind to minimise the needle drop of your Christmas tree.

Post And Beam Home Plans – Shear and Shear Failure

Shear failure with post and beam home plans is much more difficult to envision than bending failure. In fact, with light frame construction, shear failure seldom comes into play, whereas it is an important consideration for heavy timber framing, particularly with a very heavy load such as an earth roof or a steam train.

One good way of explaining shear is to think of it as a combination of compression and tension stresses. Remember that the top surface of a beam is in compression, the bottom surface is in tension, and the centroid (middle part of the beam) is neutral (so also called the neutral axis.)

Some authors, without explaining the relationship between shear and tension and
compression stresses, describe shear as the tension for all of the wood fibers of the beam to "shear off," particularly at the edge of the post or wall support. While not complete, the analogy is true enough for our purposes, and may be easier to
understand than lots of stress analysis.

However – and this is the strange and interesting part – the structure at the top is actually stronger on shear. The effect of the sliding feature of the wood fibers over the neutral axis is increased, because the compression stresses on the top surfaces of the two spans are causing a tremendous tensile stress at the top of the rafter directly above the girder.

Think of it: If the two spans in the post and beam home plans are each trying to pull away from each other, because of the load on each span, those wood fibers at the top of the rafter (over the center) are working really hard not to break on tension.

All of this translates to lower shear strength at this location. In the top picture, shear stresses over the supports are clearly the same at all four shear locations, expressed by the fractions l / 2 in each case. But, in the bottom picture, the shear stresses are expressed as% at the walls at the right and left but increase to Ys where the long rafter is supported by the girder in the middle.

The upshot is that shear strength is gained by using two ten-footers instead of a single zo-footer supported in the middle. It is also true, as we have said, that bending strength is slightly diminished in the former example, and deflection is increased – but if the weak point in the engineering happens to be in shear, the former example may be better.

This situation may work in our favor, when you consider that two ten-footers are much easier
to handle – and certainly less expensive – than a single twenty-footer.

Deflection

Deflection is similar to bending … But different. Bending concerns us most when it translates into bending failure, which is a bad thing. With deflection, we can tolerate certain amounts of it in certain circumstances. Springiness – or stiffness – in a floor is a characteristic of deflection. When dealing with post and beam home plans know that cracking plaster on a ceiling, or separation of covered sheetrock joints, is an indication of excessive deflection.

Important Tips to Know Before Living Aboard a Boat and Dropping Out of the Rat Race

Many people have thought about dropping out of the rat race and retire to a live aboard boat in order to experience the simpler life and travel to exotic places. There are many benefits associated with this type of lifestyle, and waking up in the morning to the smell of the salt air and friendly neighborhood tropical birds looking for their morning breakfast in your backyard are definitely in the top two! Once you've made the decision to live aboard a boat, then there are several more choices that you need to decide on.

What type of boat will it be, a mono-hull or a catamaran? What is the length of hull that you're looking for? How much money are you prepared to invest into the boat and where will you dock it? There will be so much less space than what you're used to in a house, and storage places will come at a premium. Some boats have more space than others, and you will soon find that out when you start attending boat shows around the country or world. How much comfort are you willing to give up for a life of adventure on the high seas?

Mono-hulls are usually what people think of when boating comes to mind, but they do have plenty of drawbacks. They have a deep keel in order to help as ballast and to keep the vessel upright, which is highly useful if you are out on the ocean! But because of this keel, there will also be a great amount of rocking and rolling from side to side as waves hit the boat. If you are not used to this motion, you could very well end up with a bad case of sea sickness that will spoil your cruise. Mono-hulls do tend to have more space onboard for living and storage however, because the shape of the hull is very conducive to that in relation to depth. You will immediately realize though, that the width or beam leaves much to be desired and is often narrows with regard to the total length.

In my opinion the hull of choice is the catamaran, which is a much wider or beamy vessel, and some of the larger boats are so stable in rough weather that a champagne glass sitting on the galley table will not tip or fall over! The ideal length for a cruising catamaran to comfortably accommodate a married couple is anywhere from 36 feet to 55 feet, and the price goes up quite a bit each foot that is added on. A catamaran is designed to sit on top of the water more than a mono-hull, and is usually much wider in beam. For example, the typical 50 foot mono-hull might have a 12 -16 foot beam, but a 50 foot catamaran may have a 26 – 30 foot beam! This really leads to stability in very rough seas, with a huge reduction in the side to side rolling of the mono-hulls. A catamaran has two hulls with an open space between them for the seas to pass through and usually the galley and living area sitting out of the water between the hulls. This leads to good visibility above the water, and a nice wide area for cooking, eating, and entertaining yourself and guests. Some models will have the galley located down in one of the two hulls to create even more living space above. The sleeping areas, cabins, and heads are located down in the hulls on either side of the boat, and depending on the size can normally accommodate up to 4 couples.

The biggest drawback I've personally seen with catamaran boats is the "turnaround room" when standing down in the hulls. I always do an "elbow test" when down in the hulls, which means that I am standing with my hands on my hips and my elbows out and then I stand in one spot and turn around in a circle. If my elbows touch or knock anything, it's a very cramped space! Unfortunately, most of the vessels I've tested had this drawback, but I did find one 52 foot South African boat that passed this test. In fact, there was so much living area and storage space on this boat that I call it a "condo catamaran"! It was pure luxury, with up to six cabins on a normal layout, or for the discerning owner they can have one whole hull just for them which is described as the "owner's layout". This is the layout that really appeared to me, and will provide much closet space and a very private living area for those long voyages with guests. I encourage everyone who is looking for the perfect vessel to go to as many boat shows as they can so they can personally check all the various factors involved and to see if it's something you can live on. The Miami International Boat Show will usually have plenty of both mono-hulls and catamarans for viewing and comparison.

Another factor or decision that you'll have to make is whether it's going to be power or sail. That usually depends on your background and where you plan on boating to. For those people planning on doing an around the world trip, they might seriously consider purchasing a sailboat because it's going to be much cheaper and there really are not as many boats that can carry enough fuel for those trans oceanic voyages. For those people planning to stay closer to shore or mainly coastal travel may look for power boats, even though the fuel will still be an issue for most trips. There are a few boats that are designed for long range expedition voyages that are less than 55 feet long, and they can carry enough fuel to comfortably transit the Pacific or any other intensive cruise. However, for a power boat of this size, be prepared to spend close to a million US dollars or more for a brand new boat. By far the vast majority of around the world cruisers will opt for a sailing vessel, either catamaran or mono-hull. Catamarans tend to be more expensive due to the size and desirability of them, and they also may have higher marina fees associated because of their widths. In fact, a good percentage of them may not fit in some marinas due to how wide they are, and will have to anchor out in the harbor and use a dinghy to travel back and forth to the shore. This can be very time consuming and tiring, especially when traveling back and forth with many packages of food, drinks, or other items needed to rest the boat. These are the types of things you'll need to think about before you decide on and purchase your live aboard boat.

Are you an experienced sailor or boater, or will you need to arrange for some classes to learn more about being on the water? There are plenty of Coast Guard Auxiliary or Power Squadron facilities around in the US that can provide the appropriate training needed to safely operate your new vessel. It's very important to feel comfortable with the operation of your boat, and take it offshore for short excursions as often as you can before you embark on any long cruise away from shore. Become an expert, after all, your life will be at stake! Be prepared for any situation, whether it's medical or mechanical, and know what to do to fix it. Take a marine mechanic course, because if your boats engine breaks down far out at sea you'll want to know what to do to correct the problem. You will not be able to just bring the boat into the nearest shop at that point!

There will be many decisions that you'll have to make before choosing and purchasing your new boat and probably training you'll need in order to safely operate it, but the benefits of this lifestyle more than outweigh the negatives. You will need to be prepared for a total changeover compared to living ashore, because of the cramped conditions and inconveniences associated with boat living. Choose wisely, learn all you can before you buy, and get ready for the time of your life! It's what you've always wanted, so get out there and take the plunge!

The Architectural Split Level Design

The split level was conceived for the sloping or hilly lot. It takes advantage of what might otherwise prove to be a troublesome difference in elevation and uses it to advantage. As a general rule, a split level should not be built on a flat lot. Mounding up soil in front of the high section to give the appearance of a hill usually yields poor results.

The split level makes efficient use of space. The general arrangement of the split level separates sleeping, living, and recreation on different levels. Little or no hall space is required in a split level house due to its basic design, a positive factor fro consideration.

At the lowest level, there is a normal basement which houses the heating and cooling equipment, storage, and sometimes a shop or washroom. This area is the usual depth of a basement. In some instances the foundation may not be desired and a crawl space provided for maintenance and ventilation. The foundation ordinarily equals about 40 to 60 percent of the space occupied by the house. This is usually enough for efficient use without wasted space.

The next level up from the foundation, the intermediate level, generally houses the garage and recreation area. This area is ground level and then lends itself to these functions. Patios and terraces may be attached to the recreation area which further benefits its use. The intermediate level may also have a large foyer, mud room, or family room.

Slightly higher than the intermediate level is the living level. Typically this area is located at grade also: the sloping grade makes this arrangement possible. The kitchen, dining room, living room and full or half bath are normally located on the living level. The foyer, mud room, and washroom may also be located at this level depending on the layout or preference. Again the use of patios and terraces adds to the usefulness and amplifies the attractiveness of the split level.

At the highest elevation in the house is the sleeping area and bath. The half level difference between the living and sleeping levels affords greater privacy and quietness. Split level houses do have some negative aspects. They are generally more expensive to build than the two story. In most cases, however, they are cheaper than a ranch. Heating may be a problem if not handled properly. The use of zoned heating (separate thermostats for the various areas of the house) will usually solve the heating problem.

Architectural Variations of the Split Level Design

There are basically three variations of the split level design: the side by side, the front to back, and the back to front. Lots sloping from the left or right are suited for the side by side design. This design places the living area opposite the sleeping and intermediate areas. Variation number two, the front to back split level, is suited for lots which are high in front and low in the back. This house looks like a ranch from the front and a two story from the back. The living area faces the street and the bedrooms are on the second level to the rear.

The third variation, the back to front split level, requires a lot that is low in front and high in back. The intermediate level faces the street at grade. The bedrooms are above, also facing the street. The living level is a the rear. This model looks like a two story in front and a ranch in the rear.

Traffic Circulation

A preliminary consideration in designing a functional plan is traffic circulation. Traffic circulation encompasses those areas of the house which provide a means of moving from one area or room to another. Circulation must be planned for maximum efficiency. In a planned planned arrangement the distance from the garage to the kitchen in short and direct. The foyer is centrally located and convenient to all parts of the house. All bedrooms are close to a bath. Few rooms have traffic planned through them. The family room and eating nook are exceptions. An analysis should be made of traffic circulation to determine if the plan is as functional as it could be. Frequently, a slight change in the floor plan can increase smooth flow of traffic to desirable locations.