Fruit Nutrition Facts

Apple nutrition facts:

Apples are a good source of vitamin A and C and ward off colds and infections. They are powerful blood purifiers and benefit the blood and lymphatic systems.

Apple juice is a wonderful cleanser, great for a weight loss diet and useful as a general tonic.

One medium size apple as around 100 calories.

Grapes, fresh pineapple and kiwi fruits are fabulous for your skin.

Grape nutrition facts:

Grapes are often used in elimination and weight loss diets because of their powerful cleansing action and their ability to stimulate the metabolism. The high magnesium content promotions good bowel movement and proper kidney function.

Grape juice is also a good blood and liver cleanser and eliminates unwanted uric acid from the body. Grapes are high in potassium, which aids kidney function, strengthens the heartbeat and keeps the skin looking fresh and healthy.

Grapes are well known for cleansing the system. Dark grapes are high in iron, which makes them good blood builders. A hand full off grapes on your weight loss diet is a good snack.

There's around 100 calories in 1 cup of grapes.

Pineapple nutrition facts:

Because of their high vitamin C, content pineapples are considered to be a protective fruit. The juice is good for relieving constipation and poor digestion and the combination of vitamin C. Acids and enzymes make pineapples highly eliminative and a great boost for detox diets.

Pineapples can also be used to soothe sore throats. Beta-carotene, folic acid, potassium, iodine, calcium and magnesium are some of the nutrients found in pineapple.

Kiwi nutrition facts:

Kiwi contains twice the amount of vitamin c than oranges. They are also rich in potassium, which helps to stave off colds and flu. Kiwi fruits should be firm but not hard.

Lemon and Lime nutrition facts:

Lemons and lime are very high in vitamin C. They contain up to four times the amount of citric acid as oranges or grapefruit.

This high citric acid content is very good for getting rid of toxins. Lemons are also good for soothing sore throats and are widely used for colds and flu.

Mango nutrition facts:

Mangoes are one of my favorite. They are rich in beta-carotene, vitamin C and potassium. The ripper the mango the more beta-carotene it will contain. They are great blood cleansers and bodily disinfectants and can be helpful to throw off body odor.

Orange nutrition facts:

Oranges are one of the richest sources of vitamin C. They help to protect against a variety of conditions, from colds and flu to heart disease and strokes that gives them very high health ratings. Their nutrients help prevent premature wrinkles and saggy skin.

When juicing peel the skin but leave the pith on as this is where all the good nutrients are. Other nutrients include vitamin A and the b-complex vitamins, biofloonoids, pectin, amino acids, potassium, zinc and phosphorous.

Vitamin C helps the body to absorb iron, so a glass of orange juice a day can actually double the amount of iron available for use in the body. The high citric acid content in oranges is the most effective in cleaning the gastrointestinal tract and eliminating toxins and acid waste in cells. For this reason, orange juice is often included in eliminative diets.

Banana nutrition facts:

Whenever I'm shopping and I feel hungry the first thing that comes to mind is a banana. Everyone I know likes their bananas a little different. I like mine ripe with freckles on, some like them soft and very sweet, others when they've just turned. If you boil them when they're green you will get more iron from them at that stage.

Bananas are very nutritious, they contain vitamin C and dietary fiber. They have no fat or cholesterol. The vitamin C that they contain helps the body defend and heal against infection.

Potassium is the mineral in bananas that builds muscles. Having a banana before taking part in any physical exercise will give you that instant boost and energy.

The body burns off calories from carbohydrates more easily and quickly than calories from protein or fat. They are free from sodium and very rich in potassium. A banana and a glass of water can keep you going for two hours before feeling hungry.

1 medium banana has around 100 calories.

Pear nutrition facts:

Pears have a high content in vitamin c and B vitamins and the minerals potassium, phosphorus and iron, pear juice is good for the digestive system, and helps to normalize the bowel. It is a valuable addition to elimination diets because of its mild diuretic and laxative effects. Pears are one of the best urinary and gastrointestinal cleansers because of its high level of pectin.

Strawberry nutrition facts:

Strawberries are also a good source of vitamin C, beta-carotene potassium, calcium and iron. With their cleansing values ​​they are good for eliminative diets too. They are very high in sodium, it helps keep you youthful, and their content in potassium is also good for the skin. Potassium and iron helps to strengthen the blood. The high levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C helps to keep colds and fights infections and to prevent cancer and heart disease.

Peach nutrition facts:

Peaches are a good source of beta-carotene. They also contain vitamin C some of the B vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Peach juice is wonderful for alkalinising and cleanses the intestinal tract and encourages good bowel movement. Drinking pear juice will improve your skin and eyesight and help prevent against cancer and heart disease.

Apricot nutrition facts:

Apricots are exceptionally high in beta-carotene compared with all the other fruits; therefore they stand out as cancer fighters. They can help prevent cancer of the lung, oesophagus, stomach, bladder and throat, and their high Vitamin C also protects against colds and flu.

Blackberry nutrition facts:

Blackberries, a rich source of vitamin C with good amounts of beta-carotene, B vitamins, vitamin E, and the minerals potassium, calcium and magnesium, which makes them invaluable in cases of heart disease, cancer and high blood pressure and premenstrual tension.

Blackberries also have a high iron content, which makes them one of the finest blood builders. Mixes well with prunes.

Cranberry nutrition facts:

Cranberry juice is used for its healing properties as a natural diuretic and urinary tract cleanser. Cranberries are a source of vitamin C, beta-carotene, quinine, iron and potassium. The quinine helps to maintain the health of the bladder, kidneys and prostate and has been found effective in preventing prostate cancer. The high vitamin C and beta-carotene content helps ward of colds and flu in the winter months.

Grapefruit nutrition facts:

Grapefruit belongs to the citrus family, which includes lemons, oranges, limes, tangerines, clementines and sultanas. Grapefruit is also high in vitamin C are good for warding of colds, and helps prevent bleeding gums.

Grapefruits are also a good source of beta-carotene, phosphorus, calcium and potassium. High levels of pectin are found in the white pith. It's known for controlling cholesterol levels and helping with digestive problems.

Bioflovanoids are also found in the pith and have a protective effect on vitamin C anti-inflammatory properties and protect blood vessel capillaries.

Prune nutrition facts:

Prunes are a variety of dried plums and are widely used as a natural laxative. Prune juice is just as potent as the whole fruit and a much healthier way to treat constipation than using synthetic laxatives.

Raspberry nutrition facts:

Raspberries are good cleansers especially of mucous and catarrhal conditions. They are natural astringents and can help sort out stomach problems and gum disease Raspberries are high in vitamin A and C and provide beneficial amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium, which make them invaluable in cases of heart problems, fatigue or depression. A raspberry juice cocktail before meals stimulates the appetite and aids digestion.

Papaya nutrition facts:

The one thing that identifies papaya from the other fruit is its amazing digestive properties. Papayas are rich in papain, a protein- digesting enzyme, which is so effective that it is used in meat tenderisers and digestant.

It's good for stomach ulcers and fevers and many people believe papayas are a great rejuvenator, combating premature aging. Also they have the ability to restore a healthy balance of intestinal bacteria, after the use of antibiotics.

It makes an effective laxative and cleanser to the liver, kidneys and intestines and has the ability to dissolve excess mucus in the body.

Papayas are rich in beta-carotene vitamin C and E and the minerals calcium, phosphorus and iron.

Melon nutrition facts:

Melons belong to the same family as cucumbers. They both have a cooling effect on the body. Melons are an excellent fruit for juicing because of their high water content, which makes them first class diuretic, and good kidney cleanser and skin purifier.

As in many other fruit and vegetables most of the nutrient lie in the flesh right next to the skin, so be careful not to lose this part when peeling. There are many varieties of melons to choose from including cantaloupe, honeydew, galia and watermelon. Cantaloupes are the most nutritious and are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and digestive enzymes.

They are highly recommended by the American Cancer Society as a healthful agent against intestinal cancer. Watermelons have the highest water content and are great natural diuretics as well as being packaged with skin-enriching minerals such as zinc and potassium.

Melons should be eat alone or on an empty stomach as it ferments very quickly in the stomach.

Hotels in Abu Dhabi Near Airport – Enriching Your Stay in Every Way

Chosen as the Middle East's safest city by the 2011 Mercer Quality of Living Index, Abu Dhabi is one of the most prosperous cosmopolitan in the Gulf. Largest among the seven emirates in UAE, this capital city is popular all over the globe for its natural mangrove forests, unscathed beaches, astounding landscape and incredible infrastructure. Growing as a major tourist and commercial attraction the metropolis has come up with many luxurious developments in the recent past. From the massive white marble Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque to Abu Dhabi Grand Prix formula 1 circuit, the city has been working on luring expats to its man-made marvels.

Abu Dhabi is also known as the economic and political powerhouse of UAE, as it houses all the federal government offices, eminent financial institutions and multinational corporations. Thus, there is a huge inflow of travelers, both leisure and business into the city through the year. Most of these Jetsetters prefer to stay in Hotels in Abu Dhabi near the Airport so that they can be in close proximity to the exhibition center, beaches and the fascinating Emirates Palace. All of these tourist hotspots can be reached within half an hour's drive from the location of these inns.

Most of these hotels in Abu Dhabi near the airport are immersed in luxury and welcome every guest with warm Arabian hospitality. The strategic location of these lavish lodgings makes them a part of the vibrancy of the city life as well as keeps the visitors close to the beauty of the beaches. Ostentatiously designed, the rooms here are spacious and offer special amenities for a comfortable and relaxed stay. Being one of the best hotels in Abu Dhabi, these properties provide several special packages and deals for travelers that can be easily booked online.

Taking care of all your requirements, these hotels indulge guests with their fine dining experiences. You can choose to fever on gourmet delights at the rooftop and watch the sun set in the back of high-rise buildings or relax in the lounge bar with an assortment of spirits and wines at your service. Enjoy a variety of sumptuous authentic platters served by the professional staff here and savour a hearty meal in absolute affluence. You can also unwind with family in the outdoor swimming pools or Mollycoddle yourselves with a refreshing and blissful Moroccan bath at the wellness and beauty centers. There is no condemning the fact that you will be flabbergasted by the warmth, extravagance and magnanimity of these boarding options in the middle of the desert.

So whether you are planning for an exciting getaway with family or an important business trip, these best hotels in Abu Dhabi will make sure that you have a memorable time in the city.

Bangkok's Best No Joiner Hotels Hotels – Tips From an Insider

The term No Joiner Fee is associated with hotels in Bangkok that do not charge their registered guest an extra fee for taking an unregistered guest (s) up to their room. You may have heard other labels such as Girl or Guest Friendly hotels instead. Either way, such hotels are by far some of the most popular booked hotels in Bangkok. So it's best to reserve far in advance for your first choice of no joiner hotels for your stay.

Many would think that most lower class hotels in Bangkok will not charge such a fee but you would be sorely mistaken. Most of the upper range hotels in Bangkok do not charge fees for bringing in a guest yet the many middle and lower class hotels charge about 500 THB to 1500 THB. So if you're planning to bring company into your room every night you can see how joiner fees can really add up. This is one of the reasons why so many hotels in Bangkok that do not charge joiner fees are very popular and in demand.

The majority of Bangkok's no join fee hotels are located in the areas of Sukhumvit and Nana. This is an area that is heavily commercialized and popular among tourist and the expat community. So it's no surprise that two of Bangkok's most famous nightlife districts called Nana Entertainment Plaza and Soi Cowboy are located. You can find many popular go-go bars attracting men all over the world at those places. This is the major reason why the areas of Sukhumvit and Nana have so many joiner fee hotels in the nearby vicinity.

Here are the Names of 5 very Popular No Joiner Fee Hotels in Bangkok:

  1. Nana Hotel
  2. Majestic Suites
  3. Ambassador Hotel
  4. Grand President Hotel
  5. Swiss Park Hotel

A quick note, unregistered guest must provide an ID to security, which will be returned when they leave. It's just a security precaution to protect the hotel's guest.

A very popular alternative to booking standard hotels that is guest friendly is by staying in Serviced Apartments. Serviced apartments are typically meant for long term stays. However many welcome guest with short time places. Most serviced apartments in Bangkok are run like any other hotel operation with the same types of hospitality such as housekeeping, desk reception, security and bell boys. Most even include a free breakfast in their rates. One of the most popular serviced apartment accommodations in Bangkok are Center Point Serviced Apartments. They have about 7 different properties located throughout Bangkok, most of them near the commercial and main attraction areas.

Early Season Bow Hunting For Whitetail Deer

A monster whitetail buck can leave evidence of its existence in an area as early as late February / early March when he sheds his antlers from the previous year. By the end of March and early early April, most bucks have lost their headgear and have started working on their new antler growth. Although it can sometimes be like "finding a needle in a haystack", it never hurts to cure a little cabin fever from the winter and take a stroll on your hunting property to see if you can get lucky enough to find one side or in some cases, both sides.

Know where the water source is and find where they come to get a drink. If you are sufficient enough to have a creek or a river running through your property, scan the banks to find where the deer have a beat down path leading up to the water. This would be an excellent spot to put a tree stand within about 15-20 yards of the trail as this is evidence that deer more that particular spot because it allows them easy access to the water. If you do not have a water source on your property then you can create one by buying a fairly inexpensive outdoor pond and burying it. It will catch and hold rainwater, eventually deer will catch on and associate this as a place to get a drink when they are thirsty. Water sources are extremely essential for deer in early bow season when temperatures are still fairly warm in most regions of the United States.

Just like a water source, whitetails develop a pattern through the year with their eating habits. If you have woods on your property that is adjacent to a field full of crops, walk along the field about 20 yards inside the woods and look for a "funnel" of deer trails that come together and exit into the field. Deer are very cautious animals and have a main vantage point they typically use before entering an open area and becoming vulnerable to attack from predators. Deer are pretty routine during early archery season, they will usually feed in mid to late morning and evening until the rut begins. Find the funnel of trails and place your stand just off of it around 15-20 yards, also, allow yourself a clear line of sight toward the field and establish shooting lanes in that direction as well.

Early archery season can be rewarding if you take the time to learn the whitetail's routine eating and watering habits. However, you must put in your time out of the woods as well. When you finally get that perfect shot, you certainly do not want to wound the animal. Make sure your compound bow sights are finely tuned and you are sitting where your sight pin or cross hairs align with the target. If you can keep a group of arrows within an area the size of a paper plate, then you will have no trouble striking one of the vital organs and hopefully making it a quick, clean kill.

Aircon Service – 3 Things To Look Out For When Hiring An Aircon Contractor

Today, almost every household and office has installed an aircon unit. Air conditioning has become such as integral part in our lives, even though we do not give much thought to it. Whenever you are out shopping, all the centres will surely be air-conditioned. Whenever the weather gets hot, you will be desperately looking for air-conditioning place to cool yourself.

As we are now overly-dependent on air conditioning, sometimes aircon contractors use this opportunity to maximize their profits in unethical ways. So, let me share with you 3 things to look out for when you are hiring an aircon contractor:

1. Make sure that the contractor cleans your air conditioner in the right way by using the right chemicals. There are harmful moulds growing in your air conditioner fan coils. When the contractor cleans your fan coils with a brush or vacuum, they loosen these spores from the fan coil units. These loosened mould spores will be blown into the air and you will breathe into your lungs. This is extremely harmful to your health and you need to make sure that your contractor does not do this. Always ask for the right types of cleaning chemical to be used when cleaning your air conditioning unit. Sometimes, the contractor may not want to use it because he wants to maintain his bottom line. This is also part of his strategy to get more service jobs out of you.

2. Always insist on at least a ½ inch drainage pipe for split unit air conditioning. If your contractor tells you otherwise, you need to beware. Sometimes, the contractor may just give you an undersized drainage pipe so that the pipe will choke. This will cause the unit to leak easily and thus require you to call for service often. So always insist on a large enough drainage pipe to be used.

3. Always check the full range of service offered by aircon contractors. One trick many contractors use is to offer relatively low cost for their annual servicing contracts, which they will use brushing and vacuuming method to service your aircon unit. As I have mentioned before, brushing and vacuuming are not enough and they can be harmful to your health if not done properly. Usually by the second servicing, you will complain about low performance of your aircon unit. Upon this time, your contractor will recommend a full chemical service. A full chemical service is very expensive, and since you have already committed to the contractor for a year, you will agree to the full service to get back the strong clean air as before. So, make sure you know exactly what they are offering for their annual package and ensure that they clean with the right methods to preserve the useful lifespan of your air conditioning unit.

Keep yourself up to date by doing a research on the Internet to find out the right way to clean. In this case, you will prevent yourself from falling into victim into these unethical contractors’ plans.

Vegan Meal Plan

Switching to a vegan diet can be a great way to lose weight and get healthier. A vegan does not eat any foods that contain or are made with animal products of any kind. This can be a restrictive lifestyle, but many people choose to make this change and it is no surprise with all the weight that can be lost. No matter if it is due to religious reasons, health reasons, or concern for animal welfare a vegan diet can really change how you feel and how you look.

If you are thinking about making the move to a vegan lifestyle it might help for you to have a vegan meal plan. There are so many delicious options for vegan foods. This meal plan is just a jumping off point. It is a great idea to buy some vegan cookbooks. It is also great to check out the thousands of vegan recipes that are online. Be adventurous and try new things. Here are some vegan recipes for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and dessert.


Scrambled Tofu

1 ½ tablespoon safflower oil

3 tablespoons diced onion

1 diced Serrano chili

1/2 teaspoon ground cumin

3 tablespoons chopped cilantro

20 oz tofu

Salsa of your choosing

Heat the oil; add in onion and saute for 1 to 2 minutes. Add the chilies and cumin, cook for a few minutes. Crumble the tofu and cook, stirring frequently. Mix in the cilantro and season with salt. Serve with warm tortillas and salsa.


Sweet Corn Soup

6 ears of corn

1 tablespoon corn oil

1 small onion

1/2 cup grated celery root

7 cups water or vegetable stock

Salt to taste

Shuck the corn and slice off the kernels. In a large soup pot put in the oil, onion, celery root, and one cup of water. Let that mixture stew under low heat until the onion is soft. Add the corn, salt and remaining water and bring it to a boil. Cool briefly and then puree in a blender, then wait for it to cool before putting it through a food mill. Reheat and add salt and pepper to taste.


Seared Portobello Mushrooms

1 large Portobello mushroom, stem removed

Olive oil as needed

Salt and pepper

Shallot vinaigrette

Slice the mushroom into wide slices. Brush both sides with oil and set them in the skillet over high heat. Sear for 4 to 5 minutes. Once they start to brown remove them and place them on a platter with salt and pepper to taste. Add vinaigrette to the top for flavor.

Lentil and Onion Croquettes

2 cups chopped yellow onion

2 tablespoons olive oil

1/2 cup finely chopped carrot

2 cups bread crumbs

1 cup lentils

3/4 cup celery chopped

Salt and pepper

In a skillet over low heat cook the onion in the olive oil. In a saucepan combine the lentils, celery, carrots, and salt covered with water. Bring this to a boil and then lower the heat to a simmer for about 30 minutes. Drain the liquid. Puree the lentils until smooth. Mix the lentils with the onion and bread crumbs. Season with salt and pepper. Allow the mixture to cool and then form it into 3 inch rounds. Fry the croquette balls in olive oil and set them on a paper towel to soak up the excess oil.


Strawberry Ice

1 quart ripe strawberries

Stevia (to taste)

Pull out the core of the berries. Puree them in a food processor. Put stevia into a saucepan. Add half a cup of the puree into the stevia and heat stirring constantly until it is all dissolved. Add in the puree and freeze.

Tips to Buy the Right Crimping Tools

A crimping tool is a type of device that is used to conjoin two pieces of metal by deforming one or both parts. This joint has to be strong enough to make sure it works properly. So, it's important that you look for the right type of tool.

You can find crimping tools in many types. Each type is designed for a specific application. Given below are a few tips that can help you opt for the right type of tool. We are going to discuss different types to make the choice easier for you. Read on to know more.


First off, it's important to keep in mind that this tool is available in many types. Dealers have these types available based on demand. So, they will have a popular brand. Let's check out different types of crimping tools.

Cable Tie Type : As the name suggests, these tools work well if you want to tighten the ties of the large bundles of cables or wires.

Compression tools: They are used to terminate different types of coaxial compression connectors and twisted pair plugs.

RJ45 Crimp Tools : They are used to crimp the wires of different types of connectors, such as RJ-12, RJ-11, and RJ45, just to name a few.

Point-to-cup type: They are used with the crimp sleeves that feature round section. Aside from this, you can also find cup-to-cup tools. Again, they are available in a lot of varieties, such as heavy-duty tools, standard duty tools, and bench press tools.

Manual or Automatic

Typically, users buy crimping tools based on the type of job they want to do. Some people like manual tools because the job they want to do can not be done with the mechanized tools.

Therefore, even if you find it easier to use the mechanized tools, you may still get better results with the hand-operated ones. So, we suggest that you check out both types to make the best choice.


People also buy these tools based on the application. For instance, a good hose crimping tool is a good choice if you want to crimp the connector of a cable, especially the cables in the networking field.

Another use of the tools is to work on professional designs. Usually, goldsmiths use them on a regular basis. So, you should check out the category of these tools at your desired stores to pick the right one based on your application.

Material Thickness

These devices are used to hold and work with different cables, sleeves, and gauges. Aside from this, these tools can be used to work on different wire types, such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, and Teflon, just to name a few.

While buying these tools, make sure you consider the material dimensions as well. Buying the right one will be easier if you choose the right type of store.

Long story short, this was an introduction to the types of tools and the tips you may want to keep in mind to opt for the right one based on your needs.

How To Make A Small Bathroom Feel Bigger

When renovating a bathroom, here on the Sunshine Coast sometimes our clients quickly discover that either their budget or their properties’ limitations does not allow them to create their ultimate space. However, there are several savvy design tips and tricks for consideration which can help you achieve your design dreams. Let’s discuss how you can make a small bathroom feel bigger:


With space at a premium in a tight bathroom, every millimetre of space must be utilised effectively. A well-planned, hardworking layout will prove to be a winning strategy. The ultimate bathroom layout will have the sink close to the door, then the toilet and at the furthest point from the entry, the bath and/or shower. Tip: for aesthetic reasons, the toilet should not be the first thing you see as you enter the bathroom! Make sure you allow at least 50cm between the rim of the seat and any basin unit or wall so there is sufficient space for even the tallest user’s knees. Also, when planning your bathroom layout, consider high ceilings in a small space, where possible. Opt for 2.7m high over standard 2.4m heigh ceilings. High ceilings will enhance the sense of existing space.

Fittings and Fixtures

There is a multitude of space-saving fittings and fixtures available on the market today. For instance, wall mounted taps can create even more room. Opt for a neat, rectangular sink bowl over a round vanity bowl- these usually take up more space. A compact, space saving toilet cistern plumbed into the wall can give more room then a standard toilet. This last option though requires thought though, as plumbing issues with a built-in/ wall mounted cistern usually require opening up the wall cavity.

Doors and Windows

A simple solution for a small bathroom is to use a cavity slider instead of a standard door in your bathroom renovation. Windows will bring in natural light which will open up the room too. If you can’t install /include windows, consider a skylight. The more light you can introduce, the more spacious and open your small bathroom will appear.

Clever Tiling

Good tiling advice can help your small bathroom feel bigger. Floor-to-ceiling tiles will make the space feel larger, as will using large tiles. The larger the tile, the larger the room will appear due to the scale and proportion of large tiles tricking the eye into believing the space is bigger. If you can’t execute floor-to-ceiling tiles, match the wall paint colour to your tiles to keep it tonal.


In terms of colour, lighter colours make small spaces feel bigger, so favour a lighter colour palette over a darker one. Also, use one colour for the whole room so there is less visual distraction which may cut up the small room visually. Extra points if the colour and whole room is white! Our favourite white is Dulux Lexicon Quarter.

Design Tips

Using a few key styling tips can elevate your space saving renovation techniques. A mirror is a great way to enhance a small space, as it reflects natural light around and opens up the room. Opposite a window is a good spot as it will double the amount of light. As with the tiling, again play with a sense of scale and go big with the size of your mirror. A frameless shower screen will have less lines and consequently open up the room visually. A tiled wall niche in the shower cleverly creates extra storage while looking contemporary.

Consider All options

Although moving any plumbing in a bathroom is generally avoided as it adds significant cost to the renovation, sometimes freeing up space in a small bathroom is worth the extra cost if it adds valuable floor space. Options may include relocating the toilet to its own separate room elsewhere in the house, or, if the washing machine and/or dryer is in the bathroom, possibly moving them into a cupboard nearby.

A combined shower/tub arrangement is another smart solution that can provide the household with a bath and a shower, (a strong selling point for buyers with children) whilst optimising valuable floor real estate.

Advantages of Natural Stone Cladding /Stone Veneer

Stone Cladding/Stone Veneer can be used on the exterior of your home as well as the interior. Stone Cladding/Stone Veneer can be used on certain walls in your home, for flooring, to enhance your exterior walls, fireplace, windows and doors. These materials are becoming more and more popular because of the fact that they are much lighter than regular stone and they have a natural look to them.

The main advantages of using Stone Veneer/Cladding are:

• Natural stone is very heavy and can be tricky to transport and install. Stone Veneer/Cladding is much lighter and easier to install.

• It is compatible with almost all surface materials like wood, brick, metal and cement. This means that a person can easily decorate the surfaces without any complications.

• The cost of Stone Veneer/Cladding is much less than natural stone. Since natural stone is much heavier, it increases the cost of the shipping, which then increases the overall cost.

• It is a flexible material, which makes it easy to install, even in places where there are curves. A vacuum table and clamps are used to install the veneer/cladding with ease. Natural Stone has not got this flexibility.

• It is easy to cut into the desired size and shape, which is not the case with natural stone.

• This man-made stone is available in a variety of sizes and shapes. The color of these stones can be matched to any color that you desire. It is also possible to have each stone made in a slightly different color, which makes the overall appearance look more natural.

• It is heat-resistant which means that it can be used in any place where there will be excessive heat generated, like the fireplace in your home. It also adds beauty to your existing fireplace.

• It is non-porous and non-absorbent, which makes it very easy to maintain with regular house hold cleaners. This means that no special products are required in order to keep it looking great.

• Because these stones are made from hard materials, they are shock resistant and very durable, which means that once they have been installed, they will last for a very long time.

• The color of the stones does not fade with changing weather patterns and they are not affected by environmental changes at all, which make them perfect for interiors and exteriors.

• Lastly, they will enhance your home and make your existing spaces more beautiful than they were before.

All in all, Stone Veneer and Stone Cladding is the right choice for you if you are looking for a natural looking stone that is easy to install, maintain and does not cost as much as the real thing.

5 Tips to Use Social Media to Sell Without Selling

What is your Social Media IQ? If you’re like most people, it’s pretty low. Test yourself and find out! Recently, I conducted a marketing workshop for small business owners and entrepreneurs. It amazed me how little those people knew about the power of the social media to “spread” the word.

We all know about traditional means to market our products. We know about advertising, branding, finding our niche. What we do not yet understand is the power of the social media in all this. Social media give us new tools for doing much of the same thing. This is what Evan Williams said in a recent interview with University of Nebraska journalism students. He said we must figure out what we can offer people that’s valuable instead of trying to get in front of people. He said intrusive advertising as we know it is dying out. How do we figure out what we can offer people that is valuable to them?

How many of you notice the ads on Facebook? How many of you see the billboards leading into your town? If, however, you are looking for a hotel, you read the billboards carefully, right?

People in my workshop wanted to shrug off the social media as the latest fad that will die. With 500 million people now on Facebook, we cannot call social media a fad. It’s a new and revolutionary way to communicate. My workshop participants kept saying, “I don’t get it.” What’s the point of connecting with college and high school friends? What’s the point of it all? The point is to sell without appearing to sell. In reality, how many people will buy from someone they don’t know exists? The social media provide tools for you to get out there, whether in your own community or globally. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and others give you a way for people to find you. Here are some tips for using the social media to help you sell without “selling.”

1. The more people you have relationships with the more information you can get for yourself. When your friends tell you about something they like, it’s much better than you having to do your own Google search. According to the WOMMA (Word of Mouth Marketing Association), word of mouth is the most honest form of marketing because it builds on people’s natural desire to share their experiences with families, friends and colleagues. As you connect with others on the social media, you learn and become the most knowledgeable. If you create quality content people will want to share your stuff. You share theirs; they share yours.

2. If it were not for Facebook, many of those college and high school friends would disappear into oblivion. You would have lost touch with them and perhaps never thought of them again. You now have an opportunity to stay connected to people. Connections build relationships, which build trust, which builds identity, which builds getting found. You create sustained relationships with people, not simply a fleeting pat on the back. Before long, certain blogs become your favorites and they enter your inbox every day.

3. The more people you connect with, the greater the chances that what you like and what you do will be noticed by others. If you only connect with people you “know,” you’ll lose out. Shih told us in her book, Facebook Era, that people on the social media have many distant connections and a few close ones. She says it’s how we cultivate those distant connections that builds relationships that will eventually pay off.

4. Communication channels are changing. Broadcast communication that broadcasts to lots and lots of people hoping to capture that one person looking for a hotel is dying out. Instead a new term, netcasting, is emerging. By netcasting, you cast your net where you know the fish are. You reach out to your connections, your friends, your followers. The more people in your net, the better your chances, whether you are marketing a product or asking a question.

5. Selling happens discreetly. As you build a relationship and become knowledgeable around a certain product, service or industry, people will come to you. People buy from people they know, like and trust. You become that person. Social media give you an opportunity to build that kind of lasting connection with people. It makes them want to find you and want to hit that purchase button.

4 Reasons Why Gold Is An Amazing Metal And How to Recognize Fake Gold

These are just some of the reasons why gold is so amazing.


Gold is a soft, yellow metal with a beautiful lustrous sheen. It is the most malleable and ductile of all the elements. Gold is so malleable that it can be rolled into semi-transparent sheets and so ductile that it can be rolled into wires small enough to use in semiconductors. One ounce (28 g) of gold can be beaten out to 300 square feet. You could say gold is the Play-Doh of metals.


Gold is a very good conductor of heat and electricity. Among all precious materials, silver has the highest thermal conductivity and the highest light reflection. Although silver is the best conductor, copper and gold are used more often in electrical applications because copper is less expensive and gold has a much higher corrosion resistance. Since gold never corrodes and can be molded to any shape, it's used to make long lasting electrical connectors in all types of devices.


Gold is one of the least reactive elements on the Periodic Table. It does not react with oxygen, so it never rusts or corrodes. Gold is unaffected by air, water, alkalis and all acids except aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid) which can dissolve gold. In fact, gold's acid resistance is one of the reasons why our acid assays are so accurate. Gold does react with halogens. It will, for example, react very slowly with chlorine gas at room temperature to form gold chloride, AuCl3. If gold chloride is heated gently, it will decompose to release the pure elements again. Gold is also resistant to most bases with the exception of potassium cyanide.

Energy Reflectance

Surface reflection of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is reflected at an interface. Gold is a good reflector of electromagnetic radiant energy, including radio waves, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. The characteristic optical properties of gold, combined with its complete resistance to attack in any surroundings and its ability to be applied as very thin films, make gold a very versatile material for diverse industries' applications. For example, gold is often used in aerospace applications to provide protective coatings for satellite components and space suits.

As a refinery, we deal with high volumes of gold in all manner of shapes, weights, and purity levels. Thanks to our technologies we're able to leverage several types of assays to authenticate the melt-value of anything a customer may bring us.

However, there are also several quick and easy ways to identify alloy from pure gold.

Discolouration: Pure gold does not tarnish, so carefully check for any discolouration. Even slight shade variations can reveal fake gold.

Magnets: Gold (like most other precious metals) is not magnetic. If the piece in question reacts to the magnet, it can only mean that iron, nickel or other ferromagnetic material is alloyed with the gold so it may be a lower karat than advertised.

Scratching: Even without acid, a simple scratch test is enough to disappear many types of fake gold. A Porcelain Scratch test can be performed by using an unglazed tile or ceramic plate and scratching the object on the tile. If it leaves a black streak, the item is not gold. If the streak is gold in color, the item is likely to be gold. This may scratch the piece, but should not cause much damage.

Float test: Check the buoyancy of the item by dropping it in a glass of water. Real gold is weak and will sink, but many alloys will float. Also, if your piece will rust or discolour, then it's plated or fake. Of course, this test is more effective on small samples, such as jewellery or alluvial flakes. Be aware that many metals designed to look like gold are still sufficient enough to sink, so even if the piece passes the float test, you should still try additional assays.

If not obvious, it is always a good idea to ask for a specialist consultation.

The Olympics, Foam Molding, and You

You might already be thinking, "I do not know what the Olympics have to do with me, let alone foam." If that's the case, hopefully you can consider yourself somewhat enlightened (or at least entertained) by the time you finish reading this article.

We'll start with the Olympics. Before the summer's over, the Olympics in London will have come and gone. Around the world, viewers will have the opportunity to see more athleticism than they have all year, some of it will even be more athleticism than they can handle (racewalking anyone?).

However, the most highly anticipated events always seem to be the gymnastics events. To prepare for these events, the Olympians almost always have taken advantage of foam protective gear. For example, you may have seen, heard of, or even had the opportunity to use a "foam pit." Foam pits are a common sight in gymnastics, and are exactly what sound like – large pits of soft, compressible, and very-forgiving foam. Without these pits of soft foam, gymnasts would not be able to practice the high fflying and often very dangerous maneuvers they frequently dazzle audiences with. In the winter Olympics the same can be said for the highly anticipated ski and snowboard events, where contestants throw them off jumps and execute seemingly impossible tricks and stunts. At some point, all of them perfected their technique in the foam-pit. But what does that have to do with foam?

Foam molding is the process foam fabricators use to take a raw material and create foam shapes for virtually any need or application. Beyond creating the foam for foam pits, foam fabricators also manufacture sporting pads of all varieties, orthopedic pads, medical packaging, shipping foam, and an almost limitless variety of foam products in between. That's where you come into the equation. Without the quality foam that's given Olympic athletes the opportunity to train in a safe environment, your life would also be different as well.

Whether you participated in sports as a child or recently had a procedure done at the hospital, you've benefited from foam fabrication and molding. Did you use shoulder pads as a child when you played football or hockey? Then you've benefitted from foam molding. Or maybe you use a foam roller to "roll out" tension in your muscles after a workout. Again, you're taking advantage of foam fabrication. You will often see foam molds in other roles as case inserts, packaging, pallet cushioning, automotive components, medical products, yoga mats, and much more. Chances are, if it's soft and it's foam – it's a foam molding.

Without foam molding the stunts piled by gymnasts and snowboarders at the Olympics would be a little less exciting, packaging used to safely ship products would be less effective, and with the amount of foam the medical industry uses for everything from device packaging to rehabilitation, doctors , nurses, and healthcare professionals would have to find new solutions for many of their existing needs. Take a moment and ask yourself, how would your life be different without foam molding?

Whether you look at your house, your car, or the Olympics on TV, chances are you do not go a day without taking advantage of foam molding or mold fabrication. In addition to the frequency you probably use foam molded products, you also benefit from frequent innovation bought to the foam industry as well.

For example, many years ago the foam products you took advantage of would have been standard foam, which benefits us in a number of ways. However, modern foam has been engineered to withstand all of the environments and applications we subject it to, meaning we can always have the reliability, cushioning, and coating we require, everywhere we need it.

Talk to Others – It May Be Their Answer

I still remember those days I was involved in the business world. Something was always happening. As soon as you thought today is the day to catch up on some work that is behind, something happened that gobbled up your time. An urgent order or a machine breaking down or a supplier not delivering or the whole factory comes to a standstill because of one small part being broken.

In circumstances like that it is difficult to put people and their needs first. I specifically remember one of many such days. I've made an appointment with one of the staff members the previous day already, because I've been seeing for some time that something was wrong. I could see something was weighing heavily on him. We met early that morning for coffee and after a long discussion things about work and outside of work started coming out and we could talk about them. I think he left in a lighter frame of mind.

Shortly afterwards I was again running somewhere when I saw one of the women crouched in front of her screen, staring at it with a roll of toilet paper in her hand. I did not actually have to find out what was wrong but decided to do it and popped in.

I have not even said anything when the tears started. She was in a big hole. I rolled up a chair and listened. I did not say much. But when I left I knew it had been the right thing to spend some time with her

In a way, I made a difference in other people's lives. In a way, with help from above, I could practically do what this verse says: 11 S o speak encouraging words to one another. Build up hope so you'll all be together in this, no one left out, no one left behind. I know you're already doing this; just keep on doing it.

In our own crooked way, we have to spread the Gospel there where we are living in the world. And the idea is not to learn versa by heart and repeat them and think that it will make everything OK. We should rather show sincere interest and support.

With both people, I could use a part of God's message of salvation to unlock a couple of handcuffs.

We do not have to be theologians to use the Bible to help others. Simply by sharing your own experience you make a difference by bringing hope to other people.

Maybe you think your life is not good enough to be used as an example to help others on the way of salvation, but think again. It does not depend on you whether you can help others through hard times, but on the Holy Spirit! Indeed, the other person can identify with it if you are honest and share your problem.

Never underestimate the work of the Holy Spirit. He is just looking for a vehicle to fetch the baggage that the one next to you at work has to carry. The Holy Spirit is the one doing the work. The Holy Spirit only wants your willingness. He does the rest.

I've often looked with amazement at people who've fallen apart an hour or two ago and was now confidently giving a presentation before a group of people. That's the Holy Spirit's work.

But we are afraid to talk about these things, because what if we make a fool of ourselves and others laugh at us. Do you know others actually long to hear about your struggles and how do you plan to get through everything? People want to hear, despite telling others it is nonsense. Do not keep quiet about the way you walk with God. It may just be the answer the one next to you has been looking for all along!


1 Thessalonians 5: 12-15


Who do you have to spend time with?

How can you be the Lord's voice?

Are you prepared to do it?


Father, I realize it is my responsibility to encourage others. So many of my friends need to hear your message through me. I'm so sorry I do not do it often enough. Show me where You need me. I will go and do my best to make a difference. Amen.

Tips to Maintain Virgin Hair and Their Benefits

Are you looking for an option of hair extensions? Do you want to try a pure form of hair extension or hair replacement? Virgin hair is a pure form of hair extension taken from a single donor without any chemical processing and dyeing. Check out the benefits and different ways to maintain them.

Virgin hair is donated by a living individual person that is not chemically processed, styled or colored so that they possess the natural qualities and feel 100% natural with your own hair. They are often straight as they are not permed before use. In simple words, they are exactly the same which was on the donor's head.

These are often harvested from young women with long, full healthy hair, which will be clear of greys, split ends and other damages. They are usually collected in ponytails so that their cuticle remain healthy and already show shiny, soft texture. Virgin hair is the highest quality hair extension option available in the market.

When saying chemically untouched or not at all permed, it is meant the same before collecting the hair from the donor as well. Even prior to donation, the hair should not be styled, relaxed or not exposed to any type of hair treatments. These types often show an undamaged cuticle, which in turn results in the softer and natural texture of the hair extension or replacement.

Cuticles are the vital part in your hair. Once they are damaged, it may cause serious problems like tangling, dryness, frizziness, to the hair, whether your own or the extension you use. So it is important to keep them or to choose the best quality product. Cuticles may be replaced by silicone, but they fade away quickly.

Once used by the accepter, these extensions can be an easy styling component as they are too soft and easily manageable when used with appropriate products. If you want to maintain your hair's natural quality as such, just follow some basic habits while styling occasionally.

Instead of using chemical permanent dyes or colors, you can use temporary and conditioning dyes. These temporary ones can affect your hair less harshly than those persistent dyes and help to retain the natural quality. However, to get lighter shades of hair temporary hair dyes are not advisable as they need to be bleached.

Also, to get curly and permed hair, adopt natural or less wary methods that do not affect the hair very much. For example, to get curls, instead of permanent methods or harsh heating equipment, use temporary methods. Just braid or twirl your damp hair and pin it for a night to get temporary curls without damaging the natural beauty.

These donors may also donate their hair for patients who lose their hair due to treatments.

Network Routing Protocols – IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, BGP


The purpose of routing protocols is to learn of available routes that exist on the enterprise network, build routing tables and make routing decisions. Some of the most common routing protocols include RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS and BGP. There are two primary routing protocol types although many different routing protocols defined with those two types. Link state and distance vector protocols comprise the primary types. Distance vector protocols advertise their routing table to all directly connected neighbors at regular frequent intervals using a lot of bandwidth and are slow to converge. When a route becomes unavailable, all router tables must be updated with that new information. The problem is with each router having to advertise that new information to its neighbors, it takes a long time for all routers to have a current accurate view of the network. Distance vector protocols use fixed length subnet masks which aren’t scalable. Link state protocols advertise routing updates only when they occur which uses bandwidth more effectively. Routers don’t advertise the routing table which makes convergence faster. The routing protocol will flood the network with link state advertisements to all neighbor routers per area in an attempt to converge the network with new route information. The incremental change is all that is advertised to all routers as a multicast LSA update. They use variable length subnet masks, which are scalable and use addressing more efficiently.

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a distance vector routing protocol developed by Cisco systems for routing multiple protocols across small and medium sized Cisco networks. It is proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. This contrasts with IP RIP and IPX RIP, which are designed for multi-vendor networks. IGRP will route IP, IPX, Decnet and AppleTalk which makes it very versatile for clients running many different protocols. It is somewhat more scalable than RIP since it supports a hop count of 100, only advertises every 90 seconds and uses a composite of five different metrics to select a best path destination. Note that since IGRP advertises less frequently, it uses less bandwidth than RIP but converges much slower since it is 90 seconds before IGRP routers are aware of network topology changes. IGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems and automatically summarizes at network class boundaries. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost paths.


• Distance Vector

• Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk

• Routing Table Advertisements Every 90 Seconds

• Metric: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load, MTU Size

• Hop Count: 100

• Fixed Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths ( IOS 11.0 )

• Update Timer: 90 seconds

• Invalid Timer: 270 seconds

• Holddown Timer: 280 seconds

• Metric Calculation = destination path minimum bandwidth x delay (usec)

• Split Horizon

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a hybrid routing protocol developed by Cisco systems for routing many protocols across an enterprise Cisco network. It has characteristics of both distance vector routing protocols and link state routing protocols. It is proprietary which requires that you use Cisco routers. EIGRP will route the same protocols that IGRP routes (IP, IPX, Decnet and Appletalk) and use the same composite metrics as IGRP to select a best path destination. As well there is the option to load balance traffic across equal or unequal metric cost paths. Summarization is automatic at a network class address however it can be configured to summarize at subnet boundaries as well. Redistribution between IGRP and EIGRP is automatic as well. There is support for a hop count of 255 and variable length subnet masks.


Convergence with EIGRP is faster since it uses an algorithm called dual update algorithm or DUAL, which is run when a router detects that a particular route is unavailable. The router queries its neighbors looking for a feasible successor. That is defined as a neighbor with a least cost route to a particular destination that doesn’t cause any routing loops. EIGRP will update its routing table with the new route and the associated metric. Route changes are advertised only to affected routers when changes occur. That utilizes bandwidth more efficiently than distance vector routing protocols.

Autonomous Systems

EIGRP does recognize assignment of different autonomous systems which are processes running under the same administrative routing domain. Assigning different autonomous system numbers isn’t for defining a backbone such as with OSPF. With IGRP and EIGRP it is used to change route redistribution, filtering and summarization points.


• Advanced Distance Vector

• Routes IP, IPX, Decnet, Appletalk

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

• Metrics: Bandwidth, Delay, Reliability, Load, MTU Size

• Hop Count: 255

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal or Unequal Cost Paths (IOS 11.0)

• Hello Timer: 5 seconds on Ethernet / 60 seconds on Non-Broadcast

• Holddown Timer: 15 seconds on Ethernet / 180 seconds on Non-Broadcast

• Metric Calculation = destination path minimum bandwidth x delay (msec) x 256

• Split Horizon

• LSA Multicast Address:

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Open Shortest Path First is a true link state protocol developed as an open standard for routing IP across large multi-vendor networks. A link state protocol will send link state advertisements to all connected neighbors of the same area to communicate route information. Each OSPF enabled router, when started, will send hello packets to all directly connected OSPF routers. The hello packets contain information such as router timers, router ID and subnet mask. If the routers agree on the information they become OSPF neighbors. Once routers become neighbors they establish adjacencies by exchanging link state databases. Routers on point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links (as specified with the OSPF interface type setting) automatically establish adjacencies. Routers with OSPF interfaces configured as broadcast (Ethernet) and NBMA (Frame Relay) will use a designated router that establishes those adjacencies.


OSPF uses a hierarchy with assigned areas that connect to a core backbone of routers. Each area is defined by one or more routers that have established adjacencies. OSPF has defined backbone area 0, stub areas, not-so-stubby areas and totally stubby areas. Area 0 is built with a group of routers connected at a designated office or by WAN links across several offices. It is preferable to have all area 0 routers connected with a full mesh using an Ethernet segment at a core office. This provides for high performance and prevents partitioning of the area should a router connection fail. Area 0 is a transit area for all traffic from attached areas. Any inter-area traffic must route through area 0 first. Stub areas use a default route injected from the ABR to forward traffic destined for any external routes (LSA 5,7) to the area border router. Inter-area (LSA 3,4) and intra-area (LSA 1,2) routing is as usual. Totally stubby areas are a Cisco specification that uses a default route injected from the ABR for all inter-area and external routes. The totally stubby area doesn’t send or receive external or inter-area LSA’s. The not-so-stubby area ABR will advertise external routes with type 7 LSA. External routes aren’t received at that area type. Inter-area and intra-area routing is as usual. OSPF defines internal routers, backbone routers, area border routers (ABR) and autonomous system boundary routers (ASBR). Internal routers are specific to one area. Area border routers have interfaces that are assigned to more than one area such as area 0 and area 10. An autonomous system boundary router has interfaces assigned to OSPF and a different routing protocol such as EIGRP or BGP. A virtual link is utilized when an area doesn’t have a direct connection to area 0. A virtual link is established between an area border router for an area that isn’t connected to area 0, and an area border router for an area that is connected to area 0. Area design involves considering geographical location of offices and traffic flows across the enterprise. It is important to be able to summarize addresses for many offices per area and minimize broadcast traffic.


Fast convergence is accomplished with the SPF (Dijkstra) algorithm which determines a shortest path from source to destination. The routing table is built from running SPF which determines all routes from neighbor routers. Since each OSPF router has a copy of the topology database and routing table for its particular area, any route changes are detected faster than with distance vector protocols and alternate routes are determined.

Designated Router

Broadcast networks such as Ethernet and Non-Broadcast Multi Access networks such as Frame Relay have a designated router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR) that are elected. Designated routers establish adjacencies with all routers on that network segment. This is to reduce broadcasts from all routers sending regular hello packets to its neighbors. The DR sends multicast packets to all routers that it has established adjacencies with. If the DR fails, it is the BDR that sends multicasts to specific routers. Each router is assigned a router ID, which is the highest assigned IP address on a working interface. OSPF uses the Router ID (RID) for all routing processes.


• Link State

• Routes IP

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

• Metric: Composite Cost of each Router to Destination (100,000,000/interface speed)

• Hop Count: None (Limited by Network)

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 4 Equal Cost Paths

• Router Types: Internal, Backbone, ABR, ASBR

• Area Types: Backbone, Stubby, Not-So-Stubby, Totally Stubby

• LSA Types: Intra-Area (1,2) Inter-Area (3,4), External (5,7)

• Hello Timer Interval: 10 seconds for Ethernet / 30 seconds for Non-Broadcast

• Dead Timer Interval: 40 seconds for Ethernet / 120 seconds for Non-Broadcast

• LSA Multicast Address: and (DR/BDR) Don’t Filter!

• Interface Types: Point to Point, Broadcast, Non-Broadcast, Point to Multipoint, Loopback

Integrated IS-IS

Integrated Intermediate System – Intermediate System routing protocol is a link state protocol similar to OSPF that is used with large enterprise and ISP customers. An intermediate system is a router and IS-IS is the routing protocol that routes packets between intermediate systems. IS-IS utilizes a link state database and runs the SPF Dijkstra algorithm to select shortest paths routes. Neighbor routers on point to point and point to multipoint links establish adjacencies by sending hello packets and exchanging link state databases. IS-IS routers on broadcast and NBMA networks select a designated router that establishes adjacencies with all neighbor routers on that network. The designated router and each neighbor router will establish an adjacency with all neighbor routers by multicasting link state advertisements to the network itself. That is different from OSPF, which establishes adjacencies between the DR and each neighbor router only. IS-IS uses a hierarchical area structure with level 1 and level 2 router types. Level 1 routers are similar to OSPF intra-area routers, which have no direct connections outside of its area. Level 2 routers comprise the backbone area which connects different areas similar to OSPF area 0. With IS-IS a router can be an L1/L2 router which is like an OSPF area border router (ABR) which has connections with its area and the backbone area. The difference with IS-IS is that the links between routers comprise the area borders and not the router.

Each IS-IS router must have an assigned address that is unique for that routing domain. An address format is used which is comprised of an area ID and a system ID. The area ID is the assigned area number and the system ID is a MAC address from one of the router interfaces. There is support for variable length subnet masks, which is standard with all link state protocols. Note that IS-IS assigns the routing process to an interface instead of a network.


• Link State

• Routes IP, CLNS

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Routing Changes Occur

• Metric: Variable Cost (default cost 10 assigned to each interface)

• Hop Count: None (limited by network)

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal Cost Paths

• Hello Timer Interval: 10 seconds

• Dead Timer Interval: 30 seconds

• Area Types: Hierarchical Topology similar to OSPF

• Router Types: Level 1 and Level 2

• LSP Types: Internal L1 and L2, External L2

• Designated Router Election, No BDR

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Border Gateway Protocol is an exterior gateway protocol, which is different from the interior gateway protocols discussed so far. The distinction is important since the term autonomous system is used somewhat differently with protocols such as EIGRP than it is with BGP. Exterior gateway protocols such as BGP route between autonomous systems, which are assigned a particular AS number. AS numbers can be assigned to an office with one or several BGP routers. The BGP routing table is comprised of destination IP addresses, an associated AS-Path to reach that destination and a next hop router address. The AS-Path is a collection of AS numbers that represent each office involved with routing packets. Contrast that with EIGRP, which uses autonomous systems as well. The difference is their autonomous systems refer to a logical grouping of routers within the same administrative system. An EIGRP network can configure many autonomous systems. They are all managed by the company for defining route summarization, redistribution and filtering. BGP is utilized a lot by Internet Service Providers (ISP) and large enterprise companies that have dual homed internet connections with single or dual routers homed to the same or different Internet Service Providers. BGP will route packets across an ISP network, which is a separate routing domain that is managed by them. The ISP has its own assigned AS number, which is assigned by InterNIC. New customers can either request an AS assignment for their office from the ISP or InterNIC. A unique AS number assignment is required for customers when they connect using BGP. There are 10 defined attributes that have a particular order or sequence, which BGP utilizes as metrics to determine the best path to a destination. Companies with only one circuit connection to an ISP will implement a default route at their router, which forwards any packets that are destined for an external network. BGP routers will redistribute routing information (peering) with all IGP routers on the network (EIGRP, RIP, OSPF etc) which involve exchange of full routing tables. Once that is finished, incremental updates are sent with topology changes. The BGP default keepalive timer is 60 seconds while the hold timer is 180 seconds. Each BGP router can be configured to filter routing broadcasts with route maps instead of sending/receiving the entire internet routing table.


• Path Vector

• Routes IP

• Routing Advertisements: Partial When Route Changes Occur

• Metrics: Weight, Local Preference, Local Originated, AS-Path, Origin Type, MED

• Hop Count: 255

• Variable Length Subnet Masks

• Summarization on Network Class Address or Subnet Boundary

• Load Balancing Across 6 Equal Cost Paths

• Keepalive Timer: 60 seconds

• Holddown Timer: 180 seconds

• Designated Router: Route Reflector

BGP Routing Table Components

• Destination IP Address / Subnet Mask

• AS-Path

• Next Hop IP Address