Different Types of Fireplace For Different Home Styles

Before you continue to read on you must know what a fireplace actually is. A fireplace is an architectural structure that is made for contain fire to be used for heating and even used as cooking historically. The fire is contained by the fire pit, a chimney or other particulate exhaust and flue direct gas to escape. Most households have this as they find the crackling sounds and even the flame itself soothing.

When you go and look for a fireplace you would sometimes see a fireplace for sale made from different materials, now most people would think that the only difference between these fireplaces is that some look better than others and would also cost more. You must come to realize that this is not true. In fact some fireplaces might be more hazardous for you than you realize.

Now there are actually two main types of fireplace and that is what we call the fireplace type and the other is the chimney type, these two are further broken down into more types typically the masonry, prefab and ventless for fireplaces, and masonry, reinforced concrete and metal-lined flue for chimneys.

Let's now talk about the difference between the three types of fireplace. A masonry fireplace is the most common type of fireplace, this type of fireplace is what you would normally see in old movies and such. Prefab fireplace are fireplaces with sheet metal fire boxes. Finally the ventless fireplaces, these types of fireplace are fueled by natural gas, ether gel or LP / Bottled gas. You should also take note that there are some states and even local counties which have laws and ordinances in regard to these types of fireplaces. Ventless fireplaces also require the least installation while also being the most efficient. In fact if you test out the gas burning version of a vent free fireplace you will find out that it actually uses far less fuel, while also being close to 100% fuel efficient. You should also know that the masonry fireplace and the prefab fireplace can use wood, biomass, propane or natural gases as its source of fuel.

Now for the three types of chimneys, the masonry chimney is very much the same as its fireplace counterpart, however if the chimney does not use reinforced masonry it will be susceptible to earthquakes. A reinforced chimney is now rare as it has been discontinued due to the safety hazards it produces. Finally the metal-lined flue chimney which uses double or even triple walled metal pipes that run inside a new or already existing wood framed or masonry chase.

How to Care for Your Fine Jewelry

Training Your Fine Jewelry:

The first thing you should do is to give your fine jewelry its own little space for when it is not being worn and train it to stay there. Jewelry items do not live or party well together. Much of the damage, other than wear, that is done to jewelry happens in jewelry boxes. Stones scratch each other and the metals around them. Chains get caught in tangles that almost always cause some sort of damage.

Cleaning Your Fine Jewelry:

The best way to clean your fine jewelry is with a soft (used) toothbrush and a mild dish detergent. If the pieces are very dirty, you can soak them in detergent and water. Do not use harsh cleaners such as chlorine bleach or ammonia. It is not advisable to use toothpaste either. Many contain a mild abrasive, which will remove some metal and cause a dull finish. Any competent jeweler can polish items on occasion, but this process also removes small amounts of metal and so should be used sparingly.

Checking Prongs & Stones:

If the stone moves in the setting, put it in some kind of small bag or container and take it to your nearest qualified jeweler. The small bag prevents loss of the stone should it fall out. Loose stones are also more easily chipped or broken. Another good indicator of a loose prong is if the piece gets worn in clothing or hair by a prong.

Checking for Wear and Tear:

Over time, gold and silver will wear down. This can happen over months or years. This can be a problem for people who do certain kinds of work. The solution to this type of problem is the use of heavier metal in the prongs, the use of platinum for the setting or the use of a bezel setting to secure the stone. Prongs should be checked occasionally and if thin they should be replaced. The bands on rings can also become quite thin and ever need replacing. The thinner the band to begin with the faster this will happen.

If you give your jewelry a little care and check it periodically for wear and overall condition, it will give you many years to a lifetime of joy. A competent jeweler can recondition most pieces so long as the damage has not been allowed to go too far.

Routing Protocols Explained


In this paper I will explain many different routing protocols and give some

basic details and features about them. This paper in no way should be considered

a source of full detail about any of the listed protocols. For detailed

information about routing protocols I would suggest looking into the Request For

Comments (RFC) for that protocol, goggling them, or maybe visiting different

vendor’s websites such as Cisco, Juniper, or Bay networks. Most vendors’ web

sites have detailed explanations about all the Protocols there equipments

support features. Before you can understand routing protocol you will have to

have a basic understanding or IP networks, Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM),

Network Topologies (bus, star, Hub, etc..), and the OSI model. If you are not

familiar with any of the above subjects you may want to read up and learn about

them before moving into routing protocols. Routing protocols are what makes the

internet work by moving traffic from network to network. With out routing

protocols the internet could not work because networks would just be separate

LANs with no connection to others LANs. The internet in basic terms is just a

lot of LANs wired together to make a huge WAN.

Protocol types:

Distance Vector: distance vector routing is a type of

routing protocol that discovers routes on interconnected networks. The Distance

Vector routing algorithm is the based on the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Examples of

distance-vector routing protocols include RIP (Routing Information Protocol),

Cisco’s IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol) try Google to see all the

different protocols in the Distance Vector family. Distance Vector protocols are

suitable for smaller networks as many of the protocols in this family aren’t

scalable in lager complex networks as they are limited. The main limit to

Distance Vector Protocols is there method that requires each router simply

inform its neighbors of its routing table. This routing table update to other

members is bandwidth intensive to lager networks.

RIP (Routing Information Protocol):

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the first protocols to be used in

networking and is classified as a distance vector routing protocol. RIP uses

broadcast User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets to exchange routing

information. There are two versions RIP V1 & V2. RIP Version 1 is the original

version and has many limitations. The metric that RIP uses to rate the value of

different routes is hop count. The hop count metric works by assigning static

routes with a value of 0 and all other routers values are set by the number of

hops (up to 15) that the data must travel though to get to an end point. RIP

Version 2 supports plain text and MD5 authentication, route summarization,

classless inter-domain routing (CIDR), variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs),

Multicast support. Some vendors support other non-standard features for RIP but

be careful as many vendor centric features are not compatible in a mixed vendor


IGRP (Inter Gateway Routing Protocol):

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a distance vector routing protocol

which is a proprietary and invented by Cisco. It is used by routers to exchange

routing data within an autonomous system (AS). IGRP supports multiple metrics

for routes, including bandwidth, load, delay and MTU. This improves reliability

over RIP because IGRP uses advanced metrics to compare two routes into a

combined route. The two routes together are combined into a single metric, using

a formula which can be adjusted via command line. The maximum hop count of IGRP

is 255 which is an improvement over RIPs 15 hop max. Keep in mind that IGRP is a

Cisco proprietary protocol and can not be used in a mixed vendor network.

Link State: Link State routing protocol requires each

router (peer) to maintain at least a partial map of the network. When a network

link changes state (up to down, or vice versa), a notification, called a link

state advertisement (LSA) is flooded throughout the network. All the routers

note the change, and recompute their routes accordingly. This method is more

reliable, easier to debug and less bandwidth-intensive than Distance-Vector. It

is also more complex and more compute- and memory-intensive. Link state routing

protocols are found in many lager networks and provide Scalable solutions for

more complex networks.

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First):

Open shortest path first (OSPF) is a link-state routing protocol that calls for

the sending of link-state advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers within the

same hierarchical area or autonomous system (AS). An AS can be divided into a

number of areas, which are groups of contiguous networks and attached hosts.

Information on attached interfaces, metrics used, and other variables are

included in OSPF LSAs. As OSPF routers accumulate link-state information, they

use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node.

(IS-IS) Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System:

Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a routing protocol

developed by the ISO and is natively an ISO Connectionless Network Service or

CLNS protocol so it does not use IP to carry routing information messages. It

uses OSI protocols to deliver its packets and establish its adjacencies. IS-IS

has been enhanced to carry IP (Internet Protocol) and this is called Integrated

IS-IS. Integrated IS-IS supports VLSM and converges rapidly. It is also scalable

to support very large networks and is the key protocol in many larger ISP’s.

Hybrid: Hybrid routing Protocols are a combination or

both Distance Vector and Link state protocols and only one protocol fits into

this field. EIGRP is Cisco Systems Proprietary protocol based on their original

IGRP. For more information on Hybrid Protocols look below to the section on “EIGRP”.

EIGRP (Enhanced Inter Gateway Routing Protocol):

Enhanced Inter Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is Cisco Systems Proprietary

protocol based on their original IGRP. EIGRP is a balanced hybrid IP routing

protocol, with optimizations to minimize both the routing instability incurred

after topology changes, as well as the use of bandwidth and processing power in

the router. EIGRP has Protocol-Dependent Modules that can deal with AppleTalk

and IPX as well as IP. The advantage with this is that only one routing process

need run instead of a routing process for each of the protocols. EIGRP provides

loop-free operation and almost instant simultaneous synchronization of routers.

Inter-Autonomous System: Inter-Autonomous System routing protocols are designed

to connect lager networks or Autonomous Systems (AS) together and allow for

muitiple Autonomous Systems to network. One example for the need of an

inter-autonomous system protocol is to connect two or more Internet Service

Providers (ISP) together so there customer can connect to each other. Without

getting in to too much detail both “Link State & Distance Vector” protocols are

considered intra-autonomous system protocols as they are designed to just route

traffic in a singal AS. Inter-Autonomous System protocols main goal is to

propergate the intra-autonomous system information between different autonomous


BGP4 (Border Gateway Protocol Version 4):

Border Gateway Protocol is the backbone routing protocol for most of the

internet and allows for peering and carrier networks to connect. BGP is

explained as a path vector protocol. With BGP the policy or attributes for

making the actual route selections among the interconnected autonomous systems

is based on Weight ,Local preference, Multi-exit discriminator, Origin, AS path,

Next hop, & Community. BGP information is propagated through the network by

exchanges of BGP messages (4 types: Open, Update, Notification, & Keep Alive)

between peers. Another key feature to BGP is that is supports Classless Inter

Domain Routing (CIDR) with the support of CIDR BGP can reduce the size of the

Internet routing tables. BGP neighbors exchange full routing information when

the TCP (port 179) connection between neighbors is first established. When

changes to the routing table accrue, the BGP routers send to their neighbors

only those routes that have changed. BGP routers do not send periodic routing

updates and advertise only the optimal paths to a destination.

Effective Penis Enhancement Exercises That Increase Length And Girth – Add Penis Length Fast!

Do you want to enhance your penis thickness, thicken up your penis girth and stretch out the length? By growing penis girth your penis will appear drastically bigger, healthier and much more irresistible to potential companions! This is a dream of most men and also fortunately it’s a very obtainable objective.

Enlargement by means of surgical treatment is a bad option yet they are proclaiming they can increase size simply by inserting fat in to the male organ but by no means try this! The failure rates are very high and only 30% of the fats they inject will not likely survive, they can potentially cause infections or much worse.

Let’s get directly into natural methods of enlargement shall we? To enhance your penis thickness is actually quite simple. Everything you need to accomplish is a few regular manual penile enlargement exercises, these will certainly fatten your penis with time helping the appearance of its thickness. Seems simple right? Keep reading…

Enthusiastic about learning the tricks of natural penis enlargement techniques? Keep reading to discover how this one basic physical exercise can transform your life forever by increasing your organ size!

-It can easily enhance the length of your penis

-It can easily boost the width or thickness of your organ

-It can quit early ejaculation and also over-sensitivity

-It will help you last longer while having sex

-It can provide you with elevated self-confidence in the bedroom

Wow, such a set of amazing advantages, all that from a single basic male enhancement exercise.

The very best physical exercise for almost all men is known as jelqing, it’s also termed as milking the penis because of the visual appeal of the action. Just before we get into steps to start jelqing lets take a moment to speak about health and safety…

You only desire to jelq at 50-75% erection, never jelq when at complete erection. You also shouldn’t use a lot of force when jelqing, particularly at the beginning, it wouldn’t be stressed enough not to overdo it!

As soon as you’re ready to begin make the OK sign with the thumb and forefinger, wrap it throughout the base of your organ and whilst applying low amounts of stress stroke in direction of the head of your penis.

That is only one single completed repetition of many, do your next rep using the other hand along with keep changing back and forth. Remember the basic safety tips above and continue but be careful specifically in the start.

These workouts cause unnoticeable micro-tearing and cell division within your manhood. It might sound terrifying but it’s a real good thing simply because once your physical body completes normal maintenance new cells grow.

Increasing length in your penis is really a easier job to complete as compared to if you are attempting to improve thickness. Only some manual penile enlargement workouts could increase the thickness of the penile; also it does take a great deal of time to see fresh development.

This surgery is a worst alternative you could possibly ever try to increase size thus make sure you don’t do it. Just a fast search on Search engines will reveal all the horror stories of men who had their penis mutilated through horrible surgery.

Remember, whenever attempting to increase size it’s usually better to go the natural route so don’t fall for the trap known as pharmaceutical drugs and surgery.

Joint Venture Research

Joint Venture experts know that there are a few guiding principles when setting up lucrative deals that provide ongoing, multiple streams of passive income and large, once-off windfalls. Research is essential before partnering up or even suggesting a Joint Venture to someone. Research is the foundation of successful Joint Ventures.

There are four aspects to Joint Venture research:

1. The industry or industries you're targeting.

Be sure you are comfortable dealing with that industry, that it fits your public profile and values ​​system, that it is aligned with your Mission Statement and identity, branding and business relationships. For example, you probably would not want to get involved in the sex industry. You may want to avoid contentious or controversial areas like politics, religion or tax shelters. Also, have enough information or access to information about that industry before diving in.

2. The deal.

If you're good at Joint Ventures you can remove all the cost and risk. Do not think a contract is going to protect you, by the way – it's only as good as the people behind it. Triangulating deals (setting up a deal between two other parties and taking a piece of the profits) usually removes risk and cost if correctly set up. Make sure tracking and monitoring is in place and use the expertise of trusted others. Create a Memorandum of understanding that clearly defines the terms and options in the deal.

3. The people.

This is the most important part of any Joint Venture. Check them out – do your due diligence and research. Get references, do police and credit checks, even use a private detective if necessary. All that glitters is not gold and people claim some amazing things that are simply not true. Get specific information and avoid being bowled over by their charisma and sales abilities. Confidence tricksters use greed and ego to hoodwink their victims. Check them out. If they do not have any money, be careful; desperate people tend to do desperate things. Do not buy their stories. Look for a track record. If they're over eager and urgent, step back. Consider applying for Membership in the DollarMakers Joint Venture Forum – our elite members are carefully screened.

4. Education.

The more you learn, the more you can earn. We use Joint Venture Bootcamps and seminars, TeleClasses and JV Audits to educate and update people on Joint Ventures. Again, be careful who you're learning from. Without the person teaching you has a personal success track record, they do not have the right to teach. Look for support, practicality and watch out for the "up sell" lurking in the shadows. Ongoing education in today's changing world will complete your research cycle.

Windows Graphics – Attractive Glass Panes

Windows graphics is a variety of colors and hues make a window interesting. So, whether it is your car window or the store windows, do not waste the space, make it attractive and make it sell for you!

Windows graphics have become the latest craze among people who want to innovate new advertising and marketing tools. You can easily get a professional to customize window graphics according to your need and requirement of business. Conventional methods of advertising are passé and new, unique wacky methods are catching on fast.

Blaring loudspeakers on the roads, newspaper corner advertisements or that 30 second TV advertisements in which people switch off or walk away to the bathrooms and while you burn a whole in your pocket to get it aired, do not make sense anymore.
Vinyl graphics are the latest in thing where as you can use your own vehicle or borrow a fleet of cars or other vehicles, apply windows graphics and lo behold!

You are ready to sell your product!

You can even apply windows graphics printed on adhesive vinyl to your store front windows the large attractive vinyl printed with your customized graphics and logos makes it attractive. People walking by will stop to look, read and curious, very shortly you can see increased footfalls in your store. Increased footfalls means more business and that is what you intend doing in the first place.

With new technological advances and changing methods of printing with digital large format printers, you get very clear, photograph like quality. With such clarity, your window front becomes an automatic billboard which you do not have to pay for!

New technological research and development, has yielded better adhesives and glues which do not harm the finish of the car or glass it is applied on. Perforated vinyl is perfect for glass surface application while calendar vinyl is good for vehicle body applications. Stores and vehicle glass are exposed to heat and sunlight on which normal adhesives do not last long but perforated adhesive vinyl lasts a long time and can be easily printed on, making it the best advertising tool for your products.

Not only does vinyl graphics make your car or store windows attractive advertising features but also protect your glass windows from direct sunlight and can be easily removed.
You can see through the windows from inside but outside, you can see the color Windows Graphics .

Choose Your Glass Clamps Carefully

Glass clamps offer a solution for all functional and sometimes, aesthetic setups for handrails and their use can only be limited by your imagination. By ensuring that you have an attractive surface finish, you can use then to compliment your glass panel and stainless steel handrail combination. Before going out to purchase your glass clamps, there are several factors that you need to consider. This is important as it ensures that you only buy those that have the capability of complimenting your setting and bringing out the best features. For starters, you must consider the type of glass clamps you are interested in.

In this case, it is important to note that there are different types of glass clamps and for this reason; they can be divided into different sub categories. These might include; large D shape, large square, left / right supports, small squares, small D square and medium D shape among others. Note that they all come in varying sizes as well. Due to this variety, it is a matter of importance to ensure that you buy the right type of glass immobilizer to carry out specific function. Note that they are also designed to work well with certain conditions. For instance, there are those that are designed for use in industrial setups while others are for general purpose.

Another important factor that you need to consider is the type of material used in the manufacture of the glass fixes. Make sure that they are durable and made from durable material that is able to withstanding harsh environmental conditions. In most instances, it is advisable to purchase those that are made from stainless steel. This is for obvious reasons and key amongst them is the ability to with harsh conditions and keep the rust at bay. This is ideal as it ensures that you do not have to replace your glass compresses every so often. In addition to this, you also have to consider the installation process required. Glass is sensitive and drilling into it may cause damage. As such, it is advisable to consider investing in glass fastens that do perfectly match to the area you intend to install them.

Finally, you have to consider the cost of buying glass clamps. Considering there are multiple dealers of glass clamps, it is advisable to find one who is willing to give you competitive prices. While considering this, it is also ideal to ensure that they do not compromise on the quality of the glass clamps. If possible, make sure that you confirm whether or not they take the time to deliver them to you since this will also lower your costs of investing in these items. At the end of the day, remember that while there are several glass clamps in the market, not all of them are deemed fit for use in construction and for this reason, you should be carefully when making your investment.

Glass Coffee Tables

It was not too long ago when glass coffee tables were reserved for nobility. Now, thanks to modern technology, glass tables have become much more inexpensive. This affordability does diminish it class, and glass coffee tables are one of the most thought-after pieces of furniture.

The Gambaro brothers created the earliest glass coffee tables -made of Venetian crystal – in the early 1900s, by applying the skills that they learned after decades of glass making. But people's fascination with glass started even earlier during the Renaissance period when Murano introduced intricate creations that were reserved for royalty. The craftsmanship of glass coffee tables has since diminished because of modern glass-making technology, but the use of glass in both décor and functional processes still remains and continues to flourish.

You can now have the same elegance enjoyed only by a select few back in the day. When you buy a glass coffee table, you immediately add sophistication to any of your rooms. You can get beautiful coffer tables for as little as $ 200, depending on the style. Before you pick a design, remember to choose glass tops that are at least a quarter of an inch thick – they are more durable and practical for everyday use.

If you are going for the classic look, choose glass coffee tables with a brass-finish and carefully detailed legs with a bevel glass top. For a more casual look, go for marble-trimmed glass coffee tables that typically fall in the $ 300 to $ 500 price range.

There are also glass table sets available for larger homes. These sets are typically comprised of three beautiful pieces – a coffee table and two end tables that can hold displays and serve other functions. Most sets are framed with high-quality wood. When tinted with cappuccino or mahogany, these pieces can instantly add panache to even the barest of rooms. And, for the ultimate contemporary look, there are glass coffee tables with swiveling glass tops and unique chrome legs, among other designs.

How To Curb Lifestyle Inflation

Lifestyle inflation is that nasty habit you have of raising your expenses every time you get a raise or a large bonus rather than bargaining the extra cash. "What could it hurt to buy that new car? It's only an extra $ 200 per month but I just got a raise so I can afford it," you tell yourself. I suppose it all comes down to priorities. Which do you want, that shiny new car that will be worth thousands less the minute you drive off the lot or an early, luxurious retirement?

I've often heard it said, "if only I'd live like I was in college for just a few more years, I'd be a millionaire by now." It's true. Saving just $ 5,000 per year for five years after college would net you almost half a million dollars in 30 years, even if you never saved another dime. While everyone knows the small expenses can add up, to my mind the true culprits of life-style inflation come down to three main factors.

  • Ditch the Luxury Automobiles – Beside housing, your car is probably your single largest expense. Be reasonable about it. You do not need a new car every five years. In fact, you should never buy a used car at all. Probably 3 of our 5 cars on the road were financed with negative equity from the last new car rolled into the current loan. Do not be one of those people. It's a trap. Instead, buy a sensible used vehicle and drive it into the ground. Mercedes and Lexus's are for people who are already rich, not people trying to become rich.
  • Downsize the McMansion – Owning your own home is an almost sacred part of the American Dream. People fall all over themselves to put themselves in massive amounts of debt for three decades for a house three times as large as they really need. Perpetual debt slavery? Some dream that is. "But my home is an investment. Renting is just throwing your money away," I can hear you screaming. In reality, the majority of homeowners will end up losing money on their "investment" over the long term. They mistakenly think just because they sold their house for more than they paid for it, they've had a gain. Unfortunately, that's nothing more than a fantasy. After they subtract property taxes, homeowners association dues, and maintenance paid out over the years, most homeowners will probably find themselves in the red. If you do not want to feel stretched over hot coals for years to come, never take out a mortgage more than twice your annual income.
  • Stay in Shape – In the end, your health is your most precious asset. Take care of it. Not only will a little exercise make you feel better today, it will save you tons of money in ways you've probably never considered. Along with the obvious savings due to fewer health problems, you'll also be less susceptible to advertising and a hyper-consumption life-style. If you're out for a run, you are not at home watching commercials on tv and you will not be tempted to buy that gadget you can never live without. I've personally found I watch hardly any tv at all during periods when I'm training for something. There's just no time and besides, I'm too energetic to sit in front of the tv for long. I go for a jog and relax with a book in the park instead.

Different Types of Leather

Leather comes in many different forms and textures. All the different types have a class specification and each is used for specific purposes in the upholstery industry.

Full Grain – this type of leather has not been sanded down or buffed to remove imperfections and flaws. It may not be the most attractive finish for a couch but it will last a long time because it has not been tampered with or altered.

Top Grain – this is one of the high end ranges of rawhide products you can find. This material is more manageable and it is easy to shape for couches and sofas. Top grain has been sanded and has had a coat applied for the protection of the material. Spills and messes will not stain top grain leather plus it has a smoother finish.

Corrected Grain – this is also known as bonded leather. Corrected grain is leather that has had many forms of artificial substances added. It is also stained and dyed to make it look as similar to real leather as possible. It is often made from scraps of unused leather that have been made into a pulp and then mixed with polyurethane.

Split Leather – this material is created from the fibrous part of the hide that has been separated during the top grain extraction process. It is also known as the drop split. This separated hide can also be split if the skin is thicker and harder to shape. This kind of leather is also used to create suede.

There are also less common leathers that can be used in upholstery and clothing industries.

Buckskin Leather – this is the process of tanning deer or buck hides. Some buckskin leather is also made from sheep hide, then dyed and tanned so that it can resembble that of a deer or buck.

Patent Leather – this material has been coated for a glossy appearance. This material is often used on shoes and handbags to give it a glossy or shiny effect but still retain its quality and strength.

Nowadays, leather is mostly being made from cattle skin as it is easier to find and cheaper to produce as leather without wasting any part of the animal. Furniture upholsterers try to find the best solution to make a couch or sofa so that the end product will not cost so much for the client. They will also make sure that the leather has been properly repaired to fit your specifications.

Top Designs of and Materials for Padlock Shackles

Shackle designs

(i) Closed shackle design

In this case, the body has its shoulders raised to conceal as much length of the shackle as possible, leaving a small section that is hard to access for attacking. This is the design preferred in industries with high-security needs such as banking and courier.

However, the small clearance makes it difficult to lock lockers with concealed hasps and chain links.

(ii) Open design

The open design is a diametric opposite of the closed design. The full or almost all the shackle length is exposed, which makes it easy to loop the padlock through large bars, hasps, links, etc.

However, the longer exposure of the shackle makes it much easier to cut, pick or break and thus the padlock may not provide a high level of security.

(iii) Semi-enclosed design

This is a sandwich of the above two designs. The shackle length tries to balance between security from attack and the flexibility of use.

(iv) Long design

In this case, the shackle is extra-long and this provides for locking extra-large lockers and noosing multiple hasps, chain links, fittings, and so on.

However, when targeted by a burglar, he has more than enough space to cut or break it open.

(v) Adjustable shackle padlock

This lock provides an innovative way to adjust the shackle length to suit your purpose of use. The padlock, however, needs regular lubrication to prevent the shackle from getting jammed by rust, dirt, and grime.

For domestic uses such as the school or gym lockers, where there is a mid-level risk of attack, the semi-enclosed and adjustable shackle designs have proven to be the best. They provide you a reasonable clearance for a sweat-free locking in the concealed hasps but still making it difficult for a burglar to succeed in his ways.

Padlock shackle material

Just like design, the purpose of use will dictate the type of padlock material that you should choose, from both economic and security perspectives. Higher quality padlocks are more durable and harder to cut or pick. However, such materials are extremely expensive and however tough they are, it wouldn’t be economical to use them for some applications.

(i) Molybdenum

Molybdenum is arguably the strongest of all the padlock materials, most reliable, and weather resistant. However, it is also very expensive such that it only makes sense of use in industries such as defense and nuclear.

(ii) Boron

A low abundance element, boron is developed into a high-strength and lightweight material that finds use in several industrial applications. For use in padlock a number of boron variants are used including;

  1. Boron alloy that provides high-level security. The shackle features supreme tensile strength and cut resistance.

  2. Boron hardened steel which is high-grade steel, heat-treated to resist any saw or bolt cutting or any other tampering device. Its ultra-high strength is perfect for high-tech industries such as automotive.

  3. Boron steel that is also strong and reliably safe, making these padlocks suitable for heavy-duty industrial use.

(iii) Heavy-duty steel

This is a type of hardened steel that is attack resistant and durable. Steel is hardened by heat treating, enabling it to withstand severe human tampering. It is, therefore, safe for use in both high-security and general purpose applications such as banking and homes. Most of these padlocks also have weather resistive chrome or zinc coating.

(iv) Brass

Brass is lightweight and brittle and thus it finds use in applications with a low risk of burglary, acting just to lock the locker. However, brass is weather resistant, making this lock perfect for outdoor use.

(v) Plastic

This is a lightweight, cheap and low-security material. However, the lock is not entirely worthless as it can be the safest where there is a risk of electrocution, as long as security is not a major issue.

Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Information On How You Can Help Your Dog's Arthritic Pain

Arthritis is a disease that affects the joints in the body. This disease has common symptoms and reactions in both humans and canines. Dogs that are of a larger breed are more prone to this disease and it is known to get worse with age, similar to human affliction. There are a few precautions you can take to ease the pain of your canine friend.

One of the main symptoms in an arthritic dog is that it finds walking and moving around quite painfully. If your house has hardwood flooring or slippery tiles then the dog may find it more difficult to walk because it will keep slipping and sliding on the tiles. To help secure your dog's footing you can try putting carpets and carpets on the floor. This will allow the dog to move around with greater ease and reduce the risk of injuries.

The bedding you provide your dog can also help ease its pain. Soft beds can make your pet feel more comfortable as the softness will support its joints and bones. In the case of thin dogs the hard bedding may cause its bones to rub against hard surfaces increasing its pain. You get a number of beds specifically designed for canines afflicted with this disease.

Climbing up stairs can also become very painful for your pet and you will begin to notice that it will start walking away from stairs or high surfaces. In this case installing a ramp might make it easier for it and reduce the pressure on the joints and bones.

Maintaining its diet is very important if your canine has this disease. The heavier the dog is the more will be the pressure on the joints leading to pain. It is essential to keep the dog on a diet that will keep its weight constant and on the lighter side. This does not mean that you must, at any point, starve your pet. Although exercise is also crucial to keep its weight in check you must not let its exercise time become too strenuous.

Lastly, there are medications that are available to help your pet deal with the pain. These can be easily purchased at pet supplies stores but it is a good idea not to self medicate. Ask a vet for advice and recommendations for the use of these medicines. And you must be very patient with it because it will take much longer for it to do regular tasks that used to be quite easy for it before.

Bitcoin in a Nutshell

Bitcoin has almost become a household name with ever increasing coverage in the media, and fair to say its notoriety continues to increase. So what’s all the fuss about? Bitcoin appeared around 2009 as a new form of digital currency and was develop from the off as open-source by a clever chap called Satoshi Nakamoto. We are told his true identify is ‘shrouded in mystery’ like he’s some kind of Marvel superhero, I suspect this simply means he’s a super nerd, but there’s no question, he’s certainly a pioneer…

So what’s it all about?

Bitcoin is a form of currency the same as any other, however it is not under the control of any government or financial institution. The premise is for it to be owned and managed by its own community. Bitcoin is de-centralised and managed by peer-to-peer members who all partake in new transaction activity and store previous activity in what are known as ‘block chains’. This means that a full ‘copy’ of all transactions are stored locally and used to verify, between participants, new activity, thereby preventing any one person from malforming, adding or creating fake transactions within the block chain. This ‘consensus’ approach protects the security of Bitcoin transactions.

Bitcoin works in not a dissimilar way to PayPal in that you have a digital wallet with a unique address where people can send you Bitcoins. You can simply install a wallet on your device, or you can download the full Bitcoin wallet and participate in the network as a node.

Bitcoin’s value is very much an effect of supply and demand with risky investors gambling on the highs. Currently a single Bitcoin (shown as 1.0000000) is worth £573 or $935. You can purchase Bitcoins at any of the 8 decimal places so for example 0.0100000 would cost you £5.70 and 0.1000000 would cost you £57.00, no surprise where Bitcoin got its name!

OK, where do I buy Bitcoins?

Unless you have some Bitcoins coming your way via a payment, you will need to purchase Bitcoins in your existing currency. Purchasing is all about trust as it is not regulated, however that’s sort of how eBay started out, where users trusted each other to pay for and send items, and they’ve done rather well for themselves…

The Bitcoin coal face

Bitcoin mining, as it is known, is the process of generating (and securing) Bitcoins and a small payment in the form of units of Bitcoins are paid for the time and effort your hardware is used and your level of participation. This is done via a number of methods from using your own PC’s CPU or GPU (not dissimilar to other grid based BOINC projects such as Seti @ Home) to using ASIC miners (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), these are designed for the singular purpose for which they are built, which in this case is generating Bitcoins. Unless you have significant investment to purchase powerful ASIC miners such as those from butterflylabs.com which can run at 600GH/s (Hash’s per second) you will have to look at USB ASIC Miners such as the popular BlockErupter which generate 336MH/s. Using the BlockErupters you can create your own USB hub style rig running lots of them concurrently.

The reality though, is that it may be too late in the game to make any serious money from Bitcoin mining. The complexity (Hash rate) of the Block Chain is now such that even joining and contributing to a Mining Pool, where miners work together and share the profits, will likely see more spent in electricity than in any real financial return. Also there is a maximum limit of 21 million Bitcoins and at present it is nearing 12.4 million and as more miners join, the quicker this limit will be reached. It is now more likely you will make money buying Bitcoins themselves than generating them.

The future of Bitcoin…

Bitcoin is an emerging technology, as such the price has been volatile, however recently it has started to become more stable as the community of users grows. As of this writing, Bitcoin is seeing the number of transactions reach as high as 100,000 per day. While banks and big business are yet to consider whether Bitcoin is a threat or an opportunity, there is no doubt they are beginning to sit up and take notice of this new digital currency which continues to grow its user base daily.

Interestingly our mysterious Satoshi, the inventor of Bitcoin is thought to own, depending on fluctuations, $1 billion dollars worth of Bitcoins. Don’t we all wish we had an idea like that…

ITwaffle.com Copyright © 2014 Gareth Baxendale

Discover 5 Most Effective Ways To Treat Piles or Hemorrhoids

Not all people are aware that they have hemorrhoids or piles due to the fact not all symptoms are visible. But suddenless, if you discover blood in your stool or if you sense some sort of irritation around your anus, there's a great chance that you have hemorrhoids or piles. Other types of symptoms consist of feeling pain or uncomfortable the moment you're defecating or experiencing an infection or swelling in your anal area.

Although having piles could possibly bring ache at some degree, people who have hemorrhoids need not concern too much simply because these hemorrhoids usually disappear soon after a couple of days. Even so, if you feel that you need to undertake something to cure piles, be happy to read about the following recommendations about piles treatment.

What causes hemorrhoids or piles?

Just before making an attempt to find out how to cure piles, you have to learn first exactly what causes it. Knowing such information would certainly help you come up with better and more effective approaches to cure piles.

Normally, piles or hemorrhoids are caused by a strong pressure on the blood vessels surrounding your anus. The stronger the strain applied on your anus, the greater the infection it would likely cause on your veins or blood vessels.

Such strong pressure on an individual's anal region is commonly a result of the following:

1. Constipation
2. Diarrhea, or frequent defecation
3. Pregnancy
4. Lifting heavy objects
5. Lack of workout

Treatment for piles or hemorrhoids

No doubt, one of the best things you could possibly do to stay away from hemorrhoids is to avoid those things that will put too much stress on your bottom half. Obviously, prevention is better than cure. However, if your hemorrhoids are caused by unavoidable conditions like being pregnant, the following recommendations would probably give you some background on the treatment for piles.

The following are five of the most efficient ways to get rid of piles or hemorrhoids:

1. Include a few changes in your habits or in your routine.

Wear clothes and undergarments that are not too tight.

Eliminate irritating your anal area by using soft cloths or soft tissue paper.

Try soak your bottom half in warm water. Often the warm water would minimize the inflammation of your blood vessels.

Apply petroleum jelly on the infected area regularly.

2. Take a look at making some diet program changes. Your food intake may possibly be the actual cause here, so certain kinds of changes in your eating habits could reduce your likelihood of getting hemorrhoids or piles. Applying this step could have been considered as one natural remedy for piles.

Include more fiber in your diet. Maximize your intake of fruits and vegetables. Beans, nuts, berries, and oatmeal are some of those fiber-rich meal sources.

Take in a bit more water.

Consider eating whole grains more and limit eating processed or refined grains

3. The other natural remedy for piles is the use of things that could have been available in your very own cooking area. Consider using the following things as natural piles treatment.

Baking soda could have been used to your inflated veins or anal vessels.

Carrot juice could also be used as a topical treatment, as well.

Olive oil, when heated up, could help less the soreness of your anal vessels, too.

Chamomile could work miracles, as well.

4. Exercise regularly. Engaging in fitness activity could be the piles home remedy that you are seeking for. It has been observed that frequent exercise would lead way to better blood circulation. Since most cases of hemorrhoids or piles are affected by one's blood circulation, it could be required that some physical activity routines could have reduced the discomfort caused by piles.

Nonetheless, in such cases, exercise would not mean very stressful exercise routines. Actually the simple acts of stretching, walking, and fidgeting could help as a treatment for piles. In fact, lifting weights or other exercises that will cause strain on the bottom half of your body is not advisable since it would just aggravate the problem of your piles.

5. Seek medical or specialist help. If the previously mentioned home remedies for piles still will not work for you, maybe one should by now considering talking to a doctor or a specialist. Maybe there are certain medical procedures that can let you get rid of those piles.

The earlier 4 ideas described are some of the preferred home remedies for piles. However, if any of these piles home remedy would not help you treat the irritation caused by piles at all, follow the fifth tip. It's always best to consult your doctor about it.