Importance of Town Planning

For the construction of a new town, town planning is important art. Earlier towns were used to emerge by themselves. But now a proper planning has been done to avoid any problem in the future. A properly planned structure helps in utilising the land capability and it’s resources to its maximum.

For establishing a town it is necessary to select a site. To select a site a proper land survey is required. This survey includes the selection of area which is most suitable for the residential. Environment, location nearby to city, connecting distance with the highways and all such things are considered during the selection. An enough space in large acres is required to establish a new town.

A properly planned structure helps in utilising the land capability and it’s resources to its maximum. Now-a -days all of us are so much busy that we do not want to run here and there for any other things. Either these are schools, hospitals, market, parks etc., everybody seeks to it that all the facilities are in most nearby locations. The designing includes all these things.

. The designing is done by the team of experts. As it requires a mixture of art and science, therefore this unit includes surveyors, engineers, architectures and consultants. They all work to develop an organised plan. Drainage system, road construction, water facilities, electricity grids, transportation facility, all are important factors which are kept in mind while construction. In fact all measures are taken for protection of town from natural changes like earth-quakes, and floods. Architectures and planners design the map in such away that the available space is used in the best way. And all systems can be located within the same location. Consultants provide the initial town planning advice, so that the project can be taken ahead smoothly. And give their services time to time for its smooth and rapid development.

No town will prosper if it is not meeting with the expectations of people. Therefore the planning should be creative enough which can attract the attention of public. This beauty along with all facilities fulfills the feeling of civic pride among people. And purpose of these towns to give improve quality of life is also solved.

If planning is not done then houses may emerged before installation of electricity grids and water supply systems. Hospitals can be raised at the unapproachable area and industries may raise before installation of the transportation system. And it is important to keep in mind that town planning is not limited to the development of streets and civic amenities. It’s motto shall be encompassing all the facilities with aesthetic surroundings and to provide the better standards of living to the people.

Plantar Fasciitis Syndrome – What Exactly Is Plantar Fasciitis?

All About Plantar Fasciitis

A plantar fasciitis problem is a state that affects the foot's surface and is mostly seen among overweight people, runners, and people having high arches or flat feet or may be those who rest on the feet for much longer hours while doing their job. This problem is an irritation of tough plantar fascia, which runs from the heel bones to the bottom of the toes.

It mainly results from developing a tear in the fibrous tissue bands (plantar fascia), which leads to inflammation and pain. It is characterized as excruciating pain in the heel specifically in the morning. Plantar fasciitis is caused by the stress that is placed on the ligaments of plantar fascia while it is irregularly stretched.

During the rest moments, plantar fascia usually tightens up creating the pain diminishing. Although, the time pressure is placed on fascia, plantar fasciitis stretches firmly and the pain is experienced again.

The major symptoms of the plantar fasciitis are feeling the severe pain in the heel's inner side. If a severe pain is being noticed by an individual in the foot on taking initial steps in morning then an individual is suffering from the problem of plantar fasciitis. Because of the feet's warming up through the day, the pain relieves and plantar fasciitis stretches gradually. Also, people suffering from this problem may find it difficult in climbing the stairs because of pain in the foot.

In most of the cases, the treatments of non-surgical can assist an individual to completely eliminate the problem. The nature and duration of whole treatment varies depending on the severity. Plantar fasciitis treatment should be immediately initiated the very moment the problem occurs. It assists in eradicating the problem of plantar fasciitis in a short span of time.

The initial stage of treatment includes loads of rest, after the routine activities of applying ice in the regions of pain, some moderate stretching and anti-inflammatory remedies in order to relief their heel from the pain. It is recommended to wear night splints, as this would maintain the tissues to get stretched gently through the night with the intention to relate the sufferer from pain.

To less the pain caused due to plantar fasciitis Orthotics, shoe inserts are the best options available. If the pain is very severe and the people experiencing this problem of plantar fasciitis are not responding to the treatments that are mentioned above then the doctors make use of cortisone injections in order to ease of the pain.

Another treatment to relieve from the foot pain is exercises, which are necessary to be done in the early morning as soon as the patient of plantar fasciitis wakes up. Some of the exercises include belt-stretch exercises that involve reverse arch stretching of foot by making use of wide belt located over the foot's ball.

Strengthening and stretching exercises make ligaments very flexible as well as strengnthens the muscles that support the arch and this in turn will reduce the amount of stress on ligaments. Stretching plantar fasciitis exercises are also suggested to the patients facing the problem of foot pain.

For more information, check out the internet's # 1 resource for plantar fasciitis treatment.

Civil Engineering Jobs in India to Rise in the Coming Years!

Civil engineering, one of the oldest and broadest branches of engineering offers vast career opportunities in sectors across. Although in 19802s, the demand of civil engineers slowed down a bit, it has regained its importance and today is one of the hottest career domains to be in. People in this domain are mostly involved in construction, design, development and maintenance of buildings, roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, airports, dams, railway lines and so on.

The demand of civil engineers is anticipated to be on the rise till 2030. According to a report by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), the country will need around 76.5 million skilled workforces in the India's prospering building, construction and real estate sector. In fact the construction sector particularly is projected to grow INR 11,954 billion by 2017, which is simply amazing! And it is likely to create more than 45 million jobs catering to people from all walks of life.

The construction sector is the second largest employer in the country after agriculture. It may surprise you but during 2000 and 2013, the industry wooed USD 40,399 million as foreign direct investment (FDI). It is further expected to rise and attract FDI of USD 180 billion by 2020. In fact the capital investments in the sector is expected to reach USD 1,181 billion in 2019-20 from USD 651 billion in 2012-13.

Moreover, with the govt's impetus in fast tracking investments in infrastructure projects across oil and gas, power, telecommunications The job creation process has been hastened in the engineering, construction and procurement sector.

Since, these particular industries are the typical recruiters of civil engineers, it is expected that civil engineering jobs will grow exponentially in the near future. It would be good to say that civil engineers in India enjoy plush job opportunities and are always high on the priority list of the employers.

Some job profiles-

Given the interdisciplinary nature of this stream, the candidates enjoy huge career prospects. Some of the prominent job titles in this field are listed below-

· Construction engineer

· Project engineer

· Field technician

· Structural engineer

· Site engineer

· Quality control engineer

· Estimation engineer

The employment prospects for the graduates is varied and not limited to just any one area. The best part is candidates enjoy an edge over other career fields when it comes to government jobs. Job seekers whether fresher or experienced are easily absorbed by various govt offices. Some of the most predominant workplaces for civil engineers in govt sector include irrigation, road and building and CPWD. Further, they also find placements in both private and public sector undertakings and infrastructure and construction companies.

In summary, it would be good to say that civil engineering has a wide career scope and its demand is not going to fade at least in the near future.

Refrigerated Trailers – Secrets Exposed!

We have seen a lot over the past 12 years with portable refrigerated trailers. As the name implies there really are two key elements involved here, the refrigeration and the trailer. We have seen some folks get part of it right while most fail at both aspects when designing and building a small refrigerated trailers.

Let's start with the trailer. This is the foundation of everything we do. The regular cargo- enclosed trailer industry has changed over the years so much and they are cutting out the strength and durability we require for refrigerated trailers. It is important not to just get a trailer off the lot and try this at home like so many we see out there today.

Quality built refrigerated trailers should have:

1. Single Piece Aluminum roof
2. 16 "OC steel tube walls
3. Steel tube roof
4. Steel tube framed rear doors (not plywood w / aluminum skin)
5. Triple tube tongue
6. LED lights
7. Sub floor for superior insulation with aluminum underbelly
8. Load D or greater tires for better stability
9. No wood framing or wood walls / ceiling (lighter & stronger with no mold or mildew issues)
10. Reinforced front nose for refrigeration unit
11. Extended tongue with mounts for generator
12. Should be specifically built to be refrigerated trailers and built with strength and durability in mind. Please check out how important it is to use a trailer made of steel tube instead of z-post or hat post.

We have even seen people taking walk in coolers and putting them on a flat bed trailer. Be careful as many of these structures are not DOT approved and you can be fined or even worse injure someone. Use common sense, walk in coolers are great for sitting inside or outside a building but they are not designed for the rigors of the road going up and down and side to side, they offer no structural support.

The refrigeration is just as important and you definitely want to get this part right. The ideal solution for businesses is a unit that can be used as either a cooler or a freezer. Please make sure that even if you are purchasing a cooler that the refrigeration system has a defrost capability and preferably hot gas defrost. I mention this because so many folks find out the hard way that if you want your trailer to stay at 35 degrees then your evaporator has to be 12- 15 degrees cooler than that to maintain your temperature. Well it may take 12 hours or 24 hours but ever you are going to get an ice build up on your coil and you will need a way to defrost it or else lose your product.

Standard refrigeration units that have hot gas defrost are the most effective and fast way to defrost a system. The use of standard refrigeration will save you a bundle in repair and maintenance cost alone. We also recommend modifying your refrigeration system for transportation and do not use copper to connect the evaporator coil to condenser coil. Copper is a soft metal and will break easily. Hopefully these tips serve you well in your search for refrigerated trailers to purchase or rent.

Compound Exercises Without Weights – Let Me Show You How to Succeed Without a Gym

COMPOUND EXERCISES WITHOUT WEIGHTS – IT CAN WORK FOR YOU

Do you want to use a proven method that's guaranteed to add quality muscle mass to your frame while bulking you up safely, without the strength imbalances that can sabotage carelessly-constructed strength training programs?

Of course you do. You want to use compound exercises.

If you eat enough food to gain weight while using compound movements, you will build muscle and create a spectacular, powerful body that's operating at peak efficiency.

COMPOUND EXERCISES WITHOUT WEIGHTS – NO GYM REQUIRED

No well-equipped gym? No problem.

Every good strength training program uses three main types of exercises: push , pull , and squat . You can easily get the benefits of these proven exercise variations without any equipment.

Push exercises are those in which you push away from your body. Movements like push-ups (press-ups), overhead presses, and dips are all pushing movements.

Pulling exercises are those which force you to pull toward your body. Pull-ups, rowing moves, and their variations are all pulling movements.

Squats comprise many movements which all have as their unifying concept the act of straightening a bent leg against resistance. The normal 2-legged squat is the most obvious example, but lunges and step-ups also fit into the squat category.

So, if you pick two exercises from each group – squat, pull , and push , you can get a full-body compound workout that strengthens your body as a unit.

COMPOUND EXERCISES WITHOUT WEIGHTS – SAMPLE FULL-BODY WORKOUT

You always want to start with squats, since they require the most energy. Then alternate a push movement and a pull movement. After completing each category of movement, repeat the squat, push, pull group again, using a different, easier set of exercises.

1 Lunges
2 Chin-ups
3 Divebomber Push-Ups
4 Squats
5 Jumping Pull-Ups
6 Regular Push-Ups

There you have it! A full-body compound workout without any weights required. Some of you are probably shouting " Wait! What about arms? " That's the beauty of compound movements: you can work your "small" body parts while also hitting the more massive parts like chest and back. Without you work your body as a single unit, you will never develop the sort of size that's possible with a full-body compound workout.

Of course, if you add a set of dumbbells, you can add many more movements to your full-body workout. You'll find it easier to perform overhead presses and rows, but it is not necessary for beginners or anyone who wants to keep in shape to use weights. Bodyweight exercises are great, especially compared to doing nothing!

An Introduction To Jigsaw Puzzles

A jigsaw puzzle requires proper assembly of interlocked cut-out pieces resulting in the formation of a figure or picture. British mapmaker John Spilsbury invented the jigsaw puzzle in 1760. It was intended to be an educational toy. Puzzle maps are used even now to teach geography to children.

Puzzles were considered high-society entertainment, but technological advances brought down the prices. Early jigsaw puzzles were of the very simple non-interlocking variety also called push-fit puzzles. Jigsaw puzzles became very popular in early twenty century, and their popularity was further boosted with the invention of interlocking pieces. During the Great Depression, jigsaw puzzles became a very popular form of family entertainment when drugstores and libraries started renting them out. Antique wooden and cardboard puzzles are considered collectibles, and completed puzzles are rated even higher. Wooden Jigsaw puzzles are considered the best jigsaw puzzles. These puzzles are handcrafted using mechanical scroll saws.

Jigsaw puzzles are typically available in 500-piece, 750-piece, and 1,000-piece sizes. Double-sided jigsaw puzzles that can be solved from either side and three-dimensional jigsaw puzzles are also available. Jigsaw puzzles are also differentiated by the method of cutting pieces. Some of the prevalent cutting methods are fully interlocked with similar-shaped pieces, fully interlocked with uniform pieces, fully interlocked with differently arranged blanks and tabs, and non-interlocked sides. Jigsaw puzzles that are fully interlocked with uniform pieces are considered most difficult to solve. Modern jigsaw puzzles are made of cardboard, with a photograph or artwork glued on to it. Cardboard is then punch-cut into pieces with the help of metal dies. Castles and mountains are two of the popular images found on jigsaw puzzles.

Laminate Worktops

Composite worktops are slowly porous and therefore they are intolerable to staining and the only way to remove that staining is by rubbing the surface down a little with abrasive papers again. Something you've never got to do with laminate worktops as they are completely stain resistant.

Granite and Marble works can look fantastic and the price of them has been tipping now for quite some time. The trouble is that they are a natural product and you can never be quite sure of exactly what you are going to get. With laminate worktops the pattern is predictable even if some of the patterns are only reproducible every metre or so along the length of the worktop.

Granite and Marble worktops are also porous and have to be sealed against staining ~ there is a tendency for the sealing to wear down and even wear off as time goes by. Granite and Marble works are also extremely heavy ~ this makes installation a specialist job and it is impossible to cut a little bit off here and there to get the exact fit required ~ this again is never a problem when installing laminate worktops.

Stainless Steel worktops can look fantastic when new but soon dull down as a myriad of scratches occurs ~ this is unavoidable and indeed the worktops acquire certain sheen. Stainless Steel worktops, though, can not be cut to size on site and that is a disadvantage. Cost is also an issue with Stainless Steel worktops costing much more than laminate worktops.

Glass worktops are also offered theses days and there are some fabulous finishes available though they have to be made exactly to size off site and can not be trimmed to size on site. Glass worktops are sooner to scratching and thermal shock is not unknown either, laminate worktops are then again a better and more economic choice here too. Concrete worktops are also available but who would want to buy or use this option when there are concrete look-a-likes in laminate worktops?

So you would be well advised to think carefully how your worktops might look two or three years down the line and also consider the cost benefits of laminate worktops over the alternatives.

How Carpets Effect Allergies

Do not Toss' em … They're Awesome!
The science of indoor air quality is very interesting and relatively new. In the past, the focus was on the quality of the outside air and the interest was in lower emissions of all types into the air.

Since we now spend more time indoors – an average of 80% of our time – indoor air quality has become a concern to the EPA, as well as government and private health organizations.

Following the energy-saving efforts of the 70's and 80's, buildings and homes are now much more air-tight, leaving little opportunity for diluting the indoor air with fresh air from outside. Indoor air has so become more polluted.

But what's the connection between indoor air quality and carpets? In the past, doctors recommended that their asthma and allergy-suffering patients remove carpeting from the home. It was erroneously thought that carpeting exasperated their conditions. Recently, the EPA performed a study of hundreds of homes, schools and office buildings and concluded that the choice of carpeting as a floor covering was actually beneficial in the fight against asthma and allergies. When scientifically tested, the air in the "breathing zone" above carpets was found to contain fewer allergens than the air above hard surfaces.

Carpet tend to collect and hold the allergens out of the air, where they remain, until the carpet is vacuumed or professionally cleaned. In contrast, allergens that settle on hard surface flooring tend to be redistributed to the breathing zone with normal foot traffic or the simple act of running a broom over the flooring surface.

One unfortunate result of the EPA's study is that we now know that many families removed carpeting from their homes in an effort to reduce allergy symptoms, only to find that they gained no improvement in their conditions. Their carpeting was an asset, rather than a reduction, to the quality of their indoor air.

In concluding that carpeting is a benefit to indoor air, the EPA now recommends that carpeting be cleaned at least every 6 months – in most homes – to rid the carpeting of these allergens. A carpet that is not regularly maintained has a reduced ability to collect indoor air pollutants.

Tips for Reducing Indoor Allergens

Following, are some tips for reducing indoor allergens in your home and specifically, in your carpeting – helping you to keep your "home sweet home" a healthy one for you and your family:

Vacuum, vacuum, vacuum. This can not be stressed enough. You should vacuum at least twice a week, more often if you have pets.

Vacuuming helps rid your carpeting of dust, dust mite feces, animal hair and dander, human hair and dead skin, mold spores, dead bugs and abrasive sand and soil. Make sure that you use a vacuum cleaner that has a high efficiency HEPA filtering system and ensures that the brush setting is low enough to agitate the carpet fibers.

Do not sweep your hard surface flooring. Sweeping redistributes allergens into the air. Vacuuming your floors, followed by a damp mop or swiffer, will help keep the air your family breathes cleaner.

Adopt a no shoes policy in your home. This will keep outdoor pollutants from entering the main areas of your home. You may also consider adding an air-scrubber as this machine will continuously circulate the air in your home through the air filters, removing airborne particulates. Make sure that you change the filter often. Also consider using high-efficiency HEPA air filters in the furnace and adding filters to the intake and output ducts to further reduce circulation of contaminants.

Follow these simple tips, and not only will you have a healthy home, but your carpeting will last longer also.

(Some statistical information contained here was collected from the EPA)

Brick Garages Versus Concrete Garages – Which Are the Best?

The decision has been made… you want a new garage but how do you decide on what type of garage to have?

Choosing between concrete and brick garages is a tricky decision as both types have similar characteristics including:

– Durable and stand the test of time

– Strong material

– Attractive finish to enhance the appearance of your home

– Will add value to your property

In addition brick and concrete garages do have their own distinctive strengths and weaknesses.

Brick Garages

Brick Garages have been around for much longer compared to concrete garages and have many advantages including:

– Cheaper to construct

– Quick and simple to install

– Easy to maintain

– Stores heat and maintains warmth

– Can prevent noise from entering the building

However there are also several disadvantages to using brick garages including:

– They can add weight to the foundation

– Costly to repair if they ever get damaged

– Difficult to modify once constructed

Concrete Garages

Concrete is the most recent material for garage construction and it has several advantages including:

– Able to withstand a variety of compression forces

– Workable and durable composite material for longevity

– Easy to install

– Can be made to form any shape to suit your needs

– Energy efficient as it will keep the garage at a constant temperature at all times

– Provides excellent protection against fire, extreme weather and noise

– Able to be modified over time

Concrete garages do have some disadvantages and these include:

– Thy require more care and attention to maintain

– Precautions must be undertaken during casting otherwise crack may appear

– Small ground movement could cause damage e.g. cracks

As you can see there are merits for using concrete and also advantages for using brick to construct a new garage.

Concrete Garages and brick garages are both strong and durable composites but the main consideration to take into account when deciding on which garage to build is what will best suit your personal taste in terms of appearance, budget, usage and the type of property you live in. Therefore before you commit to buying a concrete or brick garage make sure you have discussed your requirements and specific considerations with a trustworthy, experienced and reputable garage manufacturer.

The final thing to mention is that the cost of brick and concrete garages regularly changes, with the price of raw materials constantly moving. If there is a major time lapse between when you obtain a quote to when you make your decision, make sure you re-contact your supplier as the quote may be invalid.

Eco Friendly Fireplaces – Alternatives to Wood Burning Fireplaces

Fireplace wood contains carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides that cause smog, fine particles, soot and a host of gases and chemicals which may result in or complicate health problems, especially in children, pregnant women and individuals with respiratory problems living in the home. As for the environment, burning wood in your home may contribute to acid rain and smog.

During the cold winter months, it is still possible to heat up your home without leaving a carbon footprint in the process. Instead of burning wood in your fireplace, you may opt for wood pellets manufactured from sawdust and other byproducts of lumber as a more eco friendly solution. This is because these byproducts would otherwise have ended up as waste in landfills. These small logs are specifically formulated for very efficient burning – almost completely, mainly because of their low moisture content, which means that fewer pollutants will be released into the air both inside and outside the home.

In order to safely handle the wood pellets, you will require a pellet stove or a fireplace insert when burning. This insert fires the pellets using an igniter. It also has a blower which fans the fire and an augur that pours pellets onto the flames to keep the fire burning as long as you require. This set up eliminates the need to keep on opening your stove doors to feed the fire, which means that fewer pollutants are released into your living room area.

Alternately, you may also reduce carbon emissions from your fireplace by opting for a gas insert which burns either liquid propane from a swappable tank or piped-in natural gas. The inserts will draw air in to oxygenate the fire, while channeling the smoke outside either through a vent or up your chimney. You should note that hearth fires are unable to heat up large spaces as effectively as the free-standing wood, gas or pellet stoves.

Be sure to have your fireplace regularly inspected for leaks, cracks or back drafts which could have resulted in added pollution to your home. Have your chimney swept every couple of years to remove any blockages due to creosote which could increase indoor pollution of the air in your home. When installing a new fireplace or insert, consult a qualified professional to ensure that they set it up properly in the most eco friendly and efficient manner. Whatever fireplace fuel option you settle for, the health of your family and the safety of the environment should factor primarily in your decision making.

Green Glue Instead of Insulation For Soundproofing

Old School soundproofing still believes that batt insulation is a good soundproofing agent. There are some good sound batt insulations out there such as Roxul AFB and Bonded logic's bonded cotton insulation and they work well for both soundproofing and thermal protection, however no batt insulation is strong enough to stand alone as the sole soundproofing material in a wall ceiling or floor assembly.

If you can afford a good batt insulation I always encourage it, but if you are soundproofing as ceiling and are not really concerned about the thermal aspects of the ceiling then I feel adding drywall pieces cut to fit perfectly into the joist cavities and screwed to the sub floor above would be much more effective than any batt insulation. Now to super charge this application I recommend that before you screw the pieces of drywall to the sub floor you apply Green Glue sound dampening compound to the back of the drywall pieces prior to screwing them to the bottom of the sub floor.

Green Glue is a visco elastic damping compound that is taking the soundproofing industry by storm. It comes in caulk tubes and is applied using a large quart size caulk gun. Basically you would cut the pieces of drywall to fit snuggly between the joist cavities. You would the liberally apply the Green Glue to the backside of the cut drywall and then screw it to the bottom of the sub floor. The Green Glue will be sandwiched between the drywall and the bottom of the sub floor. The tighter you screw the drywall down, the better the soundproofing will be. In essence, the pieces of drywall sporting the Green Glue in their backs with become a most effective sound damping system that will dampen the impact noise from above long before it is able to be transmitted into the joists and entirely into the ceiling below. Now, is more better in this case? Absolutely, if you are able to double or triple the Green Glued layer of drywall you will indeed increase the dampening ability of the drywall and the sub floor and add greatly to the soundproofing endeavor.

Once you have installed your layers of Green Glued drywall pieces into the joist cavities, now there would be a good time to install your sound or thermal batt insulation.

Now for our finished drywall ceiling, I recommend that we spend the money for 2 layers of 5/8 "drywall. the first layer however, you guessed it, I recommend that you apply 3 tubes of Green Glue to each 4 'X 8' sheet of drywall that you put up. Detect a lack of annoying noise coming from the people above. You have soundproofed your ceiling and your neighbors and do not even have a clue that there was a problem there. floors in subsequent articles, for now this is Dr. Bob …. Out!

Timber Decking Kits – How to Build the Wooden Joist Sub Frame

Patio timber decking has become increasingly popular in the 21st century garden. In line with this, a wide selection of patio timber decking kits are now available to buy online, direct from the manufacturers and without the need to pay top-dollar prices down at the high-street DIY chains.

These kits are designed specifically to be easy and straightforward for the average DIYer to construct. Indeed, provided you have the basic tools held by most households – battery drill, saw, and a tape measure – there is almost nothing stopping anybody building one of these off-the-shelf kits in just a couple of hours.

Once you have decided where your deck is to be constructed, and prepared the over-site (the ground area onto which the deck is to be constructed) you can begin constructing the joist subframe. Why construct a joist subframe? There are a number of reasons.

Firstly, and most obviously, the joist subframe provides the DIYer with a strong and structurally sound base onto which all decking joists are mounted.

Another key reason, and one often overlooked by the DIYer (and the cheaper decking kit suppliers, for that matter) is that only treated timber should come into contact with the ground. On this basis, a minimum of C16-grade timber is required. C16 is very popular in Britain, and widely specified by architects, builders and DIYers alike for use as decking joist timbers. The classification C16 basically determines how many defects the timber has (such as grain defects, knots, etc) across the length, width and depth of the timber.

If the deck is to be raised, you will most likely use raised posts to hold the decking subframe in the air. Support posts should be no further than 3 meters apart, and regular 2″ x 4″ joists should, as an absolute minimum, be supported by the use of 2″ x 6″ timbers.

To ensure that the area underneath the deck is free draining, boards should be laid down along the gradient (Rather than against it). Raised decking support timbers are fixed through the use of either metal post anchors or metal spikes. The post anchors are bolt-down shoes, into which the vertical support timbers are inserted. The metal spikes are, quite literally, 60cm spikes which are driven into the ground and which act as ‘anchors’, into which the vertical timber support posts are inserted. Remember that any deck surface which sits at or above 60cm above ground level will fail to meet planning regulations. If in doubt, consult your local planning authority.

Reclaimed Beam

Reclaimed beam, also called reclaimed lumber, is high in demand, especially for remodeling projects, house restoration, interiors, flooring and more. In layman's terms, it's the used wood that can be bought for re-use in another form. The used-wood is available in different shapes, sizes, and conditions. Since the wood is old, it has a unique appearance and texture, and also it's valued for its strength, durability, and stability. Also, the reclaimed wood has been exposed to changes in humidity for a long time, making it more stable compared to new wood. Factories; old barns; buildings that are torn-down; bridges; boxes; and more serve as the source from where used wood can be procured.

These days, most of the people are going green and this is driving the high demand for reclaimed beam since it is not harvested wood, and is completely eco-friendly. Also, the use of reclaimed lumber enhances the aesthetic appeal of any location whether it is the living room, the complete house, or office space. However, one needs to be careful while buying old wood. There are many companies that sell new wood in the name of old. It's a good idea to buy used wood from places that are very well known, and also that sell FSC certified wood.

One must ask questions about the source of the reclaimed beam and check wherever it's really unique as claimed by the seller. Also, one must make sure that it does not come from toxic plants. Plus, it's better to not buy used wood that has been treated with lead based paint. There are many reclaimed lumber that has nail holes. It does not affect the strength of the beam but may enhance or diminish the aesthetic value. Antique commodities have their own aura and it's no different when it comes to reclaimed lumber.

How to Buy a House For Back Taxes, Dirt Cheap, Without Competition

So you’re looking for a smarter way to buy a property, either to live in, or to invest in. Congratulations. If you’re reading this article, it means you’ve leapt out of the “thinking” phase and into the “doing” phase, and most people never make it that far. There are many deals to be had, if you’re willing to do a little research.

You’ve probably heard that tax foreclosure property is a great investment, and you haven’t been led astray; but now, you’re going to learn how to buy a house for back taxes, dirt cheap, without dealing with the headache of competition. If you’re looking for a cheap property to buy for yourself to live in, stay tuned as well- this technique will work even better if you’re not an investor!

Right now, throw out everything you’ve heard or read about tax sales. If you’re smart, you’re going to figure out quickly that you can’t compete with all the big companies that will be clamoring to bid against you at the sale. Tax sale, be it for deeds or liens, is not a place for the savvy investor in today’s market. There’s a much better way for you to buy a house for back taxes: from the tax delinquent owner himself.

Most people overlook this strategy, which is why you’ll find next to no competition. If you’ve ever tried buying directly from an owner in mortgage foreclosure, then you understand why this is so widely unappealing to failed mortgage foreclosure investors. Frequently you can’t get these owners to return your call for the life of you– and if you do get a deal, then you have to deal with mortgage, the second mortgage, the back bills, the back taxes; but when you buy a house for back taxes, it’s a different animal.

Why?

Because these houses almost never have a mortgage!

That’s right. The mortgage company takes care of any tax problems to avoid losing their interest in the property. So you’ll find almost all these houses are free of a mortgage, or they wouldn’t be up for tax sale in the first place.

Another thing that might seem counter-intuitive is that the owners will almost always return your calls, and when they do, they’re eager to make a deal with you to sell to you, and for dirt cheap, just to get the property out of their name! This is because, as you’ll see, many owners of these properties aren’t people who are down on their luck, and are losing their homes. They’re people who inherited property, or absentee landlords, who have had it with this economy, and actually let the property go to tax sale on purpose, just to get rid of it.

This gold mine of owners can be hard to find, making them great prospects, and you’ll be pleasantly surprised to find how many of these owners are ready to hand over their deed for a couple hundred dollars to you, just because they’d rather see it go to a nice, small-time investor like you, than to see it go to the government. If you’re looking to buy a property for yourself to live in? Even better. Expect to find owners even more excited to give it to you- for almost no money.

Food Court Design – Tips to Start a Good Project

There are several factors to be taken into consideration before we start to design a food court, the first factor being what sort of building it will be located in.

A big suburban shopping center will require a design different from a smaller mall located in the CBD – where most of the foot-traffic comes between 12 and 2pm – which will also be different from an airport food court, where time can also be a constrain with several peaks occurring at different times. The "surroundings" of the food court will influence its size, shape and the location of the area within the building.

The size for a food court is usually delineated by two main measurable elements: a proportion of the leasable space in the building is and the catchment area of ​​the development – to be taken into consideration on the first design concept. There are other non-quantitative factors which will also influence the project, such as planned expansions and mix variations which will be taken into account from day one. With some historical activities in the retail industry facing drastic reductions in trading revenues and store area, young women's clothing is losing space quickly to online transactions and other activities are just disappearing Hospitality and entertainment are options lessors will look into fill up the gaps.

Location of a food court : Take an airport, where you have some time to kill either waiting for your flight or for an arrival. After walking a long stretch from the car-park and checking the arrivals and departures screens, customers typically wander around for a bit, walking by the traditional book shop, t-shirt store, or gift and souvenir before stopping by the gate and waiting. As food courts attract more customers than traditional retail shops and offer seating, it would be unwisely to locate it in front of the departure or arrivals gates as it would retain customers away from the other shops, decreasing revenue and in consequence, rentals. It would also certainly contribute to create a congestion in key areas of the airport. Spreading up people evenly through a transport hub helps with security, air conditioning balance and comfortable transit. Same basic rules apply to places and the big difference would be: customers typically do not have two main destinations as in an airport.

Shapes : Corridor, cul-de-sac, square, crescent, I'm sure you have come across food courts of all configurations and forms. The typical "corridor" type with services lined on both sides can be cost effective for the developer but it's boring and inconvenient for customers and operators. Concentration of services tend to reduce installation and maintenance costs but can also bite the developer back once that required to make an alteration to accommodate a new operator. Cul-de-sac can also be kind on installation costs but it does not leave room for expansion or changes; the mall is landlocked and the only way to expand is taking down other tenancies. Our big old square is roomy, versatile, bit harder to clean and costly to install, but alterations are less painful.

In recent years and on amalgamation and adaptation of existing buildings intoalls and food courts, we observed the tendency of clusters of smaller food courts. Sometimes dictated by technical restrictions or incapacity of the building on accommodating a large number of people in a single area, the clusters have a bit of a charm as they do not look as busy or as noisy as big areas do. The right mix of operators can put together similar customers creating a more friendly and "personalized" environment.

Another golden rule is to try as much as possible to keep the food court outline simple; just avoid "interesting" shapes, as it can make the interaction and crossing of services complicated, which will increase installation price and create difficult maintenance. Keep the backbone of the food court design plain and simple and the project will flow naturally.