Use Ceiling Fans to Warm Rooms in Winter

Most people think of ceiling fans as a warm weather appliance – you use your ceiling fan in the summer to cool off then turn it off when the temperatures get cool. But ceiling fans can also be used to help warm the rooms in your house during cold weather.

The key to a ceiling fan’s effect lies in the direction the fan’s blades turn. Usually, a ceiling fan’s blades are set to turn in the direction that will force air down into a room – most often, counter-clockwise, though it depends on the slope of the fan’s blades. As the air blows over the people in the room, it cools them off. The actual temperature in the room doesn’t get lower, but the wind chill created by the fan makes the people in the room feel cooler.

But when cooler weather arrives, you can use your ceiling fan to help warm a room by reversing the direction that the blades turn. If you reverse the direction, instead of pushing air down over the people in the room, creating wind chill, the blades will push the warmer air trapped between the fan and the ceiling up against the ceiling. The ceiling will then deflect the warm air down into the room, where people can feel it. If you leave the fan speed low, the people in the room won’t feel a wind chill, but the warm air will be forced down into the room, making it more comfortable.

Many fans have a simple switch for reversing direction, but if you can’t find a toggle switch on your fan, consult the manufacturer for instructions.

PCB Design Software is Making News in 2017

PCB designing is the most crucial stage of developing a circuit board. It is the design that decides how the final product will look like and work. A successful PCB design is one that supports the functioning of the device inside which it is lodged. Not all devices have the same price, and so the PCB design can accordingly vary on various factors. The nature of users and their access to resources also influence the style of PCB. In the age of automation, designing has also gone digital. Software is available both online and offline; these can be free as well as paid.

Listed here are some of the PCB prototyping or design software that has made news in 2017.

1. Eagle: Known for user-friendly interface and exceptionally schematic diagram functionality, this software stands out in quality and utility. Its remarkable features are positive and negative annotation function, interactive follower platform, batch command execution script file and copper cladding; to quote the important few. It belongs to the category of professional software and does come with a price; however, it is affordable and one of the most used software amongst medium-sized businesses in the present times. It works on Windows, Mac and Linux.

2. ORCAD: It is compatible with Windows only. Though in business since 1980, this software has not seen many updations since its inception. Its operation function is simple. Its simulation function is liked a lot and gives better scope for customization. Its user-friendly interface and prevalence of Windows on most of the industrial systems make this PCB design software a tried and tested tool. It is a paid software good for professional use.

3. Altium Designer: If you need software support for designing single layer and 2 layer PCBs, then this software is very good choice. The birth of this software dates back to 1980s and it has somehow managed its reputation since then. Many of the circuit companies prefer using this software because of its user-friendliness and better utility. This software does make a part of designing courses too, as all the universities use this tool as a means to teach the art of PCB fabrication and assembly. Thus, it is easy to use too and is quite comprehensive in nature. Also, it is usable for all types of projects; most common being flex-board and FPGA. It is a paid software.

4. Easy EDA: This software is being used for both private and professional use. It is used as both online and offline application. Easy EDA is a freeware and is accessible online a lot. It is equipped with a number of interesting features like mixed-mode circuit simulation, zero-installation time powerful schematic diagram function, and PCB layout useful for cross-platform browser environments.

5. DesignSpark PCB: This software is quite useful for IoT projects and is designed keeping the requirements of these projects in mind. It is a free software that is helpful in mechanical, electronic and software design.

6. Fritzing: This is an open source EDA software multi-functional in nature. It certainly makes bread-boarding easier. Important tools provided in this software are – PCB layout tool helpful for creation of PCB, a breadboard view support, schematic capture tool that is designed to ease the import of various third-party boards to prepare schematic in a tasteful manner. This software runs on a variety of operating systems such as MacOS, Linux and Windows.

7. gEDA: It is a cross-platform PCB design software that is compatible with a variety of operating systems such as BSD, Linux, Windows, and MacOS. This software supports basic designing exceptionally well with the help of its schematic capture function. You can leverage the best qualities of gEDA better if you learn about it in a detailed manner. The only shortcoming is that it is not fit for the workflow that goes into the development of large designs.

8. CircuitMaker: Though discontinued for professional use long back, this software is re-introduced and has found its clientele in the form of learners and hobbyists. This software is quite useful for RF PCB design and for PCBs delivering mixed signals. In these designs, the track length and width is important and achieving this becomes easier with this software.


2017 has seen exceptional growth happening in the PCB design software market. With the manufacturers laying extra emphasis on PCB prototyping, the advancements made in the field of PCB design software are mostly dedicated to bringing more sophistication and precision in the final product. There is PCB designing software available for a variety of purposes and whether you are a professional PCB designer or a beginner, there is software available for you. The comparison of available software also reveals that you can find the software suitable for your budget size too. So, pick what suits your requirements perfectly and win yourself the ease of mastering the PCB designs.

Top 2 Exercise Tips That Are Proven to Strip Away Stubborn Belly Fat and Chisel Your Abs

Are you tired of not having the body you know you could have? Would you like to tone up and lose some fat before the holidays arrive? If you answered yes to either of these questions you've come to the right place. It was not that long ago when I was in a situation similar to the one you're currently in. I did not weigh 500 pounds but I was not the littlest person either. All I wanted was to get rid of the extra weight that would make my life a whole lot easier. In this article I want to share some exercise tips that will help you do just that.

The first exercise tip is to make sure you remain as active during the day as you can without working out. Not all of us can spend all day long in the gym. This is why it's important that we do the small simple things during the day that will make our body burn extra calories. I am saying that you need to take the stairs instead of the elevator. Do not always look for the closest parking spot. Get up and walk around the office instead of surfing on the internet. By being more active you'll watch as the pounds start to slide off and you do not even have to work out.

The next tip is to make sure you eat breakfast. If you're like most people you do not have a lot of time to sit down and eat breakfast or at least you think you do not. This is why you need to wake up 10 minutes earlier so you can. Breakfast is important because it gets your metabolism going from the night before. Your body goes through a constant state while you're asleep and this means you're more likely to store calories than burn them. Eating a healthy breakfast is also a great way to start the day. You'll be more likely to keep the day healthy if you start out healthy.

3 Top Vegetable Recipes For Slow Cooker

When one thinks of cooking using a crock pot, he would automatically think of making meats juicy and tender. But slow cookers aren’t only good for meats, they’re ideal for all types of ingredients including fresh fruits and vegetables. So if you’ve recently started a healthy diet, you can count on your trusty crock pot to make delicious meals!

Here are 3 top vegetable recipes for slow cooker that are a must-try:

Best Ever Crock Pot Mashed Potatoes

What you need:

  • 2 1/4 kilograms red potatoes, sliced into chunks
  • 3 cubes chicken bouillon
  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup cream cheese, softened
  • 1/2 cup butter
  • 1 tablespoon minced garlic
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Fill a large pot with lightly salted water and boil potatoes with chicken bouillon and garlic until potatoes are tender but still firm. Drain potatoes in a bowl, reserving water. Mash potatoes with sour cream and cream cheese, spooning reserved water to achieve desired consistency. Transfer mashed potatoes to a slow cooker, cover and cook for 2 to 3 hours on low. Stir in butter, salt and pepper before serving.

Crock Pot All-Veggie Chili

What you need:

  • 2 zucchini, thinly sliced
  • 2 carrots, sliced
  • 2 stalks celery, sliced
  • 1 green bell pepper, chopped
  • 1 red bell pepper, chopped
  • 1 onion, chopped
  • 2 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 can whole peeled tomatoes with juice
  • 1 can garbanzo beans, drained
  • 1 small can chopped green chile peppers
  • 1/3 cup chili powder
  • 1 tablespoon dried oregano
  • 2 teaspoons ground cumin
  • 1 teaspoon salt

Mix together zucchini, carrots, celery, green bell pepper, red bell pepper, onion, garlic, tomatoes, garbanzo beans and green chile peppers in a slow cooker. Stir to combine ingredients well. Season with chili powder, oregano, cumin and salt. Cover and cook for 6 to 8 hours on low or for 3 to 4 hours on high.

Slow Cooked Creamy Potato Soup

What you need:

  • 10 red potatoes, sliced into cubes
  • 1 red onion, chopped
  • 1 clove garlic, minced
  • 3 cups water
  • 1 cup half and half
  • 3/4 cup real bacon bits
  • 1/2 cup shredded Cheddar cheese
  • 1/4 cup chopped green onion
  • 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 2 tablespoons chicken bouillon granules
  • 1 tablespoon ranch dressing mix
  • 2 teaspoons dried parsley
  • 1 teaspoon seasoned salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground black pepper

In a large bowl, toss potatoes in all-purpose flour to coat. Place coated potatoes, onion, garlic, chicken bouillon granules, ranch dressing mix, parsley, seasoned salt and black pepper in a crock pot. Stir to combine ingredients well. Add the water to the mixture. Cover and cook for 7 to 9 hours on low. When ready, add half and half to the soup, stir and cook for 15 minutes more. Sprinkle with Cheddar cheese and garnish with green onion to serve.

Enjoy healthier meals – try these top vegetable recipes for slow cooker!

How to Maintain Industrial Power Equipment

Maintenance of various power equipment is a key part of facility management. The entire operation depends on the power systems such as backup generators, control panels, industrial chargers, UPS, etc. The failure of these key assets can put a production plant in jeopardy. This is why maintenance is of paramount significance so far as the facility management is concerned.

Managing critical equipment demands an auditable process to reduce operational risks. It also has an impact on safety, cost, compliance, and operational throughput. With the growing focus on environmental responsibility and sustainability, it is required to implement risk mitigation strategies.

Businesses have to devise cost-effective strategies in order to survive in a competitive environment and become low-cost producers. Possible situations or risks that can pose a threat to business operations must be anticipated and addresses in a timely manner. It is advisable to prioritize the existing assets for inspection and maintenance. The data obtained from reviews and inspection programs can be used to meet risk mitigation objectives.

What are the techniques to maintain critical power equipment in a facility? We understand the significance of emergency generators in a production process. Backup generators can keep a production process running for years. However, they require regular maintenance. Load bank testing is one of the techniques to maintain a generator.

Load testing a standby generator system must be an inseparable part of the standard planned maintenance program. The process ensures that your standby generators keep producing the designed output.

Battery maintenance is also a critical component of running an efficient and reliable facility. However, the procedure to maintain industrial batteries is slightly technical. Carrying out maintenance activities in the right order can save time and extend the lifespan of batteries and chargers. Besides, make sure you clean batteries in the designated areas using proper tools.

It is recommended to hire a professional preventive maintenance service which can take care of your equipment critical to production and operational activities. An expert in this field will help you establish the appropriate procedures for generator and battery maintenance without affecting the safe working environment. Having a preventive maintenance program in place is a good way to keep your power equipment in good working condition.

Conclusively speaking, regular maintenance activities such as load bank testing, commissioning, inspection, etc. can extend the useful life of your generators and other systems. Reach a reputable contractor that can take good care of your generators and other equipment.

PurePoint Golf Instruction Chip Shot – Bump and Run

I'm going to describe two very different golf shots to you. One is called a pitch shot with loft, and the other is called a chip shot with run. Now what's the difference?

Well, first of all, sometimes the pin is in a situation where you have to go over an uneven lie, or you have to go over the edge of a bunker, or you have to go over a little tree and you need it to stop a little quicker.

So, you take out your loftier golf club, your lob wedge or your sand wedge. Put the ball in the middle of your stance, a little weight left and swing your arms up and down. And after it hits the green, it will slow down and stop because it has so much loft on it.

Now, for a chip shot, or a bump and run shot, it's the same golf shot, but it's done with a pitching wedge, or you could even use a 9 iron.

In this situation, the pin is in the back of the green and there is no trouble in front of you. So, you put the ball in the middle of your situation, put a little weight on your left leg, and swing your arms up and down. But because you did it with a pitching wedge, the shot takes off flatter and runs more.

Now, some of you get confused because the pin is in the back of the green and you want it to run, but if you use your sand wedge or your lob wedge. That will not happen. That will not run.

So, make sure in the future when you need a running chip shot, use a pitching wedge and put the ball in the middle of your stance. And if you really want it to run a lot, put it in the back of your stance. Try to change the golf club. Control the distance you want the chip shots to go by your club selection, not by the length of your swing.

A chip shot or a bump and run shot is also useful from the fairway or any place around the green that you do not have any obstructions. Sometimes you can be much more accurate by simply bumping an 8 iron up the fairway and letting it roll onto the green instead of trying to pitch it with accuracy. Usually your alignment will be a lot better using this tactic because much more of the shot occurs on the ground.

Thanks and have a great day.

Copyright 2006 David Nevogt

Plan Your Myrtle Beach Vacation Perfectly

With an array of vacation attractions, Myrtle Beach receives a large influx of tourists every year. The beautiful beaches, great accommodations, shopping and dining options make it the perfect vacation spot. Read this article to plan you vacation and help make it enjoyable and memorable.

A vacation at Myrtle Beach provides an excellent opportunity to enjoy the pristine beaches, superior golf courses, beautiful lush greenery and a number of outdoor activities. Offering a wide range of accommodations, shopping and dining options, Myrtle Beach has become one of the most sought after vacation spots in the United States.

Myrtle Beach, located along the northern coast of South Carolina, is a combination of beach towns and barrier islands distending from Little River to Georgetown in South Carolina. The Grand Strand offers an array of vacation attractions hosting millions of tourists every year. Sitting on white sand and enjoying great ocean views and the lovely atmosphere away from the bustle of city, the Myrtle Beach offers a romantic picturesque making it a perfect destination for the honeymooners. In addition to this breathtaking surrounding, there are plenty of exciting things to do in your vacation including surfing, scuba diving, fishing, swimming, kayaking and snorkeling. Well marked trails offer an opportunity to see various wild animals and birds closely while enjoying the landscaping of sparkling white coastline.

The attractions of Myrtle Beach include numerous wonderful golf courses, amusement parks, shopping complexes and quality dining venues. It is well known for a variety of amazing cultural events, musical concerts and other entertainment shows which take place every year. If you love shopping while on vacation, there are a number of options including malls, specialty stores, boutiques, art galleries and retail outlets to meet your shopping needs. With more than 1,900 restaurants offering fresh seafood and tasty local dishes as per your preference and budget, you would surely get a quality dining at this place. Other late night options include beach bars, dance clubs and theaters making your time more delightful.

When it comes to accommodation during your vacation at Myrtle Beach, there are a wide range of residing options including resorts, hotels, condos, inns and beach rentals. Many of these accommodations are located near beaches or golf courses. The very popular option at Myrtle Beach are “beach rentals” which in addition to being right on the beach, offer all modern amenities and entertainment options at reasonable rates. With fully equipped kitchens and spacious rooms matching your needs, the rentals provide stress-free homelike environment full of freedom and privacy. Based on your budget, they offer professional cleaning staff, chefs and even the tour guides to make you enjoy the Myrtle Beach tour to the maximum level.

If you are looking for a beach rental to stay during your next Myrtle Beach trip, it is highly recommendable to do a proper research considering some important factors like your budget, number of members and the location and amenities you wish to have. You need to ensure that your choice offers all the necessary items you expect for your beach vacation. Internet websites like are a great option to narrow your choices and booking the perfect property. There are many Myrtle beach vacation rentals. To choose from and you are almost sure to find one matching your buying criteria.

Wavelength Service in Optical Transport Networks

Optical WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) networks are networks that deploy optical WDM fiber links where each fiber link carries multiple wavelength channels. An All Optical Network (AON) is an optical WDM network which provides end-to-end optical paths by using all optical nodes that allow optical signal to stay in optical domain without conversion to electrical signal. AONs are usually optical circuit-switched networks where circuits are switched by intermediate nodes in the granularity of a wavelength channel. Hence a circuit-switched AON is also called a wavelength routing network where optical circuits are equivalent to wavelength channels.

A wavelength routing network consists of optical cross-connects (OXC) and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADM) interconnected by WDM fibers. Transmission of data over this optical network is done using optical circuit-switching connections, known as lightpaths. An OXC is an N x N optical switch with N input fibers and N output fibers with each fiber carries W wavelengths. The OXC can optically switch all of the incoming wavelengths of its input fibers to the outgoing wavelengths of its output fibers. An OADM can terminate the signals on a number of wavelengths and inserts new signals into these wavelengths. The remaining wavelengths pass through the OADM transparently.

In order for a user (router A) to transmit data to a destination user (router B), a circuit-switching connection is established by using a wavelength on each hop along the connection path. This unidirectional optical path is called a lightpath and the node between each hop is either an OXC or an OADM. A separate lightpath has to be established using different fibers to set up transmission in the opposite direction. To satisfy the wavelength continuity constraint, the same wavelength is used on every hop along the lightpath. If a lightpath is blocked because the required wavelength is unavailable, a converter in an OXC can transform the optical signal transmitted from one wavelength to another wavelength.

Since the bandwidth of a wavelength is often much larger than that requires by a single client, traffic glooming is used to allow the bandwidth of a lightpath to be shared by many clients. The bandwidth of a lightpath is divided into subrate units; clients can request one or more subrate units to carry traffic streams at lower rates. For example, information is transmitted over an optical network using SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) framing with a transmission rate of OC-48 (2.488 Gbps). A lightpath is established from OXC1 to OXC3 through OXC2 using wavelength w, the subrate unit available on this lightpath is OC-3 (155 Mbps). A user on OXC1 can request any integer number of OC-3 subrate units up to a total of 16 to transmit data to another user on OXC3. A network operator can use traffic-groomed lightpaths to provide subrate transport services to the users by adding a virtual network to the optical network.

Information on a lightpath is typically transmitted using SONET framing. In the future, the information transmitted over optical network will use the new ITU-T G.709 standard, known as digital wrapper. In ITU-T, an optical network is referred to as the optical transport network (OTN). The following are some of the features of G.709 standard:

1) The standard permits transmission of different types of traffic: IP packets and gigabit Ethernet frames using Generic Framing Procedure (GFP), ATM cells and SONET/SDH synchronous data.

2) It supports three bit rate granularities: 2.488 Gbps, 9.95 Gbps and 39.81 Gbps.

3) It provides capabilities to monitor a connection on an end-to-end basis over several carriers, as well as over a single carrier.

4) G.709 uses Forward Error Correction (FEC) to detect and correct bit errors caused by physical impairments in the transmission links.

Lightpath can either be static or dynamic. Static lightpaths are established using network management procedures and may remain up for a long time. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) can be set up using static lightpaths. Dynamic lightpaths are established in real time using signaling protocols, such as IETF’s GMPLS (Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching) and UNI (User Network Interface) proposed by Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF). GMPLS is an extension of MPLS and was designed to apply MPLS label switching techniques to Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) networks and wavelength routing networks, in addition to packet switching networks. The OIF UNI specifies signaling procedures for clients to automatically create, delete and query a connection over wavelength routing network. The UNI signaling is implemented by extending the label distribution protocols, LDP and RSVP-TE.

MS Word – How to Fix and Recover Word Document Files

‘Microsoft Word’ is one of the most extensively used Microsoft applications that allows user to create, view, paste, copy, edit, save, print and share documents. It enables the user to enhance their documents by inserting animated images, photographs, diagrams, charts, images, shapes etc. MS Word create an electronic document that is widely used to type articles, letters, essays, memoranda, legal content and member list Owing to its user-friendliness, MS Word finds its utilization for commercial, noncommercial and private sectors.

Do you know that MS Word document file is prone to severe corruption? Yes it’s true; a doc file can get easily damaged. MS Word file gets corrupt due to various reasons including Trojan or Virus attacks, abrupt system shutdown, malfunction of any hardware or software and sudden cancellation of the application.

At first instance, a corrupt MS Word file will not open and if it opens it might show some unusual behaviors like improper formatting, incorrect document layout, re-pagination and even the system crash. These changes are the clear indications that your file has damaged.

There are several ways by which you can repair the damaged doc file, these include:

  • Try opening other documents in Word on the same computer
  • Look for other copies of your document on another computer or email
  • Run CHKDSK utility to check corruption at the file system level.
  • Save the document in a different file format like.rtf or.txt. After opening the converted doc, resave it in a new version of.doc or.docx
  • Use Word’s built-in text converter utility. In Word, click on Microsoft Office button in the upper left part and then select Open from the File
  • From the Open dialog select “Recover Text from Any File” from dropdown file list, select the file that you want to convert. Reset the dropdown file list into one of the Word document formats to prevent Word from using the recover text utility
  • Use Word’s Open and Repair. This feature repairs Word documents. To use this feature, follow these steps:
  1. Choose the Open option for your Word 2007
  2. In the Open dialog select the file you wish to open and repair
  3. Click the down arrow beside the Open button and select Open and Repair from the menu
  • Use a shadow copy by right-clicking and selecting Properties from the popup menu. Select Previous Versions tab from one of the available versions on the Properties dialog. (NOTE: Previous Versions tab appears only if your hard drive is NTFS formatted). Be aware of the fact that a shadow copy will not be as complete as a backup you created

If all these steps fail to fix the corrupt file then the possible solution left with you is to go for a ‘third-party’ Microsoft Word Recovery Software. Microsoft Word Recovery Software can effectively perform strenuous task of repairing as well as recovering of If all these steps fail to fix the corrupt file then the possible solution left with you is to go for a ‘third-party’ Microsoft Word Recovery Software. Microsoft Word Recovery Software can effectively perform strenuous task of repairing as well as recovering damaged file in just a nick of time.

Course and Prognosis – Skin Disorders

Pruritus disappears quickly after treatment in most individuals. No new lesions develop, and all evidence of infestation ordinarily disappears within 7 to 14 days. Approximately 20% of patients, however, are appropriate treatment failures. In about half of these patients new lesions continue to appear, and one must assume that either therapy has been inadvertently carried out or that reinfection has occurred. Such patients and all of their contacts should be retreated. In the other half, no new lesions develop, but itching and scratching persist at the site of old lesions. These individuals, most of which are genetically atopic, have developed an itchscratch cycle and will continue to scratch indefinitely except topical steroids and antihistamines are used to break up the cycle.

Scabies, if left untreated, persists for years. During this time there is a gradual resolution of old lesions and consequent development of new lesions. This prolonged course accounts for the colloquial name of the disease "the 7-year itch."


Scabies is due to an infestation with the human variety of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The female of the species burrows within the stratum corneum, depositing eggs that over a 3-week period mature into adult mites. The adult mite is just at the threshold of visibility and can sometimes be recognized as a tiny red or brown-red dot at the end of an intact burrow.

Transmission of the disease ordinarily depends on direct person-to-person contact. In a small percentage of cases, however, the contagion occurs through the use of shared clothing or bed linen. Infestation occurs in individuals at all ages and from all socioeconomic groups, but for unknown reasons it rarely develops in blacks. Once present, the disease spreads by scratching; mites and eggs are transferred from one location to another via fingernail contamination.

Early in the course of infestation there is little in the way of host inflammatory reaction, but after several weeks, allergic sensitization with accompanying pruritus and inflammation takes place. The role of immunologic response in the resolution of scabies has not been adequately studied, but the occurrence of epidemics at 20 to 30-year intervals suggests that the development and waning of herd immunity may be important from an epidemiological standpoint.


For many years, lindane (gamma-benzene), sold under the trade names Kwell and Scabene, has been the treatment of choice for scabetic infestations. But it is quite effective and reliably cheap, but systemic absorption does occur and is associated with the potential problem of neurotoxicity. Expression of this potential problem only occurred when lindane was used for infants, but for this reason its use has been generally supplanted by 5% permethrin (Elimite). Crotamiton (Eurax) and precipitated sulfur have also been used historically, but neither is as effective as lindane or permethrin.

Both lindane and permethrin are used in a similar manner. Patients and all of their close contacts are instructed to bathe and then apply a thin layer of the medication over the entire body. This is left in place for 8 to 12 hours, at which time the patient bathes a second time. Clothing or bed linen used prior to or during therapy is washed with soap and water in a normal fashion. No special attention is needed for furniture and other inanimate objects. A single treatment carried out in this manner will result in clearing of 80% of patients. As mentioned above, an additional 10% will require retreatment because of problems with the medical compliance or reinfection. The remaining 10% will require the additional use of steroids and antihistamines in order to break up the itch-scratch cycle.

A Summer Wedding

The sunshine had come out to ensure the wedding of footballer Benji and his wife-to-be Sabine had the perfect backdrop. For the month before the excitement had been growing amongst the players and supporters of St Cernin de l’Herm, a village in the south west of France, as the day came ever closer. We had already been out for a meal and made the bride and groom walk around the restaurant whilst eating a banana – with no hands. A large poster of the team picture had been printed and everyone had signed it and written a good luck message. So by Saturday afternoon the junction of the small crossroads in Frayssinet-le-Gélet was busy with people waiting for Benji and Sabine to walk by.

In France many wedding ceremonies will take place in the village Mairie and then move on to the local church for a blessing. And we were lucky that the two buildings were close by so that a short procession through the village could take place. As we waited friends spread out cuttings from roses and other bushes across the pavement on the route the bride and groom would take to the church. This is meant to bring the couple good luck and fortune and in other areas of France neighbours will lay down sheaves of corn. Then the moment arrived as the couple stood at the top of the steps outside the Mairie and slowly made their way to the church, escorted by their parents.

Traffic came to a standstill as the procession of guests followed behind and walked the 150 meters to the church. In the afternoon sunshine people slowly made their way into the church filling up the pews and taking up positions in the aisle for the chance to take a picture. Once everyone was inside, and we must have numbered 200 or more, the bride and groom slowly made their way through the church.

Camera flashes lit up the dark entranceway as the couple made their way along the aisle; the organist played a tune that softly filled the church. The priest opened the blessing with a short passage from the bible and then Sabine walked up to the microphone to deliver a short speech. She thanked the many people that had turned up to see the bride and groom and that it had been an incredible day. Then the priest delivered a short prayer and a musical interlude with saxophone and accordion was played. The ceremony of the passing of the rings was undertaken with the assistance of the son of Sabine and Benji. He carried the rings up to the alter of the church in a small, padded heart shaped bag and passed them to the priest. The couple spoke a few words and placed the rings on each other’s fingers as the cameras again flashed a whirred. Everyone then began to make their way out of the church waiting for the bride and groom to stand outside the church for some more photographs. But the players of St Cernin had one more trick up their shirts as we donned our kit and picked up a football each.

We made a guard of honour outside the church and held a ball high over the guests as they made their way out into the village square. But it was Benji and Sabine who everyone was waiting for. People passed around rice and confetti waiting for them to leave the church and run under the footballs, as they did the place exploded. The church bell tolled and rice cascaded down on our heads covering the players and the newly married couple from head to toe. Then it was time for more photographs, car horns sounding and the children throwing rice and confetti at each other. As the day drifted into late afternoon it was time for a small aperitif and a few nibbles in the grounds of the Mairie. Watching the sun slowly slide behind the church tower as the celebrations moved on into the night.

Difference Between Chip and Wafer in Electronics

A chip is generally known as an Integrated Circuit, it’s an assembly of electrical parts which are made in one unit, however a wafer represents small slices of silicon which are utilized in the production of integrated circuits like the integrated circuits are used in most wafers.

An integrated circuit is called a microchip, it’s a small electrical product which is a package of circuits, pathways, and also transistors etc., most performing to each other to do a specific task or even may perhaps be a number of tasks. The microchips are the backbones for many of the latest electrical products such as microprocessors, sound as well as video instruments and also vehicles. The integrated circuit is used in the wafer. A microchip includes electrical materials such as transistors. They are utilized for giving the logic circuitry.

A microchip is usually produced from silicon wafer. The microchips are of many types. CPU microchips are generally known as microprocessors.

In electronic devices, a wafer is usually referred to as a slice as well as substrate. it’s a small slice of semiconductor components and this slice is utilized for the manufacturing of integrated circuits. It performs just like a base where an integrated circuit is usually produced. All these small slices are considered as heart of electrical products. The microcircuits on the wafers are manufactured by the diffusion and also deposition of several materials. The ever-growing trade of electronic products usually tends to form smaller microchips which are more powerful and economically less expensive as compared to the previous versions.

Raw silicon is changed into one crystal substrate by using several procedures. Many of the silicon is manufactured by reducing of SiO2 with carbon and therefore, industrial brown Metallurgical Grade Silicon is produced. This also ought to be even more refined and thus MG-Si is reacted with Hcl to get TCS. This procedure will be able to take out pollutants such as Fe, Al and also B. After that, with the method of crystal growing, the product samples with a single crystal orientation are produced. Later on by using monocrystalline seed, a rounded crystal is produced. Small slices of the crystal are produced and also those slices are referred as wafers. Later the growth procedure happens and finally the several equipments are utilized in order to get the preferred features such as shapes, etc.. Wafers are available in many diameters.

The difference between a wafer and microchip resides in the relation between them. A wafer acts as a base for chip or chip is embedded in the wafer. They together form the important unit that is widely used in the world of electronics.

Fabulous New Trends for 2012 Wedding Dresses

The Fall 2012 wedding gowns have just been shown in New York, and some beautiful trends have been emerging. We are seeing continuations of some of the trends from recent seasons (especially natural waistlines and tulle), and the introduction of a few new trends. Get inspired by all the fabulous trends for 2012 wedding dresses.

Tulle rules! Virtually every single bridal designer featured tulle in their collections. The fun thing is that tulle skirts are being shown in a wide variety of ways. There are classic tulle ballgowns, such as the timeless jeweled-free neck gown shown at Amsale. Many designers featured tulle formed into fluffy three-dimensional forms for fullness and movement on the skirt. There were drop waisted and empire waist tulle skirts on gowns at Marchesa. There were even wedding gowns made with crumpled black tulle at Vera Wang. And if tulle is not your thing, other sheer fabrics like organza and chiffon are also very popular.

Lace is another fantastic trend for 2012 wedding gowns. Like tulle, lace was one of the hottest things going at the Fall 2012 bridal market. Brides craving a non-copycat version of the Princess Kate bridal gown will adore a fabulous new lace bodice gown with sleeves by Marchesa. It has a sweetheart neckline under a very dramatic lace and a cummberbund at the waist. It is a cross between Kate Middleton and Grace Kelly, made with a unique lace for an updated twist. Royal inspiration propelled lace to a top trend at virtually every bridal house.

Vintage inspired beaded sheaths were a gorgeous style that was shown by some designers for 2012 weddings. Jenny Packham in particular showcased numerous fluid gowns with incredible embroidery and beadwork. There were beaded chiffon gowns that skim the body and slinky draped satiny halter gowns like something out of the Golden Age of Hollywood. It would be fun to play up the retro nature of these chic dresses with crystal chandelier bridal jewelry. Pnina Tornai had her own take on vintage style sheath bridal gowns, with lots of her signature jeweled accents. Ultra glamorous cz bridal jewelry would be just the thing to accent one of Pnina's eye-popping sheaths.

A trend for 2012 wedding dresses that all brides will enjoy is the broad array of neckline choices. There are certainly still a lot of strapless dresses around, but there are a lot of other options too. There were gowns with sleeves, illusion necklines, one shoulder dresses, halters, slender tank straps, bateau necklines, and even sheer wrapped shoulders. A standout neckline was a very elegant portrait neckline wedding gown designed by Carolina Hererra. I love that brides will be able to find a gown in any neckline that they want for 2012!

All of these major trends for 2012 bridal gowns were some other new styles of note. High-low skirts which show off the bride's shoes were shown by Oscar de la Renta, Ulla-Maija Couture, and Maggie Sottero, to name a few. If you are shopping for a Fall 2012 wedding dress, you will definitely have many fabulous choices!

A Pill To Forget

Science now claims that they have a pill that will help you forget those anguishing times when traumatic events took place such as 9-11. I personally am not too sure that I would care to take one of these pills as good or bad they still are a part of my memories and serve to make me strong.

I do not think that I would want to eliminate any of my bad memories. This may sound like a masochistic thought but we can view traumatic memories as a vital part of our psychic makeup. Life is filled with an assortment of painful experiences which comprise the shape of gut-wrenching experiences. It does not matter if the pain originates from something which has beenfall us personally, witnessing a loved one suffering or as a result of our own memories where we caused the traumatic experience towards another.

Experiments of a similar nature were conducted years ago by the use of electric shock treatments and the results were more or less unfeeling zombies. How I can recall the early horror movies from my youthful days where some mad scientist asserts that he has the cure all for human pain but inadvertently overlooks the human need for trauma and pain in order for the individual to develop into a normal functioning being. A pill to erase bad memories and events may seem like science fiction but as we learn in our research of the news it is quickly becoming a reality but it could also be on the brink of a nightmare as well.

If we selectively erase portions of our memory we are deleting something that has become a building block for our human development. Good or bad, the post-traumatic stress syndrome often associated with events such as war, experiences like rape or any other traumatic situations are part of us. Would we willingly care to remove anything which makes us who we are? At first it may seem like a good idea to remove bad memories but is it really? Would you really want to remove the remorseful feelings of a drunk driver when in one moment of his intoxicated state he eliminates a complete family? These types of people need to live with the bad decisions that they made. It will in the end make them a better person. Perhaps the horror, guilt and remorse for what they have done will serve as a reminder for others. Each of us have loads of excess baggage much of which we may not be proud of however as unpleasant as it may seem, it is there to make us what we are.

The experience relating to an individual named Beatriz Arguedas represents a learning process. Seeing the man commit suicide by leaping in front of her train instilled a greater value towards life and living for her. Naturally, she would be upset and sometimes need intensive counseling. The drug propranolol is not the solution. My understanding from reading the news article transcript and researching the propranolol drug is that this beta blocker type substance when used for anxiety treatment relating to Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) leaves the memory of the event intact but the feelings associated with the issue has been numbered.

I think that if this was entirely possible that we would lose some of our own psychological makeup in the process. We are a sum total of our experiences which we have untaken in the past. With the act of bypassing those which make us uncomfortable we are losing some of our own self. The story of the discovery clearly states that President's Council on Bioethics had condemned the study saying that "our memories make us who we are". They went on to explain that by re-writing our actual memories by the use of drugs would probably result in under a person's true uniqueness. They also state that such actions risk making shameful acts less terrible. As an example suppose a man is a pedophile and his act is basically whitewashed through the use of such a drug than he will feel no remorse for what he did. Without remorse the penal system fails both the individual and society as a whole. The constant thought of what they have done wrong is necessary for incarceration to be effective. This is like a second hurt to the child's family – first their child is harmed by the perpetrator and then the justice system fails to be properly served.

Most biology classes will unexpectedly state that our environment and genetic make-up determine who we are. If we take identical twins and place each one in an alternate environment they will extremely turn out completely different. Twin One may be housed in the finest of families, receive an excellent education and complimented with a refined outlook on life. Twin One would be said to be destine for greatness. On the other hand we have Twin Two who was abandoned in the ghetto and raised by a not so established family. He is taught from the time he could walk to swindle and steal. Most predictions for Twin Two are that he will never amount to anything of value. We see identical genetic siblings who are totally different as a result of their environment. The same could be said of their memories. Twin One has fond thoughts about his youthful years while Twin Two is soaked in regret and shame. What if both these 'memories are erased? Would they revert to being equal siblings? I do not think so since the memories are essentially a part of our development.

Our memories are echoed as a part of our conscious experience whereas my life experience would be completely different from yours or the boy down the street. Our life experiences remain a major defining characteristic of our individuality and of our brain architecture. Our being is defined by our conscious experience which in turn is identified by the things we have undergone in our past. It is highly possible that with the loss of ones memories one could also loss the ability to relate to our family and friends. Although the basic brain activities would still function properly and they could still walk, speak, or use their usual daily tools they are totally detached from who they once were.

Omitting ones memories is no small quest. As mentioned previously our memories have a means of reinforcing our identities, imaging our individual concepts of who we are, and in general, shaping us into the person we will be tomorrow. Memories tend to play an instrumental role in our lives. Even bad memories serve as a debilitating role in our existence. I envision complete personalities changing as a result of these types of experiments. Being a writer I could read devise an interesting twist to this with a plot whereas these pills were very effective in blocking out the fear instinct. As the experiment progressed a complete batch of these medications were found to be defective for some unknown reason and were placed in the trash which ended up at the county dump. As the pills were deposited in the dump they were consumed by the rats which are ever present in such a facility. Moving on we encounter rats which no longer have any fears and then the battle begins between the humans and the revolting rats. This is simply a fictional plot for a possible tale however who is to say that such an event could not take place with these drugs. Altering the fear responses of any living thing, human or animal will change the way they live and thus could potentially offset the balance of nature.

I read an article where victims tend to frame their experiences into specific strategies which creates an internal environment where healing can take place. The article consist of a series of interviews conducted with female rape victims. Evidence would support the idea that memory drugs would forestall the complete recovery process by altering their reality concept. Recovery is defined as a two phase process, the disruptive phase, and the reorganization phase. The acute or disruptive phase addresses the physical and social aspects relating to the victim's life. According to the emotional state of the victim a certain amount of time will be expected to lapse before passing through this stage of recovery and on onto the next. Although the victims in this experiment were essentially rape orientated it would appear that recovery must take place by itself and can not be accelerated with drugs or other mind altering schemes. Recover is a normal healing process that takes place in all humans as the body and emotions dictate.

A process known as psychological framing was referred by the author towards achieving a positive response for the victims. Psychological framing delimits a specific set of messages indicating certain acceptable messages. These frames include both exclusive and inclusive reconnections. These form the basis of true healing as opposed to sugar coating the situation in the victim's mind and it is allowed to achieve its recovery in a normal, accepted method.

I found it interesting during my studies that when a person is able to assign a name to their experience it provides a crucial key to both the person's recovery as well as to allow others to assist in this recovery process. This was especially true in the case of rape victims. This is sort of like calling a spade a spade. The old Greek idiom certain applies here, "to thine own self be true."