Orbital Welding

Orbital welding is Automatic Tunguston inert gas welding. It eliminates chances of manual errors in welding. It produces identical welds for hundred of times hence accuracy in welding.

Orbital welding was first used in the 1960`s when the aerospace industry recognized the need for a superior joining technique for aerospace hydraulic lines. A mechanism was developed in which the arc from a tungsten electrode was rotated around the tubing weld joint. The arc welding current was regulated with a control system thus automating the entire process. The result was a more precision and reliable method than the manual welding method it replaced.

Orbital welding became practical for many industries in the early 1980`s when combination power supply / control systems were developed that operated from 110 V AC and were physically small enough to be carried from place to place on a construction site for multiple in-place welds. Modern day orbital welding systems offer computer control where welding parameters for a variety of applications can be stored in memory and called up when needed for a specific application. The skills of a certified welder are thus built into the welding system, producing enormous numbers of identical welds and leaving significantly less room for error or defects.

Orbital Welding Equipment

In the orbital welding process, tubes / pipes are clamped in place and an orbital weld head rotates an electrode and electric arc around the weld joint to make the required weld. An orbital welding system consists of a power supply and an orbital weld head.

Power Supply: The power supply / control system supplies and controls the welding parameters according to the specific weld program created or recalled from memory. The power supply provides the control parameters, the arc welding current, the power to drive the motor in the weld head and switches the shield gas (es) on / off as necessary.

Weld Head: Orbital weld heads are normally of the enclosed type and provide an inert atmosphere chamber that surrounds the weld joint. Standard enclosed orbital weld heads are practical in welding tube sizes from 1/16 inch (1.6mm) to 6 inches (152mm) with wall thickness` of up to 0.154 inches (3.9mm) Larger diameters and wall thickness` can be accommodated with open style weld heads.

The Physics of the GTAW Process

The orbital welding process uses the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW) as the source of the electric arc that melts the base material and forms the weld. In the GTAW process (also referred to as the Tungsten Inert Gas process – TIG) an electric arc is established between a Tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. To start the arc, an RF or high voltage signal (usually 3.5 to 7 KV) is used to break down (ionize) the insulating properties of the shield gas and make it electrically conductive in order to pass through a tiny amount of current. A capacitor dumps current into this electrical path, which reduces the arc voltage to a level where the power supply can then supply current for the arc. The power supply responds to the demand and provides weld current to keep the arc established. The metal to be welded is melted by the intense heat of the arc and fuses together.

Reasons for Using Orbital Welding Equipment

There are many reasons for using orbital welding equipment. The ability to make high quality, consistent welds repeatedly at a speed close to the maximum weld speed offer many benefits to the user:

o Productivity. An orbital welding system will drastically outperform manual welders, many times paying for the cost of the orbital equipment in a single job.

o Quality. The quality of a weld created by an orbital welding system with the correct weld program will be superior to that of manual welding. In applications such as semiconductor or pharmaceutical tube welding, orbital welding is the only means to reach the weld quality requirements.

o Consistency. Once a weld program has been established an orbital welding system can repeatedly perform the same weld hundreds of times, eliminating the normal variability, inconsistencies, errors and defects of manual welding.

o Orbital welding may be used in applications where a tube or pipe to be welded cannot be rotated or where rotation of the part is not practical.

o Orbital welding may be used in applications where access space restrictions limit the physical size of the welding device. Weld heads may be used in rows of boiler tubing where it would be difficult for a manual welder to use a welding torch or view the weld joint.

o Many other reasons exist for the use of orbital equipment over manual welding. Examples are applications where inspection of the internal weld is not practical for each weld created. By making a sample weld coupon that passes certification, the logic holds that if the sample weld is acceptable, that successive welds created by an automatic machine with the same input parameters should also be sound.

Industries and Applications for Orbital Welding

Aerospace: As noted earlier, the aerospace industry was the first industry to recognize the requirement for orbital welding. The high-pressure systems of a single plane can have over 1,500 welded joints, all automatically created with orbital equipment.

Boiler Tube: Boiler tube installation and repairs offer a perfect application for orbital welding. Compact orbital weld heads can be clamped in place between rows of heat exchanger tubing where a manual welder would experience severe difficulty making repeatable welds.

Food, Dairy and Beverage Industries: The food, dairy and beverage industries require consistent full penetration welds on all weld joints. Most of these tubing / piping systems have schedules for cleaning and sterilization in place. For maximum piping system efficiency the tubing must be as smooth as possible. Any pit, crevice, crack or incomplete weld joint can form a place for the fluid inside the tubing to be trapped and form a bacteria harbor.

Nuclear Piping: The nuclear industry with its severe operating environment and associated specifications for a high quality weld has long been an advocate of orbital welding.

Offshore Applications: Sub-sea hydraulic lines use materials whose properties can be altered during the thermal changes that are normal with a weld cycle. Hydraulic joints welded with orbital equipment offer superior corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

Pharmaceutical Industry: Pharmaceutical process lines and piping systems deliver high quality water to their processes. This requires high quality welds to ensure a source of water from the tubes that is uncontaminated by bacteria, rust or other contaminant. Orbital welding ensures full penetration welds with no overheating occurring that could undermine the corrosion resistance of the final weld zone.

Semiconductor Industry: The semiconductor industry requires piping systems with extremely smooth internal surface finish in order to prevent contaminant buildup on the tubing walls or weld joints. Once large enough, a build up of particulate, moisture or contaminant could release and ruin the batch process.

Tube/Pipe Fittings, Valves and Regulators: Hydraulic lines and liquid and gas delivery systems all require tubing with connector fittings. Orbital systems provide a means to ensure high productivity of welding and improved weld quality. Sometimes the tubing may be welded in place to a valve or regulator body. Here the orbital weld head provides the ability to produce high quality welds in applications with restricted access to the weld joint.

A manual weld taken from an operating plant.

This weld has defects that include lack-of- penetration, misalignment,

a huge crevice, and discoloration due to poor ID purge. This weld would be considered unacceptable by any standard.

Types of Hydroponics Systems

Hydroponics is a way of cultivating plants, by providing nutrients that they need to grow in water. Although no soil is used, a medium may be used for the roots to soak and provide constant water supply. Such mediums lead us to think about hydroponics systems, which are discussed below.

Basically there are 6 types of hydroponics systems, including wick, water culture, ebb & flow (also known as flood & drain), drip, nutrient film technique (NFT), and aeroponic. Although there are many variations on these 6 systems, all hydroponics methods are a combination these 6.

The Wick System

By far the simplest type of system, the wick system is a passive hydroponics system, meaning that there are no moving parts in it. The nutrient solution is getting drawn into the growing medium from a reservoir with a wick.

The wick system is able to use several plant growing mediums such as Perlite, Vermiculite, Pro-Mix, and Coconut Fiber- all of these being the most popular.

There is a disadvantage associated with the wick system, which is that the plants are large or the nutrient solution may use up a lot of water, much quicker than the wick system can supply it.

Water Culture

Of all active hydroponics systems, the water culture is the simplest one. A Styrofoam system is the platform that holds the plant and floats directly on the nutrient solution. Air is supplied to the air stone by an air pump, and bubbles are so caused to the nutrient solution, providing oxygen to the roots of the plant.

The water culture hydroponics system is ideal for cultivating leaf lettuce, given the fact that these grow rather fast through this system. However, few other plans grow well with the water culture hydroponics system.

Additionally, the water culture hydroponics system is very popular with teachers, for a very inexpensive system that can be made out of an old aquarium or water tight containers.

The biggest disadvantage of the water culture hydroponics system is that it does not suit large or long term plants.

Ebb & Flow System

The Ebb and Flow hydroponics system temporarily floods the plant grow tray with nutrient solution and then drains the solution back into the reservoir. A submerged pump is usually connected to a timer in this system. The timer pumps the nutrient solution onto the grow tray. The nutrient solution flows back into the reservoir when the time is turned off. It is set to be activated several times a day, depending on the size and type of plant, temperature, humidity and the kind of plant growing medium that is used.

The Ebb & Flow hydroponics system can be used with several plant growing mediums. The grow tray can be filled with gravel or granular Rockwool, or grow rocks. If individual pots are filled with the plant growing medium, it is easier to move the plants around or even in and out of the system.

The disadvantage associated with the Ebb & Flow system is that some plant growing mediums such as grow rocks and gravel may be susceptible to power outages as well as pump and time failures. Consequently, the plant roots can dry out quickly when the watering cycles are interrupted. This issue can be addressed somewhat though through growing media that store more water, such as can be relieved by using growing media that keeps more water, such as Rockwool, vermiculite and coconut fiber.

Drip Systems – Recovery / Non-Recovery

The most widely used type of hydroponics systems in the world are the drip systems. They are easier to operate, and a timer controls a submerged pump. When the timer activates the pump, the nutrient solution drips onto the base of each plant by a small drip line.

There are two types of drip systems, Recovery Drip and Non-Recovery Drip System. In the Recovery Drip system, the left over nutrient solution is accumulated back into the reservoir for re-use, whereas in the Non-Recover Drip system, the excess nutrient solution is not collected back into the reservoir. In the recovery drip system, therefore, the timer is inexpensive and efficient since it does not require an accurate control of the watering cycle. On the other hand, the non-recovery drip system requires a precise timer in order that the watering cycles can be adjusted for the plants to get a sufficient amount of nutrient solution and there is less waste of the solution. This also means, then, less maintenance is required of the non-recovery system, whereas the recovery system can have large shifts in the nutrient strength levels routinely need checking and adjusting.

Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

The most known of hydroponics systems is the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system. NFT systems entail a continuous supply of nutrient solution and the submersible pump requires no timer. The nutrient solution pumped into the growing tray, flows over the roots of the plants, and then collections back into the reservoir.

In the Nutrient Film Technique, there is generally no growing medium needed other than air. This proves to be an inexpensive system, therefore, since there is no need of replacing the growing medium. The plant is usually supported in a small plastic basket, and the roots dangle into the nutrient solution.

The NFT hydroponics systems is rather vulnerable to power outages and pump failures, and interference to the flow of the nutrient solution causes the roots to dry out.


Perhaps the most technical of hydroponics systems, the aeroponics systems mainly uses air to function. The roots hang in the air and receive moisture from the nutrient solution. The moistening occurs every few minutes, but because the roots hang in the air (like in the NFT system), they dry out if the moistening cycles are disrupted. In the Aeroponic hydroponics systems, the controlling timer runs the pump for a few seconds every couple of minutes.

Hosting Your Website On A Shared Server, Dedicated Server, Or VPS Server

Sometimes there are just too many choices, especially when it comes to where you host and how you host your website. Today we are going to help you decide whether you need a shared, dedicated, or VPS web host.

Chances are you will be just fine with a shared web host. Here is how the internet works, websites are actually running on computers. These computers with hard drives, with access to the internet, and so on. One single website does not have to be limited to one computer. You can one computer hosting dozens or hundreds of different websites.

That is exactly what a shared web host is. You have space on a computer that serves websites, and web pages. You might be sharing that computer with hundreds of other people who own websites, and not even realize it.

The draw backs to this is that the server might be a little slower, but you probably will not notice the difference on a normal website. The good news about shared hosting is that they are extremely cheap. $ 10 per month is a good price for Shared Hosting, and I recommend Hostgator for that purpose.

What if you need something larger? If you have a large website containing thousands of pages or you have thousands of websites of your own, or you need to use your website to send out email messages – you will be better off on a dedicated server.

A good dedicated server will cost you about $ 100 per month, and there is a little more technical know-how involved. You may need to be able to log into the server and type in different commands. You will more open to people hacking your server. Only get a dedicated server if a shared server is slowing you down.

A shared server is more for people who have a few dozen websites, which may include blogs, shopping cart systems, and so on. Many people who need to use the email marketing component will have their auto-responder be a third-party, such as Aweber.

Use a dedicated server if you have a big site, or you need to send out email messages from your own server.

So what is a VPS – Virtual Private Server? A virtual private server is a type of web hosting account where you have a happy medium. You can still have a fast server, and you can have more control over it. Which means that you can log in and type in commands if you know how to do that, and the server is shared with a few less people.

Basically, you have the server that is shared with many people but they all act as if they are their own computer. A VPS is good if you have hundreds of sites but they are not massive, or if you need to send out emails but you do not have a huge list of subscribers. You will only really need a VPS if you are a techy-programmer.

So, your decisions are narrowed down to Shared or Dedicated Hosting.

If you are brand new and do not know what you are doing, start with shared hosting and as your site grows, work your way up to a dedicated server.

Web Hosting Plan Types

If you are not too familiar with the terms that you could encounter as you search for a web hosting plan that would work for you, you might get into a bit of a pickle. As you do some online research, you would most likely be coming across with a lot of different plans. Here are some hosting plans which just might be what you need to host your website.

Shared web hosting refer to the plan offered by a web hosting company, which works by the company gathering the various users' websites and placing them under a single server. Each of the users would be given limited server space and resources that they would use so that their website could properly run. However, shared web hosting could cause your website to encounter a bit of slow traffic and rundown, particularly when your neighbors are running some corrupted or defective program scripts.

Another type of hosting, dedicated server hosting is a plan that reserves an entire server for a single website owner. If you choose this plan, you would need to rent one entire server, which would make all resources available for you. This plan would be very effective for e-commerce websites and personal websites, which require high traffic.

A combination of a dedicated server account and shared web hosting would be virtual web hosting. With this kind of hosting plan, the web server's integrated software would enable its own infringement to some other virtual servers. This would result in a myriad of servers running in one system, which you would need to pay for. Virtual plans cost more than shared hosting plans, although dedicated server hosting plans would be the most expensive of all.

How to Find an Architect in Brittany for Your Renovation Project

There are many properties still available throughout France to buy for renovation to create a beautiful new home or a holiday cottage for those important family breaks. Brittany has always been one of the favourite regions for this with Brits and Channel Islanders.

When thinking of buying a property to renovate there are many questions that come to mind that it would be nice to get an expert answer to, particularly if the property you’re considering is in a different country. This article deals with one frequently asked question, “How do I find an Architect for my Renovation Project in Brittany?” and is in the form of an interview with the questions being asked by a prospective purchaser of property in Brittany.

Do I have to engage an architect for a renovation project in France?

You must use an architect if you wish to apply for a permis de construire (construction permit) and the total floor area of your project property is or will be over 170 sq/m when completed. For a demand prealable (permit for small works) you are not required to engage the services of an architect.

How do I find an architect that is appropriate for my project?

The Ordres des Architects will have a list of registered architects in your area of France and you can find this via their web site. Alternatively if you have engaged the services of a builder they maybe able to recommend an architect for you.

How do I check him out, when I can’t spend time in France looking at previous work he has done?

Your potential architect should be able to email you examples of his work and or put you in touch with past and current clients that you could talk to in order to establish their satisfaction level with his service.

How expensive are they?

Architects are trained designers and their fees are generally based on a percentage of the project cost. This is a tried and tested method that has been recommended by the architects professional body and has been adjusted over many years to reflect the return that a practicing architect requires to earn a reasonable living. Generally there are two fee scales, one for existing buildings and one for new work. because the first is more complex the percentage is usually at a higher rate than for new work. The fee will also reflect the complexity of the project and as every architectural project is very individual fees may vary to reflect this. However as a general guide for a domestic project the fee is likely to be around 12% for a loft conversion and 10% for a new house. The fee can be considerably reduced if you are willing to take on dealings with the builder and other sub contractors yourself.

Are there English-speaking architects?

There are English-speaking architects all over France many of which advertise in English magazines and on web sites aimed at the British community in France. Alternatively the Ordre des Architectes could help you find an English or English-speaking architect.

Is there an equivalent to RIBA in France and does it protect me?

In order for an architect to practice in France they must be registered with the Ordre des Architectes. They must also carry an up to date insurance which is required by the Ordres des Architectes in order to allow them to practice. You can ask to see a copy of an architects registration with the ODA or a copy of their insurance.

What happens if I am not happy with their work?

Your architect should act as a professional adviser to and agent for you throughout the design and building process if required. Any problems should be able to be resolved between the architect and the client throughout this process. However if you really are unhappy with your architect then you should be able to cut off his services at any time though you may have to pay him for work done up to that point unless he has been negligent or not fulfilled his services as outlined in any agreement with you.

Will they help us through planning consents and permissions and can they manage the project?

An architect can provide design advice, final design drawings, make the planning application, prepare specifications, contract documents, carry out project management and determine completion of the project. However the architect’s contribution to your project extends far beyond form and aesthetics, it can influence perception, performance and value. A sound working relationship between you and your architect will contribute significantly to the success of your project.

Do they recommend builders and contractors?

Architects will work closely with a number of builders and sub-contractors and should be able to put you in contact with these services in order to obtain estimates or the architect can obtain them on your behalf.

How can Fabrick 22 Builders Dinan, Brittany help?

Fabrick 22 work closely in hand with professional architects and should you wish can put you in touch personally with an architect to suit your project. They can then liaise between you and your architect to arrive at a completed project personally tailored to suit your requirements.

Brittany architect Andrew Allen has a close association with Fabrick 22 and both businesses are now based in the same building in Salle Gourdine,Dinan. The two long-established enterprises, although separate entities, have worked closely together on a number of past projects. Because they work closely together they can offer a more client friendly, complete service for all building related issues under one roof. To find out more about the services offered by Fabrick 22 see the Architect Brittany page of their website at www.fabrick22.com/builder-dinan-brittany/architecture/.

How About a Ratchet Spinner for Your Racquetball Racket – A New Concept

Have you ever noticed that when you are playing racquetball that you have all sorts of nervous energy? That is to say as the other person is running for the ball, or serving, your body starts shaking in anticipation of your next move. What if you could take that nervous energy and do something with it? What do I have in mind you ask? Well, I have an idea for a new piece of equipment for the game of racquetball. Something I think would make it more exciting, fun to play, and keep your mind, body, and soul 110% in the game at all times.

What if your racquetball handle had a ratchet on it? What if you could spin it with your wrist, allowing it to wind up, before you hit the next shot? This might be something like pumping a shotgun before you get your next target, or how the old gunslingers used to spin their old Colt 45s on their fingers. Have you ever put a socket on to a bolt, and spun the ratchet? It would be similar to this, and then when you are ready to hit the shot you would stop moving your wrist, and it would pop and lock into place.

However during the time you were spinning the ratchet, you would be winding up the energy in the racquetball racket, and then as you move it forward to hit the ball it would act more like a giant rubber band. This would allow you to hit the ball harder and faster based on how many times you spun the ratchet around on that handle prior to hitting the ball. This would mean whoever was serving would want to serve the ball very quickly not to allow you very much time to rev- up the ratchet on your racket.

It would make the game more dynamic, as well as provide for a faster pace of play. Am I trying to reinvent the wheel or the racket rather in this case? Yes, I guess, but then again; no, not really. However, last time I went to a local gym they had a set of racquetball courts, and I noticed no one was playing for over two hours while I was there. Why I asked myself? It is because racquetball has lost its nuance, and it has lost its flair, and fewer people are playing the sport these days. Maybe this could kick it back into high gear with this small innovative change in equipment. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on it.

The History Of World Movie

The history of world movie goes back quite early, to around the later part of 1800. It is now more than hundred years since the movies have paved the golden path of success. Movies have developed through these long years of experiments and innovations. Technology has contributed vastly towards the development of the world cinema. From the time it started its glorious journey to this date world movies have captured millions and millions of heart all over the world with its magic. The charm of cinema has practically cast a spell on the audience world over.

A brief history

The journey of world movie began with the silent era. Silent era implies that the films were made without using any sound or dialogues, as the technology of sound in cinema was not developed at that nascent stage. There were no devices to synchronize sound with the image, so for the first thirty years of its birth the cinema remained silent until the development of sound technology in the late 1920s.

The first ten years of the world movie was more or less unorganized, but gradually it started to become an established industry by itself. The films represented a switch over from films consisting of one shot, totally made by one person with a handful of assistants, to movies which are several minutes long, consisting of several scenes, which were made by large companies in professional methods.

The most successful film company in the United States which had the largest production unit until 1900, was the American Mutoscope company. This company used to project peep show kind of movies. This kind of projection was done with the help of a machine called Mutoscope. During that time there were numerous other small time movie producers in the United States of America but some of them established a longer presence in the field of cinema making at the advent of the century.

France was not far behind US in the field of movie making. Lumiere was the one of the first companies to shoot movie scenes outside the studio. They also sent their cameramen allover the world to shoot films. Georges Meilies was the largest producer of feature films in France. He started using various effects such as trick effects from as early 1898. Later on many other film makers went on to use other new effects which became very successful.

The first movie cameras which were used to film shots, were tied or fixed on the tripod with the most basic kind of levelling devices provided. The earliest movie cameras were effectively fixed during the period of a film shot. But the first camera movements were made by mounting a camera on a moving vehicle.

The standard pattern for early film studio was adapted from the style of studio which Georges Meilies built in May of 1897 which had three glass walls and a glass roof. It was fitted with thin cotton cloths stretched under the glass roof to diffuse the direct rays of the sun. The history of world cinema underwent a long process of creation, research and application of new techniques. Innumerable methods have been tried and applied to make film making one of the greatest and finest performing arts in the world.

LED There Be Light With LED Flood Lights

Flood lights are a great means for any homeowner to illuminate an outdoor space for security reasons by deterring intruders or simply as an outdoor lighting feature for outdoor parties and pool lighting. Most times, they are also used as a means of accentuating key architectural features of a building. Flood lights can be classified into three types, façade which are used as accents; sign which are used to emphasize a signage; and general area which is used for security reasons and sporting events.

No matter what the purpose is, lights have found its own niche market in the lighting industry. Moreover, consumers have also become more discerning and critical about the type of flood lights they use. After all lighting does have its own set of challenges and issues. Some of these include power supply, maintenance and installation. Furthermore, concerns about the ecological footprints of such products have become one of the consumers' main concerns. Other than that is cost-effectiveness as well as durability.

Thanks to LED technology and the people behind it, all of these concerns have been addressed and now consumers are provided with a huge array of LED lights options that will certainly guarantee their satisfaction.

LED technology has been given much hype and all for the best reasons. In terms of using it for lights, the advantages are just as abundant. First of all, LED lights consume less energy than regular choices such as fluorescent, incandescent and high intensity discharge (HID) bulbs. They are also durable and can last a long time. Manufacturers guarantee a 50,000-hour life span. The lights themselves are efficient in producing instant maximum brightness-this is perfect if the flood light is utilized for security lighting and is attached to a sensor. Furthermore, LED lights do not have filaments or any moving parts since they are completely maintenance-free. They also do not generate heat or UV rays.

You can also choose your lighting from a variety of featured options across the many brands in the market today. Watts can range from 11 to 300. Light distribution is also customized from spot to medium and wide flood. LED lights come in various shades of white including bright white, which is exactly like that produced by a blue-tinted fluorescent tub, soft-white, which is similar to incandescent lighting that gives off a yellowish light, and daylight, which is so bright that it is mostly used for security flood lights. Housing finishes can also be varied. OF course, they are also waterproof and made of durable materials to enable them to stand harsh outdoor conditions like rain and snow.

Yes, the price of LED flood lights may seem expensive compared to the non-LED ones but consider it as a wise investment in your part since you will be compensated in savings and trouble later on.

Features you might want to consider for your LED flood lights are dimmability (although not all have this feature), automation, remote controls and of course, warranty.

LED flood lights are, without a doubt, the best choice for your outdoor needs.

Mechanical Engineering Design: The Role of DFM and DFA

What is Design for Manufacturing?

Essentially, DFM refers to the best practices being followed in the design of end products, parts and machine components which greatly reduces the cost of manufacture because it takes care of several factors including raw material costs, tolerances, quality methodologies being used (SPSS, Six Sigma etc.), and testing procedures. It gives a whole new fillip to product design because its main role is to help identify stress and strain factors in the product in advance, while providing a means to map and monitor defects avoidance. It further visualizes any possible ergonomic aspects which can impact the usability of the end product and future sustenance requirements. Basically, DFM is one of the best ways to achieve cost leadership, quality assurance and fulfilling sales objectives.

Some of the ways DFM can help reduce costs and achieve better design:

• Using common datum features and primary axes

• Tapping into existing marketing knowledge, DFSS techniques, process capabilities

• Optimized design to ensure fast production-readiness

• Better symmetry in design

What is Design for Assembly?

Design for Assembly (DFA) refers to the best practices being followed in the design of end products, parts and machine components which ensures reduction in overall costs during assembly. It follows the principle that individual components are more difficult to design, than final assemblages. A lot of costs can be saved if the design keeps in mind the final assembled product instead of singular parts. The Sony Walkman was one of the first products to follow DFA principles which explains its rapid popularity and uptake in the early 1990s. DFA allows more flexibility in terms of incorporating product safety features and workmanship. This plays out in the following ways:

• Rapid fastening of features

• Minimized relocation of parts and components

• Saving of money in material costs

• No repetitive work

• Testing the assembled product in initial conditions such as temperature, humidity, vibrations etc.

• Part controls

In order to meet functional requirements of product manufacturing, assembly design has to be more seamless. As a result, DFM and DFA often come together in what is today known as Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA).

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

Design and process improvements sit at the heart of a successful product development initiative. The basic way to do it is through minimization of parts involved in design. DFMA analysis is based on knowledge behavior where functional design has to be taken into account. DFMA analysis helps align the marketing position of the company with cost, purchase and material requirements. Some of the factors that are taken into account include:

• Understanding the movement of all parts and components with respect to their neighboring parts and components

• Understanding the material requirements of various parts and knowing about replacement procedures

• Reducing complexity of design to an easy level so that best value can be derived from the entire operation

• Achieving final value

In Conclusion

Mechanical engineering services are focusing on details of value engineering where “small is increasingly better” and migration from old methods to new is in vogue through legacy conversion. Increasingly, Design for Manufacturing and Design for Assembly are seen as the best ways to get results.

Classy London UK Hotels

London may not give guarantee for sunshine. But Londoners and people visiting London have a wonderful journey while discovering different gardens in the city. It is a city having luscious plants and shady trees. The gardens of London offer a refreshing angle to the city. To enjoy the wonderful summer of London there are many design hotels in London. These London hotels have a different style and are chic and refreshing.

Located at the top of the impressive Park Lane district, The Cumberland is a design hotel. The lobby of this hotel has avant-garde sculpture, a wall of flowing water, and screens behind the reception desk that project modernistic images. Rhodes W1 is run and owned by the famous chef Gary Rhodes. You can have pre and post dinner ambience at the Kua Bar. There are 1,019 rooms in this hotel having airy, contemporary design and are decorated with either bright green and blue, or red and pink color schemes. The rooms have laptop-compatible desks, in-room safe, coffeemakers and refrigerators. They also provide flat-screen televisions, and high-speed wire and wireless internet access. The en-suite bathrooms have Molton Brown toilets and heated towel racks.

The May Fair hotel in London is located one block from the Green Park Underground Station in the May Fair area of ​​London. It has a beautiful ruby-laden Baccarat chandelier in the hotel's lobby that displays diversity Russian, Thai, and Vietnamese objects d'art. The Amba bar and grill serves British cuisine. All the 406 rooms are air-conditioned having contemporary decor featuring Asian designs. The rooms have Italian-designed Cattelan beds with leather headboards and built-in reading lamps. The en-suite bathrooms and dressing rooms are made of marble and provide Gilchrist & Soames toilets.

The Apex City of London Hotel is a modern hotel housed in a large, glass-clad building. The rooms are decorated in contemporary style, having a bold color scheme. The furniture is made of wood having bedsteads, writing desks and coffee tables. The rooms are equipped with air conditioning, a TV, a coffee / tea maker and a CD player.

In west end of London is the A Morgan's Hotel. It is a hotel having a world of fantasy among the history of London. It is housed in a 1950s Sanderson building which has lush landscape interior courtyard garden. All the 150 rooms are unique and revolutionary. They character sleigh beds, a carpet inspired by Voltaire's handwriting and oil paintings of comfortable landscape panoramas hung on the ceiling. The loving bathrooms are surrounded in a floor-to-ceiling glass box, covered with layers of sheer curtains. Few of the rooms have views of the London cityscape while other rooms have the view of the courtyard garden.

Park Plaza Sherlock Holmes London UK Hotel is a classy hotel located in the famous Baker Street. It is housed in Victorian townhouse. There are 119 guest rooms having oak furniture, knotted rugs, and beds dressed with Egyptian sheets. Many of the rooms have wood-paneled floors. There is satellite television and high-speed wired, wireless and dial-up internet along with coffeemakers and mini bars. The en-suite bathrooms are contemporarily designed having sliding frosted-glass doors, bathrobes and designer toiletries.

The fashionable Andaz Liverpool Street London is located near the Liverpool Street Station. Andaz's 267 climate-controlled rooms are decorated in a discreet style. The rooms have wireless internet connections; satellite TV, telephone, mini bars and the bathrooms are stocked with bathrobes and designer toiletries.

Threadneedles Hotel is just opposite the Bank of England. This hotel has 69 air-conditioned rooms decorated in warm tones. The limestone bathrooms have bathrobes and spectical architect toiletries.

Building a House – Tips for New Construction

To build a house is a complex project that will require many subcontractors, suppliers and workers. The general construction of a building or its supervision needs adequate knowledge and skill. Another thing that is highly essential is technique known as tried- and- true. It is well known that home designing, planning and strategies and building of a home take much time and could be highly strenuous to you and your entire family in case you want to shoulder every responsibility on its general construction.

To make new home plans is quite a great work by itself. To supervise the general construction and relate with many people that are involved in the home constructions and building, is not an easy task.

A good plan for every step in building your home is the master key for the project to be successful. Make a good blueprint at the beginning of your building construction to enable you to oversee the project from your TV directly. You will be able to know the exact cost of the construction that will complete the building project.

In order to ease yourself from stress, you will need to sublet the project to an architect or builder as your contractor. In case you want to act as Owner Builder, that is you carry out the builder function by yourself, then you need to be extra ordinary careful so that the work load will not be too much for you.

There are some important things you need to know as an owner builder, which can equalize you to homebuilder. Such as what you can do to stop the technique of assembly line construction of your builder, this is in order not to be in the same level as the value and the workmanship that you will take.

Another thing you need to know is how to know the truth and how reliable your homebuilder is concerning the superior value claim and the satisfaction of the customer.

Then, you need to have the knowledge of the way to stop the development of mold, which is very rampant in new houses. This is the strategy that is used by some home sellers in order to up-sell and make you waste thousands of dollars for nothing. You should know the effectiveness of your building attorneys in this general construction.

As your personal contractor , with all the above techniques, you should be able to save up to 40% of the home building costs which youought to have given to outside contractors.

As a contractor, you should know the total cost of roofing, the cost of a house, the comfortability, and energy-efficiency. You should ensure that you make all these appear in black and white before laying your hands on any tools or instruments for construction. You should also know the amount you will spend to buy a piece of land and building a complete house.

With all these, you need to be well organized and be patient in order to build a successful home and make a good project. The necessary idea you must have in building a house is to go through the checklist of building a home to get the best idea for general construction of your home in order to have a good, perfect and excellent project.

Understanding More About Money Transfer Services

More and more money transfer services are becoming available. This is much due to the internet. These businesses are able to provide online services that help create a more convenient and quick service.

First, there is the bank. Your bank offers a variety of ways to transfer money. It could be within your own accounts or to another person's account. They also offer wire transfers that are quicker and are even available for non member for larger fee than customers.

Next, there are money transfer services that are providing websites along with their professional services in the office. Many companies that have been transferring money for decades have notated they can increase their options to customers through the internet. You can call to start a money transfer or come into the office as usual. It is even easier to use the internet and set up an account. Put money into the account to transfer from a credit card, debit card or you're banking account.

Information you often need to start your process is the amount to transfer, where to transfer it and the recipient's name. Let the recipient know to have a photo ID when picking up the money and give them the access number that goes with the transaction. They often do not have to have this tracking number, but it could make things easier for everyone.

Finally, there are other money transfer services that are starting to become popular that are based on the internet. Three include PayPal, Google Check Out and XOOM. These money transfer services often just take a few days total for the transaction to be complete, even if sending money overseas. These types of money transfer services typically allow you to send money to anyone with an email address. You sign up for the service and add on your credit card or banking account to help you add money to your money transfer service account.

Always ask how long it will take to transfer the money. This is important if you need the money you are transferring to arrive quickly. Any money transfer service you should check on all the details from fees, transfer time and other options available. Remember to check as well if you can transfer money overseas and to another country if that's want you need. Not every service is available in every country.

3PL Logistics Solutions for Better Warehousing and Distribution

What is 3PL Logistics?

The term 3PL stands for third party logistics. It is a process that refers to the outsourcing of supply chain functions and logistics functions to a third-party provider. When one engages in a product manufacturing business, the process of shipping logistics becomes vital. There are many businesses that have ties with contract warehousing, commercial carriers, government postal services and various airlines to get their products shipped from the manufacturing facility all the way to the end customer. However, when the product is ready to ship, the 3PL logistics collect the package and conveniently deliver it to the end customer. The total shipping costs is billed by the service carrier to the business handling department. The third party logistics specializes in transportation and shipping, in turn saving the overall costs of the business and their need to invest in trucks, planes or employees to transport the goods or packages.

In brief, 3PL is a platform in logistics that manages and outsources goods of one company to another company. In the international business market, companies offering third-party logistics have gained a lot of popularity. They are becoming dominant in the field of supply chain management. The support and services that is provided by a third-party company normally include consolidation services, freight, delivery of freight and warehousing and distribution. 3PL services offer logistics solutions to domestic as well as international transactions.


Contract warehousing or also widely known as warehousing and distribution is another method that conveniently outsources to third party logistics. This facility is useful for those businesses that want to efficiently devote their time and efforts to other important priorities like sales, manufacturing and designing of the products. Basically, a third-party warehousing service reduces the number of employees needed and also the amount of space needed for a business to function smoothly.

Advantages of 3PL Logistics

The main advantage of 3PL system is the transportation of goods and products along the supply chain. This logistics includes the proper shipping of items along with handling of paperwork that is related with the shipments.

Another advantage is the concept of third-party outsourcing. When a company hires another logistics organization to manage the shipping and distribution part of the business, the company saves its costs on many aspects. It also improves the quality of the products that are designed and manufactured. Most of the companies believe that 3PL service providers offer quality supply chain services instead of running some functions internally.

3PL logistics system brings many other advantages like less manpower and fewer business headaches. Having a self-business and being an owner of a company, one needs to do everything possible to ensure the profit margin remains intact and profitable. Third-party logistics definitely scrutinizes every problem and provides a solution to everyone’s needs.

7 Specific Ways to Distribute Your Finances to Achieve Long Term Wealth

Ask the average person what money management means to them and the usual response will be along the lines of ‘Pay off all the Bills on time and try to save whatever is left over.’ – Not very inspiring nor sound like much fun huh? Here I outline a simple way to change the way you look at and treat money. An efficient and practical way to manage and monitor your finances and get out of debt, which is also fun and if done consistently…the long term rewards will be extraordinary.

Below are the 7 ways you should be distributing your money. – If you can, setup 7 separate Bank Accounts for each specific use, otherwise 7 Jars, Boxes or any feasible containers will work just as well to get you started. Be sure to do this on a regular basis which you must maintain i.e. Either daily,weekly or monthly.

1. Investments:

Allocate 10% of your money to be put aside solely for Investing. Only ever use these funds to purchase Investments. These investments should either generate you ongoing ‘residual income’ or capital appreciation/growth i.e. sell on for a profit. Once you gather enough funds/capital, purchase the respective investment and then start building up again until you have enough for the next one and keep repeating the cycle. This is by far your most important fund as it this that will ultimately work towards achieving your Financial freedom/Independence.

2. Long Term Savings:

5% of your money should be allocated for ‘one off’ purchases such as Cars, Clothes, Home Furnishings, Home Improvement, Home Entertainment. This should also be used for Vacations abroad/long getaways.

3. Long Term Expenses:

Another 5% should be allocated for any ongoing small Debt, usually Credit Cards or small Personal Loans.

4. Necessities:

These are your major living expenses and thus 55% will be allocated to this; Mortgage/Rent, Car Loan, Utility Bills, Food, Petrol/Travel Expenses, Subscriptions…you get the picture…

5: Education:

10% of your money is to be allocated to your continuous learning of Financial intelligence and Personal Development. This is very important as you can never stop learning and improving yourself. This would include; Books, DVD/CDs, Seminars, Workshops, required Travel and Accommodation expenses, Training Material and so on…

6: Fun:

This is another important fund. Life as you know is too short and if you don’t treat/reward yourself every now and again along the way, it can feel very laborious and get very boring. – 10% of your money goes here and at the end of every week/month/quarter you must blow the whole lot on a treat of your choice e.g. your favourite restaurant, the theatre, spa treatment. – You are only limited by your creativity…The idea being that you really enjoy yourself and acknowledge that you have put money aside specifically for this, and you don’t feel guilty about it!

7: Charity:

Wealth is to be shared, 5% goes towards giving back to those more needy. You can either make this a regular contribution or save and build towards a large donation to charities/causes of your choice. – The more you give back, the more you will receive…

Please don’t presume you need a lot of money to start doing this either, because you do not…You can start with very small amounts, the importance is making it a habit. Even starting with a small amount, the law of compounding will slowly grow it into something substantial. Teach this to your kids from an early age and just watch how quickly their financial intelligence will grow as well as their fortune!

4 Ways to Start a Fire Without Matches Or a Lighter

Starting a fire is essential to your survival, without a fire you can not keep yourself warm, you can not cook or boil water, and you cant dry out clothes and shoes that are soaked. Having a fire is also a way to boost morale especially after a catastrophic event such as the collapse of civilization. Remember before starting a fire with any of these methods it's important to have all the available materials available. You want your logs, kindling and smaller twigs and paper along the fire so it's easy to grab once your fire starts, you might only have one shot at doing this. You may also need to create something called a "bird's nest", simply put this is a gather of dry grass, leaves, or whatever material you can find that burns very easily and can be bundled together to look like a nest, hence the name .

Magnifying glass

One way to get a fire going is with a magnifying glass. I recommend using a smaller one as this will take up less space when traveling, and many of the smaller versions come with their own protective cases built in to protect the lens from scratches. To use a magnifying glass to start a fire, first build your bird's nest using dry grass, paper, whatever you can find. Then placing the bird's nest on the ground align your magnifying glass to the sun. The glass will concentrate the sun's rays into a much smaller focal point causing that area to heat up very quickly. Once you see smoke starting gently blow on the bird's nest until you see fire, then start adding you're kindling on top

Steel wool and a battery

One of the easiest ways to start a fire is with a 9 volt battery and steel wooI .''ve used different brands of steel wool such as the SOS pads, but the generic brand I found the best because it does not have the added cleaning agent in it. To do this simply take a piece of steel wool and start opening it up, the goal is to turn it into a bowl like shape. Once this is done fill that bowl with easily burnable material such as dry grass, leaves, paper etc. Now taking the 9 volt battery touch the top end of the battery (The end with the positive and negative ends) to the steel wool. Very quickly the wool will catch on fire, allow a couple seconds for the fire to spread and start to burn the dry kindling before you add more.

Magnesium fire starter

If you're using a magnesium fire starter you do not need to needlessly make a bird's nest, but there are a couple extra things to consider when using one. First find a flat piece of cardboard, bark, or other easily burnable material, this is what you will use to place your filings on, do not just have the filings fall into the dirt because they will get buried in there and become ineffective. Using a saw blade or file not a knife blade (This will quickly dull your knife unless you have no other choice) starts shaving the flat side of the fire starter. Make sure to avoid injury that the saw blade is moving away from your fingers not towards it. Continue this motion until you have a pile of filings a little larger then a quarter (Loonie if you're Canadian), of course you can also go a little bigger if you feel that is not large enough. Remember to keep those filings together, what your essentially doing with them is creating kindling, magnesium burns very hot and fast (About 5000 degrees), and keeping them together will allow them to burn longer.'T strike the flint. The filings will go up very quickly so remember to have your kindling very close by. Once its lit start adding your kindling, do not heap it on top all at once but add a piece at a time allowing the fire to start burning each piece. Throwing everything on all at once is a good way to kill your fire before it has a chance to catch.

Pop Can Or Beer Can

In the post apocalypse world discarded pop or beer cans should be very easy to find. To use this you're going to need a can, something to polish the bottom of the can with, a small piece of flammable material such as paper or cloth, and a roach clip or small object to hold the paper or cloth such as a small twig. First you need to polish the bottom of the can, it's important that it's not scratched as this will act as a mirror to collect the sun's heat. One way to polish it is to use tooth paste and some toilet paper since neither one is abrasive enough to really scratch up the can. After polishing the can for about 45 minutes to an hour you then want to align the can so that the sun's rays are running parallel and will allow it to collect heat. To ensure its parallel you want the shadow of the can to be as small as possible, the smaller the more in line to the suns rays it will be.

Once your can is aligned you want to find the focal point, or where the sun's rays will be most concentrated on the can, you can check this by moving your finger a couple of inches above the can until you find the hottest point. Then take your flammable material (paper, cloth, etc) place it on your twig or small stick and position it at the focal point, remember that you want the twig, roach clip or whatever you decide to use as small as possible to reduce the amount of shadow cast onto the can, obviously the more shadow means the less heat will be collected. If this is done right your flammable object should start to smoke fairly quickly, once it does place it into your bird's nest (which you should have made already) and gently blow until it catches fire.

An important note to remember when using the sun as you're source to start a fire is to always use protective eyewear. The last thing you want to have happen in the post apocalypse is to permanently damage your eyes.

To learn about post apocalypse survival check out my website The Razors Edge a post apocalypse survival guide for additional information and tips to you prepare.