How to Choose the Right Outdoor Fireplace Designs

Whenever you deal with ideas of an out door fireplace, first you have to note which decor element is really needed to be honed on and about which design is appropriate to your house. The fire places are not only for the old fashioned homes or any traditional ones, but also for contemporary brand new dazzling houses. The main priority of any fire place design that you consider should be the one that fit well with the normal design of the house.

With many of the choices available you may be obviously confused, so it is better to concentrate and think what you really want. Even mixing and matching of elements can be used for fire place designing. You may select the heart and face from one particular style, and then select the mantel from a different design. This will really be interesting and so you can customize your fire place. You can talk to a consultant who probably would help you put all the pieces together which would give a perfect look to the fire place.

Always you should try to find a style and design that does not affect the budget. Cost is the main consideration when we deal with the idea of ​​the fire place design. If you do not get an apt design for your fire place you should just customize it as you desire. If the fire place that you dreamed is really beyond your financial terms, then think of customizing using materials of lower prices, such as reflecting oak for pine. You may also add some small touches which may show some improvements with the materials which will give a more opulent look than ever before.

When you have decided to work on a design and as soon as it is installed you can feel the roaring fire which sends the warm vibes all around. All the members of the family, relatives and friends would get to enjoy the most beautiful ambience that lasts for a long time. By keeping all these in mind you will be able to make a boring area of ​​concrete in to an interesting and exciting place, which every one would love to be around.

Essential Parts of a Printed Circuit Board

The essential components of a printed circuit board are:

– Base Material: It is a thin board of non-conductive laminate material, rigid or flexible, which supports all conductors and components: and,
– Conductor: High purity of copper in the form of thin strips that firmly attached to the base material.

The base material provides mechanical support to the copper areas and components attached to the copper. The electrical properties of the completed circuit depend upon the dielectric properties of the base material and must therefore, be selected and controlled.

The conductors provide not only the electrical connections between components but also mechanical support for components once soldered.

When the completed board provides mechanical support and all necessary electrical connections to the components, it is essentially a Printed Circuit Board or Printed Wiring Board. The term printed becomes popular because the constructive areas are usually generated by means of a printing process like photo-engraving, which are commonly used to print drawing.

Tin-Lead soldering has been the basis for interconnections since the beginning of the use of printed circuits, and all associated materials and processes have been developed with the use of that material in mind. But now, a rapid change to lead-free technology revolution has gotten much more attention, there have also been important evolutionary changes in the technology as the industry continues to meet the need for higher circuit and component density and faster circuit. As a result, printed circuit boards continue to be designed to be ever smaller, or larger to suit the requirements of specific applications such as server space. Printed Circuit Board will continue to change the electronic world and much smaller printed circuit board will be the challenges for most Board manufacturers.

Depression Refractory Mix For The Backyard Foundry.

This old time foundry refractory mix for crucible or cupola

furnaces was adopted by financially strapped foundry owners during the great depression, everyone suffered financial hardships during those days, so there was a lot of improvisation going on, now the backyard founder can save money making a home brew just like the old timers did.

First off, you need to make up a mixture of grog, i.e. slag free old broken firebricks, break them up into 50%-pea size & 50 % Walnut size. Place the grog mix in a large bucket or drum, and fill the drum with water until the grog is well covered; leave to soak until there is no sign of air bubbles.

Follow the next few steps carefully, as the amounts are made up by volume& not weight.

Take “three volumes” of the now very wet 50/50-grog mix and add “two volumes” of good fire clay. (The measuring volumes can be made up of anything from a small tin to a large bucket, depending on the quantity you may need) Mix thoroughly and temper it like moulding sand with a water glass mix of 50% water glass & 50% water. Water glass is the old name given for sodium silicate.

The final grog and fireclay mix should have about 6% moisture, it should easily form into a ball in your hands, if it’s crumbly, it is too dry, and you may need to add more water. But watch carefully as you don’t want to let it become like mud. Finally put your mix under plastic, and let it sweat & age for about 72 hours, or about three days. Now comes the part where you can actually begin to install the mixture in your cupola or gas fired furnace.

With the inner metal or wooden former in place, the mix can now be placed around the furnace wall cavity and gently rammed into place until the lining is complete. Smooth it of on top and then leave to air dry for a day or so.

Before you start ramming the mixture, to help drainage and ventilation later on when you cure the refractory, drill a series of 1/4″ holes through the outer shell to help vent any moisture when the mixture is drying out. After a couple of days, you can light a small fire in the furnace and start to slowly dry & cure the refractory lining.

The drying stage is about the most important part of the whole process, and it needs to be printed bold. IF YOU DRY THE REFRACTORY OUT TOO FAST, IT WILL CRACK & SPALL, and ruin all your good work.

When the steam ceases from the vent holes, build a bigger fire up to where the melting bed or zone is. (10″ to 14″ from the bottom of the cupola Furnace) Turn the blower on, this will increase the heat and vitrify or glaze the rammed mix into a solid lining.

It is advisable to not use Borax while glazing the lining, borax is a flux and will have the effect of dissolving the lining, and you don’t want that to happen. This home brew refractory lining you’ve made and installed in your furnace should never need replacing, except for the area around where the melting zone takes place. In which you may have to replace a small ring after every melt session is complete.

In a gas fired furnace it will last for many, many years.

Good Luck.

Col Croucher.

I Know What You Did Last Session: Basic Applied Cryptography

While Janet was sitting in a cyber café sending emails to friends and surfing the web, there was a person sitting three tables away reading each email she sent before they ever got to the email server. During this period of time, the thief was able to get access to her bank account, passwords to several business websites, and her credit card number. Now imagine that you were the on sitting in the café. This scenario is not far from reality and is the main reason that using cryptography is so important in today’s technological world. Identity theft is a growing problem and there are ways you can help protect yourself frombecoming the victim.

Most people think that cryptography is an island in the magical land of make believe. However, cryptography is very real and not as complex as most would believe. If you use the Internet, you are likely to use applied cryptography in your day-to-day functions. This can be accessing you bank account to retrieve your monthly balance to purchasing automotive parts from a warehouse or manufacturer. Companies use cryptography to make sure sensitive data stays confidential between the intended parties and the data stays intact. Cryptography is the art of converting messages into a secret code or cipher. This process alters a plaintext message using an algorithm to create a ciphertext/encrypted message.

History of Ciphers

Cryptography has been in use for thousands of years. In fact, it was in use before 2000 B.C. Egypt in the form of hieroglyphs. The Greeks even used encryption referred to as the Scytale cipher and was worn as a belt by couriers. The Scytale was designed a combination of a long strip of leather with writing on it and a specific sized staff. This leather strip would be wrapped around the staff to decrypt the ciphertext. Julius Caesar also used a cryptographic algorithm referred to as ROT-3. This encryption shifts the alphabet three spaces to the right and was very effective at the time.

Applied Cryptography

Ok, but how does it affect you? The basic uses of cryptography are to provide confidentially (secrecy of the data), integrity (protection from intentional or unintentional alteration), and authentication (prove you are who you say you are). Some forms even allow for Nonrepudiation services that prove that the message was written, sent, or received. We will briefly discuss the most commonly used cryptographic schemes that you may use every day while leaving the trivial details out.

You will hear the terms X.509 and digital certificates (used in digital signatures) throughout this paper. Digital certificates are used in the same way a real signature is used as a verification of endorsement. The most well know companies that sell these certificates are:

o Verisign –

o Thwarte –

(Offers free personal email digital certificates)

Internet traffic (Securing website traffic and email)

HTTPS: Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secured Socket Layer. Do not mistake HTTPS with SSL. This is a common misnomer that is spread by those that do not understand SSL. HTTPS uses SSL to create an encrypted tunnel between a client and a server. This tunnel lasts the entire connection and is the most common website security feature on the Internet. This form of encryption is established by the use of a server side X.509 certificate that digitally signs the message.

S/MIME: Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Exchange. S/MIME uses two X.509 certificates (also called digital signature) and both signs and encrypts the email. The author digitally signs the email with their private key. Once this happens, the message is then encrypted with the recipient’s public key and sent. When the message reaches the recipient the message is decrypted with the recipient’s private key, and then verified using the author’s public key. This ensures that people using a packet sniffer (a program that allows a person to view traffic crossing the network) do not see your account information. Email clients like Netscape Communicator and Microsoft Outlook can use S/MIME with little setup required.

S-HTTP: Secured HTTP. The benefit of S-HTTP over HTTPS is the fact that each message is encrypted rather then using a tunnel that is vulnerable to both a man-in-the-middle and a session hijack attack. Another advantage of S-HTTP is that it allows for two-way client/server authentication

Tunneling encryption (Securing network traffic)

IPSec: IP Security Protocol is the most commonly used network encryption for the corporate world. When most people in the computer industry think about Virtual Private Networks (VPN)s, they immediately think of IPSec. Companies that use IPSec need an encrypted tunnel that allows all network traffic to flow through. Unlike SSL, IPSec is not limited to a port. Once the IPSec tunnel has been established, the system should have the same network access that it would have at the physical location. This offers far more power, but also requires far more overhead. Another issue is security. The more open the network, the more vulnerable it is. This is another reason why VPNs are usually on the outside of a firewall. Vulnerabilities to IPSec include session hijacking, and replay attacks.

SSH: Secure Shell provides a terminal like tunnel that protects the data crossing the network and should replace clear text protocols like Telnet and FTP. This allows you to connect to a server over the Internet securely over the Internet and administer remote systems without allowing the rest of the world to see everything you are doing. One of the most popular windows SSH clients is Putty.

SSL: Secured Socket Layer can be used to create a single port/socket Virtual Private Network (VPN) using a server side X.509 certificate. The most common use of SSL is webpage traffic over HTTP or HTTPS. SSL is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. Anyone can create a CA to distribute certificates, but keep in mind that a digital certificate is only as trustworthy as the CA that controls the certificate.

WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy. This algorithm uses either a 40-bit key or a 128-bit (24 of the bits is used for the initialization vector) key. Most devices also allow for a wireless access point to filter MAC addresses to increase access controls onto the device. WEP is vulnerable and has been exploited by criminal hackers (crackers) while wardriving since WEP has hit the market. Some of the more popular tools used for wardriving are: Airopeek – a WiFi packet sniffer Airsnort – a WEP encryption key recovery tool Kismet – an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector Netstumbler – an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector

WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access is a new standard that will overtake the old WEP technology in the near future. WPA uses a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) for SOHO networks, and Extensible Authentication Protocol for other wired/wireless networks for authentication. Some cryptoanalysts claimPSK is a weakness due to the fact that a cracker can access the key and brute force the key until it is known. The encryption scheme that is used is Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). TKIP ensures more confidentiality and integrity of the data by using a temporal key instead ofthe traditional static key. Most people welcome this technology over the less secure WEP.

File access (Securing individual files)

Stenography: Stenography is the art of concealing files or messages in other media such as a .JPG image or .MPG video. You can add this data in the unused bits of the file that can be seen by using a common hex editor. Stenography is the easiest way to hide a message, but is by far the least secure. Security by obscurity is like a lock on a car door. It is only intended to keep the honest people honest.

PGP: Pretty Good Privacy is a free program that was created by Philip Zimmerman in 1991 and was the first widely accepted public key system. PGP is suite of encryption tools used for encrypting various types of data and traffic. PGP can be used for S/MIME and digitally signing a message. PGP uses a web of trust that allows the community to trust a certificate rather than a hierarchy Certification Authority (CA) to verifythe user’s identification. More information can be found at

Personal/Freeware: This can be downloaded from MIT for free.

o Diffie-Hellman key exchange

o CAST 128 bit encryption

o SHA-1 hashing function

Commercial: PGP® Software Developer Kit (SDK) 3.0.3 has received Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Level 1 validation by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

o RSA key exchange

o IDEA encryption

o MD5 hashing function

CryptoAPI: Microsoft’s cryptography component that allows developers to encrypt data. Microsoft has also developed an ActiveX control called CAPICOM that will even allow script access to the CryptoAPI.

Each encryption model is vulnerable to one attack or another. Below is a list of attack techniques that are used by cryptoanalysts to break the keys used to protect the messages

Ciphertext-Only: This is the easiest to instigate, but hardest to succeed. The attacker retrieves the ciphertext data through listening to the network traffic. Once the key is has been salvaged, the cracker can attempt to brute force the message until it resembles something legible.

Known-Plaintext: This covers the scenario of the cracker having both the plaintext and corresponding ciphertext of one or more messages. In WWII, the Japanese relied on cryptography, but had a weakness of sending formal messages. These messages were able to be broken because the ciphertext started and ended with the same message. Part of the plaintext was known and cryptoanalysts were able to decipher the message using the known-plaintext method.

Chosen-Plaintext: Similar to the know-plaintext attack, but the attacker can choose the plaintext to be encrypted. An attacker can assume someone else identity and send a message to target that needs to be encrypted. Since the plaintext is chosen and the target sends the encrypted message, the chosen-plaintext attack is successful.

Chosen-Ciphertext: The cryptoanalyst is chooses the ciphertext and has access to the decrypted plaintext.

Birthday Paradox: This attack is successful when a hash value of a plaintext matches the hash value of a completely different plaintext. This anomaly is proven mathematically among 23 people, there are 23*22/2 = 253 pairs, each of which being a potential candidate for a match.

Brute-Force: This form of attack is implemented by passing through every possible solution or combination until the answer is found. This is the most resource and time intensive method of attack

Dictionary: The attacker compares the target hash values with hash values of commonly used passwords. Dictionary files can be downloaded from hundreds of Internet sites.

Man-in-the-Middle: The attacker intercepts messages between two parties without either target knowing that the link between them has been compromised. This allows the attacker to modify the message at will.

Replay: Replay attacks are simply the replay of captured data in an attempt to trick the target into allowing the unauthorized access.

Back at the cyber café, if Janet connected to a secured web server using SSL to do her online banking and used S/MIME to send private email, the cyber thief would have never had a chance of seeing her unmentionables.

Great Ideas for Small Modern Bathroom Designs

If you only have a small bathroom you will be looking to maximize the most of the space in the bathroom when remodeling. There are many ways you can make a room appear larger than it actually is. So here are some great ideas for small modern bathroom designs to help get you started.

Simple Minimal Designs Makes the Most of Your Space

All you have to do is fill in the form below. Therefore you should plan your bathroom with the least amount of clutter. Only have the bare essentials in the design, such as towel rail and cabinets. You should never clutter the bathroom with unwanted objects or decorations. You can hide away the necessary toilets in a bathroom cabinet so they are not on show. You might want to include the following ideas if your bathroom is big enough to accommodate them:

  • Use geometric tiles if tiling, preferably in a neutral light color, and hang a mirror that is geometric shaped on the wall;
  • Add in a long ceiling to floor mirror to add depth to the room;
  • Consider installing a corner tub or pedestal tub instead of the oval or take out the tub and just have a walk in shower.

Open Up the Bathroom and Bring Outdoors In

One of the ways to make a bathroom seem larger than it actually is, is to bring the outdoors in. However you are going to have to think about privacy issues here, so you may not be able to have a window with a view. You can get around this by hanging up a 3D picture window on the wall. You could have this at the side of the tub or facing the tub, depending on the layout of your bathroom. If you have enough space you could then introduce a couple of potted plants in white containers.

3D picture windows are put up like wallpaper, pasted onto the wall and generally come with many choices of views. For instance you might want to give the impression of the window looking out onto a beach with ocean and palm trees or a forest. It gives the impression that you are actually looking through a window due to the 3D window effect.

Clever Lighting and Plenty of It

A great way to make a small bathroom take a light and airy feel in a modern bathroom design is to make sure there is plenty of light. Natural light is best and preferably plenty of sunlight. If you do not have large windows in your bathroom you can introduce artificial lighting. You can get lighting that mimics the sun and which is said to make one feel better. You could also consider built in spotlights in the ceiling of the bathroom and for that romantic touch you could use battery lit candles to give the bathroom a glow as you bathe.

Let's Focus on Energy Efficient Lighting

Did you know that simply lighting your home can take up as much as 25% of your power bill? You may not notice that it's hard, if not impossible, to buy a "plain old light bulb" these days. That's because they're no longer being manufactured due to the government's new (as of 2012) energy efficiency standards. Old bulbs were extremely inefficient, giving off 90% more heat than light – a poor way to light a room. But with all of the new-fangled – and seemingly expensive – choices out there, how does one decide? Here are some things to think about as you decide what kind of energy efficient lighting you'd like in your home.


Halogen incandescent lights have a capsule inside which holds gas around a filament. This increases the bulb's light output. Halogen lights are available in many shapes and colors, and can be used with dimmers. These bulbs meet the federal minimum energy efficiency standard, but they're not only choice. There are many more economic and versatile choices available.

CFL (Compact Fluorescent Light)

Just like it sounds, these are fluorescent lights like the ones you might have in your garage that molded into shapes convenient for use in regular outlets. CFL lights are much more efficient than traditional incandescent lights, so the power you save by using them can add up. You'll save the cost of the bulb itself in just nine months. An Energy Star rated CFL used the the energy and lasts about 10 times longer. In addition a CFL only uses about 1/3 the energy that a halogen light does.

The downside to CFL lights is that not all of them are dimmer friendly. They also have a small amount of mercury inside, so they can not just be tossed in the trash. Like batteries, they require special handling when their lifetime is over. Some retailers recycle these bulbs, or you can check with your waste company to see how they prefer you dispose of CFL bulbs.

LED lighting

LED or light emitting diodes are solid state lighting. Inside the housing are semiconductors that convert electricity into light. At first these were mainly used for industrial applications like traffic lights. Today, they're one of the most energy efficient lighting choices. LED is also one of the most rapidly developing technologies.

ENERGY STAR-qualified LEDs use only 20% -25% of the energy and last up to 25 times longer than the traditional incandescent bulbs they replace. LEDs use 25% -30% of the energy and last 8 to 25 times longer than halogen incandescent bulbs.

LED bulbs have been manufactured to easily replace the typical 40, 60 and 75 watt bulbs. Since LED "light bulbs" are a new and developing trend they're more expensive for now. That said, they will still save you money because they last a long time and have very low energy use. As with other electronics, prices are expected to come down as more products enter the market.

We like LED lighting because despite the fact that it's new technology, it's surprisingly easy to install an LED fixture and these fixtures put out more light than you'd expect.

Brain Stretching

Stretching can be a difficult concept for humans to embrace. While most would agree that the idea of ​​stretching, whether it be in regards to muscles, thinking or creativity, is a good idea many of us have trouble practicing it ourselves. People are creatures of habit and when a pattern is learned and it works it's very hard to get someone to reach beyond what they already know. But stretching is essential to not only developing the human body but also the brain. Our minds are just like the other muscles in our body and if not exercised properly will not be as fit or as sharp as we might like.

Brain stretching is the practice of forcing the mind to process new information and to be creative in using that information to solve problems, retain memory and sharpen cognitive abilities. If you do not stretch your brain then you will stagnate in the thought processes that got you this far in life but may not get you much further.

Developing the brain is essential to survival and maintaining a healthy and fit mind. The more you can stretch your brain the more creativity you allow and in turn the more adept you become at solving problems, finding solutions to puzzles and riddles and sharpening your brain's reflexive ability so you can think faster and more clearly.

Mathematics games are just one way you can train your brain to stretch beyond its learned patterns. Algebra, geometry and other math branches force the mind to analyze a problem from several angles to find a solution. Research has shown that many people struggle with math problems and other brain games because they can not "see" the problem and therefore can not be expected to find a solution.

Brain stretching helps open the mind up and allow new information and perspectives to be processed in the hopes of finding a solution to a problem. In school each grade you succeed to come with new challenges and problems that you will not be able to solve simply relying on the skills you learned the year before. After school though many people stop exercising their brain stretching capabilities and fall back on thought processes that have worked in the past. But in so doing you actually hinder the mind's ability to develop and grow.

Through simple yet creative brain training games including chess, crossword puzzles, memory match games and riddles you actively exercise the brain's many skills and in a sense stretch the mind's information processing ability. When you practice brain stretching you will notice in time how much more creative you are at finding solutions to common everyday problems and how much more clearly you are able to think.

Wheelchairs – Leading A Self-Reliant Lifestyle

A wheelchair is a device that provides mobility to people who are unable to or have difficulty in walking due to illness, disability or injury. Wheelchairs allow the users to move around relatively easily and to lead an active and independent lifestyle.

Different types of wheelchairs are available in the market to meet individual users’ needs, such as the manual wheelchair, power wheelchair and electric wheelchair. Manual wheelchairs are wheelchairs that have to be propelled manually by hand, whereas electric wheelchairs rely on motors for motion. Manual wheelchairs are cheaper than electric wheelchairs because of their simpler functions. They can also be easily folded and stored in smaller areas such as in the trunk of vehicles.

The electric wheelchair, with its ease of use, allows the user to depend less on others and to be more self-reliant. The electric wheelchair has greater maneuverability and a better suspension system that absorbs the bumps the wheels travel over. You can even test drive an electric wheelchair before you decide to purchase one. Since every user’s physical disability varies, the user can choose the electric wheelchair control system that is best suited to his physical condition. The user can even customize the electric wheelchair to fit his or her physical need.

Wheelchair users usually need their wheelchairs to be easily accessible, comfortable, and versatile to use. The power wheelchair has literally revolutionized the lives of millions of users. Power wheelchairs offer the freedom to move from one location to another without having to rely on others for help. Powerchairs are generally for those with arm, hand or shoulder disability and have difficulty using a manual wheelchair. The user can control the direction and speed by operating a joystick, and also control many other functions such as reclining and tilting, leg and seat elevation etc.

With the rapid advancement in technology today, wheelchairs are no longer just used to get the users from one point to another; today’s wheelchairs now allows users the ability to participate in different sports for the disabled such as downhill wheelchair racing, wheelchair skiing, wheelchair basketball, wheelchair tennis etc. Each wheelchair sport has their own customized style of wheelchair designed for speed and agility.

Wheelchairs are available in different sizes, shapes, colors etc. depending on personal preference. To make things more convenient for wheelchair-bound people, equipments such as wheelchair lifts, wheelchair ramps and wheelchair vans etc are also available.

Regardless of which wheelchair and wheelchair accessories used, precautions and safety measures must always be adhered to.

Understanding Action-Over Claims for the Contractor

Ask a few contractors. They'll nod their heads in agreement: Contractor insurance seems to cost more and more, particularly in states that side with the laborer. Ask an insurance agent and you'll get an earful about the causes.

Some state legislature in regard to labor disputes are predisposed to the worker. It's for this reason that insurance companies will end up paying more in defense and liability costs if there is a worker that gets injured at your site. And it's for this reason, the premium is higher.

General contractors operating in these places, as well as property managers – among others like them that hire subcontractors – need to think about getting another form of insurance in regard to worker accident liability. While it's true that this insurance, known as action-over claims, adds to already high premium costs, in the event there's a third-party injury claim and the commercial general liability policy excludes this type of claim, coverage means everything.

Action-over claims insurance protects you if your worker or the subcontractor's employee incurs injury and then collects worker comp benefits – and then targets a liability claim against the property owner who then casts the liability back to you.

Action-Over Claim – What it Means

Here's an example that may help explain the insurance idea.

Do-All Property Management Company put its signature on an indemnification agreement provided by an apartment complex it was assigned to oversee. The agreement meant all job risks were the responsibility of Do-All.

It so happened that a painter slipped off his ladder. The accident directed in a serious breakage of both legs. The painter needed money right away to take care of expensive doctor bills, hospital stays and loss of income so he filed a workers compensation claim with his boss – Do-All's subcontractor.

Now, the painter needed a venue for further compensation. He knew that suing his boss was out of the question because he had already collected workers comp benefits from him. He was advised to file a multi-million lawsuit against the apartment complex owner. Once the apartment complex owner was not informed about the suit, he contacted Do-All Property Management who as per the indemnity agreement was now responsible for the liability.

In the event Do-All had the foresight to include action-over claims coverage with his commercial general liability policy, there would be protection and peace of mind. On the other side of the coin, in the event there was an action-over claims exclusion on the Do-All business policy, the management company would find itself in 'hot water' with the need to pay total out of pocket third-party charges.

To find out more about this important coverage for the general contractor and industries like him or her, contact an experienced independent agency.

Time To Ditch The Hotel

So it's vacation time again. Woo Hoo !!!

The family has spent months debating where to go, what type of vacation they are
looking for and whether or not to include Auntie Ethel in their plans again (following
that particularly unharmed incident with the well built waiter and what she thought
was a pepper mill!)

With Auntie Ethel quickly out of the picture, and the whole clan having opted for a
fun filled vacation, packed to the guns with action, adventure and magic, there
can only be one destination … Florida.

No matter how you cut it, Florida has something for everyone, and now more so
than the Disney areas located around Orlando and Kissimmee. These central Florida
locations are legendary, and despite being among the most popular in the world,
retain a seemingly intimate charm which creates life long memories for
those that venture there.

And so, with the destination finalized, your thoughts turn to hotels. But wait a
minute … did not someone at work go to Florida last year and stay in a luxurious
rental villa? Yes of course! You remember looking at the gorgeous interior shots of
the house, and then the not so gorgeous shots of your work college's husband in
his Speedos! Mind you, the private pool and the swaying palm trees looked

And did not collect your rave about the high standard of accommodation and
how much better and cheaper it was than staying in a cramped and musty hotel
room? Yes, again …. So what are you waiting for?

Because the fact is that year on year, millions of vacationers from all around the
globe are breaking with tradition, and ditching the bland and often over priced hotel
chains in favor of privately owned luxury villas in the central Florida region.

To accommodate this appetite for a real home from home, numerous web sites have
sprung up on the internet offering privately owned Florida villas for rent. They offer
you a choice of stunning vacation homes, ranging in size from 3 to 7 bedrooms, all
with private pools, and all within 10 ~ 20 minutes of the major theme parks and
attractions. They are literally an Aladdin's cave of luxurious, yet affordable
accommodation which can quite simply help to turn your regular holiday into a
dream vacation.

We all work hard in order to afford to go on vacation, so why not make your money
go further and your vacation experience the best it can possibly be, for both you
and your family? Why not break with tradition? It's time to ditch the hotel and live
like a real Floridian on your next Disney vacation. I guarantee that once you've tried
it, you'll be hooked.

Prepare for a Civil Litigation Case With an Experienced Attorney

When preparing for a civil court case, the best move that you can do is to take a healthy step back, and address what you must do to prepare. Too often does the wrong party win a favorable exit due to a case being mishandled by the justified yet inexperienced. When preparing for civil litigation, it is best to take the case one step at a time for the most favorable results possible, and hire the best civil litigation attorney to ensure that your rights are addressed, no matter the claim or the defensive.

Most civil cases begin at a breach of contract. This can include a failure to pay a bill, or failure to acknowledge a right. Most often, civil litigation problems of payment between individuals or businesses that are bound by law or contract. A breach of contract lawyer can define the individual circumstances and articles best case, so seek a consultation of legal representation will immediately prove useful.

The next step will usually involve moderating. Mitigation can be any attempt to resolve the issue outside of court or to lessen the impact of the case, and this usually is the burden of the non-breaking party. Examples of mitigation can be offering to schedule a payment plan rather than immediately demanding a full payment. While mitigation does not always work, it is ideal to show that attempts were made before taking the case to court. Make sure to record all instances of contact or bias prior to the court dates, including cell phone calls, receipts, other contracts, text messages, and emails, to prove to the court that you had no other options attached legal action.

Your civil litigation attorney will handle any work in court for you, but at the end of a civil litigation case is the matter of payment or enforcement of judgment. Sadly, this does not often work itself out easily. If the losing party refuses to pay, they can be ordered, under threat of arrest, to attend court and discuss their finances. Seizure of money or property can result from the refusal or inability to pay a judgment. Either way, your civil litigation attorney will help to both ensure enforcement if you won the case, or protect your rights and property if you found to have to pay.

Winning a civil litigation case is all about how you handle it. React to you case calmly, and hire a civil litigation attorney to work with you every step of the way to insure that justice is served.

What You Must Know About Fire Extinguishers

History and Needs for Extinguishers

Portable fire extinguishers have been around and used since before the ancient Romans laid siege to enemy cities. The first “extinguishers” probably were animal skins, filled with water, and could be carried to the source of the fire. The shape of the skin container would allow for some “squeezing” and forcing a stream that could be somewhat directed at the base of the fire. Some two thousand years later, portable fire extinguishers are still being used… and are still needed. The need is even greater now, as the hazards (“fire-speak” for what might ignite and burn.) are more plentiful and are much different than the wood, cloth, straw, pitch and animal fats that fueled the fires of the past.

My intent, here, is to provide some of the answers as to what is needed for fire safety. The opportunity for great customer support, extinguisher service, and prices that are very affordable for the protection received, is best obtained through a recognized local fire equipment distributor.

Through my commitment to fire safety, my years of experience and expertise, I have established a personal and business relationship with many fire equipment distributors that will last a lifetime! If you are in business, operate a farm, are a home owner, own a boat or for any other reason have a requirement for fire extinguishers, I would suggest that you establish a good working relationship with your trusted, local fire equipment distributor.

My many years of experience with face to face contacts in the fire equipment business has given me insights to perceptions held by many fire officials, distributors, and end users. It may not be a surprise, but some of these perceptions that are held may be either true or false. Most of the time there are misunderstandings in what the “rules” are. The guideline or source of regulation or rule that is used as a basis to form the perception or an understanding of a regulation that is in some cases, outdated or just plain misinterpreted. As always, the final ruling is what is perceived and enforced by the AHJ… The Authority Having Jurisdiction. Always defer to your local fire department inspector and if you feel it necessary, and ask for the ruling or decision in writing.

As you are an interested party in fire safety equipment and, in particular, fire extinguishers, you have a need to know what happens when a product is discontinued, regulations change, or the manufacturer closes their doors and support for a fire protection product no longer exists. Again, this is where your local fire equipment distributor provides the answers and the services needed.

Your purchase of a fire extinguisher is more than paying for “just a product.” You need to know the proper use, how to select the right size and the type for the hazard to be protected. You also need to know where to locate the extinguisher relative to the hazard.

These selections of sizes and types, as well as quantities and locations… And, equally as important, is the information that is offered by your distributor and the Fire Equipment Manufacturers Association (FEMA) in partnership with the National Association of Fire Equipment Distributors (NAFED). Also the guidelines used for Portable Fire Extinguishers are published and revised every three years by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and is identified as NFPA 10. Note that these standards have been published and revised since first being adopted in 1921.

Extinguisher Types Required

Of course, in the event of a fire, the first thing you do is call the fire department and be sure everyone is safe. If the fire is small and contained a portable fire extinguisher can be the first defense. Statistics will show that “94 percent of the time a portable fire extinguisher is used, it puts out the fire-typically within the initial two minutes.” Additionally, portable extinguishers are effective by putting out fires in an early stage significantly minimizing deaths, injuries, and property damage.

Properly maintained portable fire extinguishers are safe to use, quick and easy to operate, and in commercial facilities, the cost is less than one cent per square foot.

Hazards today are even “classified.” Fire extinguishers are classified by the type of fire they will extinguish. The types of fires are:

TYPE A: Fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics.

TYPE B: Fires in flammable liquids, combustible liquids, petroleum greases, tars, oils, oil-based paints, solvents, lacquers, alcohols, and flammable gases.

TYPE C: Fires that involve energized electrical equipment where the electrical nonconductivity of the extinguishing media is of importance.

TYPE “D” is for combustible metals, such as magnesium, typically found in specialized industrial manufacturing settings.

TYPE “K” Is used to extinguish fires in or on commercial and institutional cooking appliances that use combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats) such as a fryer in your local fast food restaurant. Also used for griddles, ranges and other appliances that produce vapors, grease, and flammable oils when cooking.

Now that we know what the types of fires are, we can select the appropriate extinguisher to offer the protection desired.


Today animal skins have been replaced by metal containers called cylinders. The “squeezing” to force the contents out in a stream that can be directed at the base of the fire is now done by the pressure of an inert gas within the cylinder. The “agent” used for extinguishment can be water for a certain class of hazard, Type A (Yes, water is still a good selection for a Type A fire only, but never on a grease, oil, or electrical fire.). Another class of hazard, Type B, would best be extinguished by a special formulation of sodium bicarbonate (Yes, the kitchen kind, but with a siliconization treatment to prevent “caking” and moisture absorption allowing a free flow of agent when needed.). There are also monoammonium phosphates, potassium bicarbonates and potassium chlorides all formulated (again, with a treatment to prevent “caking” and moisture absorption allowing a free flow of agent when needed.) to meet certain effective ratings when applied on specific hazards at specific rates. The fire extinguisher industry has come up with an extinguisher that is rated, or classified, as effective on fires designated as “A”, “B”, and “C”.

As you can see here, the reason that the vast majority of fire extinguishers placed in use are classed as “ABC”. This means that you can use the single type of extinguisher, the “ABC” for nearly any fire emergency.

If you have any questions about emergency fire protection, check with your local fire professionals.

You should look for an extinguisher manufacturer that is ISO 9001 Certified to assure quality and is a full line manufacturer of UL® listed (in the USA) portable and wheeled fire extinguishers, dry chemical powders, and clean agent extinguishers.

Most US companies produce dry chemical monoamonium phosphate (ABC), potassium bicarbonate (PK or Purple K), and sodium bicarbonate (STANDARD) using their own proprietary chemical mills. CO2 and other clean agent extinguishers use chemicals produced by outside vendors while still complying with the rigid Underwriters Laboratory standards of the units in production.

Typical US fire extinguishers are manufactured only utilizing numerous recognized and approved chemicals including ABC, BC, PK, CO2, and the clean agent Halotron® I or other approved clean agents. There are also UL® listed wheeled fire extinguishers that are larger capacity for special applications and much larger hazards.

Are You In Compliance?

If you are an employer or an occupant… are you In Compliance?

I’m always amazed by the attitude of persons that have the responsibility for purchasing products that are for protection of lives and property (even their own!). In many cases, they just won’t spend the little money to provide the minimum protection that every statistic would prove they need.

Based on these same statistics, and knowing that many would not invest in the fire safety products, the government has mandated the protection that they didn’t want to buy in the first place.

Now that fire protection is mandated, there are specific regulations (laws) that must be enforced. Enforcement in the fire protection industry wears many hats. Most in the business think that the local AHJ has the final say on local enforcement. This might be true in most cases, but the ultimate authority is OSHA! When our US federal government passes a law that is as far reaching as OSHA, we all need to be aware of what the actual regulations are. In an industry, a home, or business that must use safety, we should know what engine drives the needs, or in this case, requirements, and what would happen if there was a fire and the requirements were not met.

Spending Your Money

What to look for when spending money for extinguishers:

Hand Portable Extinguishers:

Find a complete line of quality, industrial grade, hand portable units that have no plastic parts. Ask if the siphon tubes are metal. Make sure all are supplied with gages and are rechargeable. They must have epoxy finishes that are tested to withstand a minimum 240 hours of salt spray for a long service life. Make sure they are available in ABC, BC, and PK dry chemical. If needed ask for Class D in sodium chloride dry powder. If you have a commercial or institutional kitchen, you will need Wet chemical Class K extinguishers.

CO2 units and clean agent units may also be needed depending upon your hazards and the type of protection needed. Electronics, computers, and switchgear typically need CO2 or another clean agent.

Dry chemical wheeled units typically range from 50 lbs. up to 350 lbs. They are available in many combinations that include stored pressure, pressure transfer, and regulated pressure. Semi-pneumatic wheels, steel wheels, and rubber treads on steel wheels are available. Wheeled Halotron I clean agent units are available in 65 and 150 lb. sizes. CO2 Wheeled units are usually available in two sizes, 50 and 100 lb.

Celtic Symbol Meaning – Celtic Shield Knot

Celtic shield knots can be identified as any of the Celtic knots with for distinct corner areas. They usually resemble a square but sometimes they are a square shaped emblem within a circle. As in all Celtic knots there is no beginning or end. The Celtic shield knot idea comes from civilizations more ancient than the Celts. Anciently, it was a universally known symbol for protection from danger and warding off evil spirits. The symbol is always fourfold based, but within a greater unity.

The Mesopotamians used a similar four cornered symbol in casting protective spells and for invoking the gods of the four corners of the Earth. The 4 cornered symbols stood for the four creator gods. The sky god An was the greatest of these gods. Anki was the Sumerian word for universe. An meant heaven. Enlil was the next greatest god and could produce raging storms in a fit or help man when calm. He was known as the shepherd to the people and also as the god of air. “lil” stood for wind in the Sumerian language. The earth goddess was Nin-khursag (or Nintu). The fourth god was Enki, the god of water and patron of wisdom. Sumerians believed Heaven and Earth were united as a single mountain. Nammu, goddess of the primeval sea, gave birth to An (Heaven) and Ki (Earth). An and Ki gave birth to their son Enlil (god of the Air). Enlil then carried away his mother, the Earth, from Heaven. In essence these four gods represented sky, fire, earth and water. It is possible that Celtic shield knots represent these same substances.

The ancient Norse, who eventually formed the Celts, had a similar shield symbol. Their four cornered symbol, which was also for protection, was related to the solar cross. The solar cross is one of the most ancient spiritual symbols in the world. It is simply a cross with equal size arms, inside of a circle and touching the sides of the circle, which forms four open spaces. To the Norse it was known as Odin’s cross, their chief god. The solar cross represents the movements of the sun as in the solstices (the four seasons). Asatruar people (pagan Norse) use the solar cross as their religious emblem.

Occultists who us a Kabbalah (the mystic aspect of Judaism) based system of ceremonial magic invoke the four main archangels as mentioned in Judaism (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel) as guardians. They are to guard the four quarters (as seen in a solar cross), or directions. They each have corresponding colors associated with magical properties. As well they display spiritual activity over each season: Spring is Raphael, summer is Uriel, fall is Michael and winter is Gabriel. For these occultists, the solar cross or shield knot symbol stands for this.

Christianity, in the Scandinavian area, eventually took the pagan symbol of the solar cross or the shield knot and termed it St. Han’s cross (or St. John’s cross, after John the Baptist). It came to symbolize flowing water and the continuity of life, similar to the infinity symbol. Christianity is known for changing the meaning of many formerly pagan symbols, as it spread. In Northern Europe, even today, the shield knot symbol is used to symbolize national heritage sites. In heraldry the same knot symbol is known as a Bowen cross.

So we can tell that the original Celtic shield knot symbol is indicative of the four seasons or earth water, fire and sky (which help us, but have power over us). It can also mean the four gods, intertwined with the seasons, or archangels, who protect the people of earth as well as bring us the elements or seasons.

Professional Carpet Installation: How Does It Work?

Upon returning home to your apartment, after a long day at work, all you want is some peace and quiet. As you close the front door and kick off your shoes, you walk over to the sofa to relax. Unfortunately, before you can clear up your head, your neighbor begins playing opera music at a volume loud enough to be considered a live performance. Not the quietest welcome home.

One of your carpet’s advantages is that is dampens the noises around you. In fact, carpeting can create a comfortable and soft feel in your home. It can also be a beautiful accessory and can really liven up a room. Very often, the color and style of your carpet is as important to your apartment’s design as the furniture you select.

Once you’ve picked out the perfect combination of style and color, it’s time to decide whether you are going to hire a pro to install it or try to DIY. There are a lot of things to consider before you start installing carpets by yourself. In most cases, it’s wise to get someone with experience to do the job.

DIY vs Professional Carpet Installation

A major advantage of installing your own carpet is that you’ll save money. The usual expenses of installation, labor and removing the old carpet will be eliminated. The only large costs on your end will be the carpet itself and any special tools that you might need to buy or rent. Also, the timing of the job is entirely up to you. Instead of waiting for the installation schedules most companies give you, you can begin the task when you want and work at your own pace. Finally, the quality of the task is in your hands. If you’re worried about hiring a company only to find out later they have done a poor job, then this is your chance to make your carpet look its best.

With all that said, there are definitely some downsides to tackling the installation project on your own. For instance, if you find that the job is a little more difficult than you’ve expected, but you’ve already laid some portions and cut others, then your carpet’s warranty will most likely no longer be valid. So, if you’ve done a poor job, there’s no one to help you cover the cost. Also, as it can be difficult for you to use the equipment, this may cause issues for someone who’s never tried to lay a carpet before. While the installation can be a DIY project, it’s important to remember that it’s also a large undertaking and one that requires a lot of determination and work.

Finding Competent Carpet Installation Providers

As already discussed, carpet installation is a big job, and if you’re going to go with pros, you want to ensure you’re getting the best offer for the price you pay. The first thing you’ll need to do is research for a carpet installation company. There are many contractors out there that will do carpet installation, including large home-improvement stores. Keep in mind that most carpet retailers have their own carpet installation staff. The good side of working with your retailer is that both the carpet and installation should be fully covered by a warranty. However, it’ll be more expensive than going with an independent installer. When you want to hire an independent contractor that will provide the same level of service, you may have to do a bit more research.

So, you’ve chosen your installer. What is to be expected on the installation day? At the beginning, they will remove your old carpet and dispose of it for a small extra fee. Then they will lay down the underpad, which will make your new carpet more comfortable. An underpad is a foam padding that will make your carpet feel softer when you walk on it. It will also help dampen the noise. After the underpad has been laid, the technician will begin with the carpet.

Your Benefits of Quality Carpet Installation

When you call for a professional to install your new carpet, you expect a certain level of quality and the knowledge that the job will be done to meet exact standards. Installing your own carpet could end up in any number of ways, but if you hire those who know the process, you’ll end up with a job well done.

Even if the worst-case scenario happens, such as huge ripples in your new flooring, or the seams are showing, or the carpet is lifting away from the walls, you know you have some recourse against the retailer or contractor that installed it. When working with pros, you should have guarantee that the job will be done right the first time, or you won’t have to pay for the repairs. The most appropriate way to avoid mistakes is to make sure the carpet is installed in place correctly the first time.

Windows Graphics – Attractive Glass Panes

Windows graphics is a variety of colors and hues make a window interesting. So, whether it is your car window or the store windows, do not waste the space, make it attractive and make it sell for you!

Windows graphics have become the latest craze among people who want to innovate new advertising and marketing tools. You can easily get a professional to customize window graphics according to your need and requirement of business. Conventional methods of advertising are passé and new, unique wacky methods are catching on fast.

Blaring loudspeakers on the roads, newspaper corner advertisements or that 30 second TV advertisements in which people switch off or walk away to the bathrooms and while you burn a whole in your pocket to get it aired, do not make sense anymore.
Vinyl graphics are the latest in thing where as you can use your own vehicle or borrow a fleet of cars or other vehicles, apply windows graphics and lo behold!

You are ready to sell your product!

You can even apply windows graphics printed on adhesive vinyl to your store front windows the large attractive vinyl printed with your customized graphics and logos makes it attractive. People walking by will stop to look, read and curious, very shortly you can see increased footfalls in your store. Increased footfalls means more business and that is what you intend doing in the first place.

With new technological advances and changing methods of printing with digital large format printers, you get very clear, photograph like quality. With such clarity, your window front becomes an automatic billboard which you do not have to pay for!

New technological research and development, has yielded better adhesives and glues which do not harm the finish of the car or glass it is applied on. Perforated vinyl is perfect for glass surface application while calendar vinyl is good for vehicle body applications. Stores and vehicle glass are exposed to heat and sunlight on which normal adhesives do not last long but perforated adhesive vinyl lasts a long time and can be easily printed on, making it the best advertising tool for your products.

Not only does vinyl graphics make your car or store windows attractive advertising features but also protect your glass windows from direct sunlight and can be easily removed.
You can see through the windows from inside but outside, you can see the color Windows Graphics .