How to Reinforce a Stone Foundation Wall With a New Concrete Wall

Many older homes have foundations made of field stone that may over time have sagged or bowed from the elements pushing on the stones. Since no mortar as we know it today was used, the stones can easily shift. If there has been a serious total collapse of the stone wall, total replacement is necessary. If the problem is less severe, a new concrete reinforcing wall may be in order. If you have an earthen basement floor the job is even easier. Starting on the inside of the basement you must first excavate a trench alongside the existing wall to install a new footing for the reinforcing wall. I would make the footing at least two feet wide but three feet wide is much better. Make the footing one foot deep. The top of the new footing should match the bottom of the stone wall and the new floor will sit on top of the footing. Be careful not to disturb the soils under the stones. There will be no footing under a stone wall. Once you are done excavating, form the footing and install the reinforcing bars. Use at least 5/8′ diameter bars. Run them the full length of the footing and in a three foot wide footing there should be three continuous bars. Now take pieces cut four feet long and bend a one foot bend at one end making an ell shape. These bars will be tied to the inner and outer most footing rebar to form two rows of dowels running the full length of the footing, no more the thirty-two inches apart. When the footing is poured you will see only the vertical part of the bars sticking out. Once the footing concrete is dry, strip all the forms leaving no wood behind for termites to latch on to for dinner.

Now using the same size rebar, install horizontal bars starting three inches up from the footing and place one every twelve inches running the full length of the new wall. Do this on both rows of dowels. These when completed are called wall mats. Using some small scraps of rebar, tie them with wire between the two mats to keep them separated when you pour the heavy concrete. The new wall thickness will depend upon how thick your stone wall is and how badly bowed the stone wall is. My last wall was basically twenty four inches thick but twelve inches thick is a minimum you should build. Your rebar wall mats want to be as close to three inches from both faces of the wall as possible. The inside mat may be a bit more depending on the amount of bow in the stone wall. I used Symonns concrete form panels from my rental store for ease of forming the new wall but you can also build the forms out of wood. The advantage of concrete form panels is they come in all sizes of heights and widths, have clips for easy fastening, have pre-made anchors and so on. You must remember that this is a one sided form. The toughest type by far to build. You must brace it to death and then add some more braces to keep it from moving under the weight of wet concrete. Installation of what is called a whaler brace will keep the forms from bowing out but add kickers galore. On concrete pour day you will need some extra help. Pouring through a basement window is no joke as the guys inside cannot see the guy outside in the ready mix truck.

One man has to stay outside and yell orders through the window. Faster, slower, more, too wet and so on. Inside one man has to do nothing but watch the forms. If something moves he has to immediately stop the pour. Being buried under wet concrete and smashed form panels is no joke. Another person has to vibrate the forms with a mechanical vibrator to assure there are no voids in the concrete. Yet another person can tap the forms with a hammer to assure there is concrete in all the spaces and watch down through the top of the form to assure they are filling up as level as possible. This eliminates putting too much pressure in one spot of the forms at once. Excess pressure can cause the forms to fail. Wet concrete exerts what is called hydraulic pressure sideways against the form work and can amount to tons of pressure. I have seen forms fail that were blown a hundred feet away from the work site. Depending upon how thick your new wall is a two day wait for form removal is more than enough. Twenty four hours is better still. Any spilled concrete will get super hard and make form removals that much harder if you let the concrete sit too long. Again strip all remnants of wood from the work. Back fill the footing and level the floor area to prep it for the new basement floor.


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Anyone Can Clean Their Car, But What About Those Cloudy, Yellow Headlights?

It is a very common occurrence. We see then every day. Its like a disease – yellow, cloudy headlights lenses in drastic need of repair. I even saw them on cars at the local carwash. It befuddled me that these people would take such great care – washing, vacuuming the interior, removing the floor mats and even hand drying their cars, but they still had yellowed, cloudy headlights. Its not just a problem on old, very used cars. It is prevalent on 2 – 3 year old cars also. It does not matter if it is a Dodge, Ford, Mercedes, or a Porsche.

When asked, most said they could not afford, or did not want to pay the high prices of replacements from their local auto dealer. The average price for a pair of replacement plastic headlights at local auto dealerships was around $ 450 – that did not even include installation and alignment (that would be another $ 60-120). After market headlights do exist, but have received mixed reviews, and the savings are not that great, quality and fit is lagging, and then you still had to have installed and aligned. And for what so you can do it again in another year or two?

There is another solution, there are headlight repair, cleaner and restorer kits available for under $ 30 (look up headlight cleaner and / or headlight restorer on Google), much less expensive than replacement lenses, and they work!

Plastic headlight lenses are the norm in the automotive industry now – every car has them. Some have fancy names like plexan and Lexan, but they all have the same problems. The sun, acid rain, harsh weather conditions, chemicals (brake fluid, power steering fluid, hot radiator fluids, hot water, harsh cleaners, etc …) will all cause the plastic lenses to degrade and weaken quickly. Some manufacturers have gone to including a protective film on the lenses. Regardless, they are all susceptible to this weakening and yellowing over time.

With these headlight repair, cleaner and restorer kits even junk yard car lenses have been repaired and restored to brand new (as evidenced on some websites). These same lenses used to be discarded and now have become new profit centers for salvage yards. The treatments are simply applied to the exterior of the headlight lens where the damage is worst and it does not take a mechanic to repair it.

These kits can easily be found under headlight cleaner and headlight restorer on Google. So now you know there is a very economic solution to the problem of yellow, cloudy, worn headlights – repair, clean and restore them to new again. There's no excuse now to not have sparkling clean headlights. Car dealerships have been using these headlight repair, cleaner and restorer on their cars and you can too.

Gymnasts: Fashion and Safety in Gymnastics

Being Able to See is Always Helpful

Keep your hair out of your face and tie back long hair. Hair can obstruct your vision, get caught on equipment or you can pull it on skills like back extension rolls.

Fashion Safety

Don’t wear dangling earrings, necklaces or other jewelry. They can get caught on your leotard or gym clothes, on the equipment, mats or carpet. Earrings torn out of your ear – that’s gotta hurt. Rings can scratch the bars and pinch your fingers.

No Valuable Jewelry

Don’t wear any valuable jewelry in the gym, especially into a loose foam pit. You may never find it or find only by pulling out every single piece of foam in the pit. Take it from the girl who lost her mother’s diamond stud earring and spent three full days sifting through the pit and dust and dirt at the bottom of the pit to find it. She never did find the back to it.

Tight is Right

If you wear socks to class, make sure they fit tightly. You don’t want them to come off in the pit and get lost. And you don’t want them to bunch up and possible create poor footing on skills or landings.

What Not to Wear

Don’t wear hair ties with hard objects, like plastic balls, on them. Skills, like back extension rolls, or falls can press them painfully into your head. There is no place in the gym for dangerous hair ornaments however decorative or stylish.

This is Not Ballet

Don’t wear slippery nylon tights, like you commonly see in ballet classes. They are not appropriate or safe in a gymnastics gym. They can cause you to slip on both beam and bars. Incidentally, if you wear tights to keep warm on floor or vault, gymnasts wear them outside their leotards, not inside like dancers. This allows you to remove them quickly and easily for events on which they are inappropriate.

Don’t Be a Bag(gy) Lady

Don’t wear baggy shirts or sweatshirts. Your vision can be obstructed if your shirt goes over your head when you are upside down. This can make it difficult and unsafe to tumble or perform on apparatus. Baggy clothing can also caught on spotters and equipment or wrap up your spotter’s hands.

No Studs in the Gym

Don’t wear any clothes in the gym to work out with belts, metal studs or buttons. The uneven bars are especially likely to get scratched with these. They can also scratch up your instructor or maybe even you.

No Heavy Metal

Wearing metal objects like belt buckles can damage gymnastics equipment, especially the uneven bars and which could result in splinters in your or other gymnasts hands. Rips are bad enough. Don’t compound the hand problems

Contact Time?

If you wear glasses, you need to make sure they are safe and secure. Wear a strap with glasses if they fit too loosely or tend to come off. Not only they can fall off and perhaps break, but also they could come partially off and poke you in the eye. You need to find some kind of solution for your glasses situation if you are unable to see well enough to vault or to see your coach clearly enough and contact lenses certainly fill the bill. If you want contacts anyway, here is a legitimate reason to ask for them.

Nail It

Keep your toenails and fingernails closely clipped and manicured. The rough and jagged edges of both toenails and fingernails can get caught on the floor exercise carpet and cause a painful tear. There is no place in gymnastics and the gym for extremely long nails. Hey could break or even scratch your coach.

Making Ketogenic Diets Work

The Truth

Ketogenic Diets (more specifically Cyclic Ketogenic Diets) are the most effective diets for achieving rapid, ultra low bodyfat levels with maximum muscle retention! Now, as with all such general statements there are circumstantial exceptions. But done right – which they rarely are – the fat loss achievable on a ketogenic diet is nothing short of staggering! And, despite what people might tell you, you will also enjoy incredible high energy and overall sense of well being.

The Perception

Despite these promises, more bodybuilders/shapers have had negative experiences than have seen positive results. The main criticisms are:

  • Chronic lethargy
  • Unbearable hunger
  • Massive decrease in gym performance
  • Severe muscle loss

All of these criticisms result from a failure to heed the caveat above: Ketogenic Diets must be done right! It must be realised that they are an entirely unique metabolic modality that adheres to none of the previously accepted ‘rules’ of dieting. And there is no going half-way; 50 grams of carbs per day plus high protein intake is NOT ketogenic!

So how are ketogenic diets ‘done right’? Lets quickly look at how they work.

Overview of Ketosis

Simply, our body, organs, muscles and brain can use either glucose or ketones for fuel. It is the function of the liver and pancreas (primarily) to regulate that fuel supply and they show a strong bias toward sticking with glucose. Glucose is the ‘preferred’ fuel because it is derived in abundance from the diet and readily available readily from liver and muscle stores. Ketones have to be deliberately synthesised by the liver; but the liver can easily synthesise glucose (a process known as ‘gluconeogenesis’ that uses amino acids (protein) or other metabolic intermediaries) too.

We don’t get beta hydroxybutyrate, acetone, or acetoacetate (ketones) from the diet. The liver synthesises them only under duress; as a last measure in conditions of severe glucose deprivation like starvation. For the liver to be convinced that ketones are the order of the day, several conditions must be met:

  • Blood glucose must fall below 50mg/dl
  • Low blood glucose must result in low Insulin and elevated Glucagon
  • Liver glycogen must be low or ’empty’
  • A plentiful supply of gluconeogenic substrates must NOT be available

At this point it is important to mention that it is not actually a question of being ‘in’ or ‘out’ of ketosis; we don’t either totally run on ketones, or not. It is a gradual and careful transition so that the brain is constantly and evenly fuelled… ideally. Ketones SHOULD be produced in small amounts from blood glucose levels of about 60mg/dl. We consider ourselves in ketosis when there are greater concentrations of ketones than glucose in the blood.

The reality is that most people – especially weight trainers – have had a regular intake of glucose for a good couple of decades, at least. The liver is perfectly capable of producing ketones but the highly efficient gluconeogenic pathways are able to maintain low-normal blood glucose above the ketogenic threshold.

Couple this with the fact that many people are at least partially insulin resistant and have elevated fasting insulin (upper end of the normal range, anyway). The small amount of blood glucose from gluconeogenesis induces sufficient insulin release to blunt glucagon output and the production of ketones.

Sudden glucose deprivation will have the consequence, initially, of lethargy, hunger, weakness etc in most people – until ketosis is achieved. And Ketosis will not be reached until the liver is forced to quit with gluconeogenesis and start producing ketones. As long as dietary protein is sufficient then the liver will continue to produce glucose and not ketones. That’s why no carb, high protein diets are NOT ketogenic.

Whats So Great About Ketosis Anyway?

When the body switches over to running primarily on ketones a number of very cool things happen:

  • Lipolysis (bodyfat breakdown) is substantially increased
  • Muscle catabolism (muscle loss) is substantially reduced
  • Energy levels are maintained in a high and stable state
  • Subcutaneous fluid (aka ‘water retention’) is eliminated

Basically, when we are in ketosis our body is using fat (ketones) to fuel everything. As such, we aren’t breaking down muscle to provide glucose. That is, muscle is being spared because it has nothing to offer; fat is all the body needs (well, to a large extent). For the dieter this means substantially less muscle loss than what is achievable on any other diet. Make sense?

As a bonus, ketones yield only 7 calories per gram. This is higher than the equal mass of glucose but substantially less (22%, in fact) than the 9 calorie gram of fat from whence it came. We like metabolic inefficiencies like this. They mean we can eat more but the body doesn’t get the calories.

Even cooler is that ketones cannot be turned back into fatty acids; the body excretes any excess in the urine! Speaking of which, there will be quite a bit of urine; the drop in muscle glycogen, low Insulin and low aldosterone all equate to massive excretion of intra and extracellular fluid. For us that means hard, defined muscularity and quick, visible results.

Regarding energy, our brain actually REALLY likes ketones so we tend to feel fantastic in ketosis – clear headed, alert and positive. And because there is never a shortage of fat to supply ketones, energy is high all the time. Usually you even sleep less and wake feeling more refreshed when in ketosis.

Doing it Right

From whats said above you will realise that to get into ketosis:

  • Carbohydrate intake should be nil; Zero!
  • Protein intake should be low – 25% of calories at a maximum
  • Fat must account for 75%+ of calories

With low insulin (due to zero carbs) and calories at, or below maintenance, the dietary fat cannot be deposited in adipose tissues. The low-ish protein means that gluconeogenesis will quickly prove inadequate to maintain blood glucose and, whether the body likes it or not, there is still all the damned fat to burn.

And burn it does. The high dietary fat is oxidised for cellular energy in the normal fashion but winds up generating quantities of Acetyl-CoA that exceed the capacity of the TCA cycle. The significant result is ketogenesis – synthesis of ketones from the excess Acetyl-CoA. In more lay terms: the high fat intake ”forces” ketosis upon the body. This is how its ‘done right’.

Now you just have to throw out what you thought was true about fats. Firstly, fat does not ”make you fat”. Most of the information about the evils of saturated fats, in particular, is so disproportionate or plain wrong anyway; on a ketogenic diet it is doubly inapplicable. Saturated fats make ketosis fly. And don”t worry; your heart will be better than fine and your insulin sensitivity will NOT be reduced (there is no insulin around in the first place)!

Once in ketosis it is not necessary, technically speaking, to maintain absolute zero carbs or low protein. But it is still better if you want to reap the greatest rewards. Besides, assuming you are training hard, you will still want to follow a cyclic ketogenic diet where you get to eat all your carbs, fruit and whatever else, every 1-2 weeks, anyway (more on this in another article).

Don’t be mistaken; ‘done right’ does not make ketogenic dieting easy or fun for the culinary acrobats among you. They are probably the most restrictive diets you can use and not an option if you don’t love animal products. Get out your nutritional almanac and work out an 20:0:80 protein:carb:fat diet. Yeah, its boring. As an example, your writers daily ketogenic diet is 3100 Calories at 25:0.5:74.5 from only:

10 xxl Whole Eggs

160ml Pure Cream (40% fat)

400g Mince (15% fat)

60ml Flaxseed Oil

30g Whey Protein Isolate


There are a number of supplements that assist in making Ketogenic diets more effective. However, many popular supplements would be wasted. Here is an overview of the main ones:

  • Chromium and ALA, while not insulin ‘mimickers’ as many claim, increase insulin sensitivity resulting in lower insulin levels, higher glucagon and a faster descent into deeper ketosis
  • creatine is a bit of a waste – at most, 30% can be taken up by the muscles that, without glycogen, cannot be meaningfully ‘volumised’.
  • HMB (if it works) would/should be an excellent supplement for minimising the catabolic period before ketosis is achieved
  • Tribulus is excellent and comes highly recommended as it magnifies the increased testosterone output of a ketogenic diet
  • Carnitine in L or Acetyl-L form is an almost essential supplement for Ketogenic Diets. L-Carnitine is necessary for the formation of Ketones in the liver.
  • Glutamine, free-form essential and branched-chain aminos are worthwhile for pre and post training. Just don’t overdo the glutamine as it supports gluconeogenesis
  • ECA stack fat burners are very useful and important though don”t worry about the inclusion of HCA
  • Flaxseed oil is a great but do not think that you need 50% of your calories from essential fatty acids. 1-10% of calories is more than sufficient.
  • Whey Protein is optional – you don’t want too much protein remember
  • A soluble fibre supplement that is non-carbohydrate based is good. But walnuts are easier.


Ketogenic diets offer a host of unique benefits that cannot be ignored if you are chasing the ultimate, low bodyfat figure or physique. However, they are not the most user friendly of diets and any ‘middle ground’ compromise you might prefer will be just the worst of all worlds. Your choice is to do them right or not at all.

The Various Types of Exterior Glass Used In Architectural Design

While glass has been used as a building material for centuries, developments in glass production throughout history have made possible structures and designs that were never before imaginable. Even recently, technological novelties in the world of architectural glass have allowed designers to manipulate exterior glass to dazzling effect in masterpieces such as the Bayern State Opera in Munich and the Novartis global headquarters in Basel, Switzerland.

The type of glass installed in a work of architecture will depend on several factors, among them appearance, levels of strength, and thermal qualities. The following are a few contemporary choices used today for exterior glass:

Decorative Glass in Design

The term decorative glass can refer to the warped or accentuated appearance through a variety of different techniques in order to apply a certain texture or color to the glass. Decorative glasses can exhibit a wide range of characteristics, including various degrees of opaqueness, and they display designs or images, such as the stained glass traditionally seen in churches and cathedrals.

Solar Glass in Design

With today’s rampant concern for energy savings, solar glass has been created to increase heat retention in an architectural structure and thereby cut down on energy bills. This is done with a low-emittance coating that obstructs the transfer of radiant heat. Such a coating is usually composed of a metal or a metallic oxide and is placed between layers of exterior glass. They have been devised for both warmer and colder climates, with glasses with high solar gain being used for colder climates and lower solar gain for warmer climates.

Smart Glass in Design

A glass is considered a “smart” if the way it transmits light is changed when electricity is applied to it. Also known as “switchable”, smart glass works through either a suspended particle, liquid crystal, micro-blind, or electrochromic device that allows the look and function of the glass to be changed with the flick of a switch. Smart glass can be changed from transparent to opaque, or the amount of heat allowed to pass through can be controlled as well.

Additionally, designers sometimes decide on a smart glass merely for visual effects, as in the Magira LightPoints LED glass placed in the World Expo Pavilion in Shanghai.

New techniques in exterior glass constantly present designers with more options. Innovators continue to create glasses that allow architects ever greater freedom in terms of both aesthetics and energy efficiency.

Hopefully this breakdown will help you understand the variance in materials.

How to "Heal" the Heel Pain

Heel pain is a common problem that many podiatrists see daily in their busy practices. As foot and ankle physicians, we treat this malady quite frequently with a variety of treatment methods. Before we concern ourselves with the actual treatment plans, let us understand a little background information about this condition.

First, what is “heel pain?” Heel pain commonly refers to a number of conditions that can affect the heel. For the layman, it is an umbrella term that can mean a whole host of issues. For argument’s sake and brevity, let us focus on what is more correctly referred to as “plantar fasciitis” or inflammation of the plantar fascia. This entity goes by many other names, such as heel spurs, heel spur syndrome, plantar fasciosis, to name a few.

The plantar fascia is an elastic band of tissue that spans between the heel and ball of the foot. It actually continues as the plantar part of the Achilles tendon, beginning behind your leg, around the back of your heel bone, and continuing to the bottom of the foot where it separates into 5 smaller parts to insert onto the bottom of the foot where each toe connects. Normally, this fibrous band of tissue is able to withstand the years of punishment that we put our bodies through daily. It actually does quite an amazing job, supporting our arches as we walk, run, jump, dance, and generally abuse this portion of our anatomy. We don’t really think about our feet until they begin to hurt. And nothing hurts more than a sharp, stabbing pain at the heel which is worsened with every step. We are constantly reminded how much it hurts as we plod through our work day. And when you rest, it feels better, right? But then you get up off that work chair and hello that lightning like pain comes back even stronger than before. More about that later.

Before I continue, a small disclaimer is needed. It is important to note that heel pain can be due to a variety of other causes. Because of this, it is important to have heel pain properly diagnosed by a foot and ankle physician, someone who is best trained to determine the appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

For plantar fasciitis to occur, we need to understand mechanically what is happening. I like to tell my patients to think of a rubber band that is attached to two sides of a roman arch. The rubber band stretches and tightens, stretches and tightens, and so on throughout the day. To cause pain, this rubber band stretches beyond its normal length. The tissue becomes inflamed because of the excessive stresses placed upon it. Unlike a rubber band, it doesn’t snap, but it sure does feel like it. In the body’s futile attempt to “bridge the gap,” sometimes extra bone is laid down where the band begins at the heel. Thus, we arrive at the term heel spur. Instead of alleviating the pain, this oftentimes exacerbates the pain, prompting a visit to your local podiatrist.

Signs and symptoms that you may experiences include the classic “post static dyskinesia.” This term really means “it hurts when I begin movement after a period of rest.” The most common complaint I hear is “doc, my feet hurt as soon as I place them on the floor in the morning.” Think for a moment back to the rubber band. While you are sleeping at night, your feet are resting on your bed, and very little, if any, stress is placed upon them. During the night, that rubber band tightens and gets smaller because the roman arch of our foot does not need to be maintained during a period of rest. But when we wake up in the morning, bright eyes and bushy tailed, we throw our feet over the bed onto the floor and OUCH! We have suddenly and abruptly placed a stress on that foot. This doesn’t occur just in the morning either. It can occur after ANY period of rest longer than two or three minutes. Sometimes, this pain is diminished a bit after that initial first step because the fascia is being forcibly stretched.

Other symptoms include specific pin point pain at the heel, which often is easily noted. The pain often worsens as the day continues and is very quickly alleviated with rest. Also, the pain may progressively worsen over a period of months. Certain shoes may aggravate the condition as well. Obesity, shoe gear, work conditions, and foot type can all play a role in its development.

Conservative treatment is the mainstay of eliminating heel pain. Any number and combination of the following methods may alleviate your pain. They are basically divided into what you can do as a patient and what we can offer as physicians. The most important component I believe is stretching which you can read more about in How to “Heal” the Heel Pain Part 2.

Advantages of Hiring Construction Equipments or Earthmovers

Earthmovers are basically devices that are used to push, dig, and transport earth from one place to another. They are mainly used in mines and construction sites. They come in different sizes – from larger to smaller. The bigger devices need experienced and specialized driver or operator. Big-sized constructions equipments aren’t supposed to be operated by simple operator or driver. Needless to say that suitable construction devices or equipments are a prerequisite of doing any construction work effectively. Such types of tools can either be purchased or hired. If you buy such tools, you need to spend big amount while on the other hand in case of hiring them, you can save lots of money. Here, we’ll try to find out some advantages of hiring construction equipments or earthmovers.

The best rule to buy construction equipments is that if you notice that such tools can accomplish 60 percent of work then go with them. If you notice that you only need such tools for a short work, you must avoid purchasing such expensive machines. So, first you should evaluate your desired work, and then decide whether you should purchase them or not.

The second point that you need to keep in mind while deciding to rent or purchase is that you must find out how often you use such tools. If you are working on a short-term project, it is suggested that you should avoid buying expensive machinery, instead you must hire them.

It is often seen that hiring construction equipment, especially earthmovers, is the best decision. They not only help you accomplishing a desired work but also help you saving time and money. Companies that offer such construction machines or tools on rent also provide trained operators. It is a known fact that operating such heavy machines needs lots of skilled and experience. Hence, you need to hire machinery from a well-reputed company. Apart from that you also need to know that if you buy a certain construction machine, you have to maintain it accordingly. In case of negligence, the heavy machine, after sometime, could be of no use.

The most important benefit of hiring heavy construction machines like earthmovers is that you can save huge money on transportation. For instance, if you have to work on a project that is situated at an isolated area; you need to expense money on transporting your purchased construction tools. Hence, it is recommended that in such situation, you need to hire heavy tools and machinery from a nearby company. This way, you can save lots of money as well as time that you are likely to spend on transportation.

If you buy such heavy machinery, you need to have a certain space to keep them safe and secure. Hence, fleet management is considered as the most crucial problem when it comes to purchasing heavy construction tools and machinery. This is the main reason that most of the people prefer hiring such heavy tools rather than purchasing. Moreover, if you hire such heavy construction tools, you don’t need to have a license as you haven’t purchased them. Therefore, if you keep aforesaid benefits of hiring heavy construction machines like earthmovers, you will get maximum possible results out of them.

What’s the Difference Between a Temporary and Permanent Building?

The quick answer to this is one can be used temporarily and one can’t, but unless you are leasing space off-site how can a building be used temporarily? The answer is that it all comes down to the design, specification and construction process of a building. Bricks and mortar creates permanence, lightweight metals create temporary usage.

Temporary buildings are called as such because they can be hired. So, a building would turn up on your site, be installed by the supplier, a hire agreement signed and then the building removed at the end of the period. Temporary buildings vary in design and use, but the overriding similarity is that they are manufactured off-site, which makes them prefabricated as well as temporary!

Not all prefabricated buildings can be hired though. Many steel structures are manufactured at the factory but can only be purchased as they need considerable ground- preparation and offer a long-term solution akin to a permanent building.

Temporary buildings usually fall into two different types. Modular cabin type structures that arrive as a complete finished ‘box’ and are literally craned into place onto some basic type of foundation. Or, an industrial temporary building that comes almost like a ‘flat-pack’ with the frame ready to be craned into place section by section. The former is often used for public facilities such as offices or classrooms. The latter is more industrial use including warehousing, workshop space or loading cover.

These industrial temporary buildings are very different to a permanent industrial building in many ways. The design is minimal; in fact you could call them ‘off-the-shelf’. There is a choice of materials but they are basic offering varying levels of insulation. Although coloured wall and roof panels are available to fit in with corporate branding or planning requirements, the aesthetics are not really top of the agenda. Most of the time they don’t need any kind of ground preparation as they can be constructed onto existing level ground. And although they can legitimately be used long-term or even instead of a permanent building, they may need wall and roof panels replacing over time.

It’s the minimalist design and simple construction process of these industrial temporary buildings that obviously create significant savings in terms of time and cost. When compared like for like to a new build you could easily shave 6 months off a project and save up to 70% in upfront costs.That doesn’t mean that they are suitable for every application though. Heating a building is now a hot topic, literally! Energy efficiency is vital and a temporary building being heated around the clock could not stand up to the efficiencies of a traditional building. It is for this reason that the use does remain predominantly industrial.

Lastly, the difference between a temporary and permanent building doesn’t always come down to physical attributes but rather business objectives, available resource and sometimes personal preference.

So there are a lot of differences in material, construction methods and how they are used but in the challenging business world of today it’s good to have the choice.

All About Floor Hockey

It's pretty tough to find a game that is more fun than floor hockey, in large part because it's a fast-paced, exciting sport that can be played by individuals of all ages and skill sets. Another great thing about floor hockey is that it can be played virtually anywhere. Unlike many other sports, it is a necessary to have specialized fields or equipment to play. In fact, the little equipment that you will need is relatively inexpensively, especially if you shop online.

The Internet is loaded with quality sporting goods web sites that offer deep discounts on floor hockey equipment. Some of these websites may require that you buy multiple items in order to qualify for the savings. These websites are really great if you happen to be a gym teacher or coach and floor hockey is a part of overall physical fitness program. Very often, you have to purchase a whole set of sticks (usually 12), plus a couple of pucks and sometimes even one or two goal nets in order to take advantage of the discounts. So please bear in mind that if you ever need to buy floor hockey equipment and quantity and do your homework on the Internet, it's well worth it.

There are of course many websites that offer great floor hockey equipment in smaller quantities and on an individual basis. If you take your time and really shop around, you can still get good prices on sticks, pucks, protective gear, replacement blades, practice accessories, and even goalie equipment like as masks and pads.

A street version of floor hockey is becoming more and more popular these days. They were even playing it in the movie Wayne's World. The outdoor version of the game is usually a lot faster paced because players often use rollerblades, thereby making skating and stick handling skills absolutely crucial if you want to be competitive. The outdoor game requires a little more equipment and a little higher quality because the game is more intense. Or, you might want to use so-called low-density balls that are designed not to bounce. Either way, you can find just about any equipment you will need at the very same websites that sell regular floor hockey products, the deals are there and there are plenty of them, just do your homework.

Floor hockey is an action packed sport that offers participants a fantastic opportunity to get some exercise in a fun and competitive environment. It's also one of the most affordable activities around, so there's really no excuse not to play!

How to Fade a Golf Shot – Top Tips

Golf is a tricky sport to master and learning how to fade a golf shot can be frustrating. When making any shot, golfers must learn how to make adjustments. To learn how to fade a golf shot correctly, you need to learn how to work the ball left and right. The whole point of the game of golf is to get the ball into the hole in as few strokes as possible.

The key to learning how to fade a golf shot comes from your stance and your grip. Depending upon your desired results, this can be achieved in different ways. To hit the fade shot you need to open your stance slightly. Your left foot will be aligned just behind your right foot as you address the ball. Then you must turn your left hand about a half an inch to the left on your grip. When you go to hit the club, aim the face of the club directly at the target and hit. This should curve the ball to the right as it approaches the target. These are the basic techniques on how to fade a golf shot. Of course, many golfers have their own versions. For left-handed golfers you would just reverse the instructions.

Learning how to fade a golf shot takes time and practice. Each golfer is different and you must find the exact techniques that prove to be successful for you. Once you have mastered these skills, then they will become second nature. You will not even have to think about stance and hand positions before playing the shot.

We will go over some of these techniques a little more in depth.

1. For your stance, try to open wider, if you are still having difficulty. Aim your hips and shoulders to the left slightly.

2. Adjust your grip. Hold the grip with a little less pressure and you should see an improvement.

3. Try placing the ball closer to your stance, move it over one ball width. This gives your shot a bit more height.

4. Do not adjust your swing, swing as you normally would. This is something that many weekend golfers do incorrectly.

Always experiment with all your clubs when learning how to fade a golf shot. Make note of which clubs you have more success with. When setting up for the fade shot, take into consideration the wind direction, the slope of the green and any obstacles that might be in the way. Only make changes to your grip and stance, your actual swing should stay the same. Start out by using mild fades and proceed to dramatic fades periodically.

Learning how to fade a golf shot correctly can be very useful in different situations. Plus it is essential if you want to improve your overall game play performance.

All About Coach Sunglasses

Coach sunglasses are a lesser-known brand that has been around for many years. They also do quality handbags, which they are better known for. They are so fashionable that they can also be worn as accessory on their own.

Coach sunglasses have long been noted for quality designs and modern simplicity. They come complete with signature hard case and cleaning cloth.

People who are not wearing quality sunglasses can tend to squint when they are exposed to bright light. This can form crow's feet in the corners of the eyes. Over time, these wrinkles become deepen and become longer lying.

Another reason to wear quality sunglasses is to give a younger looking appearance. Keeping your face looking younger, by the reduction of effects of the sun can make you look younger over all.

Quality Sunglasses also provides protection for your eyes against the wind. On windy days, you do not realize the amount of dirt flying around until you do not have sunglasses on. Quality strong sunglasses provide a good windscreen to protect your vision.

One reason many women wear sunglasses is to hide the fact that they are not wearing any makeup. If a woman is running late she can grab a pair of Coach sunglasses and no one will be the wiser that she has not sent half an hour applying eye eyeliner, shadow, mascara etc.

Avoid the Imitations

These are extremely popular and offered at a high price. The Coach brand has long been recognized as a quality name in fashion eyewear. Therefore, is always a target for copycats. There are many out there that copy Coach sunglasses but are not authentic Coach designed product.

The best way to guarantee that you are buying the real Coach sunglasses is to go directly from Coach's web site or Amazon is a valid option. All real Coach brand sunglasses are marked with the Coach logo and have crystals at the temple. Coach sunglasses also have high UV protection for your eyes.

The most popular Coach sunglasses this year are large outstanding frames with gradient lenses.

Make Money Online From Home – Why Some People Make Millions Online While Others Do not Make a Cent

There are many people who are looking for options to work from home. Especially in this economic state of crisis when most of the things seems to be out of reach of a single audience family group more and more people are inclining towards finding different ways to supplement their income. Some wanting to make it a part time profession while other trying to generate a full time income. Whatever may be your reason, the chances are that you might just end up gaining nothing.

Yes you have heard it right. Most folks end up losing money instead of making it as they are unaware of the basic rules of making money online from home. There are many other like me who have made tons of money online by using various strategies which are quite easy to learn. We will look at the mistakes that people make and how you can avoid them in order to be successful.

When starting up many people have lots of questions which bothers them and lots of what if's. They are confused about the programs or the system to follow and how it can help them. They are also in the dilemma of finding the right way to approach.

With so many options such as CPA, Surveys Fillings, E-commerce, Digital Products, Affiliate Marketing, etc it can be very confusing for the beginners to decide on which one to choose. There are many scam sites which targets the beginners and provoke them in investing to their program which only helps the guys selling the program in earning money. It will not be easy for the newbie's to differentiate the good ones from the bad ones.

So in such case the best way to approach is to start your own affiliate marketing business from home. It is the most easy and simple way to make money online from home. Working from home not only helps you earn money but you can also have the leaseage to decide your own work timing and schedule. You can work from anywhere for anyone at any part of the world. The amount of hard work and efforts you put in the more money you make.

One of the biggest problems that beginners face is to decide which program or system to follow. If you make a mistake in the beginning of not putting your efforts in learning the right program you will end up wasting your time and energy without even generating a single penny. You might also give up and return back to your 9 to 5 routine.

I have spent thousands of dollars initially finding the right program that worked and helped me earn money from the luxury of my home but I believe you will not want to spend that much amount and time.

Sometimes you stumble upon a program that is good but do not have the patience to stick on until it start giving the output in terms on money. We tend to move from one course to another if it does not give us quick results but it is a mistake that most of the beginners make and fail to make money online.

People jumping from one course to another or from one system to another get overwhelmed by the information that they gather and this lead them to "Analysis Paralysis" a term that online community use to describe. Not being able to focus on one single system only leads you closer to failure.

Here Are Some Quick Tips on How to Reduce Body Fat

Would you like to lose 30 pounds of fat in 30 days? What if I told you that you could do it while eating foods you like, having lots of energy and feel satisfied all day long? If you're thinking that this is too good to be true, keep reading this article to find out more.

Many people have jumped into the low carb diet program fad over the years without stopping to analyze how it works and how to take advantage of the incredible potential of high quality protein and monounsaturated fats. The principles of a low to moderate carbohydrates intake are sound. Although our bodies convert our food to glucose, excess carbohydrates are more likely to be stored as fat if we do not burn a sufficient number of calories per day.

Our bodies are great at adaptation, and one of the things it does best is hoard energy to ward off starvation in the future. Glycogen is stored in your liver and muscle cells in case of emergencies. Our storage capacity is limited so when your body reaches that limit the excess carbs are stored in fat cells in your body. Keep in mind that the developed world consumes massive amounts of carbohydrate-based foods each day without having the benefit of burning off that excess energy.

As you get older or if you have a problem with insulin distribution you can gain more weight from extra sugar. You can fall into the vicious cycle in which it takes less food to make you heavier due toactivity caused by lethargy; which is caused by increased carbohydrate intake. As you grow more sedentary, you get fatter; As you grow fatter, you're less likely to increase your activity level.

Keep in mind that the problem is not simply carbohydrates intake but also increased acceptance of larger portion sizes. When your sodas are served in 40 ounce containers and you're constantly asked to supersize at every meal, you will get far more calories than you need each day.

In order to reduce your body's fat level significantly in 30 days you'll need to work on a two-stage diet and exercise program. Each phase will last approximately 2 weeks and are designed to ramp up your metabolism while increasing your fat burning and muscle building hormones. The objective is to get your body to use your stored fat as an efficient form of fuel. As you do that your fat cells shrink without losing additional muscle mass.

As you switch from a carbohydrate energy source diet to a high protein / monounsaturated fat based energy diet, you'll begin to increase your activity level along with your metabolic rate. For the first week you will not need to do any strenuous exercises other than going for a daily walk for 30 minutes. You'll eat six small meals per day of selected foods high in clean protein and monounsaturated fats.

Your second week will be a continuation of the first with increased emphasis on adding muscle definition workouts to increase your muscle mass. The third and fourth weeks will allow small portions of carbohydrates in your diet with an emphasis on high intensity short duration cardiovascular activity.

Silicone in the Kitchen For So Many Tasks

Cooking with silicone provides an easy to store, easy to clean experience in the kitchen. This flexible material that is both heat and cold resistant has exploded in its number of applications for cooking, baking and kitchen preparation in the last several years. This article explores several of these new opportunities to expand your silicone collection.

In the utensils arena, newcomers have expanded the range of applications from more conventional tools such as spatulas, brushes and spoons to honeydew servers, spoon and fork holders, spoon rests, multi-function openings and bottle scrapers. Joining the more prolific pot handle holders are the silicone lemon squeezer, garlic peeler and cake decorating tools. Like other silicone products, these are available in a wide range of colors and shapes. Examples include spoon rests with a frog design and jar openings shaped like a penguin.

For egg preparation, silicone poachers are available in both handle and free floating style. Some free floating egg poachers are designed in fun shapes such as that of a hen or of a cracked egg. In addition, egg frying molds with small handles allow the host to create a perfectly round, heart shaped or even flowed shaped fried egg for their breakfast guests. These fried egg molds may likewise be used to create fun shapes for pancakes.

Some diverse silicone applications that you may or may not see in your local store include cup covers, tea infusers, wine bottle storage holders (a rectangular silicone tray with indentations for lining wine bottles), food ties, bag ties, ice cream molds, collapsible cups and even a turkey sling / lifter!

As you can see, only the imagination limits the possibilities for silicone in the world or cooking and food preparation.

5 Essential Recreational and Sports Amenities Every Housing Society Must Have

Sports and recreation are key elements of a balanced and happy lifestyle. However, the lives of people in metropolitan cities are increasingly being characterized by a strenuous work culture, which combined with the rise of technology-driven electronic gadgets is becoming a barrier to healthy living. While most people want to relax and take care of their health after coming back from the office, they are either too tired or don’t have access to recreational places in their immediate vicinity.

Let us now look at some of the important sports and recreational amenities that should be a part of every housing society:

1. Swimming Pool

Swimming is a rigorous, full-body exercise that can greatly improve our fitness levels. It boosts the weight loss process, aids in muscle toning, improves lung capacity, and helps maintain heart health. After a long and tiring day at work, a pool session can provide a really rejuvenating experience. For this reason, modern residential societies designed by the best housing architects generally include a swimming pool.

2. Indoor Games

At times, people want to stay away from an intense physical workout and just relax. Indoor games such as snooker and billiards, carom boards, bowling, table tennis, indoor skating, etc. help people beat stress and feel refreshed. Moreover, most indoor sports can be played by people of all ages, so including them is beneficial for the health of all residents.

3. Health Clubs & Gymnasium

Nowadays, a gymnasium is a must-have amenity in every housing society. Working out helps us keep our blood pressure in control and get a perfectly toned body. Keeping this in mind, the top residential architects are building housing societies that include high-tech gyms with state-of-the-art equipment and the best trainers.

4. Outdoor Sports

Playing outdoor sports is the most preferred way of staying fit and healthy. Amenities for playing popular sports such as cricket, badminton, volleyball, can be incorporated in most modern housing societies. Besides, a segregated children’s playing area with slides and swings could also be included.

5. Multipurpose Hall

Activities like yoga, meditation, and aerobics, have gained immense popularity and are increasingly becoming a major part of the regular lives of people. In such a scenario, including a multipurpose hall that allows residents to practice these activities can help them relax and promote their well-being.

The top architects know the importance of sports and recreation in a person’s daily life. If you choose to stay in a housing society developed by the top residential architects, you can enjoy a healthier, cleaner, and a much more relaxing environment.