Silver Cutlery: Storing and Cleaning


A lot of people enjoy eating with silver cutlery, and many of our clients turn assembling the perfect collection into a hobby. However, a common criticism is that it takes a lot of time and effort to maintain the shine of freshly polished silver. In this article, we will show that this is not necessarily true, and that a little effort can bring big rewards.

Facts About Cleaning Silver

1.If you use it regularly it does not tarnish- you unknowingly polish it every time you pick it up.

2.If you store it properly it does not tarnish.

3.If it's tarnished, Hotel Dip will remove the tarnish in under 10 seconds. Your only effort is drying it by hand.

4.With modern powder it DOES go in the dishwasher! (but it's best cleaned by hand).

Cleaning and Storage Tips

With modern products and modern techniques silver has actually never been so easy to care for. However, it still carries the stigma of being more effort than it's worth. This is mostly the hangover of a generation ago, where silver did require a degree of "elbow grease" to bring up a nice shine and keep the tarnish off.

Of all types of silverware, cutlery is the easiest to keep bright and untarnished, and with a minimum of effort.

The first and most important point is how your silver or silver plated cutlery is stored. The ideal method is in a tarnish proof cutlery roll such as those by Hagerty (link to product?), Placed inside a Tupperware box, ziplock bag, or other airtight container. Tarnish is simply a chemical reaction to the oxygen in the air (oxidation). A tarnish proof bag will massively reduce the rate of oxidation, and in an airtight container further results oxidation by limiting the quantity of oxygen the cutlery is exposed to.

For those of us who use our cutlery every day the minute quantity of oxidation built up each week is wiped away by being handled and washed before it has a chance to build up to any visible degree. I have eaten my cornflakes with a silver spoon every morning for five years, and I have not polished it once in that time. What about after use? Silver is, of course, no different to stainless steel in the respect that it needs to be cleaned after use! Traditionally this was done by hand, and many people still prefer to wash their cutlery in this way now, with nothing more than warm soapy water.

However, there really is not anything wrong with putting silver cutlery in the dishwasher! Years ago when detergents were harsher this was not ideal, and took away a tiny portion of silver each time. However, now dishwasher chemicals are much softer and less abrasive, and no more poisoning to silver than polish. The trick is to take it out before the drying cycle, and to dry by hand. This is not because drying the silver in the dishwasher is damaging in any way, but instead because the evaporating water oxidises the silver slightly, and it comes out with a yellow tinge which then necessitates one to polish it! I should point out at this stage that old silver knives are best washed by hand, as they are often filled with pitch which will expand over time, and cause the blades to become unset. Newer knives are soldered to the steel blades and therefore watertight.

What if my Silver is Already Tarnished?

In this instance too, there is not really much of a problem. Oxidised or black cutlery is easily cleaned with silver dip, or "Hotel Dip" which lifts the tarnish in a few seconds. Then rinse with warm water and dry by hand. Cleaning a full 84pc canteen using this method takes less than 10 minutes.

Grow Taller During Puberty – Maximise Growth During Puberty

Many people wish to know how to grow taller quickly during puberty, yes we all grow during this phase but the main question everyone is interested in is how they can maximise their growth in this period so that they can push themselves to get a bigger growth spurt. The answer is very simple and it is explained in the following article to help all of you learn how to boost your human growth hormone naturally and grow taller during puberty.

The first thing that you will want to focus on is a diet. A diet will help those of you who have bad eating habits to not only become healthier but it will also help you guys get enough nutrients and vitamins that are needed in your body for maximal growth.

You will want a diet that is high in…

· Vitamin C (fruits and berries) as this can help in preventing scurvy (weak bones), help with healthy bones and helps protein cells stay together

· Calcium (milk, fish, green vegetables, dairy products) as this helps strengthen your bones and teeth

· Iron (liver, red meat, egg yolk) as this helps with growth

· Protein (meats, seeds, eggs, grains) as this helps your body with the repair and growth process

That is the first thing you will want to focus on. Also many of these foods will help you with boosting the amount of human growth hormone (HGH) that you body will be able to produce. Your diet will also help your body with the recovering you will need from the stretches and exercises you will be doing as well to grow taller.

The next is creating an action plan to go through over the summer with stretches and exercises.

There are a variety of stretches that you can do in the morning when you wake up and before you go to sleep in the evening. These stretches include famous stretches such as the cobra, the simple standing twist movement or even just stretching yourself up against a wall and reaching as high as you can. Most yoga stretches and other streches that target the spine are ones that you want to be looking for and they don’t take too long to do during the morning either.

Exercises are a little more complicated, the main exercises that are recommended are swimming, sprinting, cycling, basketball, jump rope and even kicking.

These all target the areas in the body that are easy to lengthen/straighten for more height; shins, thighs and the spine.

The final thing you will need to focus on is rest. This is vital as this is where your body will recover and during puberty you will need a lot of sleep to boost your HGH hormone (about 8-10 hours undisturbed sleep).

The position you sleep in is also important when thinking about how to grow taller during puberty. You should be flat on your back without a pillow so that the pressure is relieved from your spine and that you aren’t harming your posture sleeping in one of those comfortable positions that really aren’t good for you if you want to grow taller quickly.

What Is The Best Way To Choose Firewood For Your Home?

As the cool breeze starts to develop a chilly nip it’s an indication that the weather is approaching cold season. A crackling fireplace with burning wood logs or a stove will soon be a welcome sight for every home. Isn’t it time to start collecting and stocking up on firewood? Prepare now, to stay warmly safe for the rest of the chilly days and nights!

Check out the authenticity of the local firewood suppliers before you confirm your firewood delivery. You order bulk firewood for sale only after you have checked its genuineness and dryness level at the local firewood suppliers’ office. How to choose and order the ideal firewood delivery for your home?

1) Small and cozy fires burn best if they are prepared out of cottonwood, poplar, birch or red maple. These softwoods burn the fastest and are available in plenty but they run out the quickest. You may have to spend your evening rushing into the firewood shed time and again to replenish the stock. You may save some money but in the long run the effort and wood you end up spending may not be worth it. Isn’t it better to opt out for the sturdy or seasoned firewood like:

a) Box firewood

b) Red gum firewood

c) Mixed eco-friendly firewood or

d) Ironbark firewood?

2) If you want your fires to stay burning hours and hours into the night burnishing the walls with the warm red colour of live red hot coals, then pick your firewood from hardwoods like locust, oak, box, red gum, black maple, iron bark or hickory.

3) Seasoned firewood is dryed wood that catches fire quickly. You need to be very sure that the firewood you are using to build your fire is dry and free from moisture. The surface water on the firewood will soon dissipate or can be removed by wiping but the water that has seeped into the firewood will be released as arid smoke and smouldering sediments.

4) Use well-seasoned firewood for your fireplace. Improperly seasoned firewood burns inefficiently and there will be very less. Mixed eco-friendly firewood burns well and but does not pollute the atmosphere. It is a wonderful choice for your home fireplace. Do your bit for the environment and get your crackle from a wholesaler dispensing bulk firewood for sale!

5) Check out for wood with cracks at the ends. This wood is less heavy and is of a deep brown, grey or yellow colour. Light brown, greenish or cream colored wood should be avoided because it may be wet.

6) Leave the logs that make a deep thudding sound when struck together. Hitting the logs together should resonate with a hollow whack.

7) You can also season your wood when the weather is hot and sunny. Just leave the logs and wood pieces outside where the hot and dry sun rays will air-dry the wood.

8) Split wood pieces burn quickly and catch fire faster. A bigger log can be split into quarters or halves and then used. Wood furnaces and outdoor fire pits need big logs whereas fireplaces provide great warmth with small sized wood.

Apple Watch 3: Time For a New Calling

It’s time for some wrist talking. Apple has rolled out its new line of Series 3 watches complete with cellular capability.

The new smartwatches are now on sale, just in the nick of time for holiday shopping.

Apple Watch fans will find the Series 3 is the full replacement for the Apple Watch 2. It features many upgrades including the ability to make calls from your wrist.

The watch enables cell calling on all major carriers in the U.S. The device supports both data and voice and uses the same number as your iPhone.

Calls do come at a price, it will add about $10 per month to your existing wireless fee, but imagine the fun and options of conversing like comic detective Dick Tracy.

Apple’s new W2 wireless chip helps make the calls work. It switches between Bluetooth, Wi-Fi networks and the watch itself always searching for your iPhone first.

Calls can be dialed directly with the keypad on the watch, or by tapping an existing contact. Actual message writing is limited to scribbling letters, tapping emoji, or dictation.

You can also have a voice conversation with Siri. She is no longer limited to just on-screen text responses. Engaging Siri without an iPhone nearby though can be troublesome.

While the watch is designed to free you up from your phone it does require your iPhone to help with setup and app installation. Calling will not work with Android phones.

Most use the Apple Watch as a fitness tracker. New with the Series 3 is an on-watch extra sensor barometric altimeter with GPS. The built-in GPS records the distance, speed and route of your outdoor workouts.

The altimeter tracks elevation during your hilliest rides and highest climbs. It is also “ocean proof” and safe at 50 meters.

Heart rate monitoring has been improved. More graphs are listed for all-day averages in resting heart rate and walking heart rate. Other graphs and averages for workouts are listed as well much like Samsung’s Gear watches fitness offerings.

Workouts are easier to start and stop, or switch on the fly. Runs can be auto-paused. Music controls show up in workouts with a quick swipe, and music playlists can be set to go automatically.

Those who wish to listen to music to accompany their workout will find improved synchronization with the WatchOS 4 operating system. Playlists can be added when the watch is charging. Most songs can be downloaded from your iTunes library.

Like most newer Apple products wireless headphones are required to enjoy the audio. AirPods are a good pairing for the watch.

While the Apple Series 3 has added capabilities it is not a full replacement for the iPhone. Responding to emails and messages is not easy and there is no camera. Your phone is still needed to set everything up and for adding apps and other information.

Battery life can be an issue. Due to limitations phone calls can be severely curtailed as can GPS-aided workouts. Costs for wireless service and Apple music add to the expense.

Users of Apple Watch 2 will find little difference in appearance between the old and new devices. The 3 features a red dot on the crown the 2 does not. Size is about the same. You can use your older bands associated with the previous models.

The cellular version of the Series 3 will run around $400. A stainless steel model will run near $600 and then there are the more luxurious Hermes and ceramic edition models priced at over $1,200.

Apple keeps improving its smartwatch offerings. While not revolutionary the Series 3 is first to offer cell capability with improved fitness applications. The tech giant is hoping consumers will find that now is the right time to purchase one.

How to Clean and Polish Your Jewelry

How to Clean and Care for Your Jewelry

The most effective way to clean your jewelry is to bring it to your local jeweler. That may not always be possible. It always looks that on a Saturday night, before going to dinner or while getting dressed for a wedding, you realize that your jewelry is lacking a bit of its glisten and luster.

Jewelry Maintenance Schedule
Since most people keep their jewelry in a central location, such as jewelry box or safe, it is easy to keep a basic checklist along with it. It is commonplace for one to let time pass before noticing one day when examining their jewelry that a diamond is missing from their ring or bracelet. Keeping a simple checklist in your jewelry box can act as a reminder. All fine jewelry that is worn regularly and is mounted with gemstones should be brought to a jeweler to be inspected for wear on prongs and closures on a routine base. Over time, frequently worn jewelry often comes in contact with coarse surfaces during everyday wear, making it genuine to erosion and metal fatigue.

Jewelry Erosion
"Erosion" takes place when gold or a precious metal rubs against itself or other surfaces. As precious metals rub against counter tops, stone, or mineral surfaces the soft precious metal slowly erodes. Your jeweler can advise you of needed repair before an item becomes broken and is lost. This recommended preventive measure can prolong the life of your precious jewelry.

Jewelry Metal Fatigue
"Metal fatigue" takes place when metal is stressed by constant knocking or bending. The easiest way to understand this is to envision a coat hanger being bent back and forth several times until it breaks. The impact of hitting a ring or bracelet on a doorknob or the constant depression of a spring clasp on your jewelry latches slowly contributes to its "metal fatigue".

Professional Jewelry Maintenance
We recommend that everyday items such as engagement rings and tennis bracelets be viewed by a professional jeweler every 6 months, and annually for jewelry that is worn less frequently. A trained jewelry professional will inspect prongs and clasps for wear and tear. The jeweler will detect loose stones and arrange to tighten your prongs and repair or replace worn areas.

Professional Jewelry Cleaning
Most jewelers will clean and polish your jewelry while you wait and the more advanced jewelers will be able to machine polish your jewelry with multiple stages of compounds to restore its original luster. They may also be able to restore a rhodium finish on your white gold. The more highly qualified jewelers will also be able to steam clean and ultrasonically clean your jewelry. Your jewelry professional should understand the nature of delicate substances, gemstones, and patinas in order to avoid damaging your precious items while working on them.

Home Jewelry Cleaning
In order to properly clean your jewelry at home you should first have an understanding of what your jewelry is made of.

Jewelry Cleaning No No's
Many materials should not be cleaned at home. Below are a few examples of jewelry that should be handled cautiously.

  1. Organic stones or materials such as pearl, ivory, bone, coral, wood, leather, cord, or string should not be exposed to harsh detergents or soaked in liquids or ultrasonically cleaned. These commonly used jewelry materials may absorb the fluids and be damaged or permanently permanently.
  2. Antique or rare artist jewelry should not be tampered with at home. Polishing and cleaning can destroy the patina and integrity of some rare jewelry.
  3. Coins should never be polished and cleaned by a non-professional.
  4. Some gemstones are treated with or have natural oils that can be disturbed by detergents. Some stones are porous and can absorb detergents or moisture. Here are a few gems that caution should be used with: Emerald, Opal, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli, and all of the organic stones and materials listed above .
  5. Chemical exposure can lead to disaster. Soaking jewelry in chlorine-based cleaners can completely dissolve a piece of jewelry, leaving behind only the stones. Likewise, constant exposure to pool chlorine can decay the solders used to make jewelry. A small bead of mercury from a broken thermometer can attract to gold and contaminate all other jewelry that it comes in contact with, turning the gold white. This has been known to render entire jewelry boxes of valuable jewelry useless. As a rule, any corrosive product in household use containing acids, lye, or chemicals that you yourself should not be exposed to is probably not good for your jewelry.
  6. Polishing plated metals with abrasive compounds can wear through the plating. The micron plating solution used on many pieces of costume jewelry is thin and abrasive compounds can wear through to the undering metals. Once the base metals are exposed, they may vary in color or tarnish with time.
  7. Caution should be taken when using ultrasonic cleaners. Ultrasonic cleaners use high frequency waves to release makeup grime and dirt from your jewelry. The process involves vibration.

* Vibration causes erosion when two items are rubbing against one another or the side of an ultrasonic tank.
* Vibration can also loosen stones and epoxy or glue.
* Vibration can also shatter fragile materials such as amber and enamel.
* Vibration can change the color or remove the surface enhancement on many of the novelty gems in the market place today.
* Vibration can dislodge fills from stones that have additives.

Once you have determined that your jewelry can be cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner, the tips below can help you with your safe cleaning.

* Use only recommended ultrasonic cleaning solutions.
* Be sure that your items are positioned so that they do not rub on one another or the bottom and side of the ultrasonic tank.
* Do not leave jewelry unattended in an ultrasonic cleaner for extended periods of time.

Proper Jewelry Cleaning at Home
Now that you have an understanding of what you need to be careful with, let's review the many things you can do to take care of your jewelry and make it look great. The easiest way to keep your jewelry looking terrific is by cleaning it regularly. It is much easier to remove a thin layer of hairspray, lotion, or makeup than a long-term build up. The more often you clean your jewelry the easier the process.

Polishing Precious Metals
You can brighten your jewelry by obtaining a jewelers rouge cloth or a velvet cloth from your local jeweler. These are soft cloths charged with mild polishing compounds used to brighten jewelry. The polishing materials on the cloths are not abrasive enough to damage your stones or metal, but when rubbed vigorously against gold or silver will provide a nice luster. When you are finished polishing your jewelry, you can clean it to remove any of the compounds left behind. Be sure to put your jeweler's cloth in a dust free container such as a poly bag when you are finished. This will prevent the cloth from picking up grit and foreign matter that may scratch your items on it next use.

Cleaning Diamonds Gold and Platinum
Gold, diamonds, platinum, sapphire, ruby, and most durable stones not listed above in the "Don'ts" section can be easily cleaned. Simply mix a solution of 1/2 Windex and 1/2 warm water. It is not necessary to create a large batch; a half cup is usually sufficient. Make sure the room is ventilated. Soak the items for as long as it takes to loosen the buildup. Remove the items and simply scrub them with a soft toothbrush. Be sure to press the bristles gently between the prongs and in all of the creases of the jewelry. If the residualue is stubborn repeat the process. Be sure to rinse your jewelry thoroughly and dry to avoid irritation of the skin. Some people like to dry the stones on the underside with canned air, in order to avoid water spots. Once again, the more frequently you clean your jewelry, the easier the process.

Jewelry Ultrasonic Cleaners
It is very important to read the above warnings about the use of ultrasonic cleaners, as they are very aggressive. That being said, aggressive can be good if you follow the rules. Use only ultrasonic cleaning devices that are designed for home use and read the instructions thoroughly. It is wise to use the solutions that are sold to be used for ultrasonic jewelry cleaning, however, small units can be used with 1/2 Windex and 1/2 warm water. Make sure the room is ventilated.

Cleaning Pearls and Other Organic Jewelry
Pearls, coral, ivory, bone, and other organics can absorb moisture and chemicals. It is for this reason that all make up and hairspray should be applied before putting on your pearls. It is also wise to wipe them down with a soft clean moist cloth when you remove them. In the case of pearls and beads, try not to get the cord and knots wet to avoid staining and rotting of the string. * Never use chemicals or detergents to clean your pearls

Why Charmander Is a Cool Pokemon

Everyone in this world at some point has heard of Pokemon by now. And as a result people around the world have to come to have their own favorite Pokemon that they like a lot especially. Well in this article I am here to convince you why Charmander is a cool Pokemon and hopefully he will be able to enter one of your favorites by the end of this.

1. His Fire typing

One of Charmander’s strongest points is his cool and unique typing. Charmander is a fire lizard style Pokemon, which makes him have a very unique build and design surrounding him. He has a flame and fire rested on his tail that would give out and eliminate his life span immediately is the flame was drenched and extinguished by water of any kind, luckily such an important feature is durable for such a delicate Pokemon.

2. Variety of cool moves

Charmander and its lineage of evolution is known to be able to learn a variety of cool movies and techniques. Charmander can learn a variety of moves like Fire type attacks and even Dragon Type attacks as well. Some of its Dragon movies include moves like Dragon Rage in which it can usually learn in most generations or Dragon Claw usually as a TM by teaching it. These moves prove highly effective towards Dragon Types and other strong Pokemon. It can also learn stuff like fighting moves like Focus Punch and Brick Break and Rock Type attacks like Rock Tomb and Rock Slide as well. Ghost Moves like Shadow Claw are also in its arsenal and some more to mention are moves like Aerial Ace, Sunny Day, Dig, Rest, Iron Tail, Secret Power and so much more.

3. Cool evolution line

And last but not least Charmander’s evolution line is very cool and a major strong point of this Pokemon. At level 16 this little cool fire lizard Pokemon will evolve to an even bigger fire lizard with much more power and speed to pack it with. It gets even more cooler once it evolves at level 36 into its final form Charizard, in which is an even greater prize because it enables to be able to fly and learn flying moves thanks to its newfound wings. And if you have later generations from X and Y forward you can take advantage of evolving into its mega forms both X and Y version and have to opportunity to have an even stronger Charizard at your disposal.

And with that you have a solid explanation on why Charmander is such a cool Pokemon. If you haven’t already don’t hesitate to add this Pokemon to your arsenal and team since you can utilize him to your best of your ability at hand.

London On A Budget

London is a beautiful and unique city that has a lot of different attractions to offer. However, in one of the most expensive cities in the world, sometimes going out and enjoying yourself can become quite pricey and can limit your options. But don’t despair, we’ve got you covered and have put together a few options of inexpensive or even free things to do in London!

I bet the idea of spending your Friday night at the London Natural History Museum has never looked too appealing, however, it might be time to rethink it! On the last Friday of every month (excluding December), Lates with MasterCard provides a unique experience in London’s Natural History Museum. The after hours attraction features a Dinosaur gallery and unique exhibitions that change monthly. Although it is free to attend Lates, you will have to buy tickets for select exhibitions and some special events, but prices are budget friendly. Live music and food is also provided, making this a fun spot to meet up with friends and enjoy something new!

Lavish and extravagant, Harrods is known worldwide for its high-end shops, exclusive boutiques, and expensive department stores. It’s certainly not a destination where you want to open your wallet too wide (or at all), but is still worth the visit to watch in awe as shoppers drop thousands of dollars on a “couture” or “vintage” item. The ancient Egypt inspired décor and elegant seven-floor building featuring over three hundred and thirty departments, makes it a spot more than worth your time to explore. If you happen to work up an appetite from all the window-shopping, the mega-store also provides an abundance of food halls. Take a gander at their amazing selection of produce and meats, eat at the sushi bar, or stop in on one of the many eateries on the floor. Believe it or not, an hour or two can easily slip away while wandering the Harrods food halls.

If it’s nice day out, why not spend it with some friends in Hyde Park? Located in central London, the park provides visitors a peaceful oasis from the busy pace of the city around them and it’s free! There are plenty of activities that you can do once inside the park, such as swimming in the lake, boating, tennis courts, horseback riding, cycling, and plenty of room for team games like rugby, cricket, and softball. If it’s wintertime, starting in November through January, spectators can enjoy ice-skating in the park. Also, why not catch up on some London’s history and visit some of the famous buildings and monuments that Hyde Park has to offer- including the famous Achilles statue, Diana Memorial Fountain, and the Serpentine Bridge.

Lastly, be a tourist for a day and hit the triangle of plazas between Leicester Square, Trafalgar Square, and Piccadilly Circus. This is the UK’s version of America’s Times Square. Firstly, Leicester square is considered the heart of London’s entertainment district and always provides great people watching. This spot will be buzzing with tourists, theatergoers, and a variety of captivating street performers. There is truly never a dull moment at Leicester Square. Where Leicester Square is rich in entertainment, Trafalgar Square is rich in London culture and history. One can spend the day exploring statues and sculptures that are unique and iconic to London, including the busts and plinths of the royal British forefathers and a massive fountain that lights up at night. And last but not least, rounding out the triangle of plazas is the Piccadilly Circus. A world famous traffic circle built in 1819; Piccadilly Circus connects Regent Street to Piccadilly and is a common meeting place before heading out to neighboring burrows like Chinatown or Soho. The Circus has plenty of attractions to offer that will keep cinema buffs, musical theater lovers, and shopaholics occupied for hours on end.

T-Shirts – Common Terms Explained

T-shirt manufacturers use many terms to describe their products. The terms are not always consistent and it helps to have a reference guide.

The following is the official Green Man T-Shirts Guide to understanding t-shirt terms:

20s, 20/1, 20s single: Unit of measurement that defines the fineness of cotton thread. A standard spool of single-ply cotton thread is comprised of 840 yards of cotton thread. If it takes 20 spools to weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 20s cotton, or 20/1. If 30 spools weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 30s cotton thread, or 30/1. If it takes 40 spools to weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 40s cotton, or 40/1. The higher number means a finer thread, and thus a finer, softer fabric is created. T-shirts made of 30s and 40s are softer, finer, and have better drape than t-shirts made of 20s. The terms are used many ways, but it’s the number that counts; “20s,” “20/1,” and “20 singles” are the same. Threads can be twisted together into thicker strands. If two 20/1 cotton threads were twisted together, it would be referred to as 20/2.

Bamboo Fabric: Rayon made from bamboo cellulose. Although rayon is a man-made synthetic material, most experts agree it is readily biodegradable. Bamboo fabric is extremely soft and has excellent drape.

Bamboo: Fast growing plant, classified as a grass, which can be readily processed into rayon to make bamboo rayon clothing.

Bleach Wash: A process that uses bleach to soften and distress the look of the fabric being washed.

Boat Neck: A very wide neckline that runs across the collarbone area to the shoulder points. Derives from early sailors’ shirts, where the wide neck enabled quick removal if the sailor fell overboard.

Boy Beater: Women’s fashion answer to the wife beater. A women’s tank top, although it can be any color.

Brushed Cotton: A method to remove excess lint and fibers from cotton fabric. Brushed cotton usually has a very soft, smooth finish.

Burn-Out: A process that uses sulfuric acid or other strong acid to “burn-out” parts of a fabric knit, usually a polyester/cotton blend. The process gives a see-through, very sheer effect.

Cap Sleeves: Usually refers to shorter sleeves on women’s garments.

Carbon Dioxide: CO2. A chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. Known as a “greenhouse” gas because of its relationship with global warming. A few t-shirt manufacturers are now measuring and recording the CO2 emissions involved in manufacturing their shirts.

Carbon Trust: Independent organization founded in 2001 in Great Britain that monitors carbon emissions. The Carbon Trust works with companies to help reduce their carbon footprint, and now certifies companies and products as having a “low carbon” or “no carbon” footprint. A few t-shirt companies now manufacture “low carbon footprint” t-shirts.

Carding: A fiber cleaning process that eliminates short fibers and removes dirt and foreign matter. Carding can be done by hand or by large machines using drum rollers. Carded-only cotton is not as desirable as combed cotton.

Cellulase Wash: Another name for enzyme wash. This gives fabric a soft feel and a vintage look, depending on how the wash is done.

Cellulose: Derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Useful in making certain types of fabrics, including acetate, triacetate, and rayon. Bamboo fabric is actually rayon made from bamboo cellulose.

Cheap Cotton T-Shirt: T-shirts made with carded cotton, using 18/1 thread, usually knitted on 20 gauge machines. These t-shirts are coarse, rough, and have poor drapability. Used often as cheap promotional give-aways.

Climate Neutral: A term used to describe a company, process, or product that has zero impact on the Earth’s climate. A few t-shirt manufacturers advertise their company as climate neutral.

CO2: Carbon dioxide. A chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. Known as a “greenhouse” gas because of its relationship with global warming.

Colorfastness: The ability of a garment to withstand multiple washings without losing its color.

Combed Cotton: A method to remove short fibers and to arrange longer fibers parallel to create a smooth, fine cotton yarn. Combed cotton has high strength, excellent uniformity, and better hand. Combed cotton costs more and is used in finer t-shirts.

Compacting: A process that compacts the space between cotton fiber pockets. Helps to reduce shrinking.

Contrasting Stitching: Stitching with a different color than the garment. Gives a nice design detail in t-shirts.

Control Union: An international organization that offers certification services for a variety of programs–including many organic certification programs. Certifies USDA Organic, as well as GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard).

Cotton Jersey: Knitted, very slightly stretchy fabric with a smooth flat face and a more textured but uniform back. Average weight per yard is about 5.5 to 6 ounces. Basic t-shirts are made of cotton jersey. Fine cotton jersey is usually smoother and has a lighter weight per yard.

Cotton: A natural fiber that is the most popular in the world for fabrics. Cotton fibers are usually ½ to 2 inches long. Longer fibers produce finer cotton fabric. Varieties such as Pima and Egyptian, which feature fibers exceeding 1.5 inches, are more highly valued than ordinary varieties.

Crew Neck: A round close-fitting neckline. Most common neck on t-shirts.

Crop Top: A shirt with a short body to it; made to expose the midriff area.

Double-Needle Stitched: Used mostly on sleeve/bottom hems and refers to a parallel row of stitching. This type of stitching gives durability and a cleaner, more finished look.

Drape, Drapability: Refers to how a fabric hangs. A fabric like bamboo rayon has excellent drape, while a coarse fabric like burlap has very little. T-shirts that have good drape qualities feel nicer to wear.

Drop Tail: A garment that features a longer back than front.

Eco-Friendly: Extremely loose term that refers to a product’s “greenness.” Almost useless in realistically assessing a product. Favorite term used by green washers.

Egyptian Cotton: Cotton produced in Egypt and valued for its long length of fiber. Apparel made with true Egyptian cotton is prized for its softness and fineness.

Environmental Justice Foundation: A registered charity established in 2000 to help people who suffer most from environmental abuses such as pesticide poisoning, water depletion, and soil destruction. Especially active in curbing abuses in cotton farming.

Enzyme Washed: A wash process using special enzymes to produce a soft finish and smooth look to a fabric. Ages dyes to create a special look to dyed fabrics. Enzyme washing is physically less harsh on the fabric compared to stone washing.

European Cut: A style of t-shirt that is narrower than what one normally finds. For example, a full cut men’s t-shirt, size large, usually runs 22 inches across the chest (measured one inch below the sleeve). A men’s large European cut will run about half an inch to 1 inch narrower, sometimes more.

Fabric Dyed: Fabric dyed before being cut and sewn into a finished piece of clothing.

Fair Labor Association: A nonprofit organization dedicated to ending sweatshop conditions in factories worldwide. Works to develop Code of Labor Practices, especially important in the apparel business where working conditions have historically been so poor.

Fair Wear Foundation: An international group dedicated to enhancing garment workers’ lives all over the world. Works with companies that produce clothing and other sewn products and that take responsibility for their supply chain.

Fine Cotton Jersey: Knitted, very slightly stretchy fabric with a smooth flat face and a more textured but uniform back. Fine cotton jersey is usually smoother and has a lighter weight per yard than regular cotton jersey. T-shirts made with fine cotton jersey have a better drape and feel than regular t-shirts. Usually made with 30s and higher cotton thread, and weighs about 4.3 ounces per square yard.

Fitted Cut: Definitions vary, but generally a fitted cut refers to a cut that flatters the body. Used often in women’s t-shirts, the middle section of the shirt will be tighter than the top or bottom. Overall, the shirts run narrower than a basic full cut.

Full Cut: A generous, roomy cut. In t-shirts, tubular styles are generally considered full-cut, but there are exceptions. Full Cut differs from the slimmer European Cuts, Slim Cuts, and Fitted Cuts.

Garment Dyed: Clothing dyed after it has been cut and sewn into a finished article of clothing.

Garment Washed: A process where finished articles of clothing are washed, usually with added softeners to improve the feel and look of the fabric.

GMO Free: GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms. First used in the 1990s when consumers became worried about genetically modified food. Many companies now apply the GMO free label on everything from food to natural fabrics, like cotton.

GOTS: Stands for Global Organic Textile Standard. A project of the International Working Group. They have developed standards to ensure organic status of textiles, from the harvesting, manufacturing, and labeling, in order to provide a credible assurance to the end consumer. An organic t-shirt that meets the standards can be GOTS certified.

Green: Generic term used by marketing gurus to promote products. Another favorite term of “green-washers,” who are hopping on the environmental bandwagon without any real commitment.

Green-Washing: Take off on the term “white-washing,” but in an environmental context. Companies that green-wash are paying lip-service to environmental concerns to attract more business, but haven’t taken any real steps to be environmentally responsible.

Hand: The way a fabric feels to the touch. A fabric that feels soft and smooth is considered to have a good hand.

Hemp Fabric: Hemp, or Cannabis sativa, has been used for fabric for thousands of years, mostly as an industrial fabric. Newer processing methods have made it suitable for finer clothing, and now it is used in many clothing articles, including t-shirts. Hemp is valued for its strength and durability.

Henley T-Shirt: Similar to a collarless polo shirt, a Henley is a pullover t-shirt featuring 2 or 3 buttons (sometimes up to 5 buttons are used, but that’s uncommon). A Henley can be either short or long sleeved.

Ice Wash: A method of stone washing where the stones are first soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate. This method produces a frosted appearance to fabric.

Interlock Knit: A type of knit that is very soft and has a good drape. Interlock knit stitches are tighter, more stretchy than Jersey knit, but less stretchy than rib knit. Used in very fine garments.

Jersey Knit: Commonly found in t-shirts and is the most durable of knits. It is light weight, and has fine vertical ribs. The Jersey knit was named after the British Island in the English Channel. Fine cotton Jersey refers to Jersey Knit made with fine cotton threads such as 30s and 40s.

Knit: Defines how the interlocking loops of yarn that make up fabric were made. There are many types of knits. Jersey Knit is commonly found in t-shirts and is the most durable of knits. It is light weight, and has fine vertical ribs. On the other hand, rib knits have heavy ribs running down the fabric, while interlock knits are used in very fine fabrics. T-shirt collars are usually rib knit.

Muscle Shirt: Sleeveless style t-shirt, but not exactly a tank top. Basic t-shirt, just without the sleeves. The shoulder strap portion is much wider than an ordinary tank top.

Neck Tape: A thin strip of fabric sewn over the seam running across the shoulders and neck area. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed stitch. Often referred to as “shoulder to shoulder taped.”

OekoTek 100: Certification from the International Oeko-Tex® Association, which assures consumers that the apparel they buy is chemical free and poses no risk to their health. Under the Oeko-Tex standard, clothing must be free of formaldehyde, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and other toxic chemicals.

Organic Apparel: A term very loosely applied in the garment industry. It can mean anything from 100% organic to as little as 6% organic. Often combined with terms like Eco-Friendly, Green, and so on. Consumers must check the labels and verify the materials used to see if something is truly organic or not.

Organic Cotton: Cotton grown without the use of pesticides. Certified organic cotton has been inspected to insure it truly is organic.

Organic Soil Association: Founded in 1946 by a group of farmers, scientists and nutritionists concerned about the relationship between farming practices and plant, animal, human, and environmental health. The Organic Soil Association pioneered the first organic standards in 1967, and certifies farms and businesses that meet those standards.

Overdyed: A process where previously dyed garments or fabrics are dyed with an additional color to create a unique look.

Performance T: Name for t-shirts manufactured for athletes and outdoor enthusiasts. Performance Ts are characterized by their breathability, moisture wicking, fast drying, and odor control capabilities. Many performance Ts are polyester/cotton blends, or can also be 100% polyester. Bamboo t-shirts, due to their absorbency and wicking properties, have become known as performance t-shirts, although they do not dry as fast as performance t-shirts made of 100% polyester.

PFD: Stands for Prepared For Dyeing. Sold this way to t-shirt customizers who want to create their own look with dyes.

Pigment Dyed: A type of dye that creates a washed out, distressed look.

Pima Cotton: A cotton developed in the U.S. in the early 1900s to compete with Egyptian cotton. It features longer fibers and is used often in fine men’s and women’s shirts. The name Pima comes from the Pima Indians, who helped with the first crops of the new cotton as it was first grown in the U.S.

Pique: A method of knitting that creates a waffle-type, fine textured surface. Used often in polo shirts.

Polyester: Man-made fiber manufactured from synthetic polymers. Used widely in apparel, especially combined with cotton in 50/50 blends.

Pre-Shrunk: Refers to the process of pre-shrinking fabric before it is cut and sewn. Occasionally it refers to an actual finished garment that has been preshrunk. Clothing that has been preshrunk shrinks less once the buyer washes it. Preshrunk cotton t-shirts will still shrink a bit, however, especially if dried using a clothes dryer.

Raglan T-Shirt: Style of t-shirt featuring sleeves that run directly to the collar. Usually the sleeves are a contrasting color from the body. Raglan sleeves are wider under the arms, and are preferred by wearers who want maximum freedom of movement. Baseball t-shirts usually feature a raglan sleeve style.

Rayon: Man-made fiber that uses plant cellulose as its main ingredient. Rayon is very soft, has excellent drape, and is very absorbent. Originally developed as a silk substitute.

Rib Knit: Characterized by heavy vertical ribs running down the fabric. Rib knits are usually classified as 1×1, 2×1 or 2×2. This lets you know the width of the rib compared to the space between. For example, a 1×1 rib knit or a 2×2 rib knit means the space between each rib is the same width as the ribs. But a 2×1 rib knit means the ribs are twice as wide as the spaces in between. Rib knit is very stretchy and is often used for t-shirt collars, cuffs, and tank tops.

Ring Spun: Refers to yarn made by twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The continuous spinning results in a softer feel and stronger yarn. Ring-spun t-shirts are noticeably softer to the touch.

Ringer T: A t-shirt with colored sleeve bands and matching crew neck. Most ringers are white, with the armband sleeves and crew necks in various colors.

Sand Wash: Refers to using sand while washing a garment or fabric to soften and distress it.

Satin Washed: Another term for silicone washed, which produces a very smooth and soft finish to fabric, and also gives the fabric good draping properties.

Scoop Neck: Wide, gently curved neckline that varies in depth. Favored in women’s shirts.

Sheer Jersey: Very light weight jersey knit, weighing about 3.9 ounces per yard. A little stretchier than fine jersey.

Shoulder to Shoulder Tape: A thin strip of fabric sewn over the seam running across the shoulders and neck area. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed stitch.

Shrinkage: Usually refers to cotton apparel and the amount it can be expected to shrink. Most cotton t-shirts are pre-shrunk, but 4-5% shrinkage can still be expected.

Side Seamed: Refers to shirts with a seam running down at each side under the arm sleeves to the bottom hem. Side seamed t-shirts are more expensive to manufacture.

Silicone Washed: Refers to using inert silicone in a washing process. Produces a very smooth and soft finish to fabric, and also gives the fabric good draping properties.

Singlet: another term for a men’s tank top.

Slim Cut: A style of t-shirt that is narrower than what one normally finds. For example, a full cut men’s t-shirt, size large, usually runs 22 inches across the chest (measured one inch below the sleeve). A slim cut will run about half an inch to 1 inch narrower, sometimes more.

Stonewashed: A washing process that uses lava rocks or sometimes silicon and rubber balls. This method makes fabric softer and gives it an aged or distressed look. Sometimes bleach is used in this process.

Tank Top: T-Shirt characterized by thin shoulder straps and no sleeves. The name came from the early term for swimming pools: swimming tanks.

Taped Seam: Not actual “tape,” but a thin strip of fabric sewn over the seam running across the shoulders and neck area of t-shirts. It covers the seam and looks better than an exposed stitch.

Tubular Style:A style that has no side seams; the body of the t-shirt is round and straight. Tubular t-shirts are less expensive to manufacture, and make up the bulk of the cheaper t-shirts.

Unisex T-Shirt: No standard definition exists for a unisex t-shirt, but generally speaking a unisex t-shirt is made of lighter weight, fine cotton jersey, side seamed, and not cut as full as a regular men’s t-shirt. The sleeves are not extra short, like cap sleeves, but are not full elbow lengths either. The body length is usually medium/long. However, there are wide variations in unisex t-shirts, depending on the manufacturer.

Uzbekistan: Former U.S.S.R. satellite that became independent in 1991 and is notorious for its cotton production methods, which include forced child labor and environmentally destructive practices. Ethical apparel companies boycott Uzbekistan cotton; however, many companies don’t care and have refused to join in the boycott because Uzbekistan cotton is cheap.

V -Neck: Inverted triangle style of neckline. Can be deep or shallow, depending on the style. Usually favored by women, but a shallow style v-neck is popular among men.

Viscose: Typically another name for rayon, as in viscose rayon.

Weight: Usually expressed ounces per square yard. A 5.5 ounce weight cotton fabric means that one square yard will weigh 5.5 ounces. Fine jersey cotton fabrics usually have lighter weights, while coarser cotton fabrics have heavier weights.

Wife Beater: Derogatory term for a men’s tank top t-shirt. Usually refers to a basic white tank top.

Yarn Dyed: Yarn that is dyed before it is woven into a fabric.

Rent a Luxurious Villa in the Beautiful Sandy Land Beach Area

If you are familiar with Barbados or have visited the country before, there is a good chance that you are familiar with the beautiful Sandy Lane area. This area is named after the prestigious hotel that is located there, though it is really I the parish of St.. James. The nearby areas are Paynes Bay, Fitts Village, Batts Rock Bay, Holetown, Folkestone Marine Park, and Alleynes Bay, with all of these areas found in the West Coast of the country. If you are unfamiliar with this area and plan to take a trip to Barbados, this is an excellent area to consider.

The original resort, Sandy Lane, has been in business for over fifty years. It is one of the finest resorts in the Caribbean and is known for housing celebrities and even royalty. This resort is located directly on the beach and has a list of amenities of its own. However, it is important to note that many of the visitors to the area pass up on staying here and opt for the seclusion of the many private villas you can also find in the area.

Although the beach is named for the resort, there are other lodging options available in the area as well. Also, the beach itself, like all beaches in Barbados, is completely public. There are often beach chair vendors available there that you can rent and use during your stay. You can usually rent umbrellas as well to protect you from the tropical heat to enjoy your beach day.

The beach itself is large enough to house several visitors without feeling too crowded. You will fall in love with this stretch of gorgeous, well maintained, golden sand. Of course, if you have ever been to the area, you know that the Caribbean Sea is one of the most crystal, beautiful waters you can swim in. Plus, it is sheltered in a small bay which gives the area even less waves and is almost always calm for a relaxing swimming area.

These calm waters make the area an excellent place to enjoy a variety of watersports in addition to the obvious swimming. It is a great place to see the tropical fish and other sea creatures through snorkeling. Also, many love to hire out jet skis or other sailing crafts and get deeper in the water for some more adventurous fun. Of course, you can always just enjoy a relaxing day in the sand and keep an out for any of your favorite actors, singers, sports players, etc. who may be passing by during the busy season.

Another important feature to note is that between July and October, you can often see Hawksbill turtles nesting on this beautiful Barbados beach. Of course, you should avoid any nests you see for the safety of the turtles, but there are a few things better than watching them make their journey to sea. Also, some have been lucky enough to swim alongside some of the larger, friendly adult turtles. This is truly a once in a lifetime opportunity and a great teaching experience for children of all ages.

Obviously, if you are staying in the area, you will want to do more than stay at the beach all day. Although there are not a lot of restaurants in the smaller Sandy Lane area, there are several in the nearby Holetown area. You can find more casual beach bars that are great for a quick lunch or a fun evening out, but you can also find higher end restaurants that are a great date night for honeymooners. Plus, you will find many stores in the area that are known for their duty-free shopping.

Our Temporary Kitchen Renovation

Since most of Pam's activities revolve around the kitchen area we determined that we would need to do something fast to correct this nasty and forgotten area of ​​the house. With that thought in mind the kitchen was designated as the next priority. As you can see from the before photos this area had some serious problems, actually more than we were aware of. Our immediate concern was to establish some sort of functionality in the room. We first thought despite we would renovate the kitchen first before the living room but I wanted to see some progress being made and chose the less of the evils. Who knows it is likely that the kitchen will undergo a number of transformations in the future.

We started with a couple of coat of fresh paint on the walls and woodwork. This helped a lot. It is amazing what a little paint can accomplish for a room. We carefully looked at all the kitchen appliances (stove and dishwasher were the only appliances in the home) and decided that the filth was too much. I went out and purchased a new dishwasher and stove for Pam. We still had our refrigerator so we put that in place. Even a good scrubbing could not help those appliances that were in the home.

It was almost too fearful to start taking pictures of our new home. From one room to the next all we see was vast amounts of filth. Nasty surroundings greeted us at every corner of the home however during our pre-cleaning phase when all we were doing is taking pictures I thought I would break the rooms down one by one. I must warn everyone this house is the leader in the "Cult of the Filth" so have your life insurance paid as you view these pictures. You can see the before images of the filthy kitchen which we recently encountered. First notice the unclean stove ready to haunt anyone entering the kitchen. Who would ever want to cook a meal on that? The refrigerator was not working so that was sent to the salvage yard for scrape (as was the unclean stove). Glance with caution at the image showing behind the stove as it looks like it has not been cleaned for many long years.

You will notice that there were many floor tiles in the kitchen that will need to be replaced. It is obvious that the previous occupant was not very clean and failed to maintain the house to standards.

The light and fan assemblies that were in the kitchen / dining room combination were in pretty bad condition and we decided to replace them with just a ceiling light. The fan in the dining area would hit the door of the cabinet when it was opened. The lights served much better for us.

We placed our refrigerator where the previous tenets frig was located and since it had a water supply line already run for the ice maker was was very convenient for us. Pam took a small cabinet that she had and placed it in the middle of the floor to use as an island for working on. This also is merely a temporary condition. The dining room area has the table and four chairs in it while her china cabinet had to be placed essentially in the kitchen. The counters at the breakfast bar cleaned up real good and once Pam put some of her items on it the area began to take on a new and exciting life of its own.

The French doors leading from the kitchen / dining room to the rear deck are in bad shape and will need to be replaced in the future. In the mean time at some point in the future we will be adding on a formal dining room for Pam but that will be later in time. Pam put some curtains up to the windows and it does not look too bad. The floor was in such bad shape that we had to place a piece of wood over a section of it. Over the wood Pam put a carpet runner and it does not look bad at all. It will do until we have the time and funds to redo the complete kitchen / dining area floor. At least now we have a complete kitchen and Pam can now unpack the rest of her kitchen boxes.

Those happy thoughts are racing through my mind, "Here come the homemade breads!"

Network, Link and Packet Throughput Performance Fundamentals

Throughput Fundamentals

Packet throughput is the number of bits per second (bps) or packets per second (pps) sent and received between source and destination. There are three primary types of throughput that affect network performance. They include network, device and link throughput. Throughput is often expressed as a 5 minute average and fluctuates with network conditions. Aggregate throughput is affected by all the network devices between desktop and server. Typical components that affect network throughput include device capacity, scalability and network interface speed. Link throughput is the amount of data forwarded in bps or pps during a fixed period across a campus or WAN link. The links could include switch to switch, switch to router, switch to server and WAN circuits. The link throughput is determined by the interface and link speed for serializing bits and forwarding them across an uplink. Link bandwidth utilization is a metric that is calculated using throughput and link speed.

Device throughput is expressed as aggregate switching capacity (bps). The devices are often rated with backplane fabric capacity and inter-module switching capacity. This is often more important than a performance perspective to switches that aggregate traffic at distribution and core switches.

Network throughput is the aggregate of both link and device throughput. Network device throughput is often rated based on the worst case minimum 64 byte packet size. This results in an advertised throughput rating with the minimum throughput performance. The larger packet size typical of most network traffic will have a higher bps throughput rating. Packet size as a result has a significant effect on throughput. Most applications today use a variety of packet sizes with the average size much larger than 64 bytes.

TCP receive window (RWIN) size has the most significant effect on link and network throughput. The effect of TCP window size on WAN through is a good example. Packet throughput across a WAN circuit for instance is affected by the TCP window size and round trip time (RTT) latency. The TCP window size changes with fluctuating with network conditions. The default initial congestion TCP window size is 3 x MSS (4380 bytes). That is based on the RFC however that can vary among vendor TCP stack implementations.

The TCP receive window is increased to the traditional 65,535 byte maximum or until network congestion occurs. The amount of RTT latency is affected by fixed and variable network delays. The latency and throughput across the campus switched network at the data center is near Ethernet practical limits with 2 msec RTT latency. For instance using the maximum TCP RWIN of 65,535 bytes divided by network latency of 2 msec is approximately 262 Mbps. That is for a switching infrastructure that is Gigabit speed (1000 Mbps) The TCP maximum window size is the limiting factor for throughput. The TCP Window Scaling feature increases maximum TCP window size from 65,535 bytes to 1 GB (1,000,000,000 bytes) for high speed links. Note that Window Scaling is designed for high speed links with high latency for best results.

Campus Throughput

This is an example of the campus infrastructure throughput using the maximum TCP window size of 65,535 bytes and RTT latency of 2 msec.

campus throughput = TCP window size (bytes) x 8 bits / byte / RTT (sec)

= 65,535 bytes x 8 bits / byte / 0.040 sec

= 262 Mbps

= 26% utilization of a Gigabit link (1000 Mbps)

WAN Link Throughput

This is an example of WAN link throughput calculation using an average TCP window size of bytes and RTT latency of 150 msec. The primary cause of decreased throughput here is the RTT latency. The congestion on a slower T1 link will cause the smaller TCP window and that affects throughput.

WAN link throughput = TCP window size (bytes) / RTT (sec)

= 11680 bytes x 8 bits / byte / 0.150 sec

= 622,933 bps

= 40% utilization of a T1 circuit (1,544,000 bps)

Switch Device Throughput

This is an example of maximum forwarding rate calculation for a Cisco switch with 48 Gigabit ports. Cisco uses an 84 byte packet (frame) size for worst case performance calculations.

1,000,000,000 (GE) bps / 8 bits / byte = 125 Mbps

125 Mbps / 84 byte packet = 1.5 Mpps

forwarding rate = 1.5 Mpps x 48 GE ports = 72 Mpps

Copyright © 2013 Shaun L. Hummel All Rights Reserved

Top Dangerous Chemicals Used in The Industry

Our modern way of living would not be possible without the help of many industrial activities. From smelting metal, to complex biochemical reactions, they all help creating the goods and services we use. But there is a dark side: there are many hazardous substances used in industries and without proper care, they can endanger and destroy the local environments. Not to mention that workers are the first to be exposed. Find out the top dangerous chemicals used in the worldwide industry. Minimizing the exposure and the leakage risks must be done by applying certified Environmental Management Systems.

As you can easily imagine, workers in chemical plants are exposed to numerous risks. Risks include skin injuries and infections, skin cancers, allergies, asthma, chemical burns, reproductive problems, congenital defects, asphyxiation, injuries to internal organs, various types of cancers and death.

Ethylene oxide and formaldehyde are some of the most dangerous chemicals used in this industry. The first one is highly flammable and reactive. Prolonged exposure causes neurotoxicity, cancer, fertility problems and cellular mutations. Formaldehyde is commonly used in the chemical industry for producing resins. Exposure to high formaldehyde levels causes death. Long term exposure to low levels causes respiratory problems and eczema.

Workers in the metal production plants are also exposed to numerous hazards. There are many byproducts resulting from smelting and refining various metals and alloys. For example, coke ovens emit ammonium compounds, naphthalene, crude light oil, coke dust, sulfur and arsenic.

Cadmium is a byproduct of iron making. It is highly toxic and causes cancer. It affects respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, neurological, renal, and reproductive systems.

Methylene chloride: It is used in cleaning and removing grease from metals. Methylene chloride is considered by OSHA to be a potential workplace carcinogen. Inhaling it also causes cardiovascular and nervous system problems.

Hexavalent chromium has an extreme toxicity and it is carcinogen. Workers exposed to chromium pigments during soldering, welding, brazing or torch-cutting must wear proper safety equipment.

Petroleum industry is vital for our modern world. It produces plastics which are used almost everywhere and it also produces and refines fuels. Benzene is probably the most common chemical used in this industry. And unfortunately, it is also very dangerous. Even short-term exposure to a high concentration of benzene can be lethal.

Hydrogen sulfide is commonly used for refining oil and gases. It is heavier than air and when inhales, it can quickly cause death. Furthermore, it is highly flammable and has a “rotten eggs” characteristic smell.

A Little That I Know About Industrial Valves

Popular industrial valve types are

• Ball
• Gate
• Swing Check
• Globe
• Butterfly

Let's explain briefly about these.

Ball Valves

It's ball placed inside a passageway that gives way for passing of fluid. A most common ball valve is a two way valve. This valve has a single passage way. Three way valves are less used.

Other types of ball valves

• Stainless steel Type.
• Steel Type
• High pressure Type.

Gate Valves

They control the flow of fluid and they are used when there's a minimum flow needed. It is also known as a sluice valve because the part that either stops or allows flow. It acts something like a gate. These typically have flanged ends which are drilled according to pipeline compatible flange dimensional standards.

Just like any other valves, Gate valve too has flanged ends in order to connect them to the pipelines. The valve can be made of stainless steel, gun metal, cast iron or cast carbon steel.

Globe Valves

Globe Valves are spherical in shape and so the name. However, the newer they are not so much spherically shaped. They offer greater precision than other types when it comes to regulating flow. Globe valves are used in applications where flow needs to be finely tuned. They have a plate with a hole in it, and a disk or plug completely or partially fits into the hole, slowing or stopping flow, according to Peco Company.

Swing Check Valves

These are less used when compared to other types of widely used valves. Under reverse flow conditions the swing check is held firmly against the valve seat, preventing system losses.

Swing check valves are good for keeping the pump primed when the power is off. They prevent water from backflowing from the filter into the pond. They are available in many sizes and have different types.

Butterfly Valves

These are one of the widely used types. They consist of a circular plate with a rod through it's diameter. The name 'butterfly valve' is because of the appearance of the it. It only rotates 90 degrees. This means it can turn from completely blocking the flow of whatever is in its pipe to letting through as much as is possible.There are different kinds of butterfly valves, each adapted for different pressures and different usage.

Make Your Event a Work of Art With Hired Furniture

Events today are a high-stake occasions. They are hosted to help brands boost their presence in the market by reaching out to the niche. Obviously, a lot rides on them given the brand building goals set by entities. It’s thus natural to give attention to detail for your event and make it a super success of the desired variety. For that, furniture do have a big role to play as not only they can lend a visual appeal to the occasion but also give guests plenty to look forward to. No matter what kind of event is hosted, right furniture can make difference to them all.

Further, businesses needn’t bothered about spending too much money to get the choicest of furniture put into places to enhance the appeal of the event. In fact, there are companies that rent out furniture so that events of any nature can realize its true potential and give hosts plenty to be proud of. Be it sofas, armchairs, chairs, tables, stools, poseur tables, coffee tables, bars, plinths or DJ booths – all can be hired to make the event special in true sense for sure. Event managers can hire them at an affordable cost and lend a unique touch to the area where the occasion is hosted.

Similarly, it’s possible to hire theme-specific furniture and let brand messages conveyed in a subtle way. Whether the chosen theme is classic or contemporary, whether it calls for glitz or glamor, or needs plain simplicity, there will be appropriate furniture to meet all occasions and specifications with T. In fact, it’s also possible to choose right colors, designs, hues and patterns with your furniture and amplify the aesthetics of the surrounding to a great level. It won’t matter what quantity is needed as there are companies ready to rent as low as a couple of pieces of furniture to make your events stand out in true sense.

For brands, the concept of hiring event-specific furniture is worth leveraging as they have to work on virtually every aspect to reach out to the audience and get the messages through. It does not matter whether the event is a product launch party or wedding or get-together or corporate gathering – they all will shine with a unique glow when visually stunning pieces of furniture are provided to them. To top it all, there is also the possibility to utilize the power of technology by having new-age furniture for your occasion and leave the guests awestruck in genuine sense.

In overall, furniture hire is a splendid concept to benefit from and take events to an altogether new level. With furniture available in all hues and shapes and designs, there can’t be an easier and better way to have visual sparks to the event matching with the theme and sensibility of the occasion. This is how you become able to put your brand in focus and catch the attention of the audience. After all, nothing will work as much for brand building as well-planned events do and you have to better understand that.

Top 5 Issues in Growing Blueberries


Growing blueberries like growing any plant takes planning and care. Knowledge of the requirements of blueberry plants is essential if you expect to be successful.

Purchasing plants

Buying a one year old plant that you might find in the supermarket or store like Sam’s club is usually a poor purchase. This is true for several reasons. They frequently do not survive because the root system is very small they require extra care if they are to survive. A second reason is that they take too long to reach a point where you might expect a crop. Two year old plants that are well-developed with a good root system are probably your best purchase. They will grow the first year and if you pick off the flowers as they appear the plants energy will go into producing a strong plant and root system. The next year the plant will be three years old and you can expect to start getting some blueberries. The production will increase each year thereafter until by year 6 the plant will be at or near maturity. Purchase your plants from a reputable on-line source so you can select the variety you want.


Planting and caring for blueberry plants is easy if you know what they require. Blueberry plants need an acid soil to survive and do well. Planting a blueberry plant in a soil that is not acidic is one of the biggest reasons for failure. The soil needs to have a pH of 4.5 to 5.0. You should have a soil test to insure the pH is correct. One of the easiest ways to have a good planting medium is to use peat moss which is both acidic and contains plenty of organic material. It is common to use peat moss. We use peat moss and finely ground pine bark for growing blueberry plants ant it has worked well.


Water is another major issue when growing blueberries. Blueberries require a good supply of water. The area also must be well-drained because if there is standing water in the ground the roots will rot and the plants will die. A solution to this problem is to use raised beds to insure drainage. By using raised beds the plant roots will not find themselves in standing water.


Weeds are one of the problems with which you must deal. The weeds must be kept under control. The blueberry plant particularly is its early stages of maturing cannot successfully compete with weeds for water, sunlight and nourishment. The weeds can kill or stunt the plants growth. The blueberry plants roots tend to grow near the surface. This means you cannot cultivate very deeply without damaging the blueberry plants roots. One solution to this problem is to first of all get the weeds under control before you plant you blueberries. Then when you plant use about a 10 layer thickness of newspaper or cardboard to keep weeds from growing and cover this with thick layer of mulch. Usually a 4 to 6 inch thickness is used.


Blueberry plants are sensitive to fertilizer and you can easily put on too much for the plant to handle. A good method of taking care of the plants is to use aerated compost tea. Aerated compost tea is full of needed microorganisms that the soil needs. Using aerated compost tea is one of the best things you can do to improve the soil and grow healthy plants. A slow release fertilizer that is used for Rhododendrons is a good choice. A fertilizer such as a slow release 14-12-14 would be acceptable. There are also many commercial water soluble fertilizers that are popular for example; Miracle-Gro® is the world’s best-selling plant food. The composition of Miracle-Gro is (15-30-15). This is an All-Purpose Plant Food. As the label indicates it is 15 percent nitrogen, it also contains 30 percent phosphate and 15 percent water-soluble potash.


The items discussed in this article are the major factors in successfully growing blueberries. You can do the job. If the soil analysis proves the soils pH cannot be adjusted to an adequate level you can always grow your blueberries in containers.