Various Sources of Light

Light has been at the heart of our existence lighting our way it seems for eternity. The amount of lighting we get can provide a dim reflection or illuminate everything into crystal clarity with its brightness. Light can create shadows and brighten up a dark room. Light has its way of permeating every aspect of our lives.

Our first source of light was in the sky, the moon, the stars and the sun. Time passed and we learned that we could use fire and electricity as a source of light, and ever since then we have progressed to our modern era of having many different kinds of lighting sources to choose from that create ambiance to match our surroundings.

Previously we mentioned that the light in the sky was our first source for illumination, namely the sun. Our homes can control the amount of daylight that we receive through the use of window coverings that can let more light in or keep it out.

Unless you live in a glass house, you have no way of increasing the amount of daylight that gets in. Even if you have windows placed in certain areas of the home, there is still only so much light you will receive using this method alone. The only other option we have is to use an alternate source of lighting when the night brings darkness.

Fire is one of the first alternative sources used to light homes and this was in the form of a candle. Candlelight has a way of illuminating a room that creates a mellow mood and provides a soft gentle glow as the flame dances in the air.

This method of lighting is ideal for creating a certain atmosphere in a room where people can relax and release the tensions of the day.

Of course, modern times have brought us the lamp which is used mainly as our source of lighting the rooms in our home. The use of electricity has provided us with many lighting options and bulbs of different varieties and for different lighting purposes.

To find the type of lighting that appeals to you and your home, you will have to do a little searching and experimenting to see what the best lighting option is for you.

How To Design A Patio Roof – Great Ideas To Consider

A patio is an area outside your home where you can relax, have a good conversation, and even listen to music while sipping some drinks. Whether it's a day or night, this can be the perfect setting for many different things. However, when the weather turns nasty or becomes too hot, an unclarified patio is almost useless. So, to make it more usable, you need to install a patio roof. No matter what the weather conditions are, you will not have to worry if you have a patio roof. You can design it any way you like, but first you must look at some great ideas to help you on how to design a patio roof.

A patio umbrella will make a good patio roof design. If you have a swimming pool at your home, this will be a perfect match because it is inexpensive and provides a natural and relaxed feel to your patio. To know how to design a patio roof with the umbrella type, first you need to consider the size of your patio and the number of seats that it can accommodate. If you have a smaller sized patio, you will also need just a smaller umbrella. But if your patio accommodates 6-8 seats, you can look at a larger size so that it will be well-covered. Whether you have big or small patio umbrella, this will sure look good and will give you more advantage since it can be easily closed to enjoy the sun or opened if you like more shade.

Another great idea to consider so you will know how to design a patio roof is a wood pergola patio roof design. Many homeowners consider wood design because this can be stained or painted with the color that they prefer. You can also grow plants around it like Bougainvillea or vines to add more color to your pergola. But, make sure that you trim the plants because these can easily grow to the other areas of your house. And if you choose this wood design option, be ready to do a lot of maintenance because it is exposed to elements. When this is neglected, it can get warped or cracked over time.

And lastly, you can look at other designs like vinyl awnings and metal patio roof. These ideas can help you a lot on how to design a patio roof. Vinyl awnings will make great patio roof designs during the summer because they let the filtered sunlight through. However, during the rainy season, it would be better if you have metal patio roof design. This is designed to be sturdier and more durable so it can withstand any element. Unlike the vinyl awnings, the metal patio roof is more permanent because it can be attached to your home to provide maximum shade and protection from rain.

The patio umbrella, wood pergola patio roof design, vinyl awnings, and metal patio proof are just some of the great ideas that you can consider on how to design a patio roof. From the descriptions given above, you now have the idea which of those designs will look great and will complement your patio. With the idea in mind, you can already design the patio roof yourself. But if you want to be certain about the result, you might as well consult a professional who has the knowledge and experience on how to design a patio roof.

Tips for Replacing Shock Absorbers

Shock absorbers are essential in all cars to protect the mechanisms. Depending on what type of car you have will determine how much spring the shocks will have. These nifty and important parts also keep the tyres in contact with the ground. They also help to control the movement of the suspension and springs.

The devices work on hydraulic pumps that control the impact the car makes against the road. You will notice that an off-road vehicle will not pick up small imperfections on the road because it has such a powerful device. It also ensures that you have proper braking response to avoid hectic accidents.

Checking your shocks should be done if you dive during heavy braking, hit bumps very hard, or the car is leaking shock fluid. Normal driving can also affect the quality of the shock absorbers over time.

You may need a spring compressor to remove the springs on the shock absorbers. The compressor is necessary if the springs are interrelated or integrated. You will need to be careful when doing this as the springs are loaded with high pressure and sudden releasing could be dangerously damaging.

Using a jack stand to lift the car will help you when replacing the parts. You will need to lift the one side of the car at least thirty centimetres off the ground to make the process easier. Similar to changing the tyre, you will need to remove the wheel too. You will be able to see the shock absorbers as they look like springs. This is where you will need to use the spring compressor for safe removal. You will also come across three bolts that will need to be removed using a socket wrench.

Installing new parts is the simple part. You will need to use a torque wrench when tightening the bolts to ensure stability. Putting the wheel and tyre back in place will complete the replacing of the shock absorbers.

It is important that you take the car for a slow drive to test the stability of your work. If you start to notice strange sounds it would be wise to have a mechanic check out the problem. Wiggle the car and go over humps as well to test if the shocks have been installed correctly.

Lack of properly working shock absorbers could result in damaged wheels and wheel axles then you’ll need to visit a wheel supplier for a new set of wheels. The wheel axle is part of the drive shaft and could lead to a hectic repairing fee if damaged.

Body Contouring – Four Procedures to Improve Your Body Shape

Body contouring surgery, a form of cosmetic surgery is provided to improve the overall body shape. It has to be performed by a licensed and professional plastic surgeon if the best results are to be obtained. The procedure of body contouring targets targeting a specific body part or area that requires cosmetic refining or modifications. This procedure can be performed on almost all parts of the body to enhance the appearance. Breast augmentation, arm lift, thigh lift, tummy tuck and liposuction are among the most sought after aesthetic procedures.

Body Contouring Surgery – Some Options

Liposuction: It is one of the most popular body contour procedures, requested by both men and women. Liposuction involves the procedure of removing excess fat deposits from the patient's body. At present, safe and effective body sculpting workstations are available that have taken liposuction to a new level, making it much simpler. These include Smartlipo Triplex (uses laser energy), BodyTite (uses radiofrequency energy) and Vaser 2.0 (uses ultrasound).

Breast Lift: This is a procedure many women under to improve the appearance of the breasts. Unflattering changes such as sagging of the breasts are a major concern for women. The problems are either age related ones, or after effects of pregnancies. Breast lift surgery involves removing excess skin and fat deposits from the patient's breasts and tightening the surrounding tissues. This enables the breasts to acquire a more youthful and attractive appearance. The procedure performed under general anesthesia, usually takes around three hours for completion.

Tummy Tuck: Also known as abdominoplasty, tummy tuck surgery procedure is yet another body contouring surgery that is equally popular. Individuals having excess skin in their abdominal involves the removal of stubborn and excess fat deposits in the middle lower section. The remaining skin is then stretched and if necessary, a new navel is created and the area is sutured. The procedure requires around three to five hours for completion. The emergence of the surgery is a flatter, smoother and firmer abdomen for the patient; the unsightly stretch marks would disappear completely.

Arm Lift and Thigh Lift: In arm lift surgery or brachioplasty, excess fat and skin are removed from the upper arm and arm pit regions. While the excess skin is removed, the remaining skin is lifted and tightened, thereby giving the arm a firmer appearance. A similar method is adopted in the thigh lift or thighplasty surgery, where excess skin and fat is removed from the thigh and buttocks area. The time taken for the arm lift and thigh lift surgeries varies from patient to patient.

The Basic Categories Of Roofing Systems

Our focus remains on the interior of a building, and we often forget about the exterior. The most important exterior structure of a building is its roofing. However, the costliest roofing system does not always mean that it is of the best quality. It is vital for you to know the various types of roofing systems and, find out the one that will suit your requirements.

Building construction mostly follows the two major categories of roofing systems:

  • Residential roofing
  • Commercial roofing

You can divide these two categories into sub-categories based primarily on the materials used in the process:

Residential Roofing:

Roofing in a house considers the weather conditions of the place. The culture of some countries also play an influence. There are four main types of residential roofing systems to keep in mind.

1. Shingle Roofing – Shingle roof is the most common type that is in use today. It is the least expensive material. Asphalt shingleles have replaced wood shingles over the past decade, as the former is more fire-resistant than the latter. The coating of asphalt shingle roof is with ceramic granules. This makes them resistant to the harmful UV rays of the sun. It lasts up to 20 to 30 years.

2. Metal Roofing – Metal roof is famous for its high durability. It lasts for around 50 years. It requires minimal maintenance and is fire-resistant. It costs more than the shingle roof.

3. Tile Roofing – Concrete or clay is the main constituent of tile roofing. It looks extremely fashionable, and is available in a variety of colors and shapes. It appears in the stylish villas of the Mediterranean and Spanish areas. It is hardy and fire-resistant. However, its heavy weight sometimes proves to act as its drawback.

4. Slate Roofing – Slate is the costliest material. It is durable, and lasts for a long time. It is resistant to fire, rain and insects. It forms a part of some lavish and aristocratic buildings. However, like tile roof, it is also very heavy in weight.

Commercial Roofing:

Residential roofing materials are common in commercial buildings. However, commercial buildings are trying to bring in something new and more efficient. These four main types of commercial roofing systems have gained rapid popularity –

1. Thermoplastic Roofing – Thermoplastic or TPO roof is very effective in high temperatures. It is efficient in preventing harmful ultraviolet rays. It is also good at protecting from ozone and chemical exposure.

2. EPDM Roofing – EPDM is easier to install and repair than any other types. It is also simple to keep up. It is versatile and has a very high durability.

3. Photovoltaic Roofing – Existing rooftops have solar panels installed over them. These solar panels absorb sunlight and use the energy to run the building. This is an extremely efficient method in lowering down the electricity bills.

4. Green Roofing – Soil and vegetation covers a flat roof either partially or completely. The entire patch has a waterproofing membrane underneath. This process not only lowers down the heating and cooling bills; but also increases the lifespan of the roof.

The Different Types of Car Modifications

The day you get your first car is a step into a new chapter of your life. Your first car will also give you a sense of freedom to be yourself including creating an image for yourself on the street. Car modifications can be expensive but, at the same time, it boosts your confidence and gives you real street cred. Here are the different types of car modifications that you could try.

  • Cold Air In-take Installation – Installing one of these not only enhances the performance but it also assists the engine with cooling. Long journeys or intensive driving can cause the engine to overheat so what better item to install than an air in-take?
  • Short Shifter Installation – This modification is purely for having a good time on the roads. The short shifter minimises the distance before having to change gears. Often, a short shifter also assists the driver with increasing speed which could be useful when overtaking those slow drivers.
  • Car Wrapping – Car wrapping is for those car owners who don’t want to get the chassis painted. There are also more patterns, colours and styles that can be used and is much cheaper than getting the car repainted. The downside to having your car wrapped is easy damage to the material. Once the material has been damaged, the car will have to be rewrapped.
  • Spoiler Installation – There are tasteful and useful ways of installing a spoiler kit and then there are pointless and ugly spoiler kits that many people install. This wing was designed to assist the car with aerodynamics and the correct shapes make the chassis look good. Other spoiler kits look disproportionate to the rest of the car.
  • Chrome Trimming – Adding chrome trimmings to the exterior of your car gives it a little bling without over doing it. The shininess of the chrome also makes the doors and wheel well look good. The end result of adding chrome features enhances the look of the car.
  • New Tyres – Make sure that you select the correct size tyres for your car. Some tyres have not been made to fit within the wheel well. Low profiles look good with any car whether it is new or old.
  • New Wheels – Wheels are always the best item to get when customising and detailing your car. There are so many different sizes, styles, colours and materials at a wheel supplier that can really make the car pop on the road.

Car modifications are a way that you can express yourself without overspending on a brand new performance car. It is also easier to get simple appearance modifications that make an impression on other drivers.

Football Betting Tips – The Newbie Sports Bettor's Quick Guide to Understanding Football Bets

If the sportsbook is busy with action, it must be football season. Whether it's the NFL or NCAA, football betting action is fast and furious during the season. For the newbie sports bettor, it can seem a bit confusing, but football bets really come down to two types-straight bets and parlay bets.

Football Betting – Straight Bets

Here's the workhorse for any winning football bettor. A straight bet simply means you're betting on one football game. If you bet on more than one game on the same ticket, it's a parlay, and we'll talk about that in a minute.

When you make a straight football bet, you could be betting on a side or total. Simply put, when you bet a side, you "pick a side" in the game. For instance, let's say the New England Patriots are playing the Seattle Seahawks. If you're going to bet a side, you'd bet on either the Patriots or the Seahawks.

Every game has a point total (except NCAA football, which is most games). This is the amount of points scored between both teams. When you bet a total, you're betting under or over that total. For instance, let's say the total is 47 and you take the over. To win, both teams must combine for 48 or more points (47 would be a push, which means you get your bet back).

Football Betting – Parlays

Okay, so you know about straight bets, which is where you bet on just one thing per ticket. When you want to bet on more than one thing, it's a parlay. You can bet on 2 – 20 things (depends on the sportsbook).

For instance, let's say you bet on the Seahawks and over the total on your ticket. That would be a 2-team parlay (even though technically there's only one team on it).

The more items you put on the ticket, the more money you'll win if they all hit. Naturally, the more items on the ticket, the harder it is to win.

With parlay bets it's an all or nothing thing. If one pick fails, the ticket is dead. Some sportsbooks will run specials for getting close, but that's very rare.

If you get into making football bets via parlay tickets, you might check out "teasers," which are parlay tickets with added points for you. For instance, rather than taking the Packers -10, you might get them at -3. Of course, the payouts are a less since the risk is minimized.

Football betting is a blast and there's nothing better than hitting the sportsbook with a big winning ticket. I hit straight football bets and parlays all season long. I look forward to the NFL and NCAA football seasons.

A Letter to Reconcile Your Marriage – What it Should and Should Not Include

I recently heard from a wife who asked for my help in “writing a letter that will help me reconcile my marriage with my husband.” The two had been having problems for a while, but in the past few weeks things had escalated to the point where the husband had been hinting that he was going to move out and eventually file for divorce. So, the wife felt pressured to come up with something to prevent this from happening. She hoped that the right letter might do the trick.

I very much understand the appeal of a letter. You can pour out your heart without having to worry about being interrupted or tripping over your words or becoming too emotional. Sometimes, it’s easier to write touchy words than it is to say them. But unfortunately, far too often I see people make some serious mistakes with these types of letters. I will discuss these common mistakes in the following article, tell you how to avoid them, and discuss what the letter with the highest chance of success should include.

Understanding Basic Human Psychology Before You Write The Letter That Will Hopefully Reconcile Your Marriage: Before you get started, it helps to understand exactly what you want the letter to accomplish. In most cases, people are hoping that the correspondence will help to get their spouse on board with saving the marriage. They’re hoping to change their spouses perceptions and feelings from negative to positive.

To that end, it’s so important to understand how your letter is going to be perceived. Probably the biggest mistake that I see people make is that they focus on themselves in the letter (rather than on their spouse.) They place most of their attention to their own feelings and their own fears. Examples are phrases like “I don’t know what I would do if I lost you.” Or, “my heart is breaking and I pray that we can work this out.” It’s OK to sprinkle some of these phrases in the letter, but be very careful that the whole tone of the letter isn’t one of negativity and fear.

It’s very important to understand basic human nature and psychology. People will move toward those emotions, things, and people that make them feel more positively and upbeat about their situation. And, people will move away from and have negative perceptions toward those things that bring them down. Make sure that your letter isn’t overwhelmingly negative and based on dark emotions like fear, jealousy, or possession. Proofread it several times to make sure that you aren’t constantly mentioning yourself, how you feel, or what you want.

Keep in mind who your audience is. It’s your spouse or significant other. So, the letter should mostly be about them and what you’re now going to do to make things better for the both of you. Keep in mind they want to know how and why things are really going to be different. Pretty words are nice, but most people will see right through this and are most interested in how your actions are going to directly affect them.

It’s just human nature for people to want to know what is in it for them rather than what is in it for you. Focus on painting a picture of how you’re actually going to make things better. Of course, this requires that you have a workable plan before you sit down to write the letter. But, that’s OK because it never hurts to really think about how you’re going to make some real and lasting improvements in your marriage.

It’s so often your actions over time and not your fleeting words that matter. And so often, if your marriage is in trouble, your spouse is already going to be somewhat reluctant to what you have to say anyway. So yes, a letter can open doors for you, but in order to walk through that door, you’ll usually need to rely on your swift, measured and decisive action.

Lastly, don’t dwell too much on how you’re going to “work” on your marriage. Sometimes, when spouses hear this phrase, it paints a very negative picture. Many people don’t look all that forward to slogging through their feelings and clocking into the marital time clock. You can usually say the same thing in a different way to make it sound so much more appealing.

You’ll often have much better luck if instead of telling them that you’re going to “work through the issues” with them, that you’re going to focus on bringing back your hot, steamy, and connected relationship to where it used to be. This gives them more to look forward to and gives them an incentive to get on board.

Here’s another hint. Men or husbands will often respond better to references to improving your physical relationship. They crave the physical intimacy that means you are attracted and appreciative toward them. Women or wives wants to be appreciated also, but emotions will typically mean more to them than the physical (although this is important to us also.) So, if you’re writing a letter to your husband, you’re better off focusing on a physical connection rather than alluding to how you’re going to “work” on your problems. Actually, both spouses often want the same things, but they will often demonstrate this in very different ways. So, it’s important to keep these things in mind.

At the end of the day, these are just empty words on a page. If you don’t make good on your promises and follow them up with action, then you’re almost better off not even the writing the letter because your spouse will come to doubt your sincerity even more and your job will be that much harder in the end. But I’ve seen several carefully written letters be the catalyst for reconciling the marriage so long as they were followed up with the right actions.

Port Safety Risk Management Vs Ever-Increasing Cargo Volume

As a designated Facility Security Officer for 5 mid-Atlantic Port Terminals for seven years who also had an open eye for safety, one of my unwritten tasks was to get out and circulate among our customers, tenants, stevedores, workers, contractors and vendors ( not to leave out business development and VIP tours) to observe access and perimeter security processes on a nearly daily basis. I also made it a habit to have frequent contact with Terminal Management, and share a few thoughts on incidents, projects or trends if time in between the nonstop meetings and calls. This cave me direct observation of traffic volume, habits and efficiency.

On the subject of trends, one redundant theme I heard from Terminal management particularly at our container facilities, was the push for and plans to increase cargo volume 30-50% over the next 2-3 years. I would shake my head & think, "How is that possible, with any consideration for safely?"

I also represented my Department at monthly All-user Safety Committee meetings, working with some very good safety professionals from a variety of backgrounds and missions, but we all had a common mission for those 2 hours: Hear and review incident summaries, then discuss and work to resolve ongoing safety issues brought to the group. Many items were unfortunately recurring, ongoing battles against complacency, "time = money" mentalities of a thousand truck drivers, that somehow justified driving 70,000 lb tractor-trailer rigs on-Terminal like a NASCAR event, inadequate Port law enforcement & penalties to curb illegal actions, and inadequate signage and traffic controls. Manifestly unsafe acts that were noted and stopped were also gone over to insure any lessons-learned got to all parties concerned.

Ports vary in traffic configurations, but at these, there were both over-the-road (OTF) trucks and stevedore-hired labor union truck drivers working different areas. Mix in the privately-owned vehicles of workers, vendors etc zipping in & out for lunch, slow-mode visitors that are not really sure of the directions they were given, operators piloting 30 ft high container handlers in and out of the traffic roadways , contractors working on foot near traffic corridors, and the Security / police and Safety oversight staff – which are almost always too small to adequately handle their tasks- have a motorized Dodge-City Goliath in front of them – and that's with the present business cargo volumes!

In order to prevent skyrocketing equipment damage claims, injuries and fatalities, workers' comp cases, traffic-snarl losses of productivity, and insurance rates, front offices, planners and strategic budget management must look at the systems in place to influence or manage the sheer traffic volumes and behavior of users and drivers. While electronic engineering controls are very wowing and do not have to be paid benefits, like security electronics these are fussy systems and expensive to maintain over the long haul. Security and safety PERSONNEL staffing + adjustments (and appropriate training) must be incorporated and enacted to accommodate these grand board-pleasing plans to stuff more volume into the same size sock.

Effective routing of thousands of daily tractor trailer drivers that are on the clock "by the load" is a must. Adequate funding of law enforcement and safety / risk management monitoring staff, as well as effective signage and an effective non-compliant penal system to handle these desired volume increases (which usually obtain a distant backseat ticket at the budget meetings), are an absolute must to make that size jump in volume "work" and avoid the backlash of through-the-roof insurance claims / premiums, lawsuits and historically garnering a bad reputation with Port users.

Seek the Best HVAC Jobs by Getting HVAC Training Online

The term HVAC stands for heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration. It usually takes a 2-year associate degree program for students to complete their HVAC training online; HVAC professionals are known worldwide for providing climate and temperature control at houses, workplaces and factories making this field one of the most diverse areas of study. It is important that you have an overview of which HVAC training online programs are available and what is their scope. For this purpose a complete summary of this degree program is given here under.

HVAC Certificate Program

The certificate program offers you a steady growth towards the best HVAC jobs in the market. Students gain exceptional ability in the heating and cooling systems studying the basic elements through theoretical and practical training. Learners also acquire the skill of how to deal with all troubleshooting HVAC problems and learn to design, repair and install HVAC equipment. It takes an individual 1-year to complete this HVAC training online. The course work followed in this degree program includes:

Program Coursework

Those pursuing the HVAC certificate program online gain an upper hand in knowing the practical techniques and theory of all heating and cooling equipment; the following courses are offered in this program:

  • Principles of HVAC
  • HVAC system design
  • Electrical connections and electromagnetic controls
  • Evaporating and condensing units
  • Installing and servicing residential and commercial HVAC appliances
  • Fluid power systems
  • HVAC safety
  • Building codes

Job outlook and Salary Info

The job outlook for HVAC technicians is quite high and demanding. According to the US Labor Statistics more than 308,000 positions were held by them and this figure is to rise in the coming years. These technicians on an average earn about $ 15.08 on hourly basis.

Associate Degree in HVAC Training Online

Students follow the general education courses along with training in HVAC systems in the associate degree program. It takes about 2-year for a student to complete his HVAC training online with this degree program. Among the various topics covered few of them include duct systems layout, commercial refrigeration, automatic controls, ventilation and heater repairs etc. Individuals are also introduced to general business characterism which help them in getting the best HVAC jobs. The people applying for this degree program need to have a high school diploma or anything equal to it. A list of the common courses offered in this program includes:

  • Mechanical refrigeration system design
  • Sheet metal layout
  • HVAC installation techniques
  • Commercial heating systems
  • Gas heating systems

Career Options

HVAC professionals with an online associate degree in hand can gain access towards a number of specialized fields such as:

  • HVAC mechanic
  • HVAC sales consultant
  • Physical plant maintenance service person
  • Air conditioning technician
  • HVAC Technician
  • Mechanical Contractor HVAC / R Technician
  • Wholesale Service Representative
  • Facilities Maintenance HVAC / R Technician

The Advantages of Portable Air Compressors

Contractors often use portable air compressors. Since these contractors are responsible for many concrete and paving jobs, portable air compressors are easier to use and to transport. These newer inventions make some jobs a lot easier.

In recent years, the sale of portable air compressors hit a high mark and then gradually decreased. Some experts believe this is due to the fact that they were new contraptions that got a good running start, but over a few years lost their appeal. This is changing as we have advanced the technologies. Another reason that sales are on the upswing is because of the housing boom. With all of the new housing developments and new homes being built across the United States, there is plenty of work in store for portable air compressors.

Portable air compressors have the same functionality as standard, traditional air compressors. They usually have tanks that hold up to eight gallons and have the same safety devices intact. The advantage of these offspring of other air compressors is obvious: the ability to transport them from job-to-job. Portable air compressors have wheels that can roll the compressor and are often more lightweight than industrial models.

When buying a portable air compressor, as with the purchase of a traditional air compressor, look for models that are certified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). These models have been tested for quality and safety and are the only ones available that guarantee quality workmanship. An air compressor certified by the ASME will have a label or sticker located somewhere on the unit; parts and accessories should have this label as well. It is illegal in some states to buy or sell air compressors that are not certified by the ASME. Keep in mind that not all portable air compressors are created equal.

Living the Freedom of Priceless Worth

In the 1850s, an Englishman made his fortune in the Californian goldfields, and as he traveled overland on his way home, he arrived in New Orleans. He did what a lot of tourists would do in that day; he went to the slave market, when, in that day, there were still slaves sold open at market. He saw in the lot a sole African-American woman there, being auctioned. One woman in a multitude of men. He overheard two evil men who were bidding for her, discussing what they would do with her, and repulsed of heart, he decided to bid for her. He waited until the bidding slowed, and as the gavel was about to fall, made his bid – a figure exactly twice that of the bid that would have won – butly beyond anything that had ever been paid for a slave before.

They said, 'Have you got the money?' 'Here it is,' he said, as he handed it over. So, after the Bill of Sale was made out, they let the woman down to him, and as she made her way to the successful bidder, she made up a mouthful of spittle. When she was within two-feet of him, she let fly and spat full into the man's face; hissing an obscenity of disgust that all could hear. The man drew the back of his hand up and wiped his face, not saying a word of anger.

He took her by the hand out of the markets, down the muddy street a little way, and led her into an office building. She could not read, so she did not know where she was being led. They entered that office and the man spoke with the clerk at a desk.

The clerk began to protest – 'You can not do that!' he said.

But the man said, 'But I insist; it's the law! ' and, after a short disagreement, the clerk acceded and began writing what looked like a certificate.

Money changed hands and the slave-buying man received the paper.

He walked over to the woman as urgently as he ever could and afford it to her, saying,

'Here, here are your manumission papers, you're free to go.'

She said back to him, 'I hate you!'

He said to her, 'Did not you understand; here are your manumission papers, you're free, you're free to go … '

'But, sir …' she said, 'You paid twice as much as anyone has ever paid in that market … I do not believe it. '

'It's true, I bought you to set you free,' he said, thrusting the manumission papers in her hand.

'You bought me to set me free?'

'Yes,' said the man.

Tears welled up in eyes that had not known tears for a long time.

'You set me free?' 'You paid twice as much to set me free?' Still in disbelief, she said, 'I'm free? You set me free? '

She sank to her knees, unable to do anything but to repeat the words, 'You bought me to set me free … you paid more than has ever been paid before to set me free.'

Looking up with eyes of disbelieving joy, a face softened and moist, she said, 'Oh sir, all I want in life is to be your slave, you bought me to set me free.'

He bought her to set her free.

Jesus bought you to set you free.

Jesus bought you at such a handsome price it is incomprehensible – not simply double, a price beyond the concept of mathematics. He paid for all our lives, yours as much as anyone's, through the price of His own life. And Jesus did that to liberate us from our slavery to sin.

Jesus freed us in such a way as to understand this: when we've been loved so much that Jesus has given us our manumission papers by losing His own life to save ours, our response is instinctual; sensing the only safety we've ever known, we lose our lives all over again simply to remain in the Presence of salvation, which is Jesus Himself.

He, who is our one and all,

will never again let us fall.

Jesus bought you – His death for your life – to set you free. Your freedom, in turn, remains a gift for you only, however, as you choose, like He did with His, to give your life away.

Otherwise, 'salvation', like all other things we end up enslaved to, becomes its own idol we place before Jesus. Yes, even salvation.

Jesus is relationship. Jesus is salvation. In sum, Jesus is our all. Jesus, a freedom of priceless worth.

A person is wise when they let go of what can not satisfy

to gain what their lives are worth: the Jesus who died for them.

Him, and Him alone. The only true worship.

May the Lamb that was slain

receive the full reward

of his suffering …

A YOU who never has to live enslaved again.

A YOU who is freed to live in allegiance to The Master

who created, who knows, and who loves YOU.

The Marcel Breuer Chair: What You Should Know When Buying a Breuer Chair

During the 1920s, Bauhaus designer and architect Marcel Breuer created numerous furniture designs which have today become classics that are widely used by interior designers for both home and corporate interiors.

Breuer’s innovation was to use bent tubular steel in the creation of furniture. At this time, using tubular steel for furniture was a revolutionary idea. Breuer had been inspired by his familiar bicycle handlebars, and using bent tubular steel was feasible for the first time because German steel manufacturer Mannesmann was able to refine the process of making seamless steel tubing.

As he said: If you can bend a tube into a handlebar, why can’t it be bent into furniture?” The result was a piece of furniture that was light-weight, functional and attractive. Because it was inexpensive to mass produce, it fulfilled both the social and aesthetic ideals of the modernist movement.

Although Breuer created many enduring chair designs, the Breuer Chair usually refers to the Cesca Chair which he created in 1928, and later named after his daughter Francesca. The innovative design of the Cesca Chair was its stylish cantilever form using the tubular steel structure and wood and cane seat and back.

But the Cesca Chair was not Breuer’s first breakthrough in modern furniture design – that honor belongs to the classic Model B3 chair, later named the Wassily Chair in honor of his Breuer’s friend, the artist Wassily Kandinsky.

Both the Cesca and Wassily Chairs have been in production since the late 1920s. The trademark name rights for both the Cesca Chair and the Wassily Chair are owned by Knoll, a company founded by Hans G. Knoll in 1938 in New York. The Knoll Group still produces several Breuer furniture designs, and in particular two of his classic designs, the Cesca Chair and the Wassily Chair. Reproduction chairs are also produced by other manufacturers around the world, who are using different names to market the furniture.

The Wassily chairs available today through Knoll have the following specifications: The dimensions of the chair are 31 inches wide x 27 1.2 inches deep x 29 inches high, with a seat height of 16 ½ inches. The seat surface is thick cowhide leather upholstery available in black, light brown or white beige.

Breuer’s next break-through design, after the Wassily Chair, was the Cesca Chair. The B5 Chair design was meant to be “a dramatic antidote to the overstuffed seating of the Edwardian era.”

A true cantilever design, the Cesca chair has no legs at the rear, and it relies for support on the tensile properties of steel tubing. Breuer’s brilliant idea was to use non-reinforced steel tubing, thereby creating a free-swinging chair that approached his ideal of “sitting on columns of air.”

This chair was Breuer’s greatest financial success and although radical for its time, today it seems logical – both delicate and strong. A large number of companies have produced this extremely popular design, so it can be difficult to select the “official” manufacturers of the Cesca Chair, and there have many excellent reproductions, but there have been three companies that worked directly with Breuer in the production of the Cesca Chair.

Thonet was the first, beginning in 1927, and until World War II. During the 1950s, Dino Gavina, a furniture manufacturer in Foligno, Italy, started making them with Breuer’s participation, Then during the 1960s, Gavina was bought by Knoll, who are today the only makers of authentic “Cesca” chairs.

When purchasing a Cesca Chair, there are some details to look at that differentiate a high quality Cesca chair from a poorly reproduced one: 1) the front edge of the wooden seat should curve down slightly with the downward sweep of the tubing; 2) the tube ends should be continuous with the tubes (no seam between tube and cap); and 3) the bends in the tubing should retain a constant radius and not flatten out a bit as it curves The Knoll Cesca Chair is available in both an armless and arm chair version.

After leaving the Bauhaus, Breuer continued his experiments with furniture design and worked briefly for the Isokon Company in Britain. His design for the reclining Isokon Chair was influenced by Alvar Aalto who was working with molded wood in Finland at the same time. Interestingly, Alvar Aalto, had himself been inspired by Breuer’s tubular steel furniture of the 1920s.

In 1935, when Breuer arrived in London to design furniture for Isokon, he had planned to continue his work using tubular steel. However, the owner of Isokon, Jack Pritchard insisted that Breuer should work in wood instead of metal, and preferably plywood. Pritchard had former experience in the plywood business which led him to begin a furniture company. When the former director of the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius arrived in London in 1935, this solidified his plans. He became Isolkon’s Controller of Design and it was he that suggested to Pritchard to hire Breuer, the former Master of the carpentry workshop at the Bauhaus, as his designer.

The result was the design of a superb five-piece set that included an armchair, chaise lounge, and a nest of tables, that are now viewed as landmarks in 20th century furniture design.

Although the company produced furniture by several designers it was the designs of Breuer that eventually gave Isokon an international fame. Isokon’s designs of the 30s have endured into the present and are among the most important and original furniture designs of the 20th century.

All of these chair designs — the Cesca, the Wassily, and the Isokon Chairs — have remained classics since they were created during the early 20th century, and they continue to remain elegant and enduring addtions to any home or office environment.

Choosing a Garage Floor Mat

Available in various types of patterns and materials, garage floor mats will provide you with some of the most variable options for your garage. Because there are so many different types available, be sure to do plenty of researching so that you know you're getting the type of mat that's best for your purposes.

The cheapest type of garage floor mat will have next to no pattern at all on it. If you're willing to spend a bit more, there are also mats with diamond and coin patters, as well as ribbed floor mats.

Usually a garage floor mat is installed simply by cutting the mat to fit with scissors or a utility knife, and then laying out on the floor. Nothing could be easier to install. Also, as long as the mats have the correct types of edges, they can be connected or even overlapped for a seamless look, even if they do need to be cut apart, without the help of adhesives. These mats will channel debris and liquid out of the garage for easier cleanup, protect the concrete from stains and damage, and, if used correctly, can help prevent contamination of soil and water.

Walking, standing, and working is much more comfortable on a garage floor mat as they are cushioned for comfort. Their coating prohibates them from absorbing chemicals or liquids, and they emit a fresh scent that will keep the garage smelling nice. Usually last years, these mats are ultra durable, second only to an epoxy kit. They're also anti-conductive, as well as anti-static. If a single mat does not provide enough cushion, they are designed to be laid double, either across the entire garage floor, or just where the extra cushion is needed, such as under a car where you may be laying on your back, or on the sides where a mechanic will typically have to do some kneeling. The cold, hard concrete can make any repair job seem longer and harder, and the extra padding provided by a mat can help with that.

At under $ 2 per foot, garage floor mats are generally pretty reasonably priced; also, many sellers offer fast, free shipping. Not only cheaper, it's much easier to cut and lay out a mat than it would be to install an epoxy kit .

Although durable enough that they're not likely to be ruined, garage floor mats are probably your best option if you plan to do lots of work in your garage and would like the ability to throw them out if they do take damage. The only type of garage floor solution that is more durable is epoxy, and the only type that is more mobile are containment mats. Garage floor mats are easier to drive on than containment mats, and are obviously easier to install than epoxy.