Bird Feeding – A Big American Hobby

Did you know that there are millions of Americans that feed wild birds on a regular basis? According to the Fish and Wildlife Service, there are 83 million Americans that feed wild birds for a variety of reasons.

People feed wild birds to bring beauty to their outdoor spaces, for therapy or relaxation and for educational purposes for themselves or others. Some put bird feeders in their yards, hang them from trees, and put them on fences and in gardens or patios. Wild birds can be fed in your gardens or patios anytime of the year.

The Fish and Wildlife Service estimate in the spring there are approximately 10 billion wild birds in the United States and in the fall approximately 15 billion wild birds. This large increase in the fall is due to the fact that all the babies will have hatched.

Of those that feed birds, approximately $3 billion a year is spent on bird food by backyard hobbyists. They also spend $800 million a year on accessories for birds such as bird houses, bird baths, bird feeders, and other birding accessories.

There are all types of feeders. Here are just a few examples of the types of feeders that are available. There are also many more varieties of bird feeders constructed of many different materials.

  • Suet feeder
  • Open hopper
  • Single tube feeder
  • Twin tube feeder
  • Free standing feeder
  • Circular bird feeder
  • Liquid feeder
  • Fruit feeder
  • Platform feeder
  • Ground feeder

There are different types of feeders in relation to the types of birds you are trying to attract and the region of the country you are located in.

For example, the Blue Jay, can be found in almost every state in the country depending on the time of year. Blue Jays like a variety of feeders and a variety of bird food.

The types of bird feeders Blue Jays prefer vary in size and type. They like tube feeders, covered platform feeders, suet feeders, large open hoppers. They also like to eat on the ground to forage for whatever they can find.

Blue Jays like to eat seeds; safflower seeds, black oil sunflower seeds and hulled sunflower seeds. Here is a list of some of the other foods that Blue Jays enjoy to eat.

  • Cracked corn
  • Fruit
  • Mealworms
  • Milo
  • Millet
  • Peanuts
  • Peanut hearts
  • Suet

There are all types of bird seed and bird food available on the market today. It is best to know, as in our example, the Blue Jay, the types of environment for housing and the types of food they prefer. Most feed stores that also sell bird see will be able to help you with the types of food and feeders for the birds in your region of the county.

Theatre Burlesque Group Solves Clue Board Game Mystery With Seductive Deduction

Board Game Burlesque Adaptation

In a show such as Sweet Tooth Events produces with such a diverse and passionate calibration of talent among the entertainers, the best is always on stage in one portrayal of sensuality or another. In this steamy saga of the ‘Clue’ board game, the narrator and script fuelled the heated orgasmic suspicion around all the characters and spurred sassy suspense toward wicked wonder and lust quite well.

Mysterious Sexy Performers

The dinner guests were of course the ‘colourful’ Clue board game personas, but the snooty, uppity class demeanours were converged with the cheeky, provocative flirtatious of the burlesque artists. They brought the suspects to life in a very real, albeit censored way, and hid the gilded murder weapons in places closer to some other family jewels.

Between each act the unobtrusive ‘Shylock’ detective would step out of the shadows to scrutinize the chalk outline on the floor while calmly puffing away on her pipe. She would contemplate the scene and take notes on the quirky traits of all of the dinner guests, as well as the maid servants in order to reveal the predominant ‘who’ flavour in this spicy ‘whodunit’.

Arousing Detection Questions

I have a notion on some of the questions Detective Shylock might ask herself in this fatal male travesty.

  • Was Mr Green’s green beard real or was it real green glitter and does his carpet match those drapes?
  • Why did Mrs White smile so sweetly when she poured tea for the dinner guests if she secretly wanted to strangle them all?
  • Why did Miss Scarlet lie about wanting to be loved only by Mr Green when she fell head over heels for Mr Boddy and his cache of diamonds?
  • What does Professor Plum really teach and does she tutor her students on how to commit the perfect scandalous murder?
  • Why wasn’t Miss Peacock more discreet with the knife she hid in her garter that was clearly protruding a blade stained with blood red rhinestones.
  • What about the humble serving girl who was quietly dusting a lampshade and then leapt onto the dance floor with such verve that her gyrations knocked the baggy pants off old Colonel Mustard? And, was that a gun in his thong or was he just glad to see her?
  • Did she even notice when Mr Boddy sneaked in and liberated the guests of well-hidden evidence in his seductive mingling session?

Many unanswered questions abounded amid the throngs of thongs and pasties, but in the end the guilty burlesquer was caught and sentenced to perform in the finale.

Manly Boylesquer

As always, the synergy in this group of artists is one that infuses the audience with its intoxicating liveliness and gaiety in such a way that it’s no wonder you wake up still feeling sated in your sense of fun and enjoyment – it’s fun that has staying power!

I quite enjoy the amazing symbiosis between burlesque performers and their audience in that the more you goad them on the more spirited the performance for a greater exchange of excitement.

Like when you’re sitting in the front row where you can woot and wahoo at a the suave siren swivelling across the stage and he will knowingly oblige you with a sexy glance and then tease the buttons on his sequenced shirt until it falls to the floor only to reveal his manly rhinestone-studded pecs. Ooh la la!

Tips on Choosing New Staircase Parts

Stairs are a prominent feature of most homes, so getting the design right is important. A beautiful staircase can make a fantastic centrepiece to impress your guests, as well as serving a practical purpose.

But looks are only part of the story – safety is another vital issue. Many older staircases fall short of modern standards, so replacing your stair banisters can help bring your home up to scratch. Here are a few decisions you will need to make:

Which materials?

Most household staircases are manufactured from wood, but metal and glass are becoming more popular. Timber will probably still be part of your stairs, at least as far as the treads and supporting structure are concerned, but you may decide to combine wooden staircase components with glass panels or steel spindles (also known as balusters) for a more contemporary look.

Wood is a beautifully warm, versatile material that will suit any setting. It is ideal for a wide range of designs, including curved stairs, turned newels and different styles of handrail. Wooden stair spindles, in particular, can be readily worked into all kinds of decorative shapes – or left plain for a minimalist look.

Which timber is best? Pine, hemlock and sapele are worth considering if you’re on a tight budget, especially if you are intending to paint or stain the staircase. At the other end of the scale, ash, walnut, southern yellow pine and oak stair parts offer premium looks and durability, but come at prices to match.

Metal stair balusters shaped to resemble wrought iron are extremely popular nowadays, with a wide choice of both traditional and contemporary designs on the market. Durable and decorative, they can easily be painted to match the rest of the decor if required. You can also get chrome or brushed nickel effect stair spindles for an ultra-modern feel.

Glass panels can look stunning on a banister rail, and are ideal for poorly lit spaces as they allow light to flow freely around the room. They can be combined with wooden or metal handrails and newels – and even glass treads, for anyone keen to add a touch of contemporary glamour.

Which handrail design?

There are two main types of handrail system: post-to-post and over-the-post. The strongest, most popular and economical design is post-to-post. In this system, the handrail runs between the newels and is fitted into the sides of the newel posts with traditional mortise and tenon joints.

In an over-the-post configuration, also known as a continuous handrail system, the rail runs over the top of the newel posts, often ending in a decorative swirl called a volute. This design is more eye-catching and elaborate, but a little less sturdy than the post-to-post system. However, it can look stunning and is regarded as a sign of quality by home buyers.

Staircase safety

When revamping your stairs, you can take the opportunity to bring them up to date in terms of safety as well as style. The most important modern regulation, brought in to prevent small children becoming trapped, is that no gap anywhere on a staircase should be large enough for a 100mm sphere to pass through. This applies to every stair part, but the main thing to look out for when replacing the banisters is the amount of space between spindles. In order to comply with the 100mm rule, the distance between the spindles (or glass panels if applicable) must not exceed 99mm.

The measurement is taken from the smallest part of the baluster, so if you buy turned balusters you will probably need to order more of these than the square or stop-chamfered varieties. Staircase manufacturers will be able to help you calculate the number required to meet the regulations (usually two spindles per tread).

The rule also applies to the space between steps on open-tread stairs. If it is greater than 99mm, you’ll need to install riser bars at the rear of each tread to reduce the size of the opening.


Choosing new stair banisters, or indeed a whole new staircase, can present an array of challenges, with potentially tricky decisions to be made about design, materials and costs. However, the process will also give you the opportunity to improve a key part of your home – and, of course, increase its overall value.

Food Lighting Tips From Pro Lighting Studio Experts

When it comes to food lighting, it is actually a little challenging for most people to find the best lighting and position it in a way that will help make the food look more appetizing. According to a sound and lighting company, the wrong type of lights can induce discomfort among a restaurant’s patrons. And even if the food served is delicious, under the wrong types of light, these can look unpalatable. Designer audio-video will mean nothing if your customers feel uncomfortable inside your establishment.

When it comes to designing for a restaurant, your customers should come first and foremost. Appropriate lighting chosen to fit the restaurant’s architecture can bring together the disparate elements of your establishment. But what does it mean to have good lighting?

Good lighting entails the combination of natural light with electric lights. Unknown to many people, daylight is the best type of light because it is naturally comfortable. The role of electric lighting is to simulate natural light. Prospective restaurant owners should also be aware that the color of the lights they use can induce moods and emotions. And as such, careful thought should be put into selecting which color of lights to use. Colors can perform multiple functions, ranging from highlighting specific interior details to focusing attention toward a specific activity or moment.

Additionally, restaurant owners should be aware of is that lights should be chosen based on functionality. Although it is important to match the lights used with the interior design and architecture of the establishment, the primary purpose of lighting should be defining the space based on its intended purpose. Once the purpose of the space has been designed, the next step that should be undertaken is selecting the right type of fixture and shapes.

As what many experts say, it is a rule that restaurants should provide an ample amount of light during breakfast. How much is enough? Ideally, your customers should be able to read the morning paper without any difficulty. During lunch, a moderate amount of lighting can work for a fast food restaurant. This matches the hectic pace of this meal time. For dinner, you should choose low intensity light which helps create an ambience of intimacy and leisure as this is what most people look for to be more comfortable.

These are some lighting tips from the pro lighting studio experts you should always remember when dealing with food lighting.

Jumbo Loans – How It Works

A jumbo loan is a type of mortgage in US. The loan sum is above the industry-set definition of straight complaint loan limits. These standards were designed by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, two major secondary market lenders. These types of loans are usually offered by the creditor to those debtors who provide warehouse financing for mortgage lenders. The loan amount may differ from country to country. It usually applies when the agency Fannie Man and Freddie Mac limits do not cover the complete mortgage amount.

Fannie Mae (FNMA) and Freddie Mac (FHLMC) are large agencies that acquire the mass of housing mortgages in the US Then they set the utmost limit for an individual lender who will pay for a mortgage. Insurance companies and banks then come up and get this opportunity with highest mortgage amounts going to the $ 1 million or $ 2 million range. A loan worth of $ 650,000 is known as super jumbo. The average interest rates on jumbo loans are usually higher than another mortgage, also it may diverge on mortgage sum and property types.

On February 13, 2008, President George W. Bush signed an economic incentive package that increased the maximum limit of loan from $ 650,000 to $ 729,750 until December 31, 2008. The maximum for any area would be the greater of (1) the 2008 compliant loan limit ($ 417,000); Egypt (2) 125% of the area medium house price, but no more than 175% of the 2008 compliant loan limit ($ 729,750, which is 175% of $ 417,000).

Although jumbo loans is higher in worth but alongside these are more uncertain about creditors, because in case of defaults it's harder to recover the loan amount. The higher the loan amount will be, the more vulnerable it will be. To be on the safe side, creditors ask for heavy down payments from debtors seeking jumbo loans. Jumbo residence prices can be more biased and are not easily put up for sale to an ordinary debtor. Therefore, many creditors may require two reviews on a jumbo mortgage loan.

Interest rates on jumbo loans are higher than other loans, because these are high risk loans. The distinction between two loans usually depends upon the prevailing market rate. Normally, the difference changes between 0.25 and 0.5%, at times of high depositor concern, such as August 2007, can also increase one and half fraction points.

Jumbo loans is increasing with the increase in property rates. The consumers of jumbo loans are increasing day by day, so this loan option now is no more just for elite class residents.

Fresh loan programs are offered, which are increasing the jumbo loan percentage. Because of this increase in current time mortgage loans are requiring more in city and nearby areas. These new mortgages are either a 40- or even 50-year paying back, or an interest-only option. These long payback time facilities the debtor with a great deal, which will result in the increase in monthly savings. Higher the payback period is, the more the lender or bank will gain.

If you are considering buying a new home then 80/20 & 80/15 jumbo loan is a right option for you. Previously, 20% down payment was only subordinated to purchase private mortgage insurance (PMI), jumbo loan seekers were paying high interest of above 80% for LTV loans.

With the amendments in the jumbo loans program, a debtor now can borrow 80% of loan without purchasing private mortgage insurance (PMI). Along with that he can take another loan with higher rate. He can hedge the risk at a very low insurance rate.

Recently, many creditors are moving away from 80/20 jumbo loans. They are now offering lender paid mortgage insurance (LPMI) options to merge PMI with interest rates. If the debtor is now taking higher interest rate, he can avoid PMI even with just 5-15% down payment. With this option, overall interest for the debtor may increase, but it will decrease the monthly payments. It depends upon debtors, to some people this option might be suitable.

The Advantages of a Desktop Computer

It used to be once upon a time that you never had a choice when it came to buying a computer; you just had to go for a large, bulky desktop model. Then the laptop was introduced but was unaffordable to buy for most people. However the laptop sells far more than a desktop today. This can pose a problem when thinking of buying a computer as you do not know which was better suited for your needs.

Well with that in mind I have written this article to maybe shed some light on which is the best option from these two computers.

A desktop computer may look quite big and bulky but they are also a lot cheaper than a laptop but can often be a lot better performers. If you want to buy a good laptop you will be hard pressed to find one for under $ 500. A good solid desktop computer on the other hand can cost much less than this figure.

If you plan to keep sensitive information on your computer then a desktop would probably be the safest option.

Laptops can be a very easy target for any would be thieves that may break into your house because they are so easy to carry. The same can not be said for the desktop computer. This could prove quite cumbersome when trying to steal it.

Another advantage the desktop has over the laptop is that it is very rare that you hear of anyone dropping their desktop and damaging it. The desktop is far too heavy and bulky for this to happen but a laptop is not.

There is also the fact that laptops because of their small size can often overheat with prolonged use. The desktop however has better ventilation and does not suffer from this problem.

Whichever you decide to buy always ensure that you buy it from a reputable source. Another option is that if you are very well clued upon computers you could build your own so that it meets all your needs.

Training is Specific

A study from Norway shows that any training method that makes you stronger will also help you to exercise longer. The best way for an athlete to become stronger for a specific sport is to do strength training using the muscles in the same way that they are used in that sport. In this study, cross-country skiers did specific training training three times a week for eight weeks, using a cable pulley simulating the movements of double poling in cross-country skiing. The cable system forced them to use their muscles in the same way that they are used to push ski poles against the ground to propel them forward. This training program helped them to ski much faster.

The authors used scientific strength training methods. They asked the skiers to perform three sets of six repetitions at a workload of 85 percent of one repetition. The heaviest weight that you can lift once is called a one-repetition maximum. The heaviest weight that you can lift six times in a row is around 85 percent of your one-repetition maximum, and the heaviest weight that you can lift ten times in a row is about 78 percent of your one-repetition maximum. That means that a person who can lift 100 pounds once, can lift 85 pounds six times and 78 pounds ten times in a row.

This same principle applies to high jumping or any other movement. You jump up against gravity, so squatting with heavy weights will help you to jump higher. Lifting heavy weights over your head does not help you to jump higher. Training is specific and strengthening your muscles by using them in the same way that you use them in your sport will make you a better athlete.

The Paint Booth Magic: How Significant It Is In The Industry

Painting jobs can be very messy, extremely tough and outright frustrating when done in the wrong environment and using improper tools and gadgets. Achieving a professional-looking and high quality painting job requires top-notch painting materials, time-tested techniques and a contaminant-free environment. An environment which is suitable for painting can be achieved if one has a paint booth or spray booth. This type of large equipment booth is a completely enclosed space that ensures that dust, debris and other forms of unwanted particles that might contribute to a major flaw on the surface of your painting job are kept outside to ensure that they will not be able to contaminate your painting job.

Advantages of such a Booth

Whether you are painting small, medium, or large vehicles or aircraft, furniture, ceramics and other large equipment, a booth for spray painting will be a necessity. It offers a number of advantages when compared to painting in large open spaces. For example, automotive painting requires a process called rapid paint baking to ensure that the paint is cured, thereby making it more durable and resistant to regular wear and tear. There are commercially available booths or spray booths that can actually accomplish this curing and baking process. By making sure that you get a swift painting job that is accomplished in an immaculately clean environment, you will save valuable resources such as time, effort, and money. Most importantly, you can be sure to deliver the best possible quality of painting services to your clients too.

What Does such a booth Look Like?

Regardless of the size, these booths have the same basic design features and they all exist for the same purpose. The first feature is a huge opening that allows equipment and objects to be transported to and from the booth. This opening must be tight-sealed to prevent any exterior contaminants from sneaking in. The booth must be an air-tight space that will not permit the entry of dust and particles. In highly sensitive paint applications such as automotive painting, even the tiniest particle infraction will reveal nasty imperfections that cannot be tolerated. Another feature of the booth is the compressor which is supposed to force air out of the structure, transforming it into some kind of a vacuum which makes painting easier and faster. Some large-scale paint booths feature a ready-to-use compression nozzle for spray painting, while others allow the entry of a separate compressor also for the same purpose.

Safety Precautions and Maintenance

The compressors must be checked regularly to be sure of efficiency. Spray nozzles, hoses, and filters should be inspected at regular intervals and replaced when need arises. The main entry door must always be kept closed and air tight to prevent the introduction of contaminants. The walls and ceiling of the booth must always be inspected for holes or cracks which must be repaired at once. Employees who work as operators should also use the recommended equipment to protect their health while inside the booth. There are prescribed uniforms, face masks, eye protectors, and respirators. Inhalation of spray paint is highly dangerous to your health.

Whether it’s for small-scale industries or huge-scale commercial use, a large equipment booth for painting occupies a vital position in the paint application industry.

Hiring Construction Equipment

Construction projects can be demanding whether they are small or big. It is a process that can be tedious, especially if you are not sure how to go about it or don’t use the help of the right professionals to give you peace of mind. A well-managed construction project can however give you the time to relax and have the best outcome at the end of it all. One of the things you might find important to consider with your construction is hiring necessary equipment.

Developments in modern world have seen to the introduction of different machines that ease up the process of erecting a building or any other structure. The use of different machines comes with the advantage of speeding up the process and getting everything right within that time frame. Since the machine can be very expensive to buy for your one construction, hiring is the best way to go. You however must make considerations to make the right decision with the hiring.

The Project Size

This factor will help you evaluate whether you need to hire or not. It will also help you evaluate what you need to enjoy a smooth process. Big projects might end up requiring more than one machine to handle the different stages of the construction. You might only need one for smaller projects. The construction type will also help you select the most suitable equipment.

The Time Frame

Human labor takes longer to complete any project. If you are looking for fast turnaround time, then you will need to hire equipment for the process. The time frame you have to complete the project is a factor to remember since it can guide you into the number of machines to go for to handle the process. It will also help you know what enhancements to make to such equipment for the good of the project completion time.

The Construction Budget

Hiring of construction equipment is of course a step that comes with a financial aspect to it. Some equipment can be very expensive to hire; they could be charged per hour or per day. Consider the money you can spare for the hiring of needed equipment to guide you to the most ideal for the project. You can check out what offers different service providers or construction companies have. This kind of comparison can fetch you very reasonable charges for equipment you need since they can differ from one company to another. The secret is to hire only what you can comfortably afford.

The Hire Company

There are so many construction companies now offering the construction equipment on hire. When choosing, consider the type of equipment you can enjoy as well as other construction services you can enjoy from the company. You will find it even more economical if you can get your equipment, construction supplies and materials from the same company. It is always easier to have your project needs handled by one service provider making it important to check out what your preferred company offers before going ahead with hiring what you need.

Settlers Of Catan Strategy

Settlers of Catan strategy is reasonably simple but with very subtle nuances that can only be appreciated with experience. However if you read up on strategy and take notice of what things work and what things don’t when you play then you can improve your skills very quickly.

Broadly speaking there are two main strategies. The first you target brick and wood, look to expand your road network quickly and build up more settlements. The other strategy is to target ore and grain and get two cities up and running as quickly as possible and then expand from there.

Neither of these is better than the other. It all depends on what the board looks like, when you are placing and what your opponents are trying to do.

Read Your Opponents

Key to improving your skills at Settlers of Catan is to pay very close attention to what your opponents are doing and thinking. It is not enough to just exist in your own little bubble. In order to make the robber and development cards most effective you need to have a good idea of what your opponents have in their hands.

You also want to be reading their minds in terms of strategy so you can cut them off if you want. Another good thing is to deny trading a particular resource to a particular opponent if they can’t get it. Even if they offer you a good trade you gain more benefit by denying them.

Trading Effectively

Every trade is an opportunity for you to get one over your opponents or for them to get one over you. Every time you need to think hard about who benefits the most. You may really need the resource they are offering and you may have an abundance of what you want to give away. But what gain will they reap from getting your resource.

For example you may desperately need a wheat and have five sheep to give away. But if that sheep allows your opponent to build a settlement where it cuts you off then is it really worth it? Potentially not.

You just need to be aware of these things and make every trade work for you, not your opponent.

Your Starting Roads

Initial roads are key to getting off to a fast start. Many rookies however make the mistake of pointing their road int the direction of the best nearby spot. However they often find that someone else will build there and the road will become redundant.

It takes a bit of a judgement call but often it is better to build towards a weaker spot.

This means you will actually have space to build new settlements, even if they are not as attractive. But it saves you having a redundant road and being down two resources before the game even starts.

How To Earn a Pretty Profit With Diamond Investing

People who are looking to invest and make money often do so by heading to the stock market. There is a definite risk in going that route, especially in recent years when the markets have been so volatile. If it's a safer way to profits that you are looking for, investing in diamonds is the way to go. Investing in diamond is an excellent way to recover market losses, while also creating profits that are then available for other investing opportunities.When investing, you are essentially using your money to try and gain profits without any undue influence from the people or companies in which you are investing. There are definite terms and conditions in place in each transaction, which may differ in each investment. It is the type of work called for in the investment that plays a role in the agreement or contract set forth by the individual or company.

Let's now take a moment to talk about how your investments are affected when a company starts to suffer losses. Companies seeking money from investors usually do so when they are in a tight financial spot that requires them to seek financial help. They turn to the general public when looking for that financial assistance. In these types of situations, the investments made are often in the form of shares, investment bonds, or debts, with the investor receiving a share of profits if the financial tide turns for the company. These investments are a loan of sorts, with the advantage to the company being that they do not need to pay interest. Each investor, or shareholder, receives dividends and profit share that is dependent on the type of contract signed at the time of the investment. In the case of diamond investing, the investor receives a diamond in return for giving money to the company. They do not receive any interest or profits from the company after that transaction, but they are free to sell the diamond for a profit when the value of diamonds on the open market is on the rise.

One of the great benefits of owning a diamond, besides the status and luxury of the gem, is that it will never see its value decrease, even in cases where the demand for diamonds decreases during a particular period. The supply and demand elements that so often drive the stock market are simply not in play with diamonds, making this investment one where you simply can not lose. Given the status and luxury of diamonds, which are very often held by kings and queens of many different countries, your investment will be one that is very wise indeed.

The diamond market never experiences a decrease in value. One thing to be aware of is that there are two kinds of diamonds out there: miners across the world dig for natural diamonds, but there are also some synthetic varieties that are hand-made in a laboratory, with the synthetic diamonds often on the market alongside the natural stones, which can help drive inflation. Diamond companies fall under the category of either a public or private limited company, with that distinction usually dependent upon the part of the world where the company resides. Some companies also fall into the semi-government category, which is where the company is owned in part by the government and in part by the residents of the country.

Commercial Law – Fixed Price Contract – Total Failure of Consideration

The case of Mirimskaya v Evans and Another [2007] concerned the construction of a fixed price contractual relationship between two parties. The claimant bought a house in West London ("the Property") as a birthday present for her son. She intended to have it refurbished and extended so that it was finished to the highest standard. The first defensive, an aspiring property developer and the principal director of the second defensive company, was introduced to the claimant as being able to carry out the proposed works. After many informal discussions between them, it was agreed that the first defensive would have engaged to carry out 'stage one' of the proposed works.

The parties agreed that the development of the property would be divided into three stages, namely, 'stage one', 'phase one' and 'phase two'. It was previously agreed that the first defensive would stay 'phase one' of the works once planning permission and building control approval had been received.

In order to finance the commencement of the proposed works, the claimant paid the second defensive advance payments in respect of 'stage one' and 'phase one', as well as for professional fees.

Unfortunately, by November 2005, the claimant had become concerned about the lack of progress made with regards to the property. She asked the first owed to account for the sums which he had received and to explain how they had been spent. She also informed him that she wanted the arrangements to be recorded in a formal contract. Additionally, she refused to pay any further sum of money until a schedule of payments, linked to the progress of works, was agreed.

However, the requests were ignored, and so by March 2006, the defenders indicated that they could not continue with the work without further payments since they were running out of funds and were not prepared to finance the rest of the project themselves.

An exchange between the parties' lawyers took place in April 2006, in which each party claimed that the other had repudiated the contract. The claimant issued proceedings claiming money which she claimed that she had overpaid to the defenders. The principal issues between the parties included:

§ Whether any binding contract (s) had been made between the parties in respect of the works;

§ If so, with which defending the contract (s) had been made and their terms;

§ Whether either party was in breach or had repudiated the contract; and

§ If so, what damages the innocent party was entitled to.

The court held: –

§ That on the evidence, the claimant had entered into two binding agreements with the second defendant in respect of 'stage one' and 'phase one' of the works. The terms of those agreements were set out in the documents produced by the first claimant and constituted fixed price contracts for the sums indicated on those documents. The claimant had agreed to pay the professional fees incurred by the second defendant in respect of the planning stage to completion.

§ No contractual arrangements had been made between the claimant and the first defensive personally. The claimant had repudiated both of the agreements when, in April 2006, she had wrongly purported to accept the second defendant's alleged breach of contract as repudiation.

§ The second defendant had not been in breach of contract by sending the solicitor's letter dated the 30th of March 2006. On the contrary, the claimant had been in repudiatory breach herself by failing to pay the second installments due under each contract.

§ The second defendant was not entitled to recover the two unpaid second installments since there had been a total failure of consideration in respect of them. However, the second defendant was entitled to recover damages from the claimant on account of her repudiation of the agreements, representing the loss of profits which the second defendant would have made, had both agreements been completed.

© RT COOPERS, 2007. This Briefing Note does not provide a comprehensive or complete statement of the law relating to the issues discussed nor does it determine legal advice. It is intended only to highlight general issues. Specialist legal advice should always be taken in relation to particular circumstances.

Why Custom Web Design is Important For Your Business


Custom web design plays an important role in the success history of a web site. A site is consists of text and images and there are many pages in the site. Each web page in a site is an HTML file having its own URL. A web site is similar to traditional print publishing as it is also a container of information like a book. The difference is that a book is a hard copy of information and a website is a soft copy of information.

Necessity of web design

For any business to grow, it is necessary to have an attractive and appealing website. When we browse through a site, it is the attractive appearance of the site which shows our eyes and we want to search more on that. A website gives online presence to a business that has widest reach and can be accessed by a number of people. Today, in the world of internet, people like to communicate more through internet and for any information or service they search on the internet. By having a website you can easily be in touch with your clients and customers.

Important components of a good website

A website should have good navigation power, people are not patient enough to struggle in finding their way around in your site. So your web site should have strong and flexible navigation power.

The display of site should be very clear and visible. Hazy appearance and unclear visual aspects are negative points for your site. Whatever your business has to offer should be demonstrated on the site very clearly.

With the help of web designers you can make your site attractive and eye appealing. The web designers work on different aspects of a web site such as content, text, graphics, display, etc. which make a site live and user friendly. Different types of things are utilized in designing a web site such as animation, communication design, graphic design, information architecture, marketing, interaction design, photography, typography, corporate identity etc.

You can make your web site more attractive and appealing to audience by designing your site. Web designers are professionals who have proper training in this field. You can hire these web designers to design your web site. And you can see the difference and growth of your business in very effective manner.

Facts You Should Know About Your HVAC System

Here are a few simple facts you should know about your HVAC system to help you to get the most out of it.

What Is Your HVAC System

Your HVAC system refers to your residential or commercial H-heating, V-ventilation and AC-air conditioning components. Technically, this includes whole structure central heating and cooling as well as window-installed air conditioning units and space heaters in individual rooms.

Whole-structure systems are the focus of this article because they’re the most popular, most efficient and most cost-saving. These systems typically consist of an outdoor unit, an inside unit, a filter and a web of duct work.

Not All HVAC Systems Are Created Equal

There are several types of HVAC systems available for installation including those with heat pumps, AC/furnace combinations and gas furnace hybrids that rely on heat pumps. It’s important to know that the HVAC quality and efficiency can vary greatly, even while they’re all required to follow regulatory guidelines for performance.

Whether you’re buying a brand new HVAC system or giving your older unit an upgrade, it’s important to work with a professional HVAC service provider who can recommend the most reliable and efficient units available.

The ideal HVAC contractor will be able to discuss alternate heating and cooling methods including solar hybrid systems.

What Is A Filter MERV?

The MERV (Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value) is merely a way to rate the efficiency of filters through a numbering system that ranges from 1 to 16. The lower ratings (1-4) are the least efficient, removing only up to 80% of contaminants. This rating is typical for filters that are fiberglass, disposable or washable. At the higher ratings (13-16), electronic filters remove the most contaminants at up to 98%.

A Higher MERV Rating Is Not Always Better

Higher MERV filters are better at blocking contaminants but can add to your HVAC operating cost. They reduce air flow and can cause your system to work harder. Lower MERV filters are more energy efficient but aren’t likely to restrict contaminants that might affect those who suffer from allergies or other respiratory ailments.

It’s important to have the right combination of available air flow, adequate air filtering and efficient energy usage. Check with your HVAC professional.

What’s The Best AC Temperature Setting

A comfortable room temperature is subjective but the desire to save money on energy and utility bills is universal! The majority of people find 72 degrees to be cool enough when the humidity is adequately handled by the HVAC system.

Saving more money is as easy as raising the temperature on the indoor thermostat setting. Every degree counts in dollars and ‘sense.’

HVAC Maintenance Pays

Don’t underestimate the importance of routine, scheduled maintenance for your HVAC. Proper maintenance means less money spent on repairs and more saved on heating and utility costs.

Spring and early Summer are the best times for AC check-ups; Fall is ideal for Heating maintenance. Be prepared with peak operating efficiency prior to needing it.

Advantages Of Dual Fuel Heat Pumps

The efficiency of heat pump HVAC systems are steadily growing in popularity because they do it all; they provide cooling in the warmer months and economical heating in the cooler months.

Program your dual heat pump system to operate with the outdoor temperatures. Determine an upper range to trigger the electric heat pump and a lower range to activate the alternate fuel pump.

TRIZ – Merging

“Everybody called him Pepto, because every day at work he’d have a pint of vodka in his back left pocket and a bottle of Pepto Bismol in the right. Throughout the day he’d retrieve the bottles from his pockets, take a swill of vodka, and then chase the liquor with a shot of Pepto.”

“Are you serious? He was drinking while he was working?”

“Oh yeah. This was back in high school and we were just a bunch or rednecks working on the factory floor.”

I had asked my friend Dave to tell me the story about the time when he used to auction off his paycheck on payday.

“Well, every year at church we would auction off a car. One of the guys in the church owned a local Ford dealership and he would donate a car to the church auction. Every year people always thought they would be the lucky one to drive the car home.”

“I ran the auction for the church, so I was very familiar with the auction process, where to get the ticket rolls, and stuff like that. I’m also from Louisville, a huge betting community where we were always betting on the horses (Dave always pronounces it as “haarses”). One of the guys in accounting was even a bookie.”

“On the factory floor I drove a forklift. There was a ton of stuff to move around the floor, so I was constantly moving from station to station delivering parts. Well you know my personality and how chatty I am; I knew everyone in the building so I would always stop and talk to the other workers as I was making my rounds. I was in a position to talk with people all day long.”

“Then one day, without a lot of thought, I just decided to auction off my paycheck. I mean I knew a lot about auctions, I was used to betting, and I had access to everybody in the company on a daily basis. It was no brainer.”

“So I drove around on the forklift every Tuesday morning yelling,’ Hey everybody I am raffling off my paycheck, come get your tickets!'”

“How much was your paycheck in those days?”

“About $125 a week.”

“How much did you sell the raffle tickets for and how much did you take in?”

“The tickets were a buck each and minimum … I mean minimum, I would take in $250, although I usually made more like $350-$400….all tax free! On payday, I would take the lucky winner to lunch at the GE Bar and Grill. The place was a total hole in the wall. Anyway, everybody went there to cash their checks on payday. I’d buy the winner’s lunch, cash my check, and then count the winnings out loud to the lucky winner in front of the entire lunch crowd … twenty, forty, sixty, and so on.”

“That’s hilarious!”

“Here’s the kicker. The previous week’s winner was the first person I’d hit up for the new raffle. The winner would always buy a minimum of $5 worth of tickets, lots of time $10. Then I would hit up all the other previous winners, and finally I’d make my rounds to the rest of the folks.”

“So basically, you looked around at all of your available resources and merged them together. I mean you had auction experience, knew about betting, and talked to people all day long. You took your available resources and merged them together to come up with something new.”

“Yeah Mark, I would say that is spot on.”

“You know Dave, you probably didn’t realize this then, but you were using some of the TRIZ basics and the Merging lens. Remember when I explained that you should look at all the available resources you already have around you.

“Well now that you mention it, yeah I do.”

Like I have discussed throughout my TRIZ articles, a lot of the great thinkers probably have never heard of TRIZ (for most the concept didn’t exist yet) or ever realize they were applying the principles. Because we are not all capable of understanding these principles unconsciously, the intention of my TRIZ teachings is to give you a set of tools to help you consciously apply creativity and innovation principles the way the great ones have been doing it unconsciously throughout history.

By the way, Dave went on to be a senior executive at GE, among other great things.

The technical definition of the Merging principle involves either:

1. Bringing or merging identical or similar objects closer together, or assembling identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations.

a. i.e. Personal computers in a network

2. Making operations contiguous parallel; bring them together in time.

a. i.e. A mulching lawnmower.

Circuit boards are an excellent example of the Merging lens. In a circuit board, you’re merging multiple functions into one location rather than leaving each control in its own place.

The Internet is also ripe with examples of merging. “Mashups” are the merging of two existing applications to make something new. For instance, somebody took one application, a directory of sex offenders, and overlaid the directory with Google Maps. Users can punch in their zip code and see a visual map of all the sex offenders in a particular location.

Fast food chains have also taken advantage of the benefits of merging. KFC, Taco Bell, and Pizza Hut can often be found partnered in pairs under one roof. The advantage of the merger is that each restaurant can use the same staff, soda fountain, cooking equipment, and location. Two different brands use the same resources and cater to customers from one location.

As you can see, merging brings things closer together to improve the product or system. The applications of merging go beyond tangible objects, though.

Cashing in on the View

Let’s talk for a moment about the Sydney Bay Bridge. Clearly, this landmark is beautiful, but I want to talk about one entrepreneur who wanted to sell the experience of climbing the bridge. People don’t actually climb the bridge; they walk up the rainbow-type arches to the very top of the bridge. The person who came up with this idea is a man named Paul Cay.

This story is not only about marketing, merging, and packaging your product; it is also a lesson in using persistence to get what you want. Perhaps the most important thing to take away from this story is this:

If you have a truly unique and creative idea and people don’t hate it,

they weren’t listening.

Folks who have been to my workshops or lectures have undoubtedly heard me say this. I’m told that Paul presented his idea for a bridge climb business to Sydney’s city governments and various other bureaucracies. The board came back with a list of 60 reasons why he couldn’t do this business. Most people would give up if somebody threw 60 roadblocks in front of their idea, but Paul was persistent. He needed a couple of years to make his come back, but he eventually returned to the naysayers and said, “Is it still the same 60 reasons why I can’t do this business? Because I have a solution for all 60 of them now.”

He presented his rebuttals to them and after a review process they decided there was no good reason he couldn’t start his business. So in October 1998, the business was officially launched:

There was an initial $2 million investment in the bridge for safety cables, harnesses, communication equipment and that kind of thing. Two million may sound like a lot, but I’ll let you calculate the return on investment.

People pay $160 each to do the climb. In eight years, more than 2 million people have climbed to the top. You do the math.

The original idea seemed so unbelievably simple, yet Paul’s idea has won more than 33 awards to date. The business actually won its first award for the “Best New Tourist Attraction” before the climb program even opened.

The bridge already existed, and with a modest investment they turned the bridge into one of Australia’s biggest tourist attractions. I’ve thought about this company a lot. What is their product? What are they really selling?

They’re selling a view. And this view is not in the form of ocean-front property that can only be sold to one person. This is a view that you sell to new customers again and again every day. It’s a cash cow.

Think about your own existing products and services. Is there a way to package them differently to have a lot greater effect? Maybe there’s a popular or famous landmark that you can partner with to get more exposure. Who can you merge with to create your own cash cow?