Pallet Cutstock Remanufacturing

Let me take you on a small journey up into a little area in British Columbia, Canada, known as the Fraser Valley Lower Mainland. If you were to drive thirty miles east from Vancouver you would run into a small town called Abbotsford and it is here where your pallet journey begins!

If you're not familiar with the lumber industry, that's okay, I'm going to keep things real simple for you. There are two kinds of mills. First, you have primary mills that take the trees that have been turned into logs (branches have been cut off) and then debark the logs. These mills are also known as scragg mills and cut the log into boards and timbers of various shapes hiring to get the best value on premium wood. There is always wood that does not make the "grade" and this goes into what is called the falldown pile. As mills have become more efficient over the years using very sophisticated equipment including laser eyes, there has become less and less falldown but that's another story.

So, where does this falldown go? Again, to stick with the basics of our topic, a lot of it goes into what is called Economy Lumber. This grade is below construction grade lumber and it is this grade that the secondary mills or remanufacturers (remans) use to cut into various smaller components like pallet cutstock.

Now each mill may vary on how they cut and what saws they use but for the most part, pallet remanufacturers here in the lower country will bring in 2×4 and 2×6 Economy lumber that ranges in lengths anywhere from 8 'to 20'. Now-a-days with the new heat treated regulations, the wood is bought heat treated and kiln dried (HT and KD) and then bought to the chopsaw that will cut the lumber to length. Most pallets are standard sizes of 48 "by 40" like the GMA specs (Grocery Manufacturers Association) but do you know why?

Lumber comes in at various lengths and mills try not to waste anything because it's paid for! So, they will use multiples of whatever size best fits. So a 48 "or 4 'board would be best cut out of 8', 12 '16' and 20. 'There would be no trim loss which saves money for both the mill and the client. of multiples of 10 'and 20'.

After the board is chopped to length, it then goes to the Re-saw that will take either the 2×4 or 2×6 and split it up the middle which results in two pieces. Usually one piece is good (Utility) and the second piece is not (Expendable). The boards are then re-stamped with an HT stamp, graduated and then stacked onto pallets. They are then bound with strapping to hold them all together and then they are put into the yard waiting to be picked up by the trucking company. For stringers, or runners (the part that the boards get nailed to) have a different journey. After they are chopped to 48 "usually, they are then stamped, graduated and brought to the notching machine. Then the stringers are stacked and placed into the yard like the boards.

Now we're ready for the final journey. A trucking company is called and they come and pick up usually about 22 packs of various lengths depending on the order, paperwork is made for customs and then the shipment leaves our neck of the woods and is shipped down to California where a pallet company nails everything together and ships out the finished pallet to their clients.

Astro Analysing Kundalini Yoga

In every human being there is source of divine energy called kundalini which mainly remains in dormant state in the individual, but when the kundalini energy arises and awake the seeker make rapid progress in the field of spirituality.

There are many similarities between microcosm’s human body and macrocosm entire universe. All elements, all things present in universe are also present in the physical body. The planets and celestial bodies exert astrological vibrations upon our physical body which further influence our personality and spirituality. In a layman language we can say that at subconscious level the solar system is our larger body and the human body acts as a miniature solar system.

According to Indian astrology the essence of soul is influenced by the placement and power of Sun in the horoscope. Moon affects the mind, Mars influences the blood, Mercury affects speech and intellect, Jupiter denotes knowledge, Venus linked with seminal fluid and Saturn is the agent of mysterious experiences in the life.

The seat of kundalini is the point where Capricorn and Aquarius meet in the Root chakra where as the sign Leo and Cancer intersect at the Third eye or Ajna chakra. The psychic kundalini passage is denoted by the nodal axis with North Pole as Root chakra and South Pole as Ajna chakra.

Astrological factors influencing a kundalini yogi:

Kundalini Shakti axis:Rahu/Ketu nodes indicates serpentine kundalini power axis. Rahu represents ego and physical body its desires and gratification and placed at North Pole or the Root chakra. Ketu on the other hand represents renunciation, liberation and ultimate freedom from material affairs resented by South Pole of Crown chakra. When Rahu succeeds in turning its purpose from material gratification and raises its level to the spirituality of Ketu, rising of kundalini power begins. In this mystical journey Rahu from the root chakra unify with the Ketu at Crown chakra for enlightenment.

Mooladhar or Root chakra: Saturn, earth element,gives physical shape to our body; equivalent endocrine glands are sex and gonads.

Swadisthana or naval chakra: Jupiter, water element, rules feelings and sexuality

Hara or Manipur Chakra:Mars, fire element, will power, rules power and action.

Anahata or Heart chakra:Venus, air element, thymus gland, indicates universal love.

Visudhi or Throat chakra:ether as element, Mercury, thyroid and parathyroid, rules awareness of a person.

Ajna or Third eye chakra:no element, Sun/Moon, pituitary gland, indicates self realization.

Sahastrara or Crown chakra: penal gland, the seeker is being eternally established in oneness of the God.

8th house: indicates mystical and secret techniques of spiritual advancement.

Scorpio/Cancer/Pisces: are water signs represents moksha.

4th/8th/12th house:are salvation houses.

Planetary conditions in Horoscope responsible for Kundalini Awakening: –

  • Jupiter posited in 8th house or related with 8th house or more planets placed in 8th house indicates advancement in kundalini yoga.
  • Venus and lord of 10th house are related by square/conjunction/trine/opposition/aspect/association /Parivartan
  • Venus related to Jupiter/Saturn
  • Sun and Jupiter are influenced by Moon/Rahu
  • Rahu falling in fire signs [Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius] indicates quick advancement towards mystical powers and attainment of powerful siddhis.
  • Placement of Saturn in tenth house from Ascendant or Moon indicates rapid spiritual progress.
  • Saturn related to Sun indicates sudden rise in spiritual field which sometimes demands sacrifice at some stage of life.
  • Jupiter and Saturn trine/quadrant to each other indicates
  • Lords of 9th and 10th house are related in any way indicates spiritual advancement.
  • The Atma Karaka [planet in the highest degree in the horoscope] will fall in moksha or salvation houses [4th, 8th, and 12th] and libration signs [Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces] indicate higher spiritual awareness.
  • Atma Karaka falling in watery signs in Navamansa chart indicates final libration, because a water sign represents dissolution or merging with infinite.
  • Placement of Jupiter and Ketu or Moon and Ketu in 12th house indicates attainment of very higher spiritual plane after death.
  • In a horoscope, if the number of conditions applicable is more than one then the kundalini awakening becomes easier and fast.

Case study of a great kundalini yogi Raman Maharishi:

Shri Raman Maharishi [December 30, 1879–April 14, 1950] was born to a Tamil Brahmin family in Tamil Nadu, was a spiritual master and a well versed kundalini yogi.

The basic details of horoscope of Raman maharishi are:

Ascendant -Libra–nil

2nd house-Scorpio-Mercury and Venus

3rd house-Sagittarius-Sun and Rahu

4th house-Capricorn-nil

5th house-Aquarius-nil

6th house-Pisces-Saturn

7th house-Aries-Mars

8th house-Taurus-nil

9th house-Gemini-Moon and Ketu

10th house-Cancer-nil

11th house-Leo-Jupiter

12th house-Virgo-nil

Astro analysing the horoscope of Raman Maharishi:

  • Saturn placed 10th from the Moon indicates sanyasi yoga.
  • Sun and Saturn are quadrant to each other indicates spirituality.
  • From Moon ascendant 9th lord Saturn and 10th lord Jupiter are making mahayoga by exchange of places.
  • Rahu falls in fiery sign Sagittarius indicates advancement in kundalini yoga.
  • Sun is influenced by Rahu and Moon denotes mystical insight.
  • Raman took the sanyas at the age of 17 in the Mahadasa of Saturn and sub period of Mars.

Ergonomics – Product Design

What is Ergonomics and why should I know about it? Well this is a question to be asked to yourself if you are a services provider or a manufacturer.

Ergonomics is designing products, services or environment based on the human needs, behavior or usage. Following are the 5 important dimensions which better define Ergonomics –

1. Ease of Use – Products are designed to ensure that the user finds no or little difficulty in using and handling it.
2. Performance – Products are designed to alter their performance based on the user's need.
3. Aesthetics
4. Comfort
5. Safety

Although there are three broad types of Ergonomics which are accepted, the most important ones for manufacturers are – Physical and Cognitive Ergonomics.

Physical ergonomics is concerned with a human being's physical interaction with a particular product while using (consuming), handling or actually producing it. A manufacturer should design the process as well as the work in such a way that the worker is comfortable working there leading to increased productivity, low safety risk, better quality as well as reduction in production cost. This dimension of Physical ergonomics will benefit the Manufacturer. But the other benefit which will be derived would be a product which is easy to use and relates to the end user. Physical Ergonomics should not focus on just one factor but on these both. The manufacturer as well as the end user will benefit if Physical Ergonomics is applied efficiently. For the manufacturer this is a win – win situation as the company benefits from the benefits derived from process optimization as well as a good quality & easy to use product.

Cognitive Ergonomics is concerned with the emotional & motor responses of the worker as well as the user. This includes perception, motor responses, work load, stress etc. It is always advisable to apply both, the Physical and Cognitive Ergonomics instead of any one.

If you are a manufacturer and want to optimize your product and processes, you can either hire an employee or go for independent consulting firms. It is always advisable to get the consulting firms specializing in Ergonomics to do the job. This is because of the vast experience and expertise these companies carry across industries. Ergonomics being a highly specialized discipline, requires skill sets which are developed in a company or a person over a period of time. There are a few good Australian companies which provide such services to companies in Australia as well as across the globe. One such company is Design Industry which is a leading company in this field and has experience across industries such as banking, consumers, medicine, sports and many others. They have a team of highly creative as well as scientific members which is a rare combination but an ideal one for this job!

What to Make and Sell Online – Easy Woodworking and Wood Craft Projects

If you're trying to decide what to make and sell online, woodworking projects are often dismissed because many people do not feel that they have the skills necessary to do these types of crafts. Contrary to that belief, there are a significant number of woodworking projects that are easy to do and require little to no prior experience or skills.

Plywood can be purchased at various thicknesses and is a great starting material for novice woodworkers. Measuring and cutting is very easy. In fact, many of the home improvement stores will cut the plywood for you. You can use pieces of plywood to make model houses, simple trinket boxes, birdhouses, photo frames, mirror frames, and much more. You can also cut plywood into simple shapes and paint it as Christmas ornaments, door hangers, house address numbers, decorative sayings for the kitchen or home and more.

Another great material to start with are popsicle sticks. The standard size and the tongue depressor size are both great because they can be glued together with wood glue and they can be bent to meet your project's needs. To bend popsicle sticks, simply soak them in vinegar to make the wood flexible. Popsicle sticks can be used to make an incredible number of things from small houses to birdhouses, baskets, boxes, figurines, picture frames, ornaments, magnet frames, and more.

Another popular product that can easily be made of scrap wood or barn boards are rustic picture frames and mirror frames. Primitive benches and birdhouses also sell great using these materials. In some cases, you may need to find a pattern, but much of the time, you can learn how to make these items with simple measurements and cuts.

Precut wood shapes can be purchased from your local craft store at minimum cost. These can be painted to be ornaments or can be glued together to make household crafts. Wooden beads can also be purchased at little expense. These little treasures can either be hand painted or hand carved and then strung into necklaces, bracelets, and other trinkets.

There are so many other creative things you can do with simple things such as twigs and branches. For example, you can cut branches into slices, sand the rough wood down and drill holes to make primitive and natural buttons. Twigs can be gathered up with beautiful ribbon to make small broom ornaments, a favorite around Halloween. Gnarly branch ends can be turned upside down to make a natural jewelry holder. You can decorate vases, ball jars, votive candle holders, picture frames, mirrors, plaques and more with small, uniformly sized twigs to give the item a rustic feel. These are great seasonal items as well as year round items for a cabin or country home.

Tree branches have been used to create beautiful centerpieces, wreaths, family trees, wall branches and more. There is certainly no limit to what you can do with and make from these items. You're limited only by your own creativity.

Wood crafts sell wonderfully online, partly due to the fact that many people that they lack the skills to accomplish woodworking projects. Starting these projects is much easier than many people think and as with any skill, the more you do, the better you become.

Grisham Security Storm Doors

Security storm doors are products manufactured by the Grisham Corporation of Arlington, TN. They produce three lines of steel security storm doors. All of their doors feature 16 gauge steel and tempered safety glass. Double doors are available in all lines of their doors. All of their lines, Deluxe, Classic, and Sentry offer easy installation and heavy duty closers and they come pre-hung and pre-hinged. Brass slimline door handles are standard on Deluxe and Classic series with an upgrade to a brushed nickel slimline door handle. These Grisham Security Storm Doors have become very popular with many people today because of there quality built and because of there many options to choose from.

The Deluxe series comes in 27 different styles. With so many different styles its hard for any home owner not to find a style to fit their home. Five conceivable hinges are available in this series. Available as an upgrade is a 2-way bank vault lock in brass only. One of the features in the Deluxe line as an upgrade is self-storing glass which allows for air ventilation when moved from its above position. There are no limit on dimensions for all 27 styles. Colors are black or white.

The Classic series features 14 different styles. In addition to the 16 gauge welded steel, their frames are 1 "x 2" and they have an interchangeable screen panel. There are some limitations on two of their designs. All designs come in double doors. Colors available are black and white.

The Sentry series offers as a standard feature double bore lock box. Twenty-six different styles are offered. This series is designed to accept most 2 3/4 "backset locksets.

These doors are heavy but open and swing easily due to the five hinges on which the doors are hung. The styles and colors are tasteful and add to any homes appearance. They provide for a high quality of security. Doors which open out are harder to kick in and burglars do not want to be seen when they are trying a home invasion. Police indicate that they like to see security doors which open out, and insurance agents say doors which open out can be better protection than a burglar alarm. The reason is to gain entry, the home invader has to use a truck to pull the door out of its frame. This action draws attention to him, something he does not want. So when burglars see a home with these type of doors installed they will go to the next house.

The interchangeable screen panel and self-storing glass allow for ventilation while preserving their security features. When the panels are closed the tempered glass provides a natural barrier between the Grisham doors and the front door, which will increase the insulation value of the opening and decrease heating and air conditioning costs.

Mixed Media Painting Tips

I have been painting, as a hobby and commercially, for approximately 10 years now. I first started with acrylic but have more recently dumbled in watercolors. I have always loved texture in my art work but could never afford to buy oil paints. I consider myself quite a resourceful person and this has led me to think out of the box. I will hopefully enlighten you as to some of my more creative ideas which you may want to incorporate into your own pieces.

Before I start I apply Gesso primer to my canvases. This assists with ensuring any medium added to the canvas adheres well.

Tip One

I have found a product called "Decorator's Caulk" which works as a great way of adding texture to your canvas. I buy trade tubes which can be fitted to a "Sealant Gun" and this is the tool I use to apply the caulk to the canvas. From there you have to let your imagination take over. I use a large pallet knife as well as various other tools to manipulate the caulk across the canvas.

The caulk can be found in all trade shops and is not a specific art product. It is typically used to fill gaps and cracks in walls. It can take up to one one hour to dry but this will depend on how thickly you applied it to the canvas. I just touch it light and you can tell when it has hardened. You are ready to paint over it. You will find acrylic paint sticks to it with no fuss. The result is awesome and you have the perceived texture of an oil painting but at very little cost.

Tip Two

Crepe paper is a cheap and interesting way to add texture. I usually make a solution of PVA glue with some water to assist with sticking the paper to the canvas. Again your own imagination has to come to play here and depending on the look you want as to how layered and textured you want your piece to be.

Tip Three

Plaster of paris infected crepe bandages. These are a tad messy to work with but the results can look fantastic. I find that rather than trying to achieve a perfectly smooth finish it can look great if you leave it rough and if not all of the bandage is covered with the plaster of paris it adds a mottled porous look which is spectacularly organic in its texture.

Tip Four

Rope of all size and thickness can add a really great three dimensional quality to your piece. I use decorator's caulk to stick it to the canvas as not only does this act as a great adhesive you can also paint over it quite easily.

Tip Five

Cutting into the canvas. I know this sounds like a cardinal sin but the results can be quite spectacular. I have created many industrial looking pieces by combining rope, netting, plaster of paris and by cutting into the canvas and bending it back upon itself you can achieve a very raw look.

These are just a few ideas which will hopefully fire up your imagination and assist you with trying out different materials. I am sure your artwork will take on a whole new look and feel with the added bonus of very little cost.

Pubic Hair Removal-How To Safely Remove Your Pubic Hair With Pubic Waxing

If you are interested in pubic hair removal and are thinking about removing your pubic hair using pubic waxing, there are a few important points you need to consider before you start.

Most importantly you need to make sure your pubic hair is dry and not wet prior to pubic waxing. Wet hair will make the wax less "stickable" as the hair is becomes softer and more pliant. You want the state of your hair as rough and course as possible when pubic waxing so that the wax can grip the hair.

However the skin does need to be cleaned before you start waxing. There are normal body secrets that will prevent an adequate grip on the skin. For smooth painless waxing the wax must grip the skin and hair tightly. So make sure that the skin is clean and dry before you start.

These days waxes used in pubic hair removal are typically hypo-allergenic meaning that sensitivity issues and allergic like reactions should not occur. However, it is always safest in any procedure such as pubic waxing to test a smallish patch of skin to make sure that there are no unwanted side effects.

The length of your pubic hair also needs to be considered. Too long and you can be in for some unnecessary pain. Too short (less than 2-3 mm) and you will not be able to perform the pubic waxing procedure.

The wax should be heated to a comfortable temperature. It needs to be hot but not painfully so. If the wax is heated too much, it will not only be painful, with possible burns resulting, but the wax will not be of a sufficient consistency to take hold of your pubic hair. Too thin a consistency will have the wax running everywhere but where you want it. Painful and messy.

Pain is always asked about when someone considers pubic waxing. As a form of pubic hair removal, waxing is probably the most uncomfortable, but there are measures that can be taken to help.

Numbing type ointment (not dissimilar to what dentists use prior to injections) can be used prior to waxing. These can be found in most pharmacies or you could try your local beauty salon. Applied up to an hour before waxing starts will take the edge of any pain that may accompany your pubic waxing.

Comfortable positioning is important when performing pubic waxing. No need to go crazy here and tie yourself in knots. A comfortable sitting position with legs spread as wide as is comfortable for you will suffice. Legs raised slowly is usually preferred, but any position that allows you to stretch the skin appropriately and get to all the areas that need attention is all you need to consider.

The actual waxing technique employs a spatula type implemented to apply the wax with the growth of the hair. That is, apply in the direction that your pubic hair is growing.

Now comes the scary bit. Very quickly pull back the wax against the line of growth. Please make sure to do this quickly. If you think sticking plaster smarts, just try removing pubic wax slowly for a new definition of pain.

When it is removed quickly, the discomfort is minimal. A useful trick to use here is just as the wax is being removed, cough forcefully. You will be amazed at what a distraction like this can do.

After you have waxed you can apply a warm damp cloth to clean away any wax residue.

With any type of hair removal, you will want to take whatever measures you can to prevent any localized irritation to the freshly waxed area. Ingrown hairs can be especially problematic so makes sure to exfoliate the area with a soft body brush.

Pubic waxing is a very effective method of pubic hair removal. If you follow the basic advice here you should be pubic hair free anytime you wish with a minimum of discomfort.

Ship Inspections And Vetting Guidelines

1. Preparing for the Vetting Inspection

The onboard inspection can only be successful if the tanker is prepared for the inspection. The inspector who is to carry out the inspection will start to collect impressions from even before the time he takes his first step onto the gangway and will continue to do so until he takes the last step off the gangway when leaving the tanker after completing the inspection .

Almost all inspectors are former seafarers who from both deck and engine room experience are able to assess a tanker. Most likely the first impression formed from the time the tanker is sighted until the inspector's arrival at the Master's cabin will be the strongest, although it will be subject at this point. The inspectors will undertake the inspection of the tanker looking for objective criteria by which to judge the tanker. It is a fact of life that, however subconscious the urge may be, the inspector will look for objective evidence to support his initial subjective opinion. Thus the importance of the route from ship side to Master's cabin should not be underestimated. Remember you do not get a second chance to make a first impression.

Make sure that the inspection is scheduled at a convenient time for the vessel, so it does not conflict with other inspections or similar matters. This could easily be arranged through the port agent.

Make sure that each head of department has completed his own inspection before arrival at port and that any deficiencies have been reported / corrected. This should be incorporated into the normal routine guidelines.

An effective way of administering this is to introduce a Self-Assessment form covering the relevant areas.

The next layer in this table is the delegation given to petty officers and in turn, to the rest of the crew, this will achieve an understanding all the way down through the ranks.

Prior to the inspection preparations can be made in certain areas

The inspector may need to have a copy of the following:

· Classification Document

· Certificate of Registry

· Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate

· Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate

· Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificate

· Load Line Certificate

· IMO Certificate of Fitness

· IOPP Certificate & Supplement

· Certificate of Financial Responsibility

· A Crew List

· A Drawing of the vessel's cargo tank arrangement

· Vessel's Safe Manning Document

The following should be available for Inspection (some are not applicable to all vessels):

Masters should lay out the certificates in the same order as they appear in the VPQ / VIQ. This saves time and creates a good impression of ordered preparation.

· Officer's Licenses

· Health Certificates

· P & A Manual

· Approved COW Manual

· Approved Ballast Manual

· Oil / Cargo record book

· Oil transfer procedures

· Garbage log for compliance with MARPOL Annex V

· Proof of cargo hose / piping testing

· Proof of fixed and portable fire fighting equipment servicing

· Proof of professional servicing of breathing apparatus

· Proof of life raft servicing

· Settings for vessel's PV valves

· Shipping document and cargo manifest

· Certificate of residency or stabilization of cargo

· Declaration of Inspection if transferring bunkers

· Cargo Information Cards for the cargo on board

· Inert Gas Manual

· Waiver Letters, if any

· Vessel Response Plan

· Safety Manual

· Vessel Operation Manual

· Company's policy for upgrading and training.

Be prepared to calibrate and / or demonstrate the proper operation of:

· Combustible gas detectors or fixed gas detection system

· Oxygen analyzer

· Toxic gas detector

· Overboard discharge monitor

· Cargo pump Emergency shutdown and bearing alarms

· High level alarms

· Overfill alarms

· Quick closing valves

Be prepared to demonstrate the proper operation of the following systems / alarms:

· Inert Gas system alarms

· Oily water separator

· Fire fighting systems

· Steering gear

· Emergency generator

· Engine room ventilation shutdowns

· Fuel oil cut-off valve

In addition, the following items may be checked and should be ready:

· Firemen's outfits

· International shore connection

· Navigation equipment

· Charts, publications, and corrections

· EPIRB, pyrotechnics and hydrostatic releases

· Flame screens, bunker tanks

· Suitable paint locker

· Marine sanitation device

Reference should also be made to the particular requirements of the oil major inspecting the vessel. The following items are of vital importance as these provide an overall impression of the vessel, and will play an essential part in how the inspection will be conducted.

a. Gangway: Correctly arranged – is the gangway net rigged? Is there a life ring nearby?

b. Signs: All warning signs posted

c. Crew: All crew working on deck should have hard hats and the necessary protection gear.

d. Deck Watch: Is he present in the area? Hard hat, emergency equipment handy, necessary for cargo loading / discharging; walkie-talkie; ask the inspector who he is and who he wants to see; confirm with Duty Officer that this is OK. One crew member should follow the inspector to the ship office

e. Fire Equipment at the Manifold: Correctly rigged and present

f. Deck: Clean, free of oil / water and obstructions

g. Scuppers: Blocked, emergency pump in position and discharge connected

h. Cargo Information: Make sure that all personel involved in the cargo operation are briefed regarding what cargoes are being loaded / discharged, especially the deck watch. All MSDS to be up and easily readable

i. Emergency Equipment: Working, present and clearly marked

j. Moorings: In good order, no lines on the winch ends

k. Accomodation: All doors closed, clean, and in proper order

2. The Inspection

You do not pass or fail a vetting inspection!

However you can be well prepared, make sure that the inspector is accommodated on the vessel during the inspection. The best people to do this would be the Master, Chief Engineer, Chief Officer and the First Assistant Engineer (Second Engineer), who can divide the areas of inspection among themselves.

Normally, the inspector will start by checking all certificates and documentation with the Master. He will then move into the areas listed opposite. However, it must be remembered that the order and schedule of the inspection can be changed to achieve less disturbance to the normal operations onboard. The inspector will have a pre-planned inspection format, which he will wish to follow, although there is nothing to stop different sections being done in a different order. With the new OCIMF VPQ, much of the date referring to the tanker will have been completed in advance. Make sure that you have a completed up-to-date copy available for the inspector as this will save much time.

Some of the most common deficiencies found in the following areas:

Bridge and Radio Room

· Passage plan only pilot to pilot. Ensure that the filed passage plan covers berth to berth navigation

· Missing publications or old editions onboard when new publications have been issued

· Missing Master's standing orders and night order book

· No logs for gyro error

· No entry of position on the navigation chart during transit of pilotage to berth

· Chart corrects not logged correctly

Cargo Control Room and Tank Deck

· No cargo / ballast plan available

· Hydraulic leaks on deck

· Officers and ratings not wearing hard hats on deck

· No screens inside the vents for the ballast tanks

· No calibration gas for gas detection instruments

· Crew not wearing personal protection gear

· No policy for entering tanks

Engine Room and Steering Gear

· No procedures or instructions posted for foam system

· Emergency steering procedures not properly positioned in steering gear room

· Hot work procedures not used or not present in the manuals

· No safety guidelines available for engine room / workshop welding equipment

· No eye protection warning notices posted for engine workshop machinery

· No clean goggles by grinders and lathes

Accommodation / Galley

· Untidy

· Overhead ventilation greasy – fire hazard

· Accommodation ventilators with no identification labels


It is worth mentioning the ISPS / MTSA code in this context, as it is important to be aware that while certain parts of the ships "may" for whatever reason be secured areas this should not stop the vetting inspector from being given access to these areas but the inspector should be accompanied by a member of the ships staff.

3. The Close Out Meeting

All inspectors should sit down and discuss observations and comments after the inspection is completed. If not, the Master should record a written objection that this has not taken place and inform his company immediately

The inspector gives the Master a written list of the observations found.

· Correct all observations as soon as possible

· Send the report to the head office or department in charge

· Complete the Inspector Feedback Form and send it together with the report (a copy is to be found at the back of this booklet)

The Master must demand a copy of these findings in writing so that there should be a change between what is said in the Master's cabin and what appears in the report, this can be taken up later by the company ashore.

When the Inspector is discussing with the Master the issues that he has found, it is quite often possible that there has been a misunderstanding or that the Inspector has become confused with another ship that he has recently done. At this point in time, it is reliably easy for such an error to be cleared up and the master should take every step to achieve this. In addition, the Master should not feel intimidated by the inspector; This is of course easier said than done, particularly if the Master feels that he has less English skills than the Inspector in front of him. It is unlawful that the Master will be able to get the Inspector to delete a finding or an observation, even if it has been fixed, (although this should be included in the report). On the other hand, he should be able to get additional comments added which mitigate the finding or explain why it is the case.

As an example, the Inspector may find that there is a large bubble in the magnetic compass. The Master, (if it is the case), should point out to the Inspector that he already aware of this, that he has already ordered a new compass, that he has the requisition number and it is due to be delivered in the Port later on today, or whatever is the example that you choose to use. Certainly this would then turn an observation into an utterly reasonable state of affairs from one that might be considered rather more serious if it was not followed up properly by the Master.

4. Owners Comments (One of the most important aspects)

When the vetting inspector leaves the gangway, the vessel inspection is finished; however, it's now that the screening process begins and the owners reply to any comments deficiencies raised play a very large part in this screening process.

What the charterer is looking for are quality replies to the comments raised that indicate the comments are taken seriously by the owner – these replies will be used as a measure of the owners quality management. This process is going to be measured by the vetting manager's subjective assessment of the quality of the owner's latest inspection.

Many, other acceptable vessels do not pass this part of the vetting process because the owner's answers to the vetting inspection do not provide a "closure" of the indicated conditions and these results in the "approval" either delayed or denied.

It is important that the owner sends replies that show, acceptance and respect for the system, that the owner has an active Safety Management System in place that takes every deficiency seriously. The owners reply should be able to identify the "root cause" of the deficiency and actually addresses the real cause of the deficiency. It should be the necessary changes to existing operationg procedures that are necessary to reduce the chance of the deficiency occurring again.

Some examples of replies that do "not" do these are, "The deficiency has been rectified", "the deficiency will be rectified at the earliest opportunity", "we have instructed the master to not do it again", "The spare part have been ordered ",

To indicate that you have an effective system in place it is necessary to take care of the deficiency within the ISM system, for example identify and the non-conformity within the ISM system, establish the root cause, and establish effective corrective action, this should then be implemented and the necessary changes to existing procedures made. The deficiency then becomes effectively closed out.

It is not sufficient to say the deficiency is fixed, you need to explain that the problem that caused the deficiency is also fixed.

5. The Screening Process

Having been through all the items mentioned so far this is still not the end of the process. In addition to the vetting inspection, submitting shining examples of Owners comments. The charterer will also assess and review many other aspects of your operation as well, such as other vessels in your fleet, the vessels incident history, feedback from the charterers terminals, the quality of the owner, detention history, any previous problems with clearance of the vessel, inspection history of the vessel, the age of the vessel, crew quality, the management system in place, general industry information, any conditions of class, CAP rating, fatigue analysis (if appropriate), The vessels flag, Classification society, PSC Black Listing, training onboard and ashore.

For more info about Shipping Business (Chemical Tanker) readers can visit my website:

Top 50 Iron Rich Foods – Boost Your Energy and Beat Low Iron Symptoms

Increasing your intake of iron rich foods should not be too difficult. All it takes is for you to know which of the foods you eat are rich in iron, and start planning your meals accordingly. Sadly, the extent of most people’s knowledge, when it comes to iron and iron rich foods, is just too limited.


For a quick read on where to start you can read our article on Foods with an Iron Punch, but here we’ll give a much more in depth overview of the best iron Rich Foods complete with their Iron content.


The data has been extracted from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 22 from September 2009 which contains all the nutritional data for well over 7,000 food items. Unfortunately you can’t just download the database and do a quick sort on Iron content to give you the best Iron Rich Foods. Actually you can, but the problem is that the list you get won’t be very helpful in your daily life as the top items would be things like freeze dried parsley, dried thyme, beluga meat, cumin seed and all kinds of other foods you wouldn’t eat in large enough quantities to help you load up on Iron.


We have done the hard work for you and have carefully reviewed the USDA database and compiled this list of Top 50 Iron Rich Foods and have listed them by category so you know that when you eat meat what meat to choose, when you buy vegetables what to put in your shopping cart and when you need a quick snack what can help you boost your iron intake in just a few minutes.


This list is not a complete list of the iron content of all possible food items – if you don’t see it here it just means it isn’t particularly high on Iron.


Eat these Iron Rich Foods, combine them with Iron Absorption Enhancers, avoid Iron Absorption Inhibitors and you’ll be well on your way to boost your Iron levels and get rid of those Low Iron Symptoms!


Breakfast Cereals

Fortified breakfast cereal is one of your best bets to boost your Iron intake and below is a short list of some of them. As you can see eating just a single serving of these will give you around 18 mg Iron, but bear in mind that the typical absorption rate of a healthy adult is only approximately 10% to 15% of dietary iron. So drink a glass of Orange juice with your cereal to boost your absorption. Also, bear in mind that the last two items in this last are dry, i.e. before you have added milk or water to them!

  • Ralston Enriched Bran Flakes: 27 mg/cup
  • Kellog’s Complete Oat Bran Flakes: 25 mg/cup
  • General Mills Multi-Grain Cheerios: 24 mg/cup
  • Kellog’s All-Bran Complete Wheat Flakes: 24 mg/cup
  • Malt-O-Meal, plain, dry: 92 mg/cup
  • Cream of Wheat, instant, dry: 51 mg/cup


Red meat is high on iron and it comes in the heme form you body most easily absorbs; typically 15% to 35% of heme iron is absorbed by your body. Organ meats are the best sources of iron within the meat category and of these liver is probably the most popular so we’ve included it the list since we don’t know too many people who’ll eat spleen or lungs we’ve excluded these kinds of organs. If you like liver then go for goose liver expensive, but very nice! or at least opt for pork liver instead of beef liver. When you opt for red meat in your diet add some less standard options like Emu, Ostrich or Duck instead of beef.

  • Goose liver, raw: 31 mg / 100g
  • Pork liver, cooked: 18 mg / 100g
  • Chicken liver, cooked: 13 mg / 100g
  • Lamb liver, cooked: 10 mg / 100g
  • Beef liver, cooked: 7 mg / 100g
  • Emu, cooked: 7 mg / 100g
  • Ostrich oyster, cooked: 5 mg / 100g
  • Quail meat, raw: 5 mg / 100g
  • Duck breast, raw: 5 mg / 100g
  • Beef, steak, cooked: 4 mg / 100g
  • Beef, ground, cooked: 3 mg / 100g

Fish and Shellfish

Fish is not often considered as a good source of iron and most finfish is indeed not, only the oily fish like mackerel and sardines provide you with a decent amount of iron. So when you want to eat fish, opt for oily fish which gives you the most iron and is high in omega-3 too. When you add shellfish into the equation suddenly we find some of the best Iron Rich Foods you can find, especially clams think clam chowder. A quick comparison with the meat category shows that octopus or cuttlefish beat all the regular meats in terms of iron content and are only outdone by liver. So, it’s time to add some stir fried squid to your weekly menu.

  • Clams, canned, drained solids: 28 mg / 100g
  • Clams, cooked: 28 mg / 100g
  • Fish caviar, black and red: 12 mg / 100g
  • Cuttlefish, cooked: 11 mg / 100g
  • Octopus, cooked: 10 mg / 100g
  • Oyster, medium sized, cooked: 10 mg / 100g
  • Anchovy, canned in oil: 5 mg / 100g
  • Shrimp, cooked: 3 mg / 100g
  • Sardine, canned in oil: 3 mg / 100g
  • Mackerel, cooked: 2 mg / 100g


Vegetables are an essential part of your diet, full of essential nutrients and most people don’t eat enough of them, but when it comes to Iron most vegetables are not too hot. If you choose your vegetables carefully then can use vegetables to help you boost your iron levels, especially if you include some iron absorption enhancers in your diet as the non-heme iron in vegetables is not easily absorbed by your body. Vegetables in the Top 50 Iron Rich Foods include various beans, potato skins, tomatoes and green leafy vegetables like spinach, chard and parsley. Chili con carne, which combines meat, kidney beans and tomato sauce, makes an excellent Iron Rich Recipe, but so does a white bean salad with plenty of fresh parsley and light vinaigrette.

  • Mushrooms, morel, raw: 12 mg / cup
  • Tomatoes, sun-dried: 5 mg / cup
  • Potato skins, baked: 4 mg / skin
  • Parsley, raw: 4 mg / cup
  • Soybeans, boiled: 9 mg / cup
  • Spinach, boiled, drained: 6 mg / cup
  • Tomato sauce, canned: 9 mg / cup
  • Lentils, boiled: 7 mg / cup
  • Hearts of palm, canned: 5 mg / cup
  • White Beans, canned: 8 mg / cup
  • Kidney beans, boiled: 5 mg / cup
  • Chickpeas, boiled: 5 mg / cup
  • Pinto Beans, frozen, boiled: 3 mg / cup
  • Lima beans, boiled: 4 mg / cup
  • Hummus, commercial: 6 mg / cup
  • Swiss Chard, boiled, chopped: 4 mg / cup
  • Asparagus, canned: 4 mg / cup
  • Chickpeas, canned: 3 mg / cup
  • Tomatoes, canned: 3 mg / cup
  • Sweet potato, canned, mashed: 3 mg / cup
  • Endive, raw: 4 mg / head

Nuts and Seeds

Nuts and seeds are great Iron Rich Foods in that they have a pretty high iron content and are so versatile that you can eat them in many ways. A quick snack on some cashew nuts is filling, healthy and gives plenty of iron – tasty too! Pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds can be easily toasted and added to a salad for a nice crunch and an iron boost. Sesame seeds are used in a variety of Asian dishes and all of these can be used in baking or as a quick addition to your breakfast cereal. Just make sure you always have some in the house and you’ll soon find many ways to add them into your day-to-day food.

  • Sesame seeds, whole, dried: 21 mg/cup
  • Pumpkin seeds and squash seed kernels, dried: 11 mg/cup
  • Sunflower seed kernels, toasted: 9 mg/cup
  • Cashew nuts, dry roasted, halves and whole: 8 mg/cup
  • Pistachio nuts, dry roasted: 5 mg/cup
  • Almonds, whole kernels, blanched: 5 mg/cup


Fresh fruit is not rich in Iron, but dried fruit like apricots, peaches or prunes are great Iron Rich Snacks to eat in between meals or to add to various recipes. The one thing you must remember about fresh fruit is that most of it contains a lot of Vitamin C and since Vitamin is an Iron Absorption Enhancer eating fresh fruit or vegetables high in Vitamin C with your meal can greatly boost the amount of iron your body actually absorbs.

  • Apricots, dehydrated low-moisture: 8 mg/cup
  • Peaches, dehydrated low-moisture: 6 mg/cup
  • Prunes, dehydrated low-moisture: 5 mg/cup
  • Olives, canned jumbo: 0.3 mg / olive
  • Currants, dried: 5 mg/cup
  • Apricots, dried, sulfured, uncooked: 4 mg/cup
  • Blueberries, canned: 7 mg/cup

Iron Rich Snacks

Apart from the nuts and dried fruit there are quick and easy Iron Rich Snacks which you can simply buy in the supermarket and use as a instant Iron Booster. Below or some examples, but if you’re planning to buy some bars or drinks then you need to remember to check the nutrition labels on the actual products you buy as the actual Iron content can vary greatly from brand to brand and even from product to product within the same brand.

  • Nestle Supligen, canned supplement drink 9 mg / can
  • Snickers Marathon Honey Nut Oat Bar: 8 mg / bar
  • Snickers Marathon Double Chocolate Nut Bar 8 mg / bar
  • Snickers Marathon Multigrain Crunch Bar: 8 mg / bar
  • Pretzels, soft: 6 mg / large
  • Trail mix, regular: 3 mg / cup


Dairy products are not high in Iron, but do contain a lot of calcium and calcium has been known to act as a Iron Absorption Inhibitor so you should try and eat calcium rich foods separate from your Iron Rich Foods as much as possible. Eggs are not too high in Iron, but egg yolks are not too bad and if you can find fresh goose eggs they could be used in a great Iron Rich Breakfast!

  • Goose Egg, whole: 5 mg / egg
  • Egg yolk, raw: 7 mg iron / cup
  • Egg, scrambled: 3 mg iron / cup

Flying With Your Baby Stroller – 10 Easy Tips For Boarding a Plane With Your Stroller

For many parents the idea of ​​traveling with an infant or toddler can be overwhelming to say the least. The amount of necessary items for the comfort and safety of a child must always be considered before you go. One of the most common dilemma's when flying with a child is whether or not to bring along your baby stroller.

A baby stroller can be a big help on a trip that will entail a good deal of walking or transporting a young child. However, be sure to remember to check out whenever or not your destination will be stroller-friendly along the way.

Here are 10 tips for flying with a baby stroller.

1. Make an educated decision about bringing a baby stroller. First check with your airline for their policies on bringing along a baby stroller. This may determine whether or not you will consider it a hassle or an asset for your trip.

2. Know the area you will be walking around. Consider the terrain, the width of the aisles and doorways as well as the amount of stairs you may be subject to climb. Pushing a stroller on a bumpy stone path or transporting it between subway rides may well be more difficult than simply carrying your child.

3. Before you even get to the airport be sure to properly label your stroller (on the handle bar or side bars) with a permanent marker or paper label. Write down your contact information, destination and flight information. You will be given a tag when you check your stroller but it is better to use BOTH to insure you get your stroller back once you have landed.

4. Have a Plan B for those times when you will need to leave your stroller outside or in the trunk. For babies that weigh no more than 20/30 lbs. keeping a baby carrier, sling or backpack is a good second option. For older children who can walk themselves, consider a harness to keep them tied to you in crowds and strange places. If you do not like the idea of ​​a harness for your child just be sure to start explaining to them a little every day about the importance of staying next to you or other caregivers when you are in a different place. They should understand who it is safe to talk to and give them something that has your contact information to wear when you are out in public.

OK Now you are ready to head to the airport!

5. It will be easiest to employ your stroller through the airport and just check it at the gate of the plane. Most airlines will let you stroll right on up to the gate of the plane before having to check it in.

6. If you would like to count your stroller with your luggage at check-in be sure to find out if you will be charged an extra fee. Some airlines do not count a baby stroller as a part of the luggage you are allowed to bring on and may have a rate that you do not want to pay.

7. If you are loading at the gate you will be asked to remove your child yourself and fold the stroller down to be stored. (It is nice to have a helping hand available to hold your child (ren) during this part.) Bringing duct tape is a good idea if your stroller is not compact enough to store in the overhead compartment on the plane. Simply tape the sides of the stroller shut tightly or wrap the stroller entirely around it's center. This will help to keep it closed while it is being loaded and unloaded into the cargo area therefore minimizing possible damage.

8. Your stroller will then be tagged and given a corresponding receipt that you will need to hold on to, in order to retrieve your stroller once you land.

9. Be sure to confirm with the attendant at the gate check where you will pick up your stroller upon landing. Most airlines will return your stroller at the gate as you exit but it could be sent along with the other luggage to the baggage claim.

10. Upon your exit present your receipt to claim your stroller or head to the baggage claim to retrieve it there. Remember to take advantage of your stroller and load it down with whatever baggage you can to alleviate the strain on your arms and shoulders.

It is important to note that if you are bringing a light umbrella stroller that can be folded compactly enough to fit into your overhead carrier (find out the dimensions from the airline) you will not need to gate check your stroller. Simply fold it and carry it to your seat. There are certain things you may want to consider before choosing between your lightweight, .standard stroller and your heavier, fancier stroller. Here is a list of pro's and con's for both.

Basic Umbrella Stroller- Between 10-13 lbs.


  • Compact, easy to fold and store.
  • Lightweight and easier to carry if you have to.
  • Can likely be stored in overhead of airplane so there is less opportunity for damage during the flight.
  • Cheaper to replace should you have any damage.
  • Easier fit through standard doorways, aisles, sidewalks and stairs.


  • Not much storage to hold bags, or toys or anything acquired during an outing.
  • Not as easily maneuvered on rocky or difficult roads or terrain.

The BIG Stroller- The One With All the Fixin's!


  • Good amount of storage for diaper bags, purses and shopping bags.
  • Usually has a canopy and plenty of accessories to entertain and protect from the sun or rain.
  • Much easier to maneuver due to the larger wheels and design.
  • May be compatible with the car seat you are using or renting, therefore making a complete travel system.


  • Takes up more space in trunks on sidewalks or buses.
  • Heavier to carry.
  • Needs to be stored with luggage on plane.

Based on this list you should pick the stroller that you feel will serve you and your child the best. There is nothing like having a stroller to help out when it comes to toting your children. A stroller is the next most important item to the crib when it comes to having a baby.

Characteristics of Sound

Sound in brief but remarkable terms is a vibration, that our ears perceive by the sense of hearing. Most commonly vibrations travel to our ears via the air. The ear then converges these sound waves into nerve impulses that are sent to our brains, where the impulses become sound. To say all that in a more technical language: Sound "is an alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material" (Olson 1957). Sound is also a series of mechanical compressions and rarefactions or longitudinal waves that successfully propagate through media that are at least a little compressible. What causes sound waves is known as "the source of waves". Examples of sounds sources is: A violin string that vibrates upon being bowed or plucked.

The four characteristics of sound are frequency, wavelength, amplitude and velocity.

The frequency of sound is the number of air pressure oscillations per second at a fixed point occupied by a sound wave.

The amplitude is the magnitude of sound pressure change within the wave. Basically this is the maximum amount of pressure at any point in the sound wave. A sound wave is caused literally by increases in pressure at certain points causing a "domino effect" outward, the higher pressure points are the crests in a sound wave , and behind them are low pressure points which tail them. These are known as the troughs on a wavelength graph. Sound's propagation Velocity depends largely on the type, temperature and pressure of the medium through which it propagates. Because air is almost a perfect gas, the speed of sound does not depend on air pressure.

The frequency range of sound that is audible to humans is approx. between 20 and 20,000 Hz. This range of course varies between individuals, and goes down as are age increases. Sounds will begin to damage our ears at 85 dBSPPL and sounds above approximately 130 dBSPL will cause pain, as a result are known as the: "threshold of pain". Of course again this range will vary among individuals and will change with age.

Roof Hail Damage – 4 Tips for Homeowners

The storm has come and gone, did your home suffer any roof hail damage? Hail storms are capable of producing hailstones up to 6 "in diameter. These balls of ice fall from the sky with no regard to your roof.

Many factors play into how much damage a hail stone may cause. Size of the hail, wind speed and direction are only a few pieces of the puzzle. The age of your roof's shingles, the type of shingles and if your shingleles are "impact-resistant" can all factor in to the severity of your roof hail damage.

Damage to your roof's shingles can compromise the effective life of your roof and even if not immediately visible, may lead to large scale problems if not identified in a timely manner. Here are a few tips which will help you properly identify roof hail damage.

Tip # 1: Is there any visible damage on the inside of your home? If you see water stains or slow drips on the inside of your home, then you have a problem which requires immediate attention. A new water stain on your ceiling is most definitely a sign that your roof was compromised. If left untreated, the problem will worsen leading to further damage which may require a complete tear-off of your existing roof, not to mention repairs to the interior of your home.

Tip # 2 Are there any visible dents (blisters) on your roof's shinglees? Just because you do not see any damage to the inside of your home does not mean your roof was not damaged. When there is no visible damage to the inside of your home, it may provide a false sense of security. By neglecting exterior damage, you run the risk of damage to your home in the months to come. Even worse is if you do not file an insurance claim within the time guidelines stipulated in your homeowner's insurance policy, you may lose benefits that you are entitled to now.

Identifying shingle blisters requires a visible inspection of your roof. Sometimes blisters may be hard to see. It can be helpful to look for small dings on metal or aluminum vents, downspouts or gutters. It is typically easier to identify these marks than blisters on your shingle. If you believe you have visible evidence of damage, it is suggested that you contact your insurance agent immediately to express your concerns and to find out what your policy covers and the procedures necessary to file an insurance claim.

Tip # 3 Get your own independent professional opinion. There's no denying when a hail storm has blown through town. The National Weather Service records all storm data. If there is knowledge of a storm, and you contact your insurance company, they will most likely dispatch an adjuster. That adjuster represents your insurance company. His job is to identify damage, assess the cost to repair or replace your roof and make sure all of the paperwork is in order to process a claim.

It is suggested that you contact a local roofing company that is trained in roof hail damage for an independent opinion prior to your insurance adjustor performing their inspection. Your roofing company is capable of representing your interests. They should be willing to provide you an inspection and estimate to repair any damages free of charge. More importantly, they should be willing to back up their estimate and make themselves available for mutual consultation with the insurance adjuster. If the adjuster and roofer can agree on the remedy for the damage and the cost, this can expedite the process. In most cases your roofer will be awarded the repair job.

Tip # 4 Get It In Writing. Most insurance companies will only issue a check directly to the roofer. This protects the insurance company from the homeowner "pocketing" the procedures and never repairing the damage. By getting your roofing contractor to agree to the type of repairs to be performed and the costs involved, this will insure that your roof gets the required repairs. If your roofer agreements that the insurance check is sufficient to repair your roof hail damage, then they should be willing to do the repairs for that cost, nothing more.

Roof replacement or repair due to hail damage can be one of the most expensive repairs for homeowners and insurance companies. Making sure that you properly identify roof hail damage in a timely basis, and following the proper procedures will help protect your family's most important asset, your home.

In summary home owners who think they may have suffered storm damage should:

  • Look for visible water damage inside your home.
  • Look for damage to your roof's shingles that may compromise the effective life of your roof.
  • If necessary, contact your insurance agent and file a claim.
  • Consult a local roofing contractor trained in Roof Hail Damage to represent your interests.

Why You Should Not Worry About Termites on Your Home

To explain why I believe you should not worry about termites eating your home first I should explain what a termite is. A termite is an insect with six legs, head, thorax, and abdomen. On the head are two antennae made up of many bead-like segments. Also, on the head are mandibles that bite wood, as well as black compound eyes which are usually present. Termite wings if present are attached to each of the last to segments of the thorax. When an infected piece of wood is broken open, one observes what appear to be a white maggot with legs. This is the blind or almost blind "worker" termite. Since the outer covering is thinner than most insects, it is less effective in preserving moisture and must avoid exposure to the sun. This is why subterranean termites usually live in underground colonies where they are able to obtain adequate water or in areas of your home where excess moisture is present. Compared to many other insects termites are very fragile and they are not able to move their colonies which makes them easier to control than many other insects.

Termites take a long time to develop into a colony large enough to do any real damage to your home. In the few years they require to grow a colony of sufficient size it is likely you will notice signs of excessive moisture or signs of the termites before they are able to do any structural significant damage.

Avoiding common situations that can create moisture problems on your home will reduce the chances of getting termites, reduce the damage they can cause, and make them easier to notice if they occur. Maintaining proper drainage and landscape elevation around your home is usually a simple matter of not adding to much soil or mulch to your beds and lawn. Making sure you have a good chimney cap and properly sealed windows and doors will help to keep your walls drier and therefore less attractive to termites.

New construction techniques and materials have reduced the incidence and impact of termites. The use of treated wood in decks, fencing, and framing along with the use of non-wood type siding and roofing has significantly reduced the food source for termites around homes. Improved ground preparation and foundation building procedures like using sealants around penetrations has made it more difficult for subterranean termites to enter homes. Cleaner job sites and more thorough foundation form board removal (because of higher wood costs) has also had a negative effect on the termite's ability to get started on a typical home. Leaking shower stalls once a very common source of moisture and therefore termite problems have all but disappeared.

Subterranean termites are much easier to prevent and eliminate with the advanced pesticides now available. The effectiveness of TERMIDOR (available to all pest control professionals) is well documented by state regulatory agencies and the ongoing tests to determine how long it lasts keep yielding data data every year. Although it is an expensive chemical it has reduced treatment costs by essentially eliminating retreatments.

Drywood termites, although harder to find in a home, are a smaller threat to the structure because the colony sizes are much smaller and have a limited life span. All the same factors working against subterranean termites are having a negative effect on the drywood termites. Treatment innovations like directed heating, expanding foam injection, and baiting have reduced treatment cost and improved treatment effectiveness.

James Stuart, BA in Business sciences Sam Houston State university 1980, Certified Applicant since 1974. Personally treated over 1000 homes since 1970. Personally Conduced over 2000 termite inspections. Attended hundreds of Continuing education courses. Participated in the training of hundreds of technicians currently working for pest control companies in the greater Houston.

Vinyl Windows Design, Shapes And Sizes

Vinyl windows come in all shapes and sizes, and they'll all do the basic jobs you expect them to – let in light, frame a view and keep out the elements. Beyond that, you'll want to choose a window that works with your home's architectural style, whether it's clapboard colonial, red-cedar contemporary or comfortable eclectic. Looks away, each type of window has its own personality. Knowing what works best where will help you choose the right windows for any building or remodeling project.

Early builders chose windows according to the number of pans in each sash – six over six, for example, or nine over 12. Today your choices are much clearer. Casements, sliders, tilts, fixed glass, and combinations of all these styles pose a myriad of alternatives to the classic double-hung window.

The amount of light any type of window will admit depends large on its size, but shape and location do make a difference. For example, a horizontal window placed high on a wall may provide more light than the same window turned vertically.

Ease of cleaning is also worth thinking about, especially if yours is a two-story house or if some windows are just hard to reach. A tilt-in or removable sash that can be washed conveniently from the inside makes it a lot easier and safer to keep upper-story windows sparkling.

What colors suit you best ?
In most cases, the colors that suit you best are the colors you like best. You should be able to find your favorites represented not only among wall wallings and fabrics and accessories, but also in a range of styles and patterns to suit almost any decorating mood from contemporary to country to traditional.

Window Design Principles
Think of the walls of your home as blank canvases waiting to be painted with light from the sun and views of the outside world. As you consider this ever-changing image for your new or remodeled home, it's helpful to keep certain principals in mind.

Seeing the Light .
Light – and the shadows created by it – plays a major role in any interior space. As the sun shifts, it subtly changes the shapes and patterns in a room.

Bigger is brighter as far as windows are concerned. This means not just larger windows, but more of them. Arrays of operable sash and fixed glass can reach for the ceiling, stretch wide or even make an entire wall disappear. Ceilings dictate how high you can go, but dropping windows to floor level, or near it, can bring in a lot more light than standard sill-height windows.

How's the View ?
Just as the right frame enhancements a cherished painting, so windows – now available in just about any conceivable shape – define our experience of the world outside. Of course not all views are created equal. A wooded ravine, for example, offers more visual interest than the side of a neighbor's garage – so analyze your home's best views and orient your windows accordingly.

Step Outside .
Today's patio doors are every bit as attractive and energy-efficient as windows and come in matching styles and finishes. Top one off with a transom or fanlight or flank it with a pair of sidelights, and you can make a design statement that's as strong as a well-thought-out front entry.

Design Your Own Tattoo – Tips to Create a Great Tattoo Design

Tattoos are art, plain and simple. The problem is coming up with the master piece that is worthy of being displayed on your body for the rest of your life. A tattoo is a statement about who you are and is the ultimate in self expression – so you've got to get it right!

So where do you start?

Looking at tattoo design pictures, that's where. Its simple, but effective. Its like doing research for anything. The more research you do, the better the end result.

The next question is where do you get good quality pictures of tattoo designs to start your research. Well, Im glad you asked …. There are many sources, but some provide better quality tattoo designs than others, as I will show you.

Online Designs

The lowest quality tattoo design pictures are the free pictures that abound on the internet. Do not get me wrong, some of the tattoo designs are great, but everyone has access to these pictures, so you can bet your bottom dollar there are a number of people around with the exact same tattoo design. Just imagine seeing someone else with your tattoo on them! That is why they are low on the quality ladder.

Flash at the Tattoo Parlor

Next is flipping through tattoo deigns at the tattoo parlor just before you get your masterpiece inked on you. Now, that is pressure! Again, the designs may be great, but you want to enjoy the process of choosing a tat, and come up with something unique, so never put yourself in that situation. If in doubt, do not do it. Keep looking.

Online Tattoo Galleries

Then there are tattoo designs that you can purchase over the internet. These are the most exclusive designs you can get straight off the rack. These days, due to the power of the internet, it is possible to download massive numbers of unique tattoo design pictures right to your computer to help you decide which design is for you. Also, there are some tattoo design products on sale that continue to update the tat designs even after you have made the purchase. You can even take the design of your choice to the tattoo parlor and get it modified to your own taste. Now no one will have your tat design!

Tattoo Artists

The ultimate source of a quality tattoo design, though, is to take an idea to the tattoo artist and get them to draw something up for you. Tattoo artists are experts at what they do, and they can guide you to a design that you are happy with. However, depending on how much of a design you take to the tattoo parlor, this is by far the most expensive.


Well, there are some sources to get you going on your search for that elusive (and hopefully exclusive) masterpiece. It all boils down to cost. How much are you prepared to pay to find your dream tattoo? Just remember that this is an investment in yourself and you will live with the design you choose for the rest of your life.

I spent ages searching free and pay galleries to find my tattoo. By far the best were three galleries I downloaded from the net, each with thousands of tattoos in each – they got me so much to choose from, and I was able to find exactly what I was looking for. To help you find your dream tattoo, I have reviewed the best three packages. I have listed the tattoo categories in each package, so you know what you are getting. I am in the process of reviewing each package for specific tattoo designs. So far I have reviewed the Japanese Dragon, Chinese Dragon, Heart, Angel, Butterfly, Harley, Lower Back and Tribal Tattoo designs. I review the top galleries for each design listed, provide details of the type of designs and what to expect. Finally I rank each gallery, so you know which is the best for the type of design you are after. I know how hard it is to find the dream tattoo. I hope this review helps you in your search.