My Friends, My Heroes

Who are your heroes? Here's a few of mine … these guys do not know that I admire their work ethics, they also probably do not know that I wrote something about them.

At first glance, he looks just like the average, ordinary guy, but he's not, once you get to know him better …

Brocoy works as a forklift operator, he lifts about five or six copper anodes, which are all arranged neatly in a row, drives over to the weighing scale and then delivers them over to the back of the Refinery building where they'd be processed into copper cathodes.

Day in and day out, one finds 'Brocs' over at the anode yard with his forklift. He works overtime sometimes when his reliever goes absent and he works on his rest day too, when the opportunity presents itself … no big deal really.

The finished product, called copper cathodes, which he loads on trailers for transport over to the shipyard, find their way way to places such as China, South Korea, etc.

He is mild mannered and a good family man … and I admire the guy, know why? Well, for one thing, his long hours spent on his sometimes monotonous routine paid off when his eldest daughter graduated from college and now has a Bachelor's Degree in Chemical Engineering. He's got two more kids in college now.

By the way, he's my friend, and my hero.

George is originally from Bohol, He's an okay guy too, he's appointed as leadman in the Converter Furnace section of the Smelter Dept. You got only one ladle crane operator for the incoming shift? No problemo, let's call in old reliable George.

When one whole crew lacks one furnace operator or in some instances, a leadman for the shift because of one reason or another, all the supervisor has to do is call in George. That's how reliable and dedicated he is to his job. He is my friend and my hero, too.

Ernie's job is claiming I might say. He's a ladle crane operator … do not let that big belly fool you, he's first rate. When I was still working as a control room operator at the Converter Furnace section, we sometimes trade insults good-naturally over the radio. You see, one of my responsibilities was to coordinate with the ladle crane operator and the other control room operators of the other sections in the Smelter Department regarding the smooth flow of the copper smelting process. He is dedicated to his job and His skills earn him top money. He is also my friend and my hero.

These guys are all good family men and such kind of men are plenty where I used to be employed. I can not name them all because there are too many of them.

It is said that we Filipinos are willingly in need of heroes … maybe if we look carefully around us, we just might find our hero. These guys also have something in common: In their own small way, they make a positive impact on the economy.

Terrorism – A Threat to Global Peace

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, no one seems to be saved in the world. Terrorism, an ugly development which has compelled the world leaders as well as the public figures to spend millions of dollars beefing up their security, has become a global threat. Amidst this seemingly tight security and threat, thousands of innocent souls have lost their lives to the annihilation called terrorism.

Statistically, it has been proved that no country of the world is exceptional to terrorist attacks. Pius Odiaka writes on the palpable fear pervading world following the series of bombings in some countries. He declares in the Guardian Newspaper, Friday, July 29th, 2005, (page 24) that “No part of the world has been left without terrorist bloodshed. From Kenya, Algeria, Egypt in Africa to many countries in the middle East and the Gulf; Indonesia, Philippine, Pakistan and India across Asia; Washington and New York in America; Spain and now London in Europe, many innocent souls have been sniffed out of existence.”

The paper will present how terrorism is a threat to Global Peace. It will enumerate the category of acts of terrorism. It will also examine the causes and implications of terrorism in human advancement especially in the area of peace building and keeping. Above all, it will provide recommendations by referring to the United Nations recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy. It concludes by affirming that the global peace can only be achieved if the world- the leaders and the followers-condemn terrorism in all forms and ramifications, and act unconditionally and justly in their quest to providing everlasting solutions to peace, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to global peace and security.

Introduction

In human history, terrorism is widely recognized as the world most famous enemy of mankind. As history itself will admit that terrorism is annihilation with far-reaching and destructive effects, it is the cruelest of crimes against humanity. Its remains have turned neighbours into enemies and have made our societies and the whole world unsafe for living. Its aims and applications are global and uncompromising. Neither terrorism nor is perpetrators are new. Even though it has been used since the beginning of recorded time, not history itself can keep, with precision, the number of lives and properties lost to terrorism.

No doubt, terrorism with its destructive power has reshaped the world we live in. We now live in the world characterized by rising violence and conflicts. This, in turn, has led to the world of growing mistrust, fear, division and represents a significant new threat to international justice, peace and security. This ugly development thus made Amnesty International to observe in its 2004 Report the lasting effects of the crime on humanity.

This report and others provide a valid point on how terrorism or terrorist acts have made the world unsafe and how it has threatened global peace.

Historical Background of terrorism

It is pertinent to recall that forms of society and governments in the past differ from what they are today, when describing the history of terrorism and the use of terror through time. Not until 1648 (Treaty of Westphalia), there was nothing like modern nation-states. More recent is the state’s monopoly on warfare or interstate-violence. The absence of central authority gave many more players opportunity to participate in the game of warfare. However, this did not make the use of terror a method of affecting a political change. In contrast to the modern era, where only nations go to war, the involvement of players such as religious leaders, mercenaries, mercantile companies, national armies and many more was considered to be lawful and normal.

Terrorist acts or the threat of such action have been in existence for millennia. So, in narrating the history of terrorism, it is important to talk about the various types of terrorism and terrorist individuals and groups. Below is the summary of the history of terrorism.

Ancient World:

Sicarii Zealots

Political scientists see the radical Sicarii offshoot of the Jewish Zealots as one of the earliest forerunners of modern terrorism. Like modern terrorists, they intended their actions to suggest a message to a wider target audience: in this instance, the roman imperial officials and all pro-Roman and collaborationists

Al-Assassin

The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashsshiyyin or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Isma ili sect of the Shiite Muslims. After a quarrel about the succession of leadership in the ruling Fatimide dynasty in Cairo around the year 1090, the losing Nizariyya faction was driven from Egypt. They established a number of fortified settlements in present day Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon under the charismatic leader Hasan I Sabbah.Persecuted as infidel by the dominant Sunni sect in the Muslim world; they sent dedicated suicide murderers to eliminate prominent Sunni leaders whom they considered “impious usurpers.” The sect was decimated by the invading Mongols, their last stronghold being flattened by Hulegu Khan in the year 1272.Many scholars believe the term Hashshashin, a name given to them by their enemies was derived from the Arabic “hassasin(hashish user),which they are alleged to have ingested prior to their attacks, but this etymology is disputed. The sects referred to themselves as al-da-wa al-jadida, which means the new doctrine, and were known within the organization as Fedayeen.

Seventeenth century

Gunpowder Plot (1605)

On November 5, 1605 a group of conspirators, led by Guy Fawkes, attempted to destroy the English Parliament on the State Opening, by detonating a large quantity of gunpowder secretly placed beneath the building. The design was to kill King James1 and the members of both houses of parliament. In the resulting anarchy, the conspirators planned to implement a coup and restore the Catholic faith to England. However the plan was betrayed and then thwarted.

Eighteenth century

1.Sons of Liberty

The Sons of Liberty were an underground group opposed to British Rule in the colonies, who committed several attacks, most famous among these was the Boston Tea Party. No one was killed or seriously injured by any action that was taken.

2.The Terror (1793-1794)

The Reign of Terror ( September 5 1793- July 28 1794) or simply The Terror ( French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions led to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine.

The victims of the Reign of Terror totaled approximately 40,000.Among people who are condemned by the revolutionary tribunals, about 8 percent were aristocrats, 6 percent clergy 14 percent middle class, and 70 percent were workers or peasants accused of hoarding, evading the draft, desertion, rebellion, and other purported crimes.

Nineteenth century

1.Anarchism

Anarchists was the most prolific terrorists of the 19th century, with the terroristic tendencies of both nationalism and political movements of Communism or fascism still in there infancy. The disjointed attacks of various anarchists groups lead to the assassination of Russian Tsars and American Presidents but had little real political impact.

2.Tsarist Russia

In Russia, by the mid-19 th century, the intelligentsia grew impatient with the slow pace of Tsarist reforms, which had slowed considerably after the attempted assassination of Alexander II of Russia. Radicals then sought instead to transform peasant discontent into open revolution. Anarchists like Mikhail Bakunin maintained that progress was impossible without destruction. With the development of sufficiently powerful, stable, and affordable explosives, the gap closed between the firepower of the state and the means available to dissidents. The main group responsible for the resulting campaign of terror-‘Narodnaya Volya’ (people’s will) (1878-81) – used the word ‘terrorist’ proudly. They believed in the targeted killing of the ‘leaders of oppression’; they were convinced that the developing technologies of the age-symbolized by bombs and bullets- enabled them to strike directly and discriminately.” People’s Will”, possessing only 30 members, attempted several assassination attempts upon Tsa. Culminating in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on 13 March 1881, killing the Tsar as he was traveling by train.

3. Irish Republican Brotherhood

In 1867, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a revolutionary nationalist group with support from Irish-Americans, carried out attacks in England. These were the first acts of “republican terrorism”, which became a recurrent feature of British history, and these Fenians were the precursor of the Irish Republican Army. The ideology of the group was Irish nationalism.

4. Nationalist terrorism

The Fenians/IRA and the IMRO may be considered the prototype of all ‘nationalist terrorism’, and equally illustrate the (itself controversial) expression that “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter’. At least one of these groups achieve its goal: an independent Ireland came into being. So did an independent Macedonia, but original IMRO probably contributed little to this outcome. Some groups resorted to the use of dynamite, as did Catalan nationalists such as La Reixa and Bandera Negra.

5. John Brown

John Brown was an abolitionist who advocated armed opposition to slavery. He committed several terrorist attacks and was also involved in an illegal smuggling of slaves. His most famous attack was upon the armory at Harpers Ferry, though the local forces would soon recapture the fort and Brown, trying and executing him for treason. His death would make him a martyr to the abolitionist cause, one of the origins of American Civil War, and a hero to the Union forces that fought in it.

6. Ku Klux Klan (1865)

The original Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was created after the end of the American Civil War on December 24, 1865, by six educated middle-class confederate veterans from Pulaski, Tennessee. It soon spread into nearly every southern state of the United States. The Klan has advocated for what is generally perceived as white supremacy, anti-Semitism, racism, anti-Catholicism, homophobia, and nativism. They have often used terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as cross burning to oppress African Americans and other groups. The name ‘Ku Klux Klan’ has been used by many different unrelated groups, but they all seem to center on the belief of white supremacy. From its creation to the present day, the number of members and influence has varied greatly. However, there is little doubt that, especially in the southern United States, it has at times wielded much political influence and generated great fear among African Americans and their supporters. At one time KKK controlled the governments of Tennessee, Indiana, Oklahoma and Oregon, in addition to some of the southern U.S legislatures.

Twentieth century

Suffragette, Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand (1914), KKK(1915),Irgun (1936-1948), World War II, Nationalism and the End of Empire,Cold War proxies,,IRA,,ETA, Aum Shinrikyo (1984-1995), Achille Lauro Hijacking (1985), Lockerbie bombing (1988), Umkhonto we Sizwe (South Africa 1961-1990), PLO (1964-c.1988), Columbian terrorist groups, Munich Massacre (1972),Matsumoto incident(1994), Sarin gas attack on Tokyo subway(1995),and Oklahoma City bombing (1995) are types of terrorism and individual terrorists and groups that operated in the twentieth century.

Twenty-First Centuries

The well-celebrated September 11 (2002) attack and the Beslan school siege are recent terrorist attacks of the twenty-first century.

Terrorism: Definition of a Phenomenon

As clearly stated above, terrorism has established itself as a world phenomenon before 1648. But then, it becomes imperative to look into the true meaning of the term.Although providing a definite definition for it has been accorded with series of controversies, etymologically, the term emanates from Latin, “terrere”, meaning “to frighten” via the French word terrorisme, which is often associated with the regime de la terreur, the Reign of Terror of the revolutionary government in France from 1793 to 1794.The Committee of Public Safety agents that enforced the policies of “The Terror” were referred to as ” Terrorists”.

The English word “terrorism” was first recorded in English dictionaries in 1798 as meaning “systematic use of terror as a policy”. The Oxford English Dictionary still records a definition of terrorism as “Government by intimidation carried out by the party in power in France between 1789-1794.

The controversial issue is that the vocabulary of terrorism has become the successor to that of anarchy and communism the catch-all label opprobrium, exploited accordingly by media and politicians.The difficulty in constructing a definition which eliminates any just cause for terrorism is that history provides too many precedents of organizations and their leaders branded as terrorist but who eventually evolved into respected government. This has applied particularly to national liberation movements fighting colonial or oppressive regimes, engaging in violence within their countries often as a last resort. Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya spent years of his life lobbying the British government before his involvement with the Mau Mau rebellion. Nelson Mandela, a hero in his continent and beyond, is another convicted “terrorist” belonging to this class.

Before making a valid point, it is important to say that this piece would like to consider further statements and criticisms on the issue and recognized that there are other valid arguments on these controversial issues. However, they are not within premises of this paper.

Arriving at a universally accepted definition of terrorism which narrows down to a specific method of conducting violence instead of “all its forms and manifestations” or which makes it possible to refer terrorist acts to an international court, as for genocide and other war crimes or which makes it impossible for individual countries to outlaw activities they choose to classify as terrorism perhaps for their own political interest is a great challenge in the study of terrorism.

While the United Nations has not yet accepted a definition of terrorism, the UN’s “academic consensus definition,” has been put forth for consideration. And they are available for public evaluation.

In final analysis, although, it is not clear the actual number of definitions of terrorism; but it is clear that terrorism does not have respect for human lives and values. It has claimed thousands of lives of innocent souls, rendered millions of people homeless and economically handicapped. Alas, it is clearer that terrorism has turned our world into a place conducive for its existence and spread.

Effects of terrorism on global peace

Indisputably, terrorism is a threat to global peace. As it thrives well in a world such as ours- where violation of human rights, rising violence and conflicts, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, socio-economic marginalization and extreme ideology, dehumanization of victims are prominently in practice, it has succeeded in disregarding human lives and values, launching war on freedom and peace, multiplying violence and conflicts, and posting challenges of solving the problem of injustice, insecurity and declining economy.

Recommendations

In accordance with the United Nations in a report titled: Uniting Against Terrorism-Recommendations for a global counter-terrorism strategy, this paper hereby presents the following recommendations;

(1)All stakeholders-the leaders and the followers, individuals and institutions must dissuade people from resorting to terrorism or supporting it.

(2) All stakeholders, in all ways and at all levels, must deny terrorists the means to carry out an attack by:

– denying terrorists financial support.

-denying terrorists access to deadly weapons, including weapons of mass destruction.

– denying terrorists access to travel.

-denying terrorists access to their targets and their desired impact.

(3) All stakeholders, in all capacities, must deter States from supporting terrorists groups.

(4) All stakeholders must develop State capacity to prevent terrorism by:

– promoting the rule of law and effective criminal justice systems.

– promoting quality education and religious and cultural tolerance.

– countering the financing of terrorism.

– ensuring transport security.

– preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological

materials, and ensuring better preparedness for an attack with such materials

-improving the defense of soft targets and the response to their attack.

– promoting United Nations system-wide coherence in countering terrorism.

(5) All stakeholders, collectively, must defend human rights in the context of terrorism

and counter- terrorism.

Even though my recommendations are fashioned out of United Nations recommendation for a global strategy, they represent a holistic and realistic approach to fighting or countering terrorism. However, if these recommendations are given the opportunity to operate or if implemented and executed properly and continuously, they are effective strategies of countering terrorism and, at the same time, ensuring a world free of violence and conflict, violations of human rights, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, political exclusion, and socio-economic marginalization

Conclusion

As you will agree with me that terrorism affects all of us, our approach to fighting or countering terrorism and ensuring a safe and peaceful world must be collective. However, it is worth noting that the world leaders, followers and stakeholders have vital roles to play in the fight against terrorism and in achieving our goals of global peace and security.

For the world leaders and stakeholders, these roles transcend attending or organizing world summit, conferences, seminars, e.t.c on the topic, and consenting to Global strategy to counter terrorism on papers. They need to commit more resources, at all levels, to the cause, be more sincere and objective in their judgments, more practical in their approach, and create enabling environments conducive for justice, conflict resolutions, human right protection, equality, stability, unity, prosperity, tolerance, peace and security.Above all, they need to promote and support ultimately because that have respect for human lives and values.

For followers and individuals, we need to carry out the message beyond conferences that terrorism is inexcusable and unacceptable. We need to engage in one- to -one education or group discussions enlightening ourselves on the devastating and destructive effects of terrorism on our lives and values, and emphasizing that terrorism is not an effective way of championing a cause, whether political, religious or otherwise. We must recognize that peace is the most precious need of humanity.

Ill Maintenance, the Root to All Air Conditioning Problems

When one speaks about AC in Jacksonville, we come to know that there is a constant rise in the demands of AC systems because Jacksonville is a hot and humid city in Florida. With the rise in demands of air conditioning systems there is also the same intensity of growth in the number of AC problems and consequently, rise in demands of air conditioning services. Similarly, the rise in AC repair and maintenance service providers too.

"What are the common AC problems and how can we fix it?"

Problem with your AC means that your house or your office is no longer cooled innocently and living in a place like Jacksonville, this can be a huge problem. AC problems range from excess noise to unwanted precipitation which might need professionals' help. Fortunately, there are some simple ways to identify common AC problems on your own if you want to attempt your own AC repair or give a hint of the problem to the AC repair technician. The most common AC compliant is that the air conditioner makes a loud annoying noise. This problem, if not checked can cause loud deafening noise making you and your neighbors uneasy. This is mainly caused by dislodging of the fan belt and due to the need for lubrication in the bearings of the motor. To fix it, check the fan belt and also lubricate the bearings of the motor. This problem does not demand the need of AC repair technicians. Another normal problem that often arises is frozen coils. At times the heat pump fails to play its role causing the coils to freeze and in turn block the air flow. An AC repair expert's help or checking the calibration can solve the problem.

You might have seen water leaking inside your house from your AC units. This may be due to a rusted condensation pan or blockage in the draining pipe. Check out the condensation pan and for any blockages in the draining hose to solve this particular AC problem.

Most common AC failure problem is blocked grill. To solve this problem, simply disassemble the air conditioner (make sure you turn off the power before doing that) which will give you an easy access to the parts of the AC like the fins, fans, motor and other parts. Wipe these parts clean taking extra care that you do not move any electrical parts wet. Remove the grill and clean it. Re-arrange the parts and try running it again setting the temperature of thermostat well below normal temperature.

When the above provided information does not make any difference, the following harder-to-spot air conditioning problems may hold the answer ie Broken Thermostat, Freon Leakage and AC Short Circuited to the ground. For a broken thermostat, replacing the same will solve the problem but for the later two, you might need the help of AC repair experts.

It is advised that you contact AC repair experts whatever your AC problem is. If you want to minimize the time, inconvenience and money required, be sure to provide a detailed description of the problem and get a series of estimates before you avail any AC service in Jacksonville, Florida.

Troubleshooting Tips for Common Air Conditioning Repairs

Air-conditioning generally requires constant care for proper functioning. Many companies provide such services nowdays. Neverheless, there are simple routine procedures that one can follow to avoid major problems. You can hire a technician to take care of your air conditioning system, but for simple problems, you can follow a do it yourself routine.

Cooling problems

Your air conditioner may be running smoothly, but may be failing to cool. In such a case, check the condenser. Open the condenser unit and remove debris out. The condenser should have free outlet and should not be obstructed by anything. If there are obstructions such as tree branches or furniture, then remove them from that site.

The compressor unit contains a fan that can gather loads of dirt. Clean the fan and remove dirt from that as well. Do not hose with water. Wipe with a wet cloth only. Be careful not to hose down any electrical circuit. This may lead to major air conditioning repair.

The filters help in separating the dust and providing clean air to the interior. If the filters are filthy, the air conditioning system has to work overtime to cool or heat. To clean filters, use damp lint free cloth or soft cleaning brushes.

Last thing to address the cooling issue would be to set the thermostat. Turn on the power and set thermostat to the required temperature. If you have done everything right, then the condenser pipe should feel warm and the inlet should feel cool.

Temperature problems

The thermostat should be placed in a position where it can get the right sample of the temperature of the air of the room. If not, it can create massive gradients in temperature. In addition, if the air is not recycled properly by the pump, the exchange of cool and hot air is disrupted. The pump issue needs a qualified technician.

Weird noises from the A / C unit

Loose screws and mechanical friction are the two main reasons for noise. Proper lubrication would resolve the issue. Use the prescribed motor oils and lubricants and check the manual for the intervals of lubrication. Else, the optimal time would be once in a year.

Dripping water

Leakage in pipes is the main reason for dripping water. Replace the pipe. If the pipes were fine then the next thing would be to check the pump. If the condensation process in not happening in the condenser, then the pump is not pumping the displaced hot air into the condenser. The pump needs to be repaired or replaced. Sometimes green molds may be growing in the connecting pipes. These can be clean with bleach and the issue may get resolved.

These are some of the repairing tips for repairing A / C. Air conditioning services can be employed for major problems.

How To Grow Your Blog Audience

If your blog is a business and you want to make money from it, growth and expansion are essential for your it to survive. A business can’t get started, grow to a certain point and then just remain at that point and continue to succeed.

A small online business or blog doesn’t have to grow and expand until it becomes a giant multi-national company in order to survive. But you do have to grow your audience so you can build your brand, grow an email marketing list, and make more sales.

Know Your Audience

When you start a business you need to choose a specific niche market that isn’t too broad or too narrow. You need enough people to sustain your business by buying from you regularly but not market so wide that is overloaded with competitors so that you don’t even have a chance to get noticed.

Ensure That It’s a Paying Market

Do your research to confirm that the customers you are focusing on in that niche buy books, magazines and regular items to help them get the most out of their job or hobby. If they’re a dog owner, for example, they’ll routinely buy food, doggie snacks, leads and so on. If they’re a golf enthusiast, they will buy golf balls, clothing, golf clubs, excursions to various courses, and so on.

Create High-Quality Content Based Around Their Needs

What are the “pain points” or problems people generally have in regards to your niche. If you know your target audience when writing content for your blog you can deal with these issues. By doing this, you’ll be able to grow your audience as they’ll come to feel that you understand and care about them. They’ll then be prepared to read your blog regularly, sign up for your email list and tell others about it.

Include a Call to Action (CTA)

Your blog content is a framework for building your audience, and for getting subscribers and sales. Set an objective for each piece of content. Then include a call to action (CTA) that will help you meet that goal. For example:

  • Brand Building – “Please Like, Comment or Share”
  • Website traffic – “Click this link to learn more”
  • Subscribers – “Click here to download your free checklist”
  • Product sales – “To learn more click here for an effective solution.”

Post Helpful Social Media Content

Post a range of content at the top social media sites that will motivate your audience and that is relative with what each platform wants. For example, at Facebook, they are encouraging memes and video. LinkedIn is more of a business-to-business network and Pinterest and Instagram are driven by images.

What Is A Preposition?

And how can we screw them up?

Prepositions are used every day in the things you say and write, and they are helpful devices that sort out the relationship between a noun and some other word. They are also one of the important eight parts of speech used in the English language. Prepositions are typically placed before the noun or pronoun, and examples of common prepositions include at, in, on, around, above, and near.

If you get confused about what a preposition is and how you can use them, just remember that a preposition describes the what, where or how of a noun. Here are some simple examples of the use of the preposition "above".

"The tree limbed away above the water"

"The airplane flew over the clouds"

Are you a preposition expert yet? Here is another set of examples using the preposition "between".

"The rabbit sat between two logs."

"I stand between the columns"

Ending a Sentence With a Preposition

Preposition errors are not very common for native English speaking people because they become obvious if the Basic English grammar rules are broken. For the rabbit example above, it would be a rare mistake to see something like "The rabbit sat two logs between". However, many people tend to make the mistake of ending a sentence with the preposition "of".

Take the following sentence for example:

"There are a few things to be aware of."

This is an end of sentence preposition and while it is not considered a serious grammar error, many refer to this as a "stranded preposition" and the alternative would be as follows:

"There are a few things of which to be aware."

While the first sentence may cause your grammar check to scold you, the second version sounds very formal for a normal conversation. The origin of the rule that a preposition should come before a noun lies in the origins of the word "preposition" which is made up of "pre" and "position".

Go figure, right?

The key to good writing is that you should try to modify your voice and tone in your writing and make sure it suits your audience. If you are writing an informal blog post or even sales copy, overly-formal language such as the passage shown above may turn your readers off.

Obviously, some there are some situations where placing a preposition at the end of the sentence really does sound very wrong. Most people who utilize English daily can avoid this pitfall, and for the odd chance that you place the word "of" at the end of a sentence, well, that is probably nothing to worry about.

Gift Ideas for Your Grandparents

Bring smiles to the faces of your grandparents this season with sure-to-please gift ideas a. How many birthdays have your grandparents surprised you with the best-ever present? How do Grandmas always know exactly what you want for holidays? And how many times have your grandsparents given you great presents outside of any occasion, just because? Well, now you're the one wearing the proverbial Santa suit. It's time to reciprocate! Treat your grandsparents to great gifts. Here are some grandparent friendly options.

Fun Mugs for Seniors

It's only your age. Lighten up! Ironic novelty mugs are a classic gag gift and make a great stocking stuffer. Not just for senior citizens, heavy duty ceramic mugs with fun question mark shaped handle single out coffee-sippers age 30 and up.

Oval Serving Tray with Removable Cutting Board

This high quality serving tray with removable cutting board is perfect for entertaining. Prepare and serve cheeses, fruits, nuts and other delicious snacks. It's build from rubber wood, an environmentally sound material known for its attractive grain and hard-wearing durability. Attractive removable cutting board is built from light bamboo, and is fixed within a stabilizing recessed channel to prevent slipping. If your grandparents love to entertain, or simply enjoy rich cheese in style, this is one serving accessory they'll treasure forever.

Panoramic Rearview Mirror

For automotive safety and convenience, give your mobile grandsparents this enhanced panoramic rearview mirror. It clips easily right on to any existing rearview mirror and improvements rear view visibility up to 300%! That's a significant difference-especially for aging individuals who may be struggling with vision problems. This valuable road safety device actually eliminates drivers' blind spots on both sides of any vehicle. The mirror is built from distortion free glass for crystal clarity. It minimizes headlight glare at night, so your grandparent can enjoy the best possible visibility. Enhanced automotive safety is a truly priceless gift to be able to give a loved one. Wrap up the panoramic rearview mirror clip-on for every driver you know, and remind them to take care on the road.

Fun Grandchildren Spoiled Doormat

Are you spoiled? If you have grandparents, there's only one answer to that question! No matter what your age, give your grandsparents the pleasure of showing off by giving them a funny, irreverent welcome mat. "Grandchildren Spoiled Here" welcome mat is made of 100% Olefin indoor / outdoor carpet with perfect bound stitched edges. Tough, highly durable mat is built to take feet-wipings from the most rambunctious of grandchildren (and great-grandchildren!) For years to come.

Crosley Candlestick Phone

Many older adults use land-based phone lines in their homes. Give your grandsparents the best gift of all this holiday season: a call on the telephone! Send warm holiday greetings with unique retro-styled flair by first ordering them a completely charming Crosley Candlestick Phone. First, a history lesson. The Crosley "Candlestick" phone model was built in the early 1900's, pre-dating the familiar one piece hand set. Also known colloquially as an "upright," the Crosley design was originally attached to a huge wooden box containing a battery, bell and hand crank-all the simple machinery that made it a working phone. This model recalls the original in design and form, combining a whole lot of vintage charm with all the technological updates we enjoy today! Decorative dial applies as a 1900-era rotary, but has been elegantly modified to function as a sleek 2011-era pushbutton. Additional modern-day features include Push Button Technology, Rotary Fashion Dial, Redial Feature, Tone / Pulse Switch, Ringer Volume ON / OFF Switch, Earpiece Volume Control, and Cloth Cord. Your grandparents will love the nostalgic design, and they'll love even more hearing your voice at the other end of the line!

Drive Safely Car Visor Clip

Grandparents will treasure this affectionate reminder to stay safe on the road. Miniature picture frame charm clips easily and securely onto any car visor, in any car. Choose a treasured picture of the family and frame neatly in beautifully inscribed metal fame, so your mobile grandparent knows exactly who's counting on their safe return home. Inscribed messages "Drive Safely!" and "You have a family at home that loves you!" express warm concern in few words. Pick up a few and gift to all the older adults in your life this holiday season.

The Function and Importance of Cat Scratching Posts

A natural behavior in cats is to periodically hook their front claws into suitable surfaces and pull backwards. This marks their territory, exercises their legs, and sharpens their claws. They also use scratching as a way to threaten other cats, for playing, and for getting rid of their old nails so that new, sharper nails can grow. Cats often scratch while they stretch out; but unfortunately cats can cause damage to furniture, curtains and other things when they do so. Indoor cats benefit from being provided with a scratching post so that they are less likely to use carpet or furniture which they can easily ruin.

The most common type of post consists of a wooden post covered in rough fabric or sisal. The post is mounted vertically in a wide base, which allows the cat to stretch upward on its rear legs and scratch freely without tipping it over. A post that is unstable or does not allow a cat to fully extend its body might put off the cat from using it. Scratching post surfaces vary. Some scratching posts are covered with carpeting or upholstery, but some authorities advise against this practice, as not making it clear to the cat which surfaces are permissible and which are not; they suggest using a plain wooden surface, or reversing the carpeting on the posts so that the rougher texture of the carpet backing is a more attractive alternative to the cat than the floor covering.

Many pet owners find they have to experiment with different surfaces to find one on which their cats will scratch reliably. Some experts say that cats generally prefer sisal or corrugated cardboard surfaces. Other kinds of scratching posts are more elaborate, with several levels of horizontal platforms for climbing and cozy cave-like areas where cats may hide. Very tall scratching posts are often called “cat trees.” These may have a vertical tension rod that extends to the ceiling to provide extra stability. Larger cat scratchers and Cat Scratching Posts can give every cat enough places for playing, climbing, lounging and sleeping. The behaviors of cats differ, so it is best to be sure what works for your cat before settling on one kind of surface.

Smaller scratching surfaces may consist of something as simple as a piece of carpet turned upside down, or a flat pad of woven sisal with a loop to allow it to hang from a doorknob. Others are made from corrugated fiberboard. In many cases, however, what is more important than the scratching post is the knowledge cat companions have about how to train cats. Training a cat to claw an approved surface and nothing else requires understanding simple behavior modification techniques and finding a reward the cat will perform for.

Scratching posts may be purchased at most stores that carry pet supplies and online, but many people build their own. Vendors that sell cat scratching posts often have persons with the expertise to offer advice to cat-owners about cat scratching. It therefore behooves those looking for cat scratching products to do a thorough search to get the best value.

The Mystical Charm of Ladies Ceramic Watches

The vintage black ceramic watch for ladies has a certain mystical charm about it. These watches, when you look at them, force you to think about their history. These beautiful pieces will make you wonder what is there in them that it was first given to someone as a gift.

The vintage black ceramic watch for ladies makes you think if it was a present that was given by the husband or was it a gift by a lover who wanted to impress his lady love. The watch pieces are unique and exquisite and force you to admire the workmanship that must have gone into creating these master pieces.

Especially, for ladies it means more than just fashion when it comes to wearing something which is vintage and antique. It is all about class, sophistication and style.

Even today, a ladies ceramic watch brings forth the same feel as the vintage watches do. So, when you are looking for a watch for your lady, make sure that it is not just functional but is also classy. You will actually score extra if you buy her a good quality and classy watch. The best way to buy a good classy watch is to be aware of the features that you need to look for and the ones that you should ignore.

Women like to don a new look for every new occasion. So, they also need accessories to match the new look every time. And what better than gifting her with a watch that can compliment her looks every time she puts it on.

It is perfectly fine for ladies to have a watch for every look that they don. In fact, it is a common trend for all fashion conscious women of today. To help you find the perfect watch, find out for what occasion it is needed for. Is it for a date, work, for some other special occasion or for everyday use?

There are three main types of inner workings or movements which you can find in a ladies watch. There is the digital watch which is more of a casual kind and rather inexpensive. Then there is quartz, which is classy and slightly more expensive. Finally, there is the mechanical one which is not only expensive but also very sophisticated and high end.

Women have always loved accessories. And if you want to impress them and win them over, then do not think twice and go ahead and get a classy watch to gift her.

Demystifying Luxury Vinyl Flooring

Do you feel like the flooring options for your home have gotten confusing? There are so many different types and brands now that keeping up with everything can seem overwhelming. Most people don’t shop for new flooring that often, so when you do begin to look at options, you might feel a little out of your league. One type of flooring we hope to explain in this article is luxury vinyl.

In addition to carpet, hardwood and laminate, vinyl is a popular choice for the floors of your home or business. Vinyl itself comes in several forms. There is sheet vinyl, which is glued directly to the subfloor. Sheet vinyl has come a long way with realistic tile, wood and stone looks. The other option for vinyl is called luxury vinyl, which comes in either tiles or planks.

Luxury Vinyl Tiles (LVT) look like stone or ceramic tile. With natural colors and surface texture, these tiles look and feel like real stone or ceramic. Luxury Vinyl Planks (LVP) offer the look of wood planks in various species and colors. Surface textures can even include scraping or embossing to heighten the realism.

Whether you choose sheet vinyl, LVT or LVP, you will get a resilient flooring, know for its warmth and comfort underfoot. It’s real claim to fame though is its resistance to moisture, making it the best option for a bathroom or kitchen. It’s also much less expensive than real ceramic or wood.

So, maybe you’ve decided luxury vinyl is the way to go for your new bathroom install, now all you need to do is decide on the style and color, right? Not quite, there are still many more things to consider and this is where it can get confusing.

First, you can choose how you want to install the luxury vinyl floor. There are still some that you can glue down, while other options include floating click and loose lay. With floating click, the planks or tiles click together forming a water-tight seal. Loose lay flooring allows you to simply lay each piece down to cover the floor. This type of flooring is simple to repair since you can easily remove one piece in the middle of the room and replace it.

You will also have choices on the thickness of the tile or planks. The core of the plank may have extra cushion to dampen sound and provide more comfort under foot. Other types may be more rigid, allowing them to hold up better under heavy foot traffic.

There are some other acronyms used to describe the core of luxury vinyl: WPC and SPC. Depending on the manufacturer, these stand for different things. For example, WPC can stand for Wood Plastic Composite, Waterproof Polymer Core or Wood Polymer Core. Likewise, SPC can stand for Stone Polymer Composite, Solid Polymer Core and other variations. So, you can see where the confusion might set in!

If you are looking for new flooring and decide to research luxury vinyl, you might become frustrated with all the different terms and lack of consistency. All manufacturers tend to have their own name for things, which makes it difficult for the consumer to know what’s what. With just a few searches on the Internet, you will soon realize there’s way more to luxury vinyl flooring than you may have originally thought!

This is where you local flooring store can be your best option for expert flooring advice. They will know the differences between manufacturers and the type of products they make so you will be better able to compare. In addition, you can simply explain to an expert at a flooring store what type of look you want, where in the house it will be used and what type of traffic it is likely to get. Then they can offer suggestions and help you weed through the flooring jungle to find the best luxury vinyl option for your needs.

Hair Weave – The Real Cost of a Hair Weave

The cost of a hair weave can range from $100 for a quick weave up to $2,000 for a celebrity quality weave. There are several variables that make up the price, such as full head or partial weave, sewn in or bonded, human hair or synthetic hair. Not only is there a cost for the initial hair weave process, you must also consider the cost of regular care and upkeep. In this article we will break down the costs by category, so that you can customize a weave hairstyle to fit your budget.

First ask yourself a couple of questions. Do you want to enhance your appearance for a specific event (a special date or concert) or for several weeks (summer vacation, end of the year holidays, or just until your hair grows out)? Second, do you want to leave everything to your hairstylist or are you willing to do a little of the legwork yourself? And finally, how much are you willing to spend?

Type of Hair / How Much Hair (30% of the Cost)

From businesswomen to Hollywood stars, customers are demanding higher quality from the products they purchase. The type of hair you purchase will depend on the desired style. Hair textures range from silky straight, relaxed, deep wave to curly. Hair quality can range from poor quality synthetic hair to human hair of excellent quality. Virgin Indian hair is the most popular type for extensions. With Indian hair the wefts are reinforced and sewn tightly to prevent the hair from shedding.

If you are getting a full-head braid and sew-in weave the average person uses about six ounces of hair. Most brands sell about four ounces in each package. Some people will use more some will use less. It is best to purchase two packs to ensure you have enough. You can always use the extra hair later. If you are using hair that is 18″ or longer may need an additional pack (sometimes the ends look thin with very long hair). If you are only getting a few tracks or you are bonding the hair, one pack is enough for four to five tracks.

Normally, hair length runs from 10″ (about $80 per bag) to 18″ (about $130 per bag). There are many less expensive brands available, but keep in mind that quality can sometimes decrease with the lower price tag.

Synthetic hair is very inexpensive compared to human hair and is often used for ponytails or hair buns. The costs can range from $5.00 to $20.00 per package depending on length. Heating appliances such as curling irons, flat irons or straightening combs should never be used on synthetic hair. While there are newer versions of synthetic hair from brands that claim to allow styling with lower temperatures of heating appliances, people should steer clear of such claims. The golden rule with synthetic hair is that heat is not an option. Synthetic hair is best for short term use. Typically when the synthetic hair is shaped its best not to change it, it is “What you see is what you get”.

Weaving vs. Bonding (50% of Cost)

Bonding is a popular temporary weaving method and a great way to add volume or vibrant streaks of color to your natural hair. Tracks of hair are glued to the roots of your own hair near the scalp with a special adhesive. To prevent damage to your natural hair, tracks should not be left in longer than a week or two and must be removed with a special solution. On average the cost to apply is $10-20 per track (cut and style may or may not be included in your price).

With weaving, the natural tresses are braided around the head in concentric circles. The braids are sewn down, then extensions or wefts are sewn to the braids. On average six to ten tracks are needed for a full head. This technique can be maintained for several weeks or months. This is a very time intensive process and pricing will vary greatly, but on average the costs range from $20-$60 per track.

In the conclusion below you will learn how to completely eliminate this cost.

Regular Maintenance and Tighten Up (20% of Total Cost)

It is important to think of your extensions as your own hair. The average hair weave–whether glued, bonded, or sewn into natural hair–lasts about two months. During this time, you must wash your weave as well as your natural hair. Weave hair is especially prone to becoming brittle and dry because it is not attached to the scalp and therefore does not receive any of the body’s natural oils. As with your natural hair, if you do not properly care for your weave it will quickly develop split ends and become frizzy and unmanageable. On average, regular maintenance and tightening will cost $20-$40 per track and must be done every two to four weeks.

Conclusion

Ultimately you can tailor your weave to fit any budget. You may choose to purchase your own hair and have it professionally applied and styled. You may want to learn to weave it yourself, and then have it cut and styled by a professional. Or you may have it weaved and styled professionally and choose to tighten it yourself.

Weaves provide a way for you to experiment with new styles and current hair trends without damaging your natural hair with excessive heat or chemicals. Weaves provide new looks which are usually easily cared for, but you must be aware that these procedures have a limited life cycle.

Remember HAIR DOES MATTER!

Bookcase Headboards – A Practical Solution For Smaller Bedrooms

Usually built with wood, these headboards boast dual shelving to site the items need at night time like, lamps, clock radio etc. These convenient shelves cut out the need to place your odds and ends on a bedside cabinet where they might get tipped over if you roll over in bed during the night.

Bookcase headboards will normally need to be self assembled so you should ensure you have a hammer, screwdriver and wood glue to hand. Before buying, check that the headboard will fit onto your bed. If it does not then the headboards can be screwed into the wall of your bedroom to ensure it remains secure.

At the least one shelf will boast a modest cubby hole for a radio set or lamp and will have a small hole cut where you can run the power cord.

Country style headboards feature delicate casting along the interior abuts of the shelves. This fashion brings an elegant panache to a kids or adults bedroom while providing a functional area. A deep wood polish on wood like cherry or ash preserves a light country feel that appears distinguished in any room. You will find that light wood staining will exude a delicate ambiance that is most common country style pieces of furniture.

Contemporary bookcase headboards frequently boast a lot of squared-off edges and duskier, bold colors. The fashionable appearance is best-selling amongst teenagers and children. Delicate arches and acute angles make for a real elegant pattern. This designing is frequently manufactured from wood chip board covered up with polished veneering. As well shelving, a few examples boast a elongated ledge on top with a retaining bar to ensure all your items do not fall off.

Other fashions include bedheads that are particular to a specific age group customized to little girls and young boys. A full bookcase headboard is the most common variety used in teen's rooms.

Before buying, think about what you really need the headboards for. Makers will frequently tell you the exact sizes of the shelves, which is crucial in ascertaining if your book will fit in properly.

You should also remember that each headboards will be safe up to certain weights so check before buying or you could wake up in the night surrounded by books!

Bedside lamps can be positioned on the bedhead to enable you to get to quickly if you need to during the night but remember to feed the electrical cord through the hole at the back of the headboard otherwise it could easily be pushed over in the night.

What You Need to Know About Frozen Water Pipes

Since you were school age, you have known the scientific formula: frozen water expands. Imagine, then, what occurs within your home water pipes when it gets super cold. The pipe water becomes frozen and as the water expands, it raises the water pressure. More water pressure periodically leads to burst pipes, which of course causes the type of water damage to your home that you do not even want to think about.

Below find six truths about water pipe bursts and related home damage.

From the Files of Homeowner Insurance Claims:

• Among winter's chief causes of property damage are frozen burst pipes.
• 37 percent of frozen water pipe damage comes from the basement or lower level of the home.
• Property damage from burst water pipes have been known to be very expensive, often surpassing the $ 5,000 mark.
• The freezing point for water is thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit.
• In general, a standard home insurance policy does not protect against damage resulting from a burst pipe.

For homeowners, landlords and renters, beware of water pipes lie within spots that are not heated. Places such as an attic, a crawl space or outside walls that bear the full brunt of winter's wrath increase the risk of pipe bursts. While a plumbing contractor may be able to re-line the piping to warmer zones of the home, the job may not always be a feasible undertaking.

So, here are other ideas bought to you from the insurance guys on how to minimize associate risks.

Six Ways to Keep Water Pipes from Bursting in Cold Weather

1. Place insulation around the pipes to keep them from freezing.

2. Plug outside holes and those in the structure's foundation with calking.

3. Open kitchen and bathroom cabinets so that house heat can circulate thoroughly.

4. Allow a slow flow of water from sink taps when the weather gets exceptionally cold.

5. If you go on vacation do not leave the house heat low enough to cause pipe freezing.

6. Consider emptying out your water system before leaving on vacation. To do this, shut off the main valve and turn on water faucets; turn off when water no longer flows.

To find out if your home has the right coverage for your individual liability risks, have an experienced independent agency review your policy. By educating yourself about your auto, business, home, and life insurance needs, you become your own insurance advocate.

Let Your Kids Enjoy With LEGO NXT Mindstorms

Nxt Mindstorms Review

For decades, LEGO is a well-known brand of education toys that consist of brick parts that allow us to build our own kind of toys, such as build a house, a plane, or a robot. Now, LEGO releases new generation of toys called NXT Mindstorms 2.0 that is implemented with 'brain' which allows the toys come into alive. Nxt is the 'brain' that allows robots come alive. As the robot has USB port, you can download program from your computer to the Nxt Mindstorms or upload data from the robot into your computer. You can also use wireless Blue tooth connection to upload and download.

This building kit enables you our kids to construct robots that can see, speak, feel, and move. This toy combines the versatility of the LEGO building system with a microcomputer brick and intuitive programming software. Still designed for ages 10 and up (not for under 3 years old children as it consistes of small parts), the 2.0 robotics tool set features everything you need to create and program your first robot in approximately 30 minutes to one hour. After that, you can create an endless lineup of robots that do what you want.

It is contributed with some sensors. One of them is touch sensor that allows robot has sense of touch. The robot can detect when it is pressed by something and when it is released again. As the robot's arm is equipped by touch sensor, it knows whether there is something in its hand or not. It can pick up things. Then by touching the touch sensor, you can command It to close the door, turn on TV, or even talk and walk.

It also has color sensor that gives your robot vision. It allows the robot to differentiate among colors, light and dark. It can detect 6 different colors. It also can be used as a color lamp. You can make the robot follow the red line, for example, or let it changes direction when it sees a red spot. Another thing that gives vision to the robot is ultrasonic sensor. This sensor allows robots to avoid obstacles, measure distance, and detect movements.

Amazingly, this LEGO robot can hear as it has sound sensor. The sound sensor can detect both decibel (dB) and adjusted decibel (dBA). The sensitivity of the sensor is adapted to the sensitivity of human ears. So, it can hear like you do.

Fiber Optics Microwave Transmission

Optical fiber is the medium of choice for high capacity digital transmission systems and high speed local area network. Besides these applications, optical fiber also can be used to transmit microwave signals for cable television, cellular radio, WLAN and microwave antenna remoting. To transmit microwave over optical fiber, the microwave signal is converted into optical form at the input of the fiber and at the output of the fiber, it is converted back to electrical signal. The main advantage of fiber transmission of microwave is reduced losses relative to metallic media (e.g. copper coaxial cable). This results in longer transmission distance without signal amplification or use of repeaters.

There are two approaches to optical signal modulation and recovery. The first type is IMDD (Intensity Modulation Direct Detection) and the second type is Coherent Detection. In IMDD, the optical source intensity is modulated by the microwave signal and the resulting intensity modulated signal passes through the optical fiber to a photodiode where the modulation microwave signal is converted back to electrical domain. In Coherent Detection, the optical source is modulated in intensity, frequency or phase by the microwave signal. The modulated signal passes through the optical fiber to the receiver where it is mixed with the output of a local oscillator (LO) laser. The combined signal is converted to electrical domain using a photodiode. This produces an electrical signal centered on the difference frequency between the optical source and the LO laser (i.e. intermediate frequency). This signal is further processed to recover the analog microwave signal.

RFoG (Radio Frequency over Glass) is the cable operators’ implementation of microwave transmission over optical fiber in which the coax portion of the HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax) is replaced by a single fiber, passive optical network architecture (PON). RFoG allows cable operators to deploy fiber connectivity to customer premises (FTTP) while keeping its existing HFC and DOCSIS infrastructure. Like the HFC architecture, video controllers and data networking services are fed through a CMTS/edge router.

These electrical signals are then converted to optical and transported via a 1550 nm wavelength through a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) and a passive splitter to a R-ONU (RFoG Optical Network Unit) located at the customer premises. R-ONUs terminate the fiber connection and convert the traffic to RF for delivery over the in-home network. Video traffic can be fed over coax to a set-top box, while voice and data traffic can be delivered to an embedded multimedia terminal adapter (eMTA), The return path for voice, data, and video traffic is over a 1310 nm or 1590 nm wavelength to a return path receiver, which converts the optical signal to RF and feeds it back into the CMTS and video controller.

The advantage of radio-over-fiber technology is that it centralizes most of the transceiver functionality by transmitting the microwave signals in their modulated format over fiber. This reduces the number of access points to antennas with amplifiers and frequency converters. In-building passive picocell for GSM or UMTS is implemented using radio-over-fiber. Wireless base stations are located in a central communications room and their outputs/inputs fed through RF multiplexers to lasers/photodiodes contained within the optical transceiver hub. The modulated optical signals are linked to/from the remote antenna units (AUs) in the building using single-mode optical fiber. The base station uses a combined detector/optical modulator, which is directly coupled to the antenna, so that no electrical amplification or other processing is required.