Some Lighting Recommendations For Your Green Screen Studio

With both kinds of films, the actor is put before the colored screen, and then the background will be digitally created by using software on the laptop or computer which will then be put to that frame after the scenes are filmed.

That background in which an actor or actress is filmed will be green. Using green makes it a lot easier to change it with another image. Movie makers, producers, and professional photographers all make use of this every day. It is essential to have the appropriate lighting in the studio when making use of the green screen studio. Lighting for green screen is apparently the most challenging task for new home studio photographers. There are a few choices that you may fail to remember that you can make use of when you’re doing work in your green screen studio.

Green Screen Studio Professional Lighting

Buying some professional flashes is an excellent plan. If you’re able to afford this option, get them as well as make use of them in your green screen studio. With this flash kit, you are likewise in a position to purchase something known as the soft box, which you suspend in front of your lights. This will give a diffused look. This is able to be folded in four directions, and the box is going to diffuse that light that is emanating from your bulbs.

Use Natural Light

If you have a modest spending budget for your green screen studio, making use of the natural light will be a great plan. This could help you with getting at ease with using your studio as well as learn. In case the day will be bright, you could work with sunlight. Top stop any kinds of dark areas on the screen, the backdrop must be put in which the surfaces will be evenly lit. This means that the background surface as well as the actor are going to stay out of the shadow and are gonna receive equal amounts of light.

DIY Green Screen Studio Lighting

DIY lightning for your green screen studio could be an expensive option for you. However, you are going to need to patiently try out each of your choices. Your images or clips might look dim or bright in case you do not have the proper light in the studio. Visit any hardware store and look for spotlight lamps. When you want to diffuse this light, you are able to get it done through suspending some fabric to the front of the lights. Never worry about the shadows. The screen can be illuminated equally through placing your spotlights over the background. But you ought to likewise keep in mind that the screen should not be over-illuminated. Make use of a different group of lights for illuminating around 6-8 feet of your screen’s foreground. In order to have a lighting setup that’s even, place two spotlights at 45 degree angles pointing at your actor or actress. Then put a third light in back of your actor or actress, directed towards your screen. When you’re searching for lighting options for your green screen studio, don’t forget these tips. They’ll help you a lot with your shooting.

Epoxy Floors – Making Walking Surfaces Easier to Clean and Maintain

Big halls and rooms need to constantly cleaned and maintained. Having epoxy flooring will make the whole cleaning process easier and much simpler. This is because this kind of finishing material has no seams and since it makes the cleaning part easier. Dust and dirt mainly accumulate in the crevices and seams that are found in floors that have tiles and carpets. But with a smooth coating there are no crevices where the dust can gather. This will give you naturally clean floors that need minimum maintenance. These types of coatings give a highly lustrous shine and look to your floors and are suitable for industrial, commercial, as well as residential establishments. It helps to bring a glamorous effect into your room. They can help to greatly improve the look and appearance of quartz and marble slabs. There are experienced companies which deal with these kinds of services and products. Give one of them a call today to get this experience for yourself.

Long lasting effects

One of the main questions that people ask when it comes to epoxy floorings is about their longevity and how durable they are. You can test the strength and the life of these products yourself. These products and surface finishing have the same strength as concrete and can withstand high levels of tension and shear. There is no doubt about their durability. Due to the continuous traffic running over the walking surfaces, most of the other floors will develop traffic patterns over time. But this does not occur with these special coatings.

Unusual places

How many of us have a really good garage floor? The answer in most cases will be none. This is because people hardly take notice of their parking spaces. While this may be alright in residential places, if you own a public garage or a service station, people will absolutely take notice of your walking surface on which the cars and vehicles are parked. You can make the surfaces more attractive by going in for a finishing product that will bring more shine and reflection to your garage.

Smoothing process

Many of our floors especially in industrial and commercial areas will be made out of concrete. But this material even though it is very tough can be extremely rough. These surfaces also look very dull. One of the ways to make them look more attractive and pleasing to the eye is to go in for concrete polishing. While other smooth surfaces may be slippery, polished concrete is guaranteed to be resistant to slipping. Before you do any sort of finishing work on your walking surfaces, make sure that you choose your designs carefully so that they match the rest of your organization.

Air Mattress Tips – Air Pumps For The Air Mattress

When you are looking at air mattresses, have you considered how they are inflated? Many people do not realize what it actually takes to inflate an air mattress. Some people have actually been under the impression in the past that people would blow into the air mattress as if it were a balloon. This method was awful and would take forever to complete.

In the days before air mattress pumps, it would take forever to inflate an air mattress. It was actually an overwhelming task that was nearly impossible. With the advances in technology, a solution was discovered. The air mattress pump was created, which cave many people the tool they needed in order to use an air mattress successfully.

There is a wide range of air pumps available. Some of the pumps available are manual and must be manually used, while others are electric. The manual pumps tend to work much better for camping situations and areas where electricity is not readily available. However, whenever possible the use of electric pumps is always easier since they require less physical work in order to inflate air mattresses.

When using a pump indoors, or in an area where electricity is available, it is highly desirable to use an electric version of the pump. Some air mattresses even include an air pump built right into the air mattress to make it quite simple to transport all necessary pieces. This is one of the simplest forms of air pumps that you can use, as well as one of the most desirable.

While most air mattresses do include a manual air pump, you will likely want to purchase an electric version for normal every day use, and keep the manual air pump for emergencies. This ensures you always have a spare pump in the event it is needed, yet have the ability to quickly inflate your air mattress bed, when it is convenient to you, without having to work hours to inflate the bed.

Remember that with all equipment, it should be properly maintained and kept when not in use. Children should also be supervised when using the equipment to ensure it is not damaged, and prevent injury. This will ensure a long lasting pump that functions for years to come.

Professional Line Painting and Pavement Marking

Making sure your parking lot lines are repainted when they fade is not only important for the safety of the drivers that use your parking lot, but it also says a lot about your business. When your parking lot lines, speed bumps, arrows and handicaps are freshly painted it shows that you take pride in your business and makes your place of business look great.

Not all line painting service providers are equal. You will find that some line painting companies are conscientious and take time to make sure the job is done well while some companies only want to get in and out as fast as possible.

When you choose your provider there are a couple things you can do to make sure you are getting a quality job. First, visit the providers website. Is there website professionally done or does it look like they just screw it up in a day? Look for pictures of their work. Do their lines look straight? Is there any overspray? Do they use nice stencils, or do they used outdated or ugly fonts and arrows? Line painting should always offer free quotes, so when they come in to estimate your parking lot it is a good opportunity to get a sense of what kind of people are working for the company.

If you really want to be sure, the best thing you can do is ask for the address of a job they recently painted which is in the area. Then you can go and observe how much care they used in their painting.

Here are some other things to consider. Line painting should only be done in warmer weather and the road needs to be completely dry. It can not be done when the pavement is damp from rainfall. Also, the cleaner the paving the better. In order to ensure the maximum durability of your paint job you may want to consider pressure washing the pavement if it is particularly dirty or grimi. Line painting should be done every 1-2 years for high traffic areas and every 2-4 years for low traffic areas.

The next time you need to get your parking lot repainted remembering to use these tips to evaluate the different line painting providers that work in your area. Once you find a good line painting company make sure you keep their business card and use them the next time you need your lines done. It will be easy for them to repaint your lines and pavement marks because they are sure to have matching stencils. Good luck!

Security Camera Systems – 5 Valuable Tips to Selecting Security Cameras

When selecting the best security camera system possible for your home or business it is important to select the right cameras that fit the unique needs of your situation. There are countless options and products features available.

Many packaged systems come with general purpose security cameras. Most vendors will allow you to replace the general purpose cameras with more advanced specialized cameras if you need them. For example, you may have a situation where three entrances into your building need to be monitored with just average quality cameras and you want to cover the parking lot with a camera that can read a license plate from 50 yards away. You can get 3 of the cameras that come with the system then replace the fourth with a camera that has high powered zoom capabilities.

By walking through this security camera selection guide you will be able to identify the special features that your situation requires and determine which cameras best fit your needs. Ultimately this will allow you to most efficiently spend your money while getting the best surveillance coverage.

1) Will you need color or black and white cameras? Most packaged systems come with color cameras which are better than black and white cameras at identifying valuable details of a suspect such as clothing or hair color. Typically black and white cameras are less expensive and perform better at low light than color cameras. Color cameras actually switch over to black and white in low light environments.

2) What type of night vision capability is needed? A typical packaged color security camera will have a night vision range of between 15 and 50 feet. High powered night vision cameras can have a range of 150 feet. The main factor of determining the night vision range is the number of infrared LED’s on the camera. Most general purpose security cameras come with 15 to 30 LED’s. Remember even color cameras record in black and white in low light situations.

3) What is the lowest acceptable image quality from each location where cameras are installed? You may have different image quality requirements from each location. One camera may be installed at the front door only to buzz people in when they arrive for appointments. Another camera may be used to capture license plates of cars driving through a large parking lot. These cameras have much different image quality requirements. Generally speaking the number of TV Lines (TVL) per inch is an indicator of the image quality that is produced by the camera. General purpose packaged security cameras commonly have 400 – 420 TVLs. Cameras that have 480 – 520 TVLs will give a much better image quality. Also, CCD cameras generally produce a better image than CMOS cameras.

4) Wired vs. wireless? Understand the disadvantages of using wireless security cameras before deciding to purchase them. A lot of people fail to realize wireless security cameras still need power via a power cable. Wireless cameras use wireless technology to transmit a signal to a receiver which is connected to a DVR or monitor, but most of them use a power cable to plug into a near by outlet. There are battery operated wireless security cameras, but the batteries need to be replaced quite often.

The image quality of wireless security cameras is often inadequate because of interference. The farther away a wireless camera is from the receiver and the more obstructions the signal must travel through the more the image quality is going to suffer. That being said, there are many, many applications where wireless security cameras are ideal. Many of the wired systems available have cabling that supplies both power and video (aka siamese cabling). This means all the power requirements can be managed from the same location as the DVR or monitor.

5) What elements are the security cameras going to be exposed to? Most general purpose security cameras that come in packaged systems can be used outdoors (as well as indoors) under normal conditions. If the cameras are going to be exposed to extreme conditions such as hail or very high winds or there is a high likelihood of vandalism you may want to upgrade to cameras with heavier and stronger housings and mounting brackets.

Six Essential Tools For the Keen Gardener

Good quality tools not only offer better value over the longer term but are also very reliable, comfortable to use, and probably last a lifetime. There is a wide array of tools from which to choose, but for the typical keen gardener, the essential tools required almost everyday and used for soil cultivation, sowing and planting are:

1. Fork, for digging heavy soils, initial ground preparation and breaking down rough-dough soil and light surface tilling.

2. Spade, used for light and heavy digging, planting trees and shrubs.

3. Hoe, ideal for weeding and surface cultivation, choose from two types: Dutch hoe and Draw hoe, the former for horizontal cutting and the latter for a more chop and draw action.

4. Rake, ideal for lifting growing and developing a fine surface tilth for seed sowing. Long handled rakes involving less back bending are much more comfortable to use. If your garden contains much deciduous shrubs and trees, a lawn rake might be a useful addition to your essential toolkit.

5. Trowel, a short handle trowel or pointing trowel is not essential for planting bulbs, small plants and bulbs but very useful for removing weeds and unwanted growth from joints in paving slabs, rockery crevices and steps.

6. Wheelbarrow, an essential labor saving tool especially for moving heavy loads such as compost, shrubs, soil and planters around the garden. Larger gardens will require several wheelbarrows, and models featuring pneumatic wheels are more comfortable for moving materials over uneven ground.

Other important tools include shears, secateurs, pruners, pick, dibber, knife and loppers.

Painting – Tips and Tricks

Painting in your home means different types of paint for different surfaces. The walls require an indoor paint. There are also specific versions for wooden porches, concrete, metal and plastic surfaces. These come into play when wanting to paint that rusted metal railing on the porch or the concrete wall in the basement. Just as you need the right paint, you need the right application tool. This could have a spray, multiple brushes, rollers, rags, or any other items such as feather dusters or wallpaper to produce decorative designs. So the first key step is to purchase the correct supplies.

When painting with a roller, start with a clean one. Old paint can cause markings on the wall whether from the old paint color or from designs left in the new paint. You should move in a "W" shape to start and then fill in with a straight up and down motion. If the ceiling or the other walls are going to be a different color than what you are painting then be sure to use painter's tape to seal off the edges as well as the edges of the window and door frames. Use a medium to small size brush to go back and paint the edges near the tape. If there are two of you then one can paint in the edges while the other uses the roller.

Problems that arise indoors on painted surfaces are things such as mildew or cracking. When dealing with mildew you must remove it completely from the painted surface. In order to do this you will need a mixture of 1/3 cup of powdered laundry detergent, c cup of bleach and a gallon of warm water. Using a rag dipped into the solution, scrub the mildew away. You may need to scrub rather hard. Take a clean rag and wipe away the remnants of the mixture. Once the area is dry you can apply a single coat of primer paint that is mildew resistant. After this is dry then you can begin painting over it with the original color.

Cracking, also known as alligatoring, happens when one layer of paint is applied over the previous layer is not dry yet. Occidentally this may happen if you place a type of paint over another and they are not compatible with each other. The simple way to solve this is to sand off the top layer of paint. Use a damp cloth to remove any remaining flakes and then repaint. You may need to put a different type of undercoat on first and then paint the top layer. Whatever you do, be sure that the previous layer is completely dry before painting the final coat.

One last tip is how to keep paint from dripping when you are painting the ceiling. Before starting make sure that furniture and light fixtures have been removed from the room, drop cloths are in place and the ceiling has been sanded and / or wiped down. Do not use a lot of paint. Following a straight line with the roller and using a ceiling paint will help to reduce splatter and dripping possibilities.

Weight Training Technique For Advanced Level

Here are some advanced techniques are often used in weight training, so you will get better results more quickly.

1. Force Reps

Perform repetitions with weights that will make you reach failure on the second repetition, make sure your partner does not help too much and just to help balance the weight you lift. After the failure in the second reps, add another two reps with the assistance of your partner. Rep Force used to increase your force power. Force Reps main goal is to reduce the exercise saturation of the muscle and help provide stimulator to the muscles to grow. This type of exercise is not recommended for regular training and continuous, use as a variation and distraction training about 1-2 times each months.

2. Rest Pauser Principle

Lift the weight, when it reaches failure, put the burden and rest for about 10 seconds. After that take the same weight and do an additional 1 to 2 extra reps (or whatever you are able to lift). Repeat this process once again until you set is finish. This technique could have repeated several times and the advantage of this technique is not a lot of hurting your joints also the weight lifted accordance with your own ability.

3. Negative Reps

Lift the weight, when it reaches failures, requests your partner to help lift the weight and when the weight was on top (eg the Flat Barbell Press, handlebar position above), slowly lower the weight while holding the weight to come down without help from your partner. Negative Reps is to lower the weight slowly. This technique is good and useful for add muscle mass.

4. Pre-Exhaustion Principle

To use this technique, you need to do Isolation Movement (movement that use one joint) first, after reaching failure then with no rest immediately do 1 set of compound movement. Repeat this process until 3-4 sets. This is not a technique performed at the end of the set. As an example of using this technique, when you want to train the thighs muscles, first do Leg Extension, reach failure and then switch to Squat without a break. After Squat, rest 60-75 seconds and then repeat the above process until 3 to 4 sets. Note that you need to reduce the weight when you do Squat, not like a normal training.

The good Pre-Exhaustion combinations are:

  • Front Thigh (Quadriceps) = Leg Extension + Squat
  • Rear thigh (Hamstring) = Leg Curl + Stiff Legged Deadlift
  • Chest (Pectoral) = Dumbbell Flies + Flat Barbell Press
  • Shoulder (Deltoid) = Lateral Raise + Upright Row
  • Back (Latissimus Dorsi) = Straight Arm Pull Down + Lat Pull Down
  • Front Arm (Biceps) = Concentration Curl + Standing Barbell Curl
  • Rear Arm (Triceps) = Lying Skull Crusher + Close Grip Bench Press

These weights training techniques are good enough to give a different shock to the muscles and can be used quite often in the menu you exercise everyday.

Die Cast Sports Collectibles – Heavy Metal Fun

For many years, collecting sports items was limited to cards, jerseys, autographs and items that were directly related to the sport. Die cast sports items were available with most relating to auto racing. They were naturally a perfect fit to the die cast market that was mostly automobiles to begin with. Sure, Matchbox, Hot Wheels and Corgi collections were already in full swing with a great selection of product and availability, but die cast collectibles in the other major sports like baseball and football were hard to come by. This was easy to understand because there was no true relation between these sports and motor vehicles, right? Wrong !!!

The beginning of the movement for die cast items from racing into the other major sports began in 1989. The Baltimore Orioles wanted to have a unique promotional giveaway for their fans at one of their games. They contacted and did business with a small company in York, PA that many of us know as White Rose Collectibles. White Rose literally "stepped up to the plate" and delivered an existing Matchbox Model A Ford with the Orioles Logo and year printed on the side to given away to fans. This Oriole item, being so unique, was a big hit with fans of all ages. Die cast had now started to become a sport collectible.

Starting in 1990, White Rose began to produce these collectible Model A Ford trucks for all Major League Baseball and NFL teams. Popularity was still a bit unknown so the production run of approximately 10,000 per team was limited to hobby, toy, card and gift stores and was not available to most of the mass retailers. All of these tucks were officially licensed and were available with the appropriate team colors and logos. The year of the model, 1990 in this case, was also printed on the door panels. Printing the year on the vehicles is what made these trucks a true collector's item.

Each year the color scheme would change a bit to keep the items fresh. Then the vehicles themselves began to change to really enhance the collectibility of the product. Again, all models still had the year printed on them and production still remained limited. Since these were still Matchbox models, these also became a "cross over" collectible to main stream Matchbox collectors. The mid 1990's brought the addition of a few of the most popular NBA teams but, there was still nothing for the hockey collector to this point.

That all changed when White Rose got the license to produce mini Zamboni's, the machine that cleans the ice surface at all ice rinks and a machine that has an unusual popularity with hockey fans in general. All NHL collectors now had their item! Even though it was not an official Matchbox item, the Zamboni WAS directly related to the sport and was a HUGE success with fans. As with past items, the official colors and logos were employed in the design as well as, the year of production.

Die cast now had a much larger presence in the sports collectible marketplace. As years passed, other models and styles were added to the line that included tractor trailers, tandem trailers and helicopters, to name a few. As popularity increased, so did the attention of the larger sports companies and White Rose was originally purchased by Fleer, Inc. Fleer continued to add to the line to also include muscle cars, fighter planes and more classic vehicles. A year or so ago, Fleer was bought out by Upper Deck, Inc. which has continued to enhance the die cast line of products. Even though the companies change, the vehicles and production quality continue to improve. All vehicle designs continue to change from year to year but many still have the year printed on them. They all still have a limited production runs to further protect their collectibility.

Racing fans will always be the biggest die cast sports collector's. For this reason, they also have the widest variety of product that ranges in price from a few dollars to limited production vehicles that cost a few hundred dollars. Also, as in other sports, scale models in all sizes are available to satisfy the needs of all collectors. Manufacturers such as Winner's Circle, Revell, and Action (now Motorsports Authentic) keep collectors of all ages and budgets happy. Race cars are continuously updated to reflect changes in sponsors, drivers, color designs and various promotions, such as movies, that keep the racing die cast collections fresh.

In all, it does not matter what sport you enjoy or what driver you follow. Die cast collectibles are a fun and unique way to display your support. Limited production runs, variety of vehicles and ever changing designs help protect the value of your collection and yet offer a choice that keeps every collector happy. I do not matter if you are in the winners circle or hoisting a World Series trophy, die cast collectibles are heavy metal fun !!!

Do It Yourself Air Conditioning Repair

As the summer gets closer, it is becoming extremely important to know a little bit of some DIY air conditioning repair. The best time to do this is in the winter because it's very hard to do some extra work when its 120 degrees outside. So, where do you learn how to do this? The internet obviously. Do some research and try to find a good air conditioning repair guide.

Now before you even touch one of these machines, you need to know the parts. The four main parts that make up an air conditioner is the condenser, compressor, expansion valve and the evaporator. These parts are there to determine the direction of the air (indoors or outdoors). The condenser is the part that condenses something from the gas to the liquid form to historically cool it down.The evaporator is the exact opposite of the condenser. The expansion valve controls the refrigerant that will eventually go into the evaporator. Lastly, the compressor essentially makes the refrigerant more stronger.

How does an air conditioning system work? Well it is just like a refrigerator. The refrigeration cools the air, which is the reason why we have global warming. It eliminates all of the heat.

If you are planning on installing one of these machines yourself, then you need to read this paragraph. By the way, this article is a great air conditioning repair guide for beginners. There are many types of air conditioning installations. For the first one, lets talk about split systems, which has two kinds; mini and central systems. The central air conditioner is duct-ed and the mini air conditioner is ductless. If you have a larger home, then you might want to go with a central air conditioner because the are made for larger spaces. Another obvious part on these machines is the thermostat. The thermostat watches the temperature of the air that's being released.

Another type of conditioner to look into is a portable unit. I can save you a lot of time. A portable unit can be placed easily in any room to make you more comfortable. The two types of portable units is the refrigeration and the evaporation.

These machines can have both a positive and a negative effect on your health. Air conditioners can save your life during a heat wave, preventing a heat stroke. Also, the cold air from an air conditioner can be a plus for people who have asthma.

3 Fuss-Free Dessert Recipes That Will Make Your Mouth Water

Whether you’re a sweet tooth or not, you will crave a sweet treat once in a while. There’s nothing wrong with having sugar, just as long as you know your limit. When the craving kicks in, forget that slice of cake, 3 scoops of ice cream or an entire bar of chocolate this time – try something new and unique! Make any of these fuss-free dessert recipes, you won’t regret it!

Out-Of-This-World Strawberry Brownies

What you need:

  • 1 box strawberry cake mix
  • 1 egg
  • 1/2 cup thinly sliced fresh strawberries
  • 1/2 cup cream cheese, softened
  • 1/3 cup melted butter

Using an electric hand mixer, beat together strawberry cake mix, egg, cream cheese and melted butter in a large bowl at medium speed. Spray a 9-inch baking dish lined with parchment paper with cooking spray then pour batter in it. Spread evenly using spatula. Arrange strawberry slices carefully on top of the batter. Bake in a pre-heated oven (350F) until center is set, about 18 to 20 minutes. Allow to cool before slicing.

Toffee Caramel Heavenly Dip

What you need:

  • 2 large chilled apples, sliced
  • 2 cups thick caramel sauce
  • 1 cup softened cream cheese
  • 1/2 cup toffee bits
  • 1/3 cup sugar

In a medium bowl, beat the cream cheese using a hand mixer until it has a smooth and creamy consistency. Mix in the sugar and continue beating until well incorporated into the cream cheese. Transfer the mixture into a medium-sized serving dish and spread in an even layer. Pour the caramel sauce over the cream cheese and flatten using a spoon or a spatula. Sprinkle evenly with toffee bits. Serve with apple slices.

Kids’ Favorite Salted Choco-Caramel Pretzel Bars

What you need:

  • 1 1/2 cups semi-sweet chocolate pieces (chocolate bars divides into pieces), melted in the microwave
  • 1 1/4 cups Kraft caramel bits
  • 1 cup mini pretzel twists
  • 2 tablespoons water
  • Sea salt

Line with parchment paper a large baking sheet then spread evenly with 1 cup melted chocolate. Scatter the pretzel bits and press into the chocolate. Mix together the caramel bits with the water. Microwave for 2 minutes on high, stir then pour all over pretzel bits. Top with remaining melted chocolate and sprinkle with sea salt. Cover and refrigerate until hardened. When ready, tear into pieces before serving.

Creating delicious sweet treats doesn’t have to be complicated – try these fuss-free dessert recipes now!

Plastic Injection Molding: Past, Present and Future

Plastic injection molding is a process that forces liquid plastic into a mold to make custom plastic name plates, plaques, signs and product branding elements. Once the plastic cools and solidifies, it releases from the mold to form a variety of plastic parts for any industry. Popular uses of injection-molded include: appliance name plates, name plates for industrial equipment, car emblems, vehicle branding and license plate holders, as well as product identification for recreational products.

Injection-molded plastic name plates and other components are produced by a machine that consists of three basic components:

  1. A mold which can be made to manufacture any size and shape that is needed
  2. A clamping unit that clamps and holds the mold together throughout the whole process
  3. An injection unit will then inject molten plastic into the mold, where it will remain until it has sufficiently cooled and released

The molten plastic used for injection-molded products is produced by melting small plastic pellets, which are fed into an injection machine heating the pellets to a molten or liquid form.

Once the now molten plastic pellets reach a predetermined temperature the semi liquid is forcefully injected into a mold. The speed and pressure of this process is controlled by a hydraulic cylinder that, once engaged, forces the liquid plastic into the mold.

In “dwell” phase of the plastic injection molding process, the plastic is left in the mold to ensure that it completely fills the mold and then allowed to cool to the point where it solidifies and the desired object is produced. It is then ready for secondary processes as decoration, sub assembly, or shipment.

The injection-molded plastic process allows manufacturers to produce custom plastic name plates and components that would be too costly to make as intricately by utilizing traditional machining methods. Injection-molded plastics also saves time and money by allowing many pieces of the same component to be made at the same time, from the same mold; each copy identical to the one before it. This process also reduces labor costs by minimizing the need for manual labor from employees. There is also nearly no wasted material, as any unused or left over plastic can be re-cycled to be reused in the process

The History of Plastic Injection Molding

Plastic injection molding originated with chemists in Europe and The United States who were experimenting with plastics. Originally it was done by hand and pressed into a mold using Parkesine but it proved to be too brittle and flammable. John Wesley Hyatt is the official inventor of plastic injection molding and the process has a rich history with brilliant minds.

John Wesley Hyatt was a creative inventor and developed the processing of celluloid plastics. This was an amazing feat for a young printer from Illinois who took on the challenge from the New York Billiards Company to replace the ivory that was used in billiard balls.

So began his career in plastics engineering as he and his brother Isaiah started making several mixtures for checkers and other objects. After some time trying various mixtures, John mixed nitrocellulose, camphor and alcohol together. He pressed these ingredients into a circular steel mold that was heated and allowed it to cool. When the material was removed from the mold, he realized that he had successfully created a billiard ball composed of plastic. Thus began the process of plastic injection molding.

John and his brother Isaiah patented this process of producing celluloid in 1870 and continued by making dentures from their new material which replaced dentures made of rubber. Thus began the manufacturing process of celluloid plastics. John was quite like the Da Vinci of industrial invention because he also was credited with the invention of the sewing machine and roller bearings all of which contributed heavily to manufacturing.

Today, Celluloid and Cellulosic plastics can be found almost anywhere including screwdriver handles, tooth brushes and utensils. Celluloid can be found in Hollywood, California today and is used for production of your favorite films.

To further the processes of plastic injection molding another great inventor came into plastics actively in New York after traveling from Belgium on a fellowship. Leo Hendrick Baekeland began working with polymers and this lead to his invention for Kodak Eastman which was Velox. Velox is a photographic paper which could be developed in gaslight instead of sunlight.

As a chemist he made several developments in this field also going on to investigate how polymers were molecularly structured. These investigations lead too many inventions and discoveries beyond what chemists had discovered thus far about coatings and adhesives.

In 1926 Eckert and Ziegler invented the plastics molding machine in Germany which was the first successful machine used in manufacturing plastics. This brought injection plastic molding on the production line successfully.

Many more creative inventors have come through the process of plastic injection molding in history and it has come through an even finer process for production in today’s products such as appliances and name plates, signs and plaques.

The Injection Plastic Molding Process Today

Today’s version of the plastic injection molding equipment is computer controlled and plastic raw material is injected into steel and aluminum molds to produce the custom plastic name plates, plastic components and many of the plastic products we use every day. The molding equipment injects hot plastic into the mold and cools the plastic and extracts the parts. The molding equipment of today makes mass production of plastic components easy and cost effective.

Today, plastic injection molding manufacturers use vertical and horizontal presses, injection screw presses, electric presses and hydraulic presses for whatever rate of pressure is needed to complete the product pressure to form. This process produces everything from car parts to license plates and even toothbrushes.

The Future of Plastic Injection Molding Equipment

Plastic injection molding is a very innovative process which has created many useful products that we use every single day in our households. While the history of plastic injection molding is quite full of creativity and innovation, the future is filled with even greater possibility as more creative minds add new ways to improve plastic injection molding equipment and process.

While the improvements in the plastic injection machinery continue, the future of injection molding is now turning its attention to the molds and mold components. High tech plastic molds can be made of metal, epoxy or carbon fiber and can increase output through faster cooling times and cycle times.

The invention of 3D printing gives us a glimpse of how far plastic injection molding can travel into the future. 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. With the integration of 3D printing in the plastic injection molding process, concepts and samples can be produced with far less expense.

Some innovative minds have even been working with corn seed producers to replace traditional petroleum based plastic into corn starch based plastic. l Biodegradable material is currently being used on a limited scale and there are many uses this material could soon have that would astound the mind. All it would take would be the mold and the material to produce a new wave of the future for plastics engineering. Scientist are still researching polymers the way they did when plastic injection molding began and their research is unbelievable at this point with many possibilities to come.

Barkerville – British Columbia's Most Popular Historic Site

It is the largest historic site in British Columbia with over 125 heritage buildings and many shops featuring Victorian-era merchandise. Visitors come to view exhibits, demonstrations, enjoy street entertainment and to talk with costumed participants of the town. There are also guided tours with a visit to Chinatown, the cemetery and the Theater Royal as well as many other special events. In December for two weeks there are also old-fashioned Christmas celebrations. To enjoy a visit to this town from the past, a visitor needs at least two days to see everything; a visit to the cemetery alone will take several hours.

Visitors to Barkerville can follow the route taken by miners in the Cariboo gold rush days so many years ago. In the late 1850's prospectors followed the Fraser River to the creeks of the Cariboo in BC's northern country as gold became more difficult to find in other areas. Billy Barker was one of those prospects who had decided to try his luck and in 1862 stuck gold.

Before long, news of his gold strike spread and many thousands of miners beloved into the area hiring to stake their own claims. With the arrival of fortune hunters a town mushroomed like magic from the wilderness surrounding his site. Saloons, dancehalls, general stores and boarding houses sprang up beside wooden plank sidewalks and a new town was born. Gold fever had hit the Cariboo as it had a few years previously in California.

Between 1862 and 1870 over one hundred thousand people had traveled the Cariboo Wagon Road to reach the gold fields of Barkerville hoping to find gold along the many creeks that meandered through the Cariboo. Built in various stages, it was 1865 before the road was completed. Previous to its completion food and supplies were transported either up the backs of the miners or by pack trains. After completion it became possible for larger freight wagons to be used to transport these goods. Stage coaches were then able to travel the distance between Yale and Barkerville carrying miners and passengers to their destination in the gold rush town. The most well-known of the stage coach lines was the Barnard Express Stagecoach Lines.

The Chinese played a large part in the formation of this gold town with over one thousand helping with the construction and building of the Cariboo Wagon Road. The road later became known by all those who traveled it as the Eighth Wonder of the World. At any given time in Barkerville's history hundreds of Chinese worked as shopkeepers, doctors, herbalists, storekeepers, restaurant owners, cooks, photographers and miners. Barkerville's Chinatown is now the oldest surviving Chinatown in North America.

The historic cemetery in Barkerville came into being when the first person was buried on the side of a hill on July 24, 1863. Peter Gibson was laid to rest at 31 years of age. On a walk through this interesting cemetery a visitor will notice that the average age of those buried is about 32 years. This quaint cemetery is the last resting place of some of the great and possibly not so great residents of Barkerville.

At its height Barkerville was considered to be the largest city west of Chicago and north of San Francisco. Even during the quieter time between 1910 and the 1930's the town managed to thrive until the 1940's when the new mining town of Wells came into being. After the birth of Wells, Barkerville became somewhat of a ghost town until 1957 when the BC's provincial government began restoring and reconstructing the buildings into what they are now. At present about one hundred buildings are original to the town with twenty buildings being reproductions.

Barkerville is as interesting for children as it is for the adults. On your visit to beautiful British Columbia, make Barkerville one of the places you see. You'll be glad you did.

5 Useful Features of the Conference Phone

A high-quality conference phone must include the right features to provide clear and crisp sound. This can refer to amplitude, noise, interactivity, reverberation and bandwidth. By balancing these different qualities of the phone setup, it is possible to make significant improvements on the sound that is noticed by the participants in a conference call.

The latest conference phones make use of the latest high-tech technology and are designed to be either wired or wireless. The wireless models are starting to be more favored because of its ability to provide greater flexibility, and look better on the boardroom table with no exposed wiring.

Here are some of the features to expect on the latest conference phones:

Standard features

Most of the conference phones are built with standard features that are seen on normal phones, such as hold, transfer, redial and mute. Any decent phone should have at least these basic features available to use.

Gain Management

The gain management technology helps to switch off any unwanted pickup from the microphones that are not in use. This is an automated system and can continue to adapt the sound quality during the meeting and make it much easier to hear and understand the other participants on the phone call.

Directional Microphones

The benefit of the directional microphones is the ability to eliminate much of the echo and noise that is noticed within the actual office or boardroom. This type of microphone is quite expensive, but it is a practical option in meetings that have a lot of people speaking. Alternative choices include the Omni microphones, but these are not as effective at controlling ambient noise.


The setup that includes duplex technology makes it possible to experience the more free-flowing conversation that lets participants speak at the exact same time without notice any cut out or interference. Even in situations where the noise in the office is quite loud, it should still be possible to hear both parties talking on the phone at the same time.


The phones with greater interconnection capabilities provide more versatile use and usable in a variety of different situations. Most of the interconnected systems are designed to accept extended or external microphones.

Overall, the different types of conference phones can vary significantly in relation to the features included, so it makes sense to carefully research the different functions to ensure it is able to match the specific conference calling needs.

How Important is Iran to the West and Why Iranians Support the Islamic Republic?

Iran, meaning the land of Arians, is the 18th largest country in the world, with nearly 80 million population, with impressive advances in science and technology since the 1979 Revolution and establishment of the Islamic Republic. It ranks 8th in arms production in the world, with 11 million trained paramilitary on reserve. It is a country of special geostrategic significance due to its central location in the Middle East and between Europe and Asia. Iran is bordered on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by Iraq, northwest by Turkey, on the north by Russia and Kazakhstan, Iran also holds an important position in international energy security and world economy because of its huge reserves of oil and natural gas. Thus, it is utmost particularly important to governments in Europe and United States to understand the Iranian mind and system of government if they desire to have good relations with it.

One of the essential problems towards understanding the nature of the Revolutionary Islamic Republic of Iran is the lack of knowledge of the concept "Islamic Republic." The result has been a serious misunderstanding of governing principles, political structure, decision making process, the system of operation, and the bases for foreign relations. For proper understanding of this concept, one has to pay attention first to the structure of Islamic religion and then within this context considering the meaning of the republic and ensuing form of government.

Islamic Society

The Islamic religion, unlike Christianity, is devoid of hierarchical structure. For example, under the catholic section of Christianity, there is a strict hierarchical structure. It starts at its summit with the Pope and goes down to cardinals, archbishops, bishops and ends with the parish practices. The total operation of the system is governed quite strictly from the top. The higher we go within the administrative structure of Christianity, the offices become more luxurious and the officeholder's outfits more expensive, more symbolic, more impressive, vary for different occasions, and the number of servants increases. Everything excels to its summit when it reaches the Vatican and the highest officeholder, the Pope.

There is no such religious hierarchy in Islam. Islam is an individualized socialistic oriented religion. Everyone is the master of his own faith and individually follows the teachings of Islam to the degree that he desires. Millions of Iranians, as in the rest of the Muslim world, do not pray five times a day, do not fast, do not believe in full covering of body for women, and do not attend the Friday sermon. Yet, they confidently consider them Muslims. Often, it is forgotten that to be a Muslim, you need only to believe in Allah (God) and Mohammed as his prophet. What extras you believe and follow is totally up to you and between you and your creator. In studying the Islamic Principles and Laws developed at the time of Prophet Mohammad and later, it is obvious that many may have problems in properly understanding of them and need to refer to a man of knowledge in Islam to solve them. These are a few who have devoted many years of their life and their time in studying Islam and its corresponding societal norms,

Each large community, depending on its size, has one or more of these men of knowledge. They are classified based on the level of their knowledge, extensiveness of their studies, and scholarly contributions At the lowest official level of knowledge are those known as "mullah" followed by "hojjatol-Islam" and the "ayatollah" which is the highest scholarly degree bestowed upon an expert on Islamic religion, its principals, laws, history and tradition. To reach this title requires many years of hard studies, several levels of examinations, scholarly writings and a final oral examination before a panel of ayatollahs who are recognized as proven experts. The title of ayatollah in Islamic world is comparable to a Ph.D. degree in the other institutions of higher education, but much more difficult to attain. The student is well into his 40s and 50s when he finally becomes qualified for the title.

Among some 80 millions Iranians, the number of ayatollahs may be around a hundred.

They are residents in large communities except the City of Gum which is the center of Islamic education and many resident Ayatollahs are full time teachers like professors at the universities. Each ayatollah is free to choose his place of residence. Individuals in their area of ​​residence are free to refer to one of them if they encounter certain religious problems, but the majority of Iranians never refer to an ayatollah or follow them. This is a good evidence of the individual nature of the Islamic religion. Islam is the religion that each individual believe in it on his own and not what the ayatollahs prescribe. Millions of Iranians do not follow the principle of official daily prayer or fasting in the month of Ramadan yet they consider them a devote Muslim. Mullahs and other less schools select one or more ayatollah to refer to them in resolving their religious questions. They are free in their choice and can change them at will or may refer to more than one.

Ayatollahs pursue, usually, a modest way of life and easily accessible. In general, they are supported by religious donations or by income from properties donated to the local mosques. They are totally independent from one another though some may be considered by others as more knowledgeable. Scholarly reputation of some may extend far beyond their area of ​​residence even into other countries. These are very few and are called grand ayatollah, such as Grand Ayatollah Sistani in Iraq and Shariatmadari and Montezeri in Iran.

Now, if we transfer this social and religious structure to a republican political system, we get a particular and unique form of government which is socialistic and democratic in its own merit. This fundamental democratic nature of the Iranian Islamic society is the main reason that Ayatollah Khomeini when drafting the new Iranian constitution created a supreme leader with absolute political power controlling all powers of the government including the military and judicial. At the political level we have the system governed by so-called experts in Islamic religion who are loyal to the supreme leader who also sustain their previous modest way of life while holding high political positions.

The weekly Friday prayer all over the nation is one traditional way of Islamic government keeping in contact with the people. In Tehran, for example, the Friday prayer is held at the University of Tehran grounds where several hundred thousands of people participate and nearly all important government officials, top officials in particular, are present. A top leader, designated by the Supreme Leader, leads the prayer. Historically speaking, Friday prayer has been the foundation of the Islamic governmental structure. It was one of the early steps in the formation of the Islamic state, somehow similar to town meetings in the United States.

It consist of two sermons which must be delivered, The first is religious, glorifying and praising the Lord Allah; the second is political, presenting social, economic and political issues affecting people and daily life. Thus, at least once a week, people have direct contact with their leaders and are made aware of governmental policies and have opportunity to question and communicate with the leadership.

Excluding the office the Supreme Leader, Iran has already developed a two-party system generally known as Moderates and Radicals. Although they are not called political parties, both groups are well organized and quite effective in the electoral process. Iran has a parliamentary legislative body with a total of 290 seats. A positive aspect of this democratic process is that, unlike the US Congress where incumbents have a good chance of getting reelected, in Iran, only around a half of the incumbents running for office are reelected. Democratic process is well alive in the Iranian parliament. Debates are quite open and often very lively. It is not infrequent for some members of one group to vote with another on certain issues of concern. This tension has eliminated a single major rule such as England. There have been times that only one-third of the bills proposed by the government has passed through the Majlis (parliament). It has also revised a higher percentage of nominees for public positions than the United States Senate. These are just some aspects of democracy under the Islamic Republic.

The Concept of Government and the Extent of Limitations on Its Powers

What separates the rationales from the moderates is a deeply directed dispute concerning the role of government in the Islamic society. According to Ayatollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic, the government is an institution ordained by the Almighty and founded with absolute authority entrusted to the Prophet. It is an entity supplanting secondary statutes of the canonical law in Islam. "The government is a primary rule in Islam taking precedent over praying, fasting, and performing the hajj pilgrimage." "However, it was wrong to assume that nobody should protest whatever we say or do." Instead, criticism and finding faults are among divine gifts for the promotion of human beings, "But he stopped short of giving an exact definition to Islamic government condemning that "under the present sensitive situation," referring to Iran-Iraq war, "he preferred to remain silent."

Since then, the role of government in Islamic society has been the subject of hot debates between the two major groups of moderates and radicals. Radicals favor a highly socialistic agenda of large-scale public investment projects, raising taxes, controlling prices, state control over commerce and reforming land ownership. Moderates are against all of these, some claiming that these measures go beyond the strict limits on government action prescribed in the Koran. Currently, the two major groups are far apart from the theoretical perspective, the only area of ​​agreement relating to foreign affairs where government policies are supported by both groups. They agree that Islamic governments should be promoted through the Islamic world; that Iran should remain free from the foreign ideological influence. Some moderates and most of the radicals consider Western

Ideas as more seductive and therefore more dangerous than communist style ideology.

Social and Economic Developments and General Welfare Programs

Unlike the late Shah's period, though Iran has many wealthy individuals, it does not have an economic elite controlling the wealth, resources, and production. So far, the Islamic Republic has been quite socialistic oriented, as the Islamic religion itself, and the major resources and means production have been under public control. Accordingly, the direction of the operation of the government has not only been for political democracy but also for socio-economic democracy and well being of the society as a whole. Despite some important negative factors such as eight-year Iran-Iraq war, oil price fluctuations, economic embargo against Iran and more importantly the population growth, the socio-economic and technological developments since the revolution have been quite impressive.

Transformation of educational and cultural systems can be considered as the most important developments. Textbooks as well as subjects at all educational levels are changed or modified. Outdated materials were substituted by new materials relating to the latest scientific achievements as well as the Islamic culture. All foreign professors were replaced with Iranians. The educational budget was substantively increased privately, by fifteen fold, in the area of ​​voluntary education, over 140 million elementary and secondary level textbooks are published and distributed each year. Currently, there are some fourteen million students at pre-university level educational institutions, and around 500 thousand at the universities and other institutions of higher education. There are an impressive number of foreign students at the Iranian universities. And all these, except for a few dollars registration fee, are free. Demand for qualified teachers to feed this ambitious educational program has caused the creation of many teacher education centers all over the country

For the purpose of self adequacy, immediately after the end of Iran-Iraq war, 1987-1988, seven new colleges of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacology were established and

the number has been increasing since. Because of demand created by the national health care program, the number of students at these institutions has increased by eight fold. According to projections, by 2020, the goal is to reach the level of one physician for every 300 of the total population.

In the areas of general welfare and social development programs, despite the economic consequences of eight years war, fluctuations in oil prices and economic sanctions, there has been impressive progress. Today, all aged Iranians who do not have adequate means of subsistence, are paid a monthly relief benefit. In addition to national health care program, a national insurance program covers all natural and other damages sustained by every Iranian including unpredictable natural disasters affecting agricultural crops. It also covers those widows who are not able to sustain themselves. Family of prisoners are extensively protected by the law. Those who can not earn enough to sustain them are provided with adequate means of subsidiation during the whole prison term of the head of the family.

In the area of ​​transportation, since the revolution, about 180,000 kilometers of roads have been constructed amounting to 128 percent of all readings constructed prior to the Revolution. Special attention has been given to rural areas by constructing over 55,000 kilometers of rural roads by the Reconstruction Crusade organizations.

A pisciculture project was transported out to meet protein requirements of the country and increase the peasants income. The project started in 1982 in the villages and cities with emphasis on fishery through creating artificial ponds. It produces tens of millions of fish each year.

In the area of ​​communication, there has been a fundamental expansion of telephone network. From about 70 cities at the time of Revolution, it has expanded to all large and middle size cities and some 89 percent of villages. Currently, cell phones are also widely used.

In economic and technological areas, an enormous amount of money has been spent on a variety of development plans including irrigation systems, agricultural developments, and telecommunication services, and very impressive mining explorations. Beside gold and uranium basic reserves of gas have been discovered. Expert estimates indicate that these resources of gas, if continued to be used at the present level, will last for 1,200 more years. The useful life of the Iranian oil reserves, under its present 2.5 million barrels per day quota of production, is estimated to extend for 60 years.

From a single product country, previously oil, Iran has been gradually transferred to an industrialized and agricultural nation. Since the Revolution, the value of the Iranian non-oil exports has been increasing by an average of 25 percent per year. Eight oil refineries, Arak Petrochemical Complex, Shahid RajajI and Gharb power stations, Steel Complex of Mubarakeh, casting industry, which cast diesel engines and various parts of vehicles and machineries, are just among some major achievements.

The increase in agricultural products have been substantively particularly since 1986. Agricultural development has been of primary concern to the government. The Agricultural Bank was created for this purpose and has granted billions of dollars in affordable loans to farmers each year. The government has been keenly interested in mechanization of agriculture and the use of modern techniques, different sets of machinery, nearly all manufactured in Iran and sold to farmers with affordable terms. Improvement of seeds and the domestic development of more productive seeds related to crops, such as wheat, rice, cotton, have caused remarkable increase in yield. Among some 300,000 university students with 68,000 at graduate level and 22,000 at the doctor in applied sciences, a substantial number are in different fields of agriculture. Once graduated, they play a dominant role in the future of agriculture.

In the pharmaceutical field, for over 20 years Iran has been exporting some of the various medicines it produces. The Iran-Iraq war in addition to embargoes against the country, Pressured Iran, as a matter of survival, to find ways to produce needed supplies of goods and services domestically. This was a tremendous force behind most of developments in the county. From this view point, the war combined with economic embargo was some kind of blessing which caused the nation to advance in scientific, economic, technological and industrial areas. To attend to its tens of thousands of wounded soldiers and civilians, by the end of war, 1987, Iran produced 86.6 percent of its pharmaceutical needs. Pharmaceutical factories were built one after another and continued after the war to the extent that today Iran is over 90 percent self-sufficient and produces substantively more to export.

The Iranian modern military industry is about 80 years old. However up to the Revolution, 1979, even one single type of ambulance was not produced in quantities to satisfies the demand under war conditions. Billions each year were spent in purchase of modern armament by the Shah. After the Revolution, all foreign consultants and experts associated with the military production were dismissed and replaced with Iranian experienced experts. Rapid developments caused about 80 percent of all kinds of ammunitions used in war be produced domestically. The total Iranian arm industry has developed many folds since then. Today, Iran produces its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, submarines, military ships and armored speed boats, helicopters, radar systems, grenades, various kinds of detonators, heavy bombs up to 4,400 pounds, rocket launchers, a variety of unmanned arial vehicles (drones), short and middle range surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, anti-tank TOW missiles, all kinds of weapons and ammunition, and fighter-bomber planes.

There has been an impressive advancement in the field of electronics. Simulators used with all sorts of weapons and various radar and communication devices, electronic devices deviating guided missiles, and missile guidance systems are just some examples. The Iran-Iraq war which obligated Iran to place primary emphasis on military industry, has raised Iran to rank eighth in the world among arms producing countries.

A few words need to be said about Iran's military and military policies. During Iran-Iraq war the Iranian military strength at its peak was estimated at two million nearly all volunteers. Currently, there are two distinct military forces: the regular armed forces and the Revolutionary Guard forces. Together, they total 545,000 active troops and 350,000 reserve. In addition, Iran has well trained volunteer militia force called Basij including some 90,000 ful time, active duty uniformed members. About eleven million men and women are members of the Basij who could be called for service at any time if needed. It is estimated that Iran can mobilize up to one million men at the time of emergency which is considered among the kargest troop mobilization in the world. Iran has a sustained military policy historically proven. It has not invaded any country for over two centuries. Its military policy is based on deterrence. If it seeks atomic weapons, based on this long standing policy will also be for deterrence against countries which possess such weapons in the region. Considering strong nationalistic feelings of Iranians in the case of invasion by foreign forces, near Basij members, millions of well trained Iranians who will volunteer to join the military. This was evident during Iran-Iraq war where many volunteers were well over 60 years old. They volunteered to run over mine fields installed by Iraqi forces to clear the way for the advancing Iranian forces.

As all the facts presented here about the economic and social developments show the continuous efforts of the Islamic Republic from the date of its inception to advance the well being of its people and advancing the nation to stand on its own feet despite all adversities the government faced from the outside. It compels a great majority of Iranians to support the system. People are satisfied the way the system operates for their benefits and are not sure the situation will be the same if the system changes. There is also satisfaction with the term of Islamic Republic since some over 90 percent of Iranians are Muslim. However, this support of the system does not mean that they are happy with the leadership. Definitely, the majority are not satisfied. Historically, for thousands of years Iranians have lived with democratic values ​​in their local communities. They have never sustained a dictatorial rule in power for long, The story of late Shah is a good example, After American government overthrow the democratic reign of Prime Minister Dr. Musaddegh and brought the Shah back, it took near 18 years of opposition that finally people got rid of him. But they again were betrayed by Ayatollah Khomeini who systematically eliminated the democratic minded leaders, including the first elected president Bakhtiar, and formed a humanitarian dictatorship, through drafting a constitution and forcing its approval upon the people that Iran suffers again under such a statute. Majority of Iranians want to get rid of these dictatorial elements at the top. These include the abolition of the office the Supreme Leader who has absolute power over every action of government: political, economic or social; abolition of the Council of Guardians which has veto power over the acts of parliament and has to approve candidates running for political offices. But the problem is not so easy. The constitution must be modified. Iranians want to keep the Islamic Republic but do not want to be ruled by the cleric with absolute dictatorial powers. If we know Iranians and history of Iran we can assume that they will succeed this time as well regardless how much time it may take.

One more point. No government Iranians defest more than the American while they like American people and many aspects of American life and ideas. Iran with its very important strategic position in the Middle East, 80 million educated and conscious population, scientifically, technologically and industrially far advanced than any other country in the region, except perhaps Israel, commanding position in the Persian Gulf, a source of aspiration for many Muslim nations in the region and beyond, and close association with Russia and China, is of vital importance to the Western powers all of which desire stability in the region and free flow of its petroleum and its derivatives to their countries. Iran is the most valuable geostrategy country in the region. Whoever becomes ally with Iran would have first call on its vast oil and gas resources and a strong voice in the future of the Middle East, The United States may in the long run establish normal relationship with Iran, but it will not be easy to turn it into a friendly relationship.

Anti-Americanism has become a part of national feeling which will live on for quite a long period of time. It goes back for four generations, starting with the overthrow of a democratic government which Iranians had achieved after a long struggle, bringing back Mohammad Reza Shah, helping him to inflict a brutal dictatorship during which thousands last their lives, many under torture in prisons until they were able to organize a general strike in 1978 which forced him to flee. The new government was formed by democratic minded leaders from the 1950s but soon taken over by the clergy under command of Ayatollah Khomeini which established also a harsh dictatorship. When it was invaded by Iraq in 1980, the United States sided with Iraq, by which 500,000 Iranians lost their lives and twice as much were wounded and maimed, and because of the US economic embargo Iran could not get vital supplies needed for continuation of war . Iranians can not easily forget such a destruction of human life and destruction of their cities and thousands of civil tragedies all aided by the United States. They also consider their present dictatorial rule the consequential of the previous US miscon and selfish policies.

Finally, the Islamic Republic, through its eight years of single handed struggle against Iraq which was supported and aided by the United States, France, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, its persistent resistance, and ending the war without any territorial loss, emerging stronger than ever . This success gives the system prestige among Muslim people in many countries. Today, Iran's resistance against the United States supported by other major nations, in exerting its right to do research and experimentation in the area of ​​atomic energy is supported by Muslims in many countries though their government may not like it, and the Islamic Republic is agreed because of its humanistic policies in regard to its people, such as health care, education, anti-poverty measures, and its authoritative achievements in science, technology and industrialization.

Dr. Reza Rezazadeh