A Brief Guide to Printed Circuit Boards

Paul Eisle invented the first PCB in 1936. However, it became popular only in the 1950s when the US military started using the technology in bomb detonators. Today, PCB Circuit Boards are an integral part of almost all equipment, like cars, mobile phones, computers and more.

How Is A Printed Circuit Board Manufactured?

To make a custom PCB, first the electronic diagram of the required circuit is prepared using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. After that the PCB prototype is developed using Computer Aided Manufacturing Software technology.

The common materials used for manufacturing PCBs are: FR4, FR4 High Temperature, Polyimide, GeTek, Rogers, Arlon, Nelco, Alumina, Ceramic, Bakelite, FR1, CEM1, and CEM5. The size and thickness of the board depends upon the requirements of the circuit. The substrate is coated with a layer of copper. Then, using photosensitive coating, the circuit diagram is printed on the board. The undesired copper is etched out from the board to form copper “tracks”, called traces. This process is known as Photoengraving. There are two other common methods used for developing connecting traces. PCB milling is a mechanical system where undesired copper is removed with CNC machines. Another process is Silk-Screen printing, where special ink that is etch-resistant is used to cover the areas where the copper traces have to be made.

Once the board is ready with copper traces, holes are drilled into the board to assemble leaded electrical and electronic components. For drilling, special Tungsten Carbide drill bits or laser is used. The holes made are filled with hollow rivets or coated through using an electroplating process, thus forming an electrical connection among the various layers. The next step is coating of the entire board, except holes and pads, with masking material. Materials commonly used for this purpose are: lead solder, lead free solder, OSP (Entek), deep/hard gold (electrolytic nickel gold), immersion gold (electroless nickel gold – ENIG), wire bondable gold (99.99% pure gold), immersion silver, flash gold, immersion tin (white tin), carbon ink, and SN 100CL, an alloy of tin, copper, and nickel. The last step is screen-printing, where the legend and text are printed on the PCB.

Testing Of PCB

Before assembly of components or delivery of Printed Circuit Boards, the board should be tested to find any possible “shorts” and “opens” that could lead to a non-functioning board. A “short” indicates the existence of an undesired connection and an “open” indicates that two points that should have been connected are unconnected. All such errors should be fixed before PCB assembly. It is important to note that not all PCB Manufacturing shops test the boards before shipping, it is sometimes considered an added cost but a vital one to provide a fully functioning board before adding components.

PCB Assembly

Once the board is ready, components are assembled and added to the surface as per the circuit diagram. Some of the common assembly techniques used are surface-mount construction and through-hole construction. Sometimes, a combination of these two techniques is also used for assembly.

Types of Printed Circuit Boards

Single Sided Board

This is the least complex of the Printed Circuit Boards, since there is only a single layer of substrate. All electrical parts and components are fixed on one side and copper traces are on the other side.

Double Sided Board

This is the most common type of board, where parts and components are attached to both sides of the substrate. In such cases, double-sided PCBs that have connecting traces on both the sides are used. Double-sided Printed Circuit Boards usually use through-hole construction for assembly of components.

Multi Layered Board

Multi layered PCB consists of several layers of substrate separated by insulation. Most common multilayer boards are: four layers, six layers, eight layers, and 10 layers. However, the total number of layers that can be manufactured can exceed over 42 layers. These types of boards are used in extremely complex electronic circuits.

Places To Play Interesting Deer Games

What do you do when you're home alone with only Internet access for fun? You could always learn to draw, but if you want something a little less time consuming, you might consider indulging your penchant for deer games by playing them online. Let's go over some good ideas for places to find these and play for free.

Jigsaw puzzles are fun, but sometimes you just do not want to spread all those pieces out on your table, let alone sort the outer pieces from the middle ones. Now, you can get that same amount of fun and challenge on the Internet, without all the work. Puzzle pictures can range from the deer in action to the deerpark where they live.

Surely no site about deer would be complete without a Christmas category. Rudolph is very popular in many styles and there are lots of story lines in the various games available. He can even take Santa's place at times, collecting gifts to be given to children all over the world.

Not all games are so innocent, and may be for the older audience. For instance, there is a game where Santa must round up his drunk reindeer in order to complete his Christmas mission. As well, there is also the bad neighborhood dangers when Santa is in danger of being shot. These games may have a higher level of violence than you're prepared for on the average day.

Deer hunters would not be satisfied with their category too, and there are plenty of games to give them the challenge of an outside reality hunting experience. With difficulty in range, choice of weapons, and types of deer, the only thing missing is the very real feeling of sitting outside quietly in the rain.

Remember the old handheld puzzles where you moved the pieces around to transform a muddled into a correct image? These have made a digital comeback also, and you can get that same feeling of victory by completing your choice of electronic images. If basic fun is for you, you have the option to create your idea of ​​a colorful masterpiece by using digital crayons on coloring pages.

No matter what your choice is, whether it's watching Rudolph dance, throwing snowballs, or checking your aim's accuracy, deer games live online and can be accessed for free. You do not have to download any special software and you can play 24 hours a day. Enjoy all that the Internet has to offer, in this case, your love of deer combined with some exciting game play!

Making an Investment With Car Registration Plates

Investing in car registration plates may seem like an unorthodox way of making money and a reasonable statement in the process. Neverheless, hundreds of investors and drivers now choose to purchase car number plates with significant future returns available. The most obvious reason for purchasing number plates is to personal your vehicle, to make you stand out from the crowd.

Even a mere decade ago, drivers with personalized plates were seen as wealthy and successful. In the present day, number plates are now more accessible and economic for the everyday working man to purchase. Drivers looking for a potential investment must keep in mind that the registration plate they purchase must be easy to sell on in the future.

Potential investors in registration plates often consider private purchases, via newspaper ads, or classified ads from owners looking for a quick sale. However, this can be somewhat time consuming. Plate Master uses a unique car registration search system in order to point drivers in the direction of their chosen combination. This exhaustive search engine also throws up suggestions that may not have been previously considered.

At the other end of the scale, when the time comes to get rid of your personalized number plate there are numerous avenues to explore. Manyought-after car registrations have been known to sell for thousands of pounds. As long as your number plate has retail or sentimental value to others, it is quite possible that you can make a profit on your initial investment.

Many people now look towards purchasing a registration plate as a truly unique and personalized gift or present. A personalized registration plate is something that can be kept indefinitely and cherished for years on end.

Affordable, Eco-Friendly Home Heating Options

There are many ways to make your heating system greener. You can switch to fireplace inserts or heat pumps that offer increased efficiency and reduced pollution. You can also simply contact your local furnace company for furnace repair or maintenance to make sure that the system you have is working as efficiently as possible.

Alternative Heating Options

Many homes have traditional fireplaces but few people still use these features to burn wood fires. Fireplace inserts allow you to make use of your fireplace as an efficient heating source by essentially placing a stove into the fireplace opening. You get to keep your fireplace as an architectural point of interest and you heat your home more effectively because no heat is lost around an open fire. You can choose from a pellet (compressed wood pellets, often recycled from sawmills), a gas or a wood fireplace insert. All of them burn at extremely high temperatures, which means that combustion is almost complete and little pollution or waste is produced.

Geothermal heat pumps are another excellent choice for heating your home. Ground source heat pumps use the temperature of the earth to maintain the temperature of your home. Installed underground, these devices use the warmth of the earth in winter, when the air temperature is colder than the ground temperature, to warm your home. You can not get much better than that for an environmentally responsible heating option.

Heating System Maintenance

If you want to keep a traditional furnace-based heating system, you can still save money and energy by making sure it is in good repair. No matter what type of furnace you have, your local furnace company can help you make sure that your furnace is functioning optimally.

Most furnace companies offer a full range of services including oil and gas furnace installation, service and cleaning. In order to improve your energy consumption and decrease your heating bills, a company representative can help you decide if it will be better to get a new furnace or to fix the one you have. A furnace installation expert can help you put in a new furnace if that is in your best interest. If you just need to fix up an existing unit-or if you later need service on one you had installed-the same company can offer furnace repair [http://heating-cooling-hvac.new-york-biz.com/site / services / service / Furnace-Repair-and-Install-Albany-NY] services and advice.

When it comes to heating your home you do not have to choose between being an eco-conscious consumer and being a frugal homeowner. The same choices that will help the environment will help you as well. Whether you put in a new wood or gas fireplace insert, a geothermal heat pump or repair or replace the heating system you have already, heating your home for less is not only possible, but easy too.

Kitchen Appliances – Description of Today's Modern Kitchen

The advancement of technology has been felt in all areas of our lives, from the way we travel, to entertainment and even our home essentials like the kitchen. The amount of time we spend in our kitchen has also been drastically reduced, thanks to high-tech kitchen appliances preserving our food, cooking it in short depths of time and making washing a breeze. The typical kitchen of today includes a large refrigerator, a cook top or cooking range with a hood overhead, a counter top or over the range microwave and a dishwasher.

Although the main function of a kitchen is supposedly to be cooking or preparing food, the kitchen can be the center of other activities as well, especially within homes, depending on the size, furnishings, and equipment. The Toronto kitchen tends to also be the place where the family eats, provided it is large enough and has a table and chairs. Sometimes, the kitchen is the most comfortable room in a house, where family and visitors tend to congregate.

A large modern kitchen is still the psychological "hearth" of the home. This makes many people choose fancy, expensive kitchen appliances and there are many options to choose from. French door refrigerators are a very luxurious item, with the freezer on the bottom and two fridge doors at the top. The cooking ranges can be replaced by more modern appliances, such as a cook top that is installed in the kitchen counter and a wall oven mounted inside the wall or counters. This can save a lot of space to be used for more counters or a roomier kitchen.

Manufactures have also improved a lot on the aesthetics of kitchen appliances, offering many color options. In Toronto the typical appliance will have the standard white color, but stainless steel is becoming the main choice for new modern appliances. Research should be done before buying new appliances, something that will suit your needs and style, and online Toronto websites such as http://www.canadianappliance.ca/ are a great start to equip your modern kitchen with the latest appliances.

How to Choose a Company to Get Your VoipSwitch From?

If you search online for VoipSwitch providers you will find loads of different companies offering VoIP switches for resellers. But while there are seemingly so many companies offering this same product not all offer them licensed. The most important thing when buying a VoipSwitch is to make sure that the VoipSwitch comes with a license because otherwise it might just be a crack version and it is not guaranteed to work properly.

When researching different companies it is better to get your VoipSwitch from a company that is not brand new. An older company will be more established and there is less chance that they will close down soon. Well-established VoipSwitch companies are constantly re-inventing their products to make sure they are up-to-date with the market, by using them you know you get the latest software. Look for awards when researching companies and check out if they participate in different trade shows and exhibitions, this again shows you how integrated they are in the market.

Ask how many clients the company has, where their clients are mainly based, what services their clients offer, what size of company their clients have…

Do they have clients based near you? Do their clients have companies similar to the one you want to start?

It is important to get clear answers on these questions so you know what these companies specialize in.

What type of services do you wish to offer? Make sure the company you want to get a VoipSwitch from offers the products you will need in order to provide that service. They should be able to tell you what you will need in order to start and should help you set it up.

Another important thing is to make sure that you get 24/7 support. Things do go wrong and you will need someone to help you. Find out how support can be contacted in case of a problem.

You also need to consider the price. What is your budget? If you do not have or do not want to invest a lot of money there are many companies that offer a hosted VoipSwitch instead of buying one. This way you just pay a monthly fee which includes everything.

Some companies will offer cheaper products but it comes with less services, so research what you get for the price you pay. Sometimes it is better to pay a higher price if that will include more.

Epileptic Types

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects the nervous system. There are many different types of epilepsy. Each epileptic syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms. Epilepsy is known to be hereditary in some cases. Epilepsy is classified by symptoms or by the position in the brain where the symptoms originate. Some common types of epilepsy are absence epilepsy, psychomotor epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, frontal lobe epilepsy, occipital lobe epilepsy and parietal lobe epilepsy. There are many other types of epilepsy, each with its own characteristic set of symptoms.

People suffering from absence epilepsy have repeated absence seizures that result in momentary lapses of consciousness. These seizures almost always begin in childhood or adolescence. This form of epilepsy tends to run in families, which suggests that it may be partially due to a defective gene or genes.

Psychomotor epilepsy is another term for recurrent partial seizures, especially seizures of the temporal lobe. The term psychomotor refers to the strange sensations, emotions and behavior seen with these seizures.

Temporal lobe epilepsy, or TLE, is a common epilepsy syndrome with partial seizures. TLE often begin in childhood. Research has shown that repeated TLE could cause certain brain structures to shrink over time. While it may take years of temporal lobe seizures for any significant brain damage to occasion, it needs to be treated early and as effectively as possible.

Frontal lobe epilepsy usually involves a cluster of short seizures with a sudden sunset and termination. The symptoms depend on where in the frontal lobe the seizures occurrence. Many subtypes of frontal lobe seizures are known.

Occipital lobe epilepsy usually causes visual hallucinations, rapid eye blinking or other eye-related problems. The other symptoms resemble those in the case of temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy.

Several types of epilepsy begin in infancy. The most common type of epilepsy seen in infections is infantile spasms. Some Infants suffer from seizures from as early as 6 months. During these seizures the infant may bend and cry out. Anticonvulsant drugs often do not work for infantile spasms, but the seizures can be treated with ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) or prednisone.

People should discuss the implications of their type of epilepsy with their doctors to understand the full range of symptoms, possible treatments and the prognosis.

The Nirvana Apartments – The Best in Gold Coast Luxury Apartments

What can surpass the luxury and opulence of living at the beach front luxury apartment in Gold Coast? Owning and living at a beach front apartment is a dream for most of us, however only a few realize it. To bring our dreams one step closer to realization, The Niecon Developers bring to you the beach front Kirra apartments in Gold Coast.

These luxury apartments are the pinnacle of perfect designing and the art of creating a perfect equilibrium between modern living and nature's bounty. These Gold Coast Luxury apartments has commanding beach frontage that makes them a perfect merger of its contemporary architecture and beautiful natural beaches. These apartments are very aptly named 'The Nirvana Apartments'.

Lavish Interiors:

If interested, you can have a closer look at these luxury beach apartments through the display apartments. Come and witness the magic the sun rays and the soothing color palette of the apartments' interiors conjures. The apartments have impressive floor to ceiling glass windows, natural finished timber carpentry work, marble and natural stone floor finished to dazzle and reflect the surrounding hues. The interiors of these flats make you immerse yourself in ultimate opulence and extravaganza.

Luxury Features:

Apart from the utmost comfort and luxury of these apartments and the front side beach, you can enjoy a hell lot of lavish features when you purchase one of the Luxury apartments for sale.

When you become the proud owner of one of this luxury beach apartment, you can enjoy exclusive access to your very own executive residence's lounge complete with temperate wine cellars and lockers and a private in house cinema where you can enjoy private screenings of your favorite movies with your friends and family.

You can immerse your body and soul in the beauty of the Zen garden, in house spa, steam room and salon or enjoy working out at the Fitness Center. Enjoy your lazy holidays with your near and dear ones at the Teppanyaki BBQ areas. Enjoy your leisure time at the café and the boutique gallery retail, which you can call your own!

The apartments also provide 24/7 security and on-site management to provide you utmost peace of mind in this beautiful and serene location.

The Retail Scene:

To create a new central hub for the boutique village of Kirra, the Nirvana's retailers will come up with a diverse mix of savvy cafés, quaint shops and world class restaurants, where the guests can meet friends and family over coffee first thing in the morning or enjoy a cozy meal while sipping superior quality wine. You can enjoy, relax and shop till you drop!

So rush and book your very own luxury beach side apartment before someone else does!

Functions and Advantages of Plasma Cutter

A plasma cutter is one of the most efficient tools used in most of the modern industries today to cut through any type of metals. Heavy metals and alloys need to be manipulated to achieve the desired shape and size. It can be extremely difficult to accomplish the task with manual tools such as saws and cutters.

Functional Procedures

The idea of ​​a plasma cutter was generated due to the need for better tools to cut and join aircraft parts during the Second World War. The cutter uses compressed gas and high voltage electrical arc to cut through different types of metals. The compressed gas is passed through a constricted opening. The temperature of the compressed gas is elevated when it is discharged through the opening which creates plasma- the fourth state of matter. When the compressed gas is passed through the opening in a high temperature, it cuts the molten metals into desired shapes. The molten area in the metal is blown off by the high temperature of the plasma.

These cutters are available in different sizes ranging from small cutters to large and more efficient cutters. There are small portable plasma cutters available in many of the online stores too. Hand-held cutters are used to cut through conductive metals with a thickness of half an inch. However, large cutters are used to cut through metals of 2 inch thicknesses in huge industries. Today these cutters are controlled by computers which are known as CNC cutting machines. The metals are arranged and cut with the help of cutting machines controlled directly by computers.

Benefits of Using Plasma Cutter

Portability: In the early days of its discovery, the plasma cutter was huge in size but today it is available in a range of sizes and shapes. Hand-held cutters and portable cutters can be easily bought from online stores at affordable price rates.

Precision: One of the greatest advantages of using these cutters is related to its accurate precision and accuracy. Since most of these cutters are connected to CNC machines, it can be used to cut metals into desired shape quite easily.

Power consumption: In comparison to the other metal cutters, these cutters utilize less power. This is known to be another advantage of using these unique cutters.

Smooth edges: As these cutters give smooth edges after cutting metals and pipes; it is also used in a variety of other purposes such as fabrication of metals, artistic work on metals and so forth. It is also used to cut pipes as it gives smooth edges unlike the other manual cutters. The edges of the pipes are smooth which makes it easier to install.

Another great benefit of using these cutters involves the fact that the metal outside the cutting area remains cool even after the cutting process. This helps the metal to retain its paint and seldom causes warping which is quite common among other metal cutters. Plasma cutter can be bought online too at reasonable price rates for both industrial and domestic uses.

Top Advantages of an Electric Heater

Electric heater is an electrical appliance used to provide heat. It simply converts electrical energy into heat energy. An electric heater uses resistor as the heating element where it carries current to provide heat. There are many types of electrical heater available in the market and you should be able to get one that really suits your need. Make sure you check on the specifications and functions that it can provide before getting one. So, what are the benefits of using this heater?

First, it is said to be one of the most excellent appliances in heating process. Electricity is available in most countries and so this is convenient for all houses to prepare their daily food. All you need is to plug the socket and switch it on. The heating temperature can be calibrated depending on the heat you need.

Other than that, it is said to be an environmental friend appliance. Unlike heating up food using charcoal or natural gas burning where this type of burning may cause release of carbon monoxide to the atmosphere. With this technology, you do not have to worry of polluting the environment as it will not release any harmful gases to the environment.

This type of heater is clean as it does not burn any fuel that may cause release of smoke and ashes. Thus, it saves your effort and time to do the cleaning after using your electric heater.

Another advantage would be the portability. There are many sizes of electric heater but today you can easily find portable heater in the market. Portable heater is easy and convenient to be transported from one place to another place. You can now carry the heater to any place you like such rooms, living rooms, kitchen and anywhere you like.

These are among the advantages of electric heater. Do your study on the brands available and survey for the right price before purchasing one.

Transposing Minor Chords – A Misunderstanding

You can transpose minor chords in the same way that you transpose major chords, or any other type chord for that matter. But some people misunderstand the the whole idea of transposing.

Transposing means that you are changing the actual key of a song. It means that a series of chords in a progression will become a whole new series of chords in a new progression.

It doesn’t matter at all if the chord that you are changing is major or minor, a 7th cord, a 6th chord, a sus4 chord or any chord. Major transposes to major, minor tto minor, 7th to 7th etc. You can use the chromatic scale to effect the transposition.

For example, if we have a chord progression that goes like this:

A D Em A D Esus4 A

This progression is in the key of A, but if we want to transpose this to the key of C we will end up with:

C F Gm C F Gsus4 C

THis is done by direct up down substitution by using two chromatic scales one starting with A, and another starting with C. I can do this because I can start the chromatic scake from any note I choose. The chromatic scale is theoretically a never ending scale.

A– A#/Bb– B– C– C#/Db– D– D#/Eb– E– F– F#/Gb– G– G#/Ab– A

C- C#/Db– D –D#/Eb -E—- F– F#/Gb– G- G#/Ab- A— A#/Bb- B—- C

The point is that you are doing letter to letter substitution. It doesn’t matter at all what type of chord it is. The type goes along for the ride. Always.

Here’s another misunderstanding: Chords do not change when you change keys. A G chord is a G chord no matter what key you are playing in. An Em is an Em is an Em is an Em. Always.

Chords have specific definitions that have nothing to do with what key they may be played in. A G chord will always be made up of a G a B, and a D. This by definition IS a G chord.

To sum up, transposing is not a mysterious concept. It is logical. If you understand the chromatic scale you can do it easily. You don’t need any charts or special rulers or 50 pages of music theory.

Don’t allow chord types to bother you when you’re transposing. The types remain the same across keys.

Lastly, the definition of what makes up an individual chord will never change no matter what key you are plaing in.

How to Use Online Poker RNG Secrets

Although a large number of people play Texas holdem online everyday, many of those players do not have a thorough understanding of how the online game differs from a live game. The most significant difference is the computer-generated codes used in the online poker RNG, and how those codes affect the outcome of each hand.

Primarily, since poker sites do not have the ability to actually deal out cards as in a live game, they are forced to use a series of computer generated programs to execute this task. One of the main programs used is a RNG (Random Number Generator). The RNG, depending on which site, uses a series of associated techniques to attempt to generate a truly random shuffled deck of cards.

Because of the advanced techniques poker sites use to arrive at their own shuffled deck sequence, it is nearly impossible to predict what cards are coming out and what your opponents are holding. However, it is not difficult to predict the play and expected outcome in many situations.

Although every major poker site will claim their RNG program is fair and impervious to any potential hijacking or cracking, the reality is that the RNG is often not the culminating factor in what will occur on the flop, river or turn. That decision is based largely on additional factors, such as the players in the game, additional poker algorithms used to induce action and finally on the poker sites own use of anti-collusion and anti-cheating subroutines.

The addition of these extraneous programs, algorithms, and subroutines dramatically changes the outcome of each hand and ultimately changes the true statistical odds. For example, in a recent independent study of more than 250,000 hand histories from one poker site revealed that hands that were a major underdog on the flop made a winning hand by the river more than 20% of the time.

That percentage represents a large amount of bad beats in poker that is not usually evident in live play. This has prompted many poker players to conclude that online poker is rigged and that the RNG is flawed. In truth, the RNG is rarely ever flawed, as the RNG is not responsible for potential bad beats as much as the additional poker algorithms used by many sites.

The secret to using the online poker RNG is to be aware of the potential hands that can be made on the flop and the potential of your hand to survive a bad beat. In many cases, knowing when a flush is expected to occur while you are holding two pair may prompt you to avoid committing too many chips to the pot.

The perfect strategy to use is to learn how the software works, to obtain as much information on the statistics of the game and use that information to make your decision as to whether you should continue in the hand or not. The best defense to maintain your chipstack is in avoiding getting a bad beat, and that can easily be accomplished by understanding how and when a bad beat may occur.

Architecture Schools – Gaining an Accredited Education

When looking to pursue a career involving architecture, students can begin gaining the accredited education they need by enrolling in an architecture school or college. Training in this field will allow students to obtain the degree they desire and specialize in certain areas of the field. Receiving an accredited education in architecture will open numerous opportunities for those who wish to gain the skills and knowledge for a successful career. Students have several degree options to choose from and can start the process by learning more about gaining an architectural education.


Gaining an education in architecture will allow students to prepare for the career they desire by providing numerous levels of training. Studies can be completed at the bachelor or master degree level. Training will last four years for a bachelor degree, six years for a master degree and will include various topics of study. Coursework may consist of computer aided drafting (CAD), lighting, design drawing, illumination, history of architecture and much more. Training in this area of ​​the field will open numerous career options such as working for:

  • design firms
  • engineering firms
  • commercial builders

… and more. Students can begin the process by enrolling in an accredited facility.

Drafting and Architecture

Enrollment in an accredited school or college will allow students to gain an education in drafting and architecture. Opportunities in this area are available at the associate, bachelor, and master degree levels. Training can require two years for an associate degree, fours years for a bachelor degree, and six years of accredited study for a master degree, and will include the study of various subjects. Training can include courses in technical writing, estimating, computer aided drafting (CAD) and many other relevant subjects. Receiving training in these areas will help student to seek employment with:

  • architect and design firms
  • private companies

… and more. Students who enroll in an architectural training program can prepare for a successful future.

Landscape Architecture

When looking to gain an accredited education in landscape architecture, students can complete the degree program that fits their individual needs and goals. Training is available at the bachelor and master level which can take four to six years for completion. Coursework will vary but may include studies for land surveying, landscaping, vegetation, landscape ecology and much more. Training will prepare students for employment with:

  • businesses
  • design firms
  • individuals

… and much more. Students can begin training today to start the path to an exciting new career in landscape architecture.

Accredited architecture schools and colleges can offer students the best quality education available to them. Numerous accreditation agencies like the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology ( http://www.abet.org/ ) are approved to provide full accreditation to educational training programs that meet certain criteria and requirements. Students can learn more by researching programs and requesting more information in order to find the one that is right for them. Start the path to an exciting and successful career by enrolling in a program and obtaining an accredited degree.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and / or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school (s) that may or may not be advertised at PETAP.org.

Copyright 2010 – All rights reserved by PETAP.org.

Track Lighting is Versatile and Highly Configurable

Track lighting runs on metal tracks along ceilings and walls and that is where it gets its name. Light heads or lamps are attached to this track. The malleability of these metal tracks is an advantage to homeowners who want to install their lighting systems for the first time or reconfigure their existing ones.

In track lighting systems you can focus the light on any object that you want to highlight. A variable number of light fixtures can be installed along the track where electric current will flow. You can easily change the positioning of the tracks; in addition you can create a single track if that is all that you require or you can have multiple tracks if you want more light. You can add more tracks at any time and point the lights in different directions.

How Interchangeable Are System Components?

You have to be careful that all of the parts that you wish to interchange are made by the same company, or the manufacturer may not honor their product guarantee.

However, purchasing a system made under the Halo, Juno, or Lightolier standards will allow you to use components from different makes if they are all under the same standard. Replacement parts of a track system must also be of the same standard.

Note that light bulbs are an exception, as they can be made by different manufacturers and still be able to be mixed and matched with the other components.

Being able to use components from different manufacturers is a great advantage because you can choose from a wider range of models with different colors and features.

Connecting Your Lights

There are different track sizes and electrical connections to suit every room. One thing you need to be very clear about is where to position your track lights. This is needed for reasons of beauty and practicality.

You can feed your track lights to an electrical outlet or a connector, although plugging into a wall outlet may be unsightly. Using an electrical connector that is hidden in your ceiling is definitely a cleaner way to do it, though it may require a bit more work.

How to Wash a Microbead Pillow

Every so often, after repeated use, or due to messy accidents, micro bead pillows will need to be cleaned. Unlike memory foam or down pillows where only the pillowcase may be washed, micro bead pillows may be washed, just as long as proper measures are taken in order to prevent the pillow from being destroyed. On many micro bead pillows, the tag suggests that they may only be spot treated. This can be done by scrubbing the spot or spots out with soapy water or any other gentle cleaning solution; bleach should never be used.

However, people with young children or animals often find that the pillow may be too dirty to clean by the spot treating method. Microbead pillows may be washed in the washing machine as long as you are careful. It is important that the pillow is first placed in another pillowcase with the end tied off so it does not fall out during the wash. The pillowcase prevents the microbead pillow from falling apart through the tumbling and rushing water. It is the pillowcase that takes the beating while the microbead pillow remains safe inside while still receiving the cleaning that it needs. A detergent meant for fine fabrics or wool, such as Woolite should be used to further prevent possible tearing of the fabric. Again, no detergent with bleach should be used because it can break down the nylon lycra or spandex outer fabric of the pillow.

Wash the microbead pillow on your washing machine’s gentlest cycle using cold water only; heat risks damage to the microbeads as well as to the outside of the pillow. While washing, one should occasionally check on the pillow to make sure that no harm is coming to the pillow. While this step is not necessary, it is definitely a good idea. After washing, it is incredibly important to remember that the dryer cannot be used to dry it because, once again, the heat would create a terrible, sticky mess of the outer cover of your favorite pillow. However, a dryer may be used to tumble and air dry the pillow as long as no heat is used. To complete drying, the pillow must be hung to drip dry. With certain, higher quality brands of microbead pillows such as Snooztime, regular machine washing and drying is possible, making it easier and also more convenient to clean your favorite pillow. Cleaning microbead pillows properly ensures its owner many more years of comfortable rest.