Top 11 Stained Glass Soldering Tips – Learn How to Solder Glass Art

We have boiled down our top 11 stained glass soldering tips to help you master the art and learn how to solder glass art.

This is one of the most serious steps in the process and can really make a difference in your stained glass projects.

So why do we use solder? Solder is a combination of tin and lead used to create a strong bond between other metals. Solder does not stick to the glass pieces, so we apply copper foil tape to the edges, which is where you get the copper foil method. We melt the solder over the copper foil that holds the pieces together.

These tips are going to cover the copper foil method, but you will also use solder with the lead came method as well.

1. Safety: One of the most important aspect of soldering any stained glass project is to take the proper measures to safeguard your health. Soldering involves working with potentially hazardous substances like lead, flux and harmful fumes. By observing specific safety precautions and using informed common sense, working in stained glass can be a safe and enjoyable past time. Ventilation, wearing glasses, and securing the glass pieces are a few additional tips.

2. Choosing your soldering iron: There is a lot to consider when you choose an iron for stained glass. The handle should be heat resistant and comfortable for you to hold. You may be holding it for several hours at a time, so consider the weight and balance of the iron. Wattage is an important aspect of the iron you choose. It must be able to continue generate enough heat to melt all of the types of solder you plan to work with. We recommend an iron that is at least 60 watts with a way to control the temperature.

3. Iron and tips maintenance: Investing in a soldering iron is a big step in whether you take this art seriously or not. A well maintained soldering iron and tips perform better and make the job of soldering much easier. Consider buying a soldering iron stand to keep your iron working at its best.

4. Do I need flux? Flux is a chemical compound that is used to promote the bonding of metals by removing the oxide residue simultaneously with the soldering process. Because of oxidation and other matters, it's important to use flux in the bonding process as each mix of metals being used has a specific flux.

5. Before you begin: Make sure the foam is properly over the glass, trim all overlaps, put together all tools needed for the project, and secure your glass pieces. Not to mention review the safety measures.

6. Make sure you clean the surface you are about to solder. Steel wool is the best way to clean the surface of copper foil

7. Getting started: Flux all intersections first, then use a small amount of solder and flatten with the iron tip. Next fill in the gaps between the glass pieces until the solder is level with the surface of the glass. Then, coat the surface with a thin layer of solder. Finally, use your flux. We like to start at the top and work down as it tends to turn out better.

8. Running the solder bead: The best way we have found to run the bead is to hold the iron like a cutting knife and utilize your writing hand. If you run into a problem, just let the solder cool, then re-sold the joint applying more solder.

9. Fixing imperfections: If you apply too little add more. If you apply too much, then clean your iron tip and move the flat part across the seam. This will pull the excess sold easily. The key when soldering is to work slowly, but not too slowly causing heat fractures and melted solder.

10. Finishing: We use a finishing wax to make sure the solder is looking its best. Carnuba wax is one example that will work.

11. Practice: Utilizing stained glass soldering ebooks, courses, and videos and try different techniques. What works for one artist may not work as well for another. Find what fits your style.

Artist, this is just a start, but these are our top stained glass soldering tips. Yes, these get more in depth, but provide an overlay to the process and steps.

Assembly Bill 811 in California

Assembly Bill 811 is another tool being employed by the state of California to encourage homeowners to go green and upgrade their homes so that they are more energy efficient. Assembly Bill 811 (known as AB 811) was signed into law in July 21, 2008 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

The Basics of AB 811

AB 811 is part of California's efforts to reach the goals laid out by the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. It authorizes all cities and counties in the state to design areas where property owners who want to can enter into a contractual assessment to finance the installation of energy efficiency and renewable energy generation improvements in their home. To be eligible for financing, the improvements must be permanently fixed to the property.

The terms of the financing give property owners access to low-interest loans for the installation of energy efficiency upgrades to their property. The loans can be repaid as an item on the property owner's property tax bill.

Financial Details of AB 811

Interest rates for the AB 811 loans are thus far at 7% amortized over 20 years, and they are to be paid every six months along with your county property tax payment. These loans are strictly earmarked for energy "efficiencies and renewable energies available to the public" *.

The loan does not require a credit check and its payment passes on to the new owners when the property is sold along with the title transfer at escrow. Palm Desert is the first city in the nation to have the AB 811 financing option available for funding the installation of energy efficiency improvements.

Benefits to Property Owners

Owners stand to gain from AB 811 financing by getting an immediately reduced energy bill with no out-of-pocket expenses to them. Furthermore, when they sale their property, the new owner collects the payments. The improvements raise the value of the house, which makes it an easier sell. The minimum loan amount is $ 5000 and there's no maximum. The loans do not affect your credit rating. The loans can be used for a variety of energy efficiency improvements including, air conditioning and ventilation systems, tank-less water heating equipment, window films, pool pumps, energy-efficient windows, doors and skylights, and now also solar panel systems and natural gas fuel cells.

Plastic Wall Paneling and Food Preparation

The food production industry requires high levels of cleanliness and care to be taken during production and distribution in order to maintain the quality levels and safety of the food once it reaches the mouth of consumers.

This extends to any area where food is handled, prepared and cooked including the kitchens in restaurants, hotels and canteens as well as places of work including hospitals, schools and offices. The rooms need to be designed and decorated with cleanliness in mind, fulfilling the health and safety requirements necessary and protecting the employees within from any risk.

The floors should be covered in a non-slip material to prevent any falls at work. This will also ensure that no food lands on the floor or dirt from the floor comes into contact with any ingredients. The floors need to be cleaned twice daily as it is likely that small food particles will become logged in in the rough surface of the floor. You can purchase non-slip lino specifically designed for use in kitchens.

Plastic wall paneling is the best way to uphold the health, safety and cleanliness of an area in which food is prepared or produced. The smooth surface area allows for easy cleaning as any spills can be wiped off quickly. The materials used in plastic wall paneling can resist anti-bacterial chemicals so the walls can be disinfected daily and their heat-resistant properties means that they will not lose their quality if they come into contact with boiling substances.

Work Tops
Ideally the worktops in a food preparation area should be made from stainless steel as this is the safest surface on which to work with food. Unlike wood, the smooth surface is not a friendly environment for bacteria and viruses and with every wipe these bodies are removed. The strength of the steel can also withstand sharp knives and hot pans so they will last for a longer period of time than other materials.

The perfect area in which food is prepared and produced should have wipe clean surfaces with nowhere for bacteria and gases to hide, the materials on the walls, floor and work tops should be heat resistant and strong against sharp knives, anti-bacterial chemicals and other kitchen instruments.

The Purpose of a Scaffold Hoist

Many times I have looked up at a scaffolding tower and thought "How does one get the goods to the top?" The answer; A Scaffold Hoist.

Heavy bricks and machinery along with tools and cabled can be a real drain to be dragging up a tall scaffold tower. This is why the scaffold hoist was invented. Designed to lift loads up to 800kg from floor to site level where operators at the top can unload the goods. This speeds up production time and increases work force productivity tremendously.

Most scaffold hoists are powered with 230v or 110v single-phase power supplies as usually found on most building and construction sites. Accessories such as window props, hoist gantries and wheelbarrow slings can be obtained through a directory as well as brick baskets and cement buckets up to 90 liters and in some cases larger.

The standard height of lift with most powered builders hoists is twenty five to thirty meters in length. This is usually sufficient, however should your application require a larger height of lift the drum of the hoist can typically be extended and a larger length of wire rope added. The end of the wire rope is a snap hook used to lift and secure the load.

Most builders will secure their scaffold hoist using the scaffold pipe clips however sometimes keeping the hoist to a window frame or gantry is necessary, additional accessories are required for this. Remote control options are also available allowing the user to be in a more remote position away from the load, this can be for safety and practicality purposes. All scaffold pipes are rated to 200kg This is why most builders hoists have a maximum capacity of 200kg without otherwise supported by a gantry with a counter weight system (usually up to 800kg).

Should your lifting machine ever brake down spare parts are always available from the supplier of the hoist usually with an existing stock availability to ensure you are never let down.

Manufacturers such as Imer and L'Europea use distributors like Lifting Equipment Store to market and sell their products through their sales networks. These distributors take pride in their customer service and will do their best to supply your exact and safest requirements at the best prices in the industry.

Scaffold hoist and builders hoist products are always shipped with a certificate of conformity to ensure the hoist is fit for purpose.

Quick Step Laminate Flooring

Laminate flooring is one of the most popular forms of flooring in the world. It is popular because it gives people a way in which they can have floors that look like hard wood, tile or even stone at a fraction of the cost that they would have to pay for floors that were actually made out of hard wood, tile or stone. This type of flooring was invented in Sweden in the late 1970s but it was not very long before it had become popular all over the world. One of the world's most popular brands is Quick Step laminate flooring.

This flooring is made by the Quick Step Flooring, Inc. Company, which is headquartered in St. Louis. Louis Missouri. It is the United States division of a company called Unilin Group, which is headquartered in Belgium and was founded in 1960. This company is known for its wood-based panels, its laminate flooring, its roofing systems and its laminate panels. The company has facilities in Belgium, France, the Netherlands and, obviously, the United States. This company was the first company to introduce a patented technology called Uniclic. Uniclic offers people a method of floor installation that is glueless.

The QS flooring line includes flooring that is made to look like beech, oak and chestnut wood planks, tile squares and both the imitation wood and tile are available in a variety of colors.

The official website offers users an interactive menu to help them find the dealer that is closest to them in location. All users have to do is enter their zip code and then choose how wide of a radius in which to search. They will then return the addresses and information of all of the dealers within that radius.

All of the products made by QuickStep are direct pressure laminate type. This type of flooring is often considered to be better than the high-pressured type because it is better balanced. Each of the different types of floors also comes with an installation instruction manual that can be downloaded as a .PDF format.

Quick Step makes more than flooring; it also makes wall treatments, molding, tile skirting, adapters and a variety of square noses. They also offer a small variety of cleaning kits for their products even though, like most kinds of this type of flooring, it is very easy to keep clean.

You can buy flooring through a dealer or through the website and you can also learn a great deal about the different types of flooring that they have available. No matter what kind of floor you want to have, Quick Step will help you make it happen. Their products are affordable (certainly more affordable than "real" hard wood floors), durable, easy to install and easy to keep clean. You can redo all of the floors in your home in no time at all.

Copyright (c) 2008 Steven Magill

Finishes For Furniture

Finishing not only protects the wood but also enhances its natural beauty. A good finish is one that beckons an onlooker to touch it and examine its beauty more closely.

A good finish can not be hurried. It takes careful work and time to produce. When done correctly the end results are very satisfying and enjoyed by all who see it for many years. So take your time and do it right.

The factors involved in selecting the most appropriate finish depends on what the item is and type of wood it is made from, how and where it is to be used, the environment it will be placed in, and how much time and / or money you are willing spend. The information below should narrow the choices for most people. Remember you can call any professional restoration shop in your local area for help or free advice.


This type of finish is a good choice for woods with natural color and relatively tight grain such as Walnut and Cherry or naturally high resin woods like Rosewood and Teak. This finish does not require staining the wood first but can be applied over any wood stain that has properly dried. Keep in mind that all oils will darken wood. If a lot of "elbow grease" is used rubbing between coats and an adequate number of coats are applied the finish will not show water marks or surface scratches and is more heat resistant than lacquers or varnishes.

Advantages Negatives

easy application long application time

no equipment needed darkens wood

easily repaired low wear protection

low cost


A beautiful and durable finish can be obtained with a quality varnish. There are two types of varnish, regular and urethane. Regular varnish has a deep amber color and adds a mellow tint to the final color. Urethanes are clear to light yellow and are more resistant to scratches and ware. A clear, dry day and a dust free room is required to obtain a good finish. Temperature of the room, the varnish and the wood should be between 65F – 75F degrees.

Best results are achieved by spraying, but a skilled person with a good brush can produce a beautiful finish also. Colored varnish, sometimes referred to as stain varnish is not recommended for brushing by amateurs. Spar varnish is an excellent coating for surfaces subjected to moisture or heat.

Care must be taken when shaking or stirring varnish when brushing application of the material is used. Shaking or rappid stirring can creates bubbles which are hard to brush out and may appear as small dents when the varnish has dry. Adding a little thinner and / or letting the varnish "rest" before use after mixing will minimize this problem. Stirring is better than shaking and may be necessary to mix-in flatting agents that have settled on the bottom of the container.

Advantages Negatives

scratch resistant slow drying

little equipment needed optimal condition for application

water resistant / proof skill needed for brush work

some hard to repaired

Urethanes can not be

used over other finishes


Because of shellac's limited durability, it is not recommended for heavily used furniture. This finish is brittle when dry, scars easily and water spots. It is also soluble in alcohol, so it can not be used for dressers where cosmetics containing alcohol are often placed.

Advantages are that it is easy to use, dries quickly with a gloss and can be rubbed to a satin or dull finish. It is often used as a sealer coat over stains, as a filler on fine grained woods or to cover knots before painting.

Advantages Negatives

easy application easy to scratch

no special equipment rub-out to lower sheen

easily repaired low wear protection

medium cost no chemical protection


Lacquer is the most widely used finish on furniture. It makes a very durable finish that resists water and alcohol. It does not darken wood color and its color does not darken with age like many varnishes do. In recent years there has been several advances in lacquer finishes. Pre and post catalyzed lacquers today have superior hardness, with improved scratch and ware resistance. Lacquer is difficult to use with a brush because it dries so quickly. For this reason it is not recommended for use by amateurs. There are brushing lacquers that have retarders added to slower trying time, but the best application by far is spraying.

Advantages Negatives

durable skill required to apply

fast drying costly equipment

easily repaired

chemical resistant

Opaque (paint and enamel)

Opaque paint and enamel finishes are often used on wood with no particular beauty or to cover old finishes in bad shape without stripping.

Be sure the surface is clean, smooth and dry. Paint will not stick to a greasy surface. You do not have to remove the old finish; sanding the surface will make a foundation for the priming coat. If the article to be painted is new, look for any knots. These should be covered with a coat of shellac.

Mix paint and enamel well before using. Pour a small amount into can to use and keep remainer covered.

Advantages Negatives

hides defects slow drying time

little equipment needed covers wood grain

easily repaired poor adhesion over

low cost old finishes

Special Finishes

These types of finish are achieved by various processing techniques and often employ one or more kinds of finishing materials to produce the desired effect.

Pickled finishes are made with white or another color over a natural or lightly stained wood color. The effect is similar to the old blonde finishes of the 40's and 50's, except it is usually done on furniture with lots of crevices for the white to stick into. The result has a more interesting texture with the natural grain of the wood showing through and highlighted with the white.

Antiquing is a blended or shaded finish achieved by applying one or more contrasting colored glazing liquids over a painted base. Traditionally, the glaze is applied over white. Today any color base and glaze combination is acceptable. This type of finishing was very popular in the 60's and 70's.

Photo and fake wood grain finishes are found on low end furniture most often made of flake board construction with plastic fasteners. This type of inexpensive furniture is "disposable" and was not designed to be restored, but rather to be replaced.

Carpet Cleaning How To – Three Carpeting Cleaning Tips You Don’t Want To Miss

Do you need a few carpet cleaning how to tips?

Do you avoid inviting friends and family to your house because of

unsightly carpet stains and embarrassing carpet odors?

Do your children and pets always seem to track mud across the


Do your children –or perhaps you — spill drinks on the carpet

on an almost daily basis?

If you would like to end your dread of dirty and smelly carpets,

relax and follow these three simple carpet cleaning tips for

keeping your carpet stain free and for carpet odor removal.

Carpet Cleaning Tip #1: Routine Maintenance for a Longer Life

Vacuum your carpets on a regular basis. Dirt, pet hair, and

other grime accumulate in the carpet fibers resulting in dirty

looking carpet and problems for allergy sufferers. If the dirt

and grime is left to build up, your carpet can become damaged and

it will be more difficult to thoroughly clean.

Carpet Cleaning Tip #2: Clean Spills Immediately

Clean up spills immediately to avoid odors and stains. If a

solid substance –food or animal waste — is the problem, use

paper towels to carefully remove the mess before cleaning the

carpet. Take care to lift the mess straight up without further

rubbing it into the carpet. Once the problem is removed, begin to

clean the spot with plain water and paper towels or clean rags.

Blot the area with the paper towels and then using the towels,

move in a circular motion clockwise and then repeat going counter

clockwise to remove all traces of the mess. Avoid scrubbing the

carpet spill as this may damage the fibers of the carpet.

Carpet Cleaning Tip #3: Use the Mildest Form of Cleaner Possible

If plain water does not remove the spill, combine water and a

small amount of mild liquid soap. This solution should help

remove most stains. However, if you still can’t get the spill

clean, consider a chemical carpet spot remover. Remember that

chemicals can damage carpet fibers and products designed

specifically to remove carpet stains may contain dangerous


Use chemical products sparingly. Make sure you work in a well

ventilated area and wear gloves. Before using a chemical cleaner,

test it in a hidden area to make sure it will not discolor or harm

your carpet . To clean the spot, apply a small amount of the spot

remover to a rag and wipe gently in a circular motion. Rinse with

clean water and blot dry with more rags. Remove as much water as

possible to avoid mildew or carpet damage.

Taking the time to clean up spills immediately will prevent the

unsightly carpet stains and embarrassing carpet odors that may

prevent you from enjoying the company of friends and family in

your own home.

4 Common Woodturning Mistakes to Avoid In Your Woodworking Projects

Prevent these classic woodturning mistakes, and your woodturning projects will become artful pieces of woodwork:

Going too fast: Trying to go too fast is the most common drawback that woodturners fall into. You want things to be easy. Avoid doing this. You will not only mess up your work but you damage to something more important-yourself. Making things happen fast is the top cause of injuries.

If you see yourself wanting to hurry things up, have a break and remember that rushing is not safe. You can lose more time in the long run if you have to repair an error or worse – a have a stay in the emergency room at hospital.

Stain doesn’t take: Two typical causes that stains do not take are: using non-staining wood packing and if glue is not totally wiped off after creating the whole piece.

The problems are simple to avoid but they are not very simple to correct. Remember that you should buy a wood pack that removes stain and make sure to clean up the glue coming out of the join whenever you place the pieces together.

If you finish with an unmarked area on your work, put a colored glaze-a semi clear substance like the thinned-out paint. Alter the color and exposure until you get it almost similar to the stained wood. Allow it to dry and start the topcoat.

Excessive sanding makes wood fuzzy: There are types of wood that become fuzzy when you do too much sanding. The wood fibers shred and make hair like fuzz on the wood’s outer portion. You don’t want to discolour or have an initial color in that case.

If your wood gets fuzzy, go down a polish or two with the sandpaper and sand out the furs. The way to prevent fuzz is to remember that you should not use sandpaper finer than 150 grit.

Joins don’t fit together: You have taken care to have joins that are tight enough, but when paint the glue on and try to draw the join together, it will not go. It is either you have joins that are very tight or you pulled joints together and experienced a lock-up.

To prevent too tight joints, dry it first. If you have to thump the joints together with a mallet, you should loosen the joint before you add glue to it. If the joint is a mortise and tenon, shear the tenon until you can push the join together easily using your hand.

If the join still locks up on you when you assemble it, you have to do some mallet tapping and clamping to make it move again. It depends on the time the join has been locked, you may not get it to dislodge. Avoiding a locked joint is as easy as testing the join and sanding it if it is tight the first time it is assembled.

That’s it! Avoid these 4 woodturning mistakes, and you’ll create classic woodworking art that is appreciated for generations.

Brick and Mortar Vs. Online Business

Human beings have a long established tradition of bartering and trading goods, one in exchange for the other. While the basics have remained the same over the centuries – you give something in order to get something – the means have evolved consistently. From the agora of Ancient Greece to the modern supermarket, and from high-end stores to online shops, people continue to engage in business in the opportunities of profitability and success.

If one was to divide the means of doing business today into two broad categories, they would be:

1. Brick and Mortar Businesses, and

2. Online Businesses

Brick and Mortar

The traditional way of conducting business – the brick and mortar way – can be considerably expensive and onerous to setup. It is highly essential to find a suitable location, if the business is to have any chance at succeeding, and such valuable locations are not inexpensive. Then there are the overhead costs, including taxes, utility bills, and inventory and labor costs.

The Pros:

– Perhaps the largest advantage of a brick and mortar store compared to an online one is that it allows customers to touch, feel, and inspect a product physically, and at length, before they make the decision to purchase it.

– The internet provides a lot of opportunities for scams, and people have taken advantage of those. As such, you can offer your customers with peace of mind, a sense of trust, and reliability with a brick and mortar store.

– Find the right location, ideally in a heavy traffic area, and people just might walk in to your store – and end up becoming customers – without having experienced any of your marketing campaigns.

The Cons:

– As mentioned earlier, the startup and overhead costs of a brick and mortar store tend to be consider large.

– Once you put up that 'Closed' sign, business is primarily over until the next morning.

Online Businesses

The more modern, and visual, way of doing business is relatively easier to setup. You may still need to do basically the same amount of work, such as market research and promotional campaigns, but the startup and overhead costs are only minimal.

The Pros:

– An online store can, and does, remain open and available for business around the clock, seven days a week, every single day of the year.

– If you've managed to create the right amount of noise, in the right places, you'll get more people visiting your small business than you could ever achieve with a brick and mortar store.

– There are no space limitations and no need for sales representatives. With a brick and mortar space, you'll probably run out of both if, say 50 customers walked in. With an online store, you serve thousands of visitors simultaneously.

The Cons:

– The biggest disadvantage of an online business, unlike a brick and mortar store, is that there is very limited interaction with the clientele, if any.

– It is remarkably easy to get distracted with an online store, as you would not be constrained by shelf space to display products. It is vital that you establish, and stick, to a niche for your small business.

Each of these, both traditional and modern, has its own advantages and disadvantages. And while you could answer about which one is better until there is no tomorrow, they are both here to stay for the long term. If you can afford it, the ideal way to be successful would be to establish both a brick and mortar store, and an online shop for your small business.

Roofing – A Guide To Installing Corrugated Iron Roofing

Corrugated Iron Roofing is durable, lightweight and easy to install. If a few extra precautions are taken with handling and fixing, the finished product will greatly be improved.

White Rust

Over half of the mistakes made while constructing a corrugated iron roof can be traced back to incorrect storage or handling. The iron has to be handled and stored correctly because the surface is very easily damaged.

Leave the metal roofing at the manufacturers until you are ready to start installing it. Aim for delivery the day before roofing starts. If the roofing iron arrives before you are able to fix it, you must ensure it is kept bone dry. It is a common mistake to assume that because they are roofing sheets, they can withstand moisture. If the roofing sheets are stacked together and they get wet, they will stain. White rust forms on the coating and it is very difficult to remove. If your roof sheets do get wet, separate each individual sheet. Use bearers to allow airflow around the metal. This will prevent the corrosion.

Gently does it

As for handling, care needs to be taken in order not to damage the paintwork. Sliding sheets across one another will damage them. When separating the roofing sheets, you should lift them cleanly upwards without scratching the one underneath.

Spend more money

Installing a roof can be time consuming and costly. The last thing you need is to have to keep spending money on maintenance. If you scrimp on the cost of fasteners you will forever be replacing loose nails and fixing leaks. Choose good quality roofing screws. These will provide a more secure fixing and last as long as the roofing iron. It’s important not to over tighten the screws. Just tight enough to lightly compress the neoprene washer is sufficient.


If you pre-drill the holes for your roofing screws on the ground, it will be safer and give the roofing a neater appearance. This is only possible if the purlins run parallel to the eaves and the roof is reasonably square.

Using a quality drill bit makes the job easier. The drill bit should be slightly larger than the diameter of the roofing screws. This will prevent stress fractures as the sheets expand and contract.

Take accurate measurements of the purlin centres from the eaves and mark the roofing sheets ready for drilling the screw holes. Don’t forget to add the drop into the gutter to your measurements, usually about 50mm. It’s better to use chalk for marking corrugated roofing iron because pencil may damage the surface.

Cut to the quick

Cutting corrugated iron roofing sheets with a disc cutter makes the job easier and faster. Unfortunately, it also damages the roofing iron beyond repair. Hot particles of steel imbed themselves into the surrounding metal allowing it to corrode. Nibblers will do the job adequately as long as you are careful with the swarf. It’s preferable to cut the sheet with hand shears or best of all power shears. A better finish can be achieved if you make two cuts. The first cut 50mm away from your finished edge allowing you to neatly trim to the line with your second cut.


If you find scratches on your roofing during installation resist the urge to paint it. The paint may well look like a good match from the tin, but after a couple of seasons weathering the patched paintwork will stick out like a sore thumb. Contact the manufacturer and ask for advice on making repairs to their product.

Laying the roofing

Before you start laying the roofing sheets check that the roof is square. If the roof is not square you can still achieve a good finish if you even out the difference, between the two barges. The difference will then be less noticeable as it will be covered by the barge flashing. Run a string line along the eaves, 50mm into the gutter and it will provide you with a straight edge for the roofing sheets.

Clean up

On completion it’s important to clear the roof of any loose swarf. Tiny particles of iron left on the roof will rust and ruin the surface. A soft brush will do the job or ideally a leaf blower can be used.

A well installed corrugated iron roof will give years of maintenance free service. If you take a little extra care with the preparation and fixing, you will achieve a superior finish.

Ventless Electric Fireplaces

Ventless electric fireplaces are becoming quite popular. Not only can they save money by heating a small area in use instead of heating the whole house, electric fireplaces create an elegant look in any room. They come in several sizes and styles to fit almost anywhere you would want one. The real benefits of ventless electric fireplaces are ambiance and convenience.

They can be small; quite a bit smaller than a real fireplace, but that's a benefit to those who would not have room for a fireplace anyway. The small ones (and some of the larger ones) can be moved easily from location to location. The large ones can be more or less permanently installed wherever you want it.

Since electric fireplaces require no chimney or other vent, they're very easy to install (as in "plug it in") and if you change your mind, they're easy to move, or even to remove.

You will have to buy the log set (they're usually ceramic) separately from the fireplace, so the total cost can be quite high for an area heater, but check some different companies and you'll find a wide range of prices, from around $ 300 to $ 1000 and well over that.

The biggest problem of electric ventless fireplaces is that codes and regulations do not permit any electric heater over 1500 watts, so the heat output is limited. No matter how large the fireplace, if it's electric, you will not get toasty warm from it in a large room if it's cold outside.

Learning To Let Go – Detachment – Dealing With Emotion – Healing The Heart

There are three minds. The lower mind – physical, the middle mind – emotional, and the higher mind – spiritual. The lower mind heals through the transference of emotional attachments you can not exceed the lower minded desire to "hang onto" people, places and things – so we use transference to re attach those needs to different sources. The lower mind has little more awareness than an animal, highly instinctual, protecting itself, creating safety and security, whatever that happens to look like. The lower mind can not go away, but instead, we simply transfer the attachments it has from one person to another person or to myself in order to heal. A key ingredient of that is the ability to "un-heal" when the job is done.

What do I mean? There are an incredible number of people who get shut down to love and intimidation because they heal them through through transference of everything that they depended on others to get; to themselves. They become independent – individualized – and therefore ego centric and self sufficient. Here they remain primarily single. Forever shopping, never buying.

To be completely healed – detached – means to become re attached. Once we heal a wounded, we need to prove the healing is complete by going back and reattaching. Unhealing brings completion to the letting go cycle, so, there is an intellectual emotional phase to the healing cycle that is not just about the lower mind. We must heal the emotional attachments too. To do this we need to focus on cause and effect, the middle mind, our beliefs and emotions.

Do you remember pushing a child on a swing? You pushed them, they went up and out and then back to you. This is emotion. The push for emotional swings are your beliefs. If you get good news, according to your beliefs you push, if you get bad news the swing comes back. It's also like the see saw in a children's play park. One side goes up, emotions are high, then the other side goes up, emotions are low. This is the indisputable middle mind world of emotion and beliefs.

In separation, or heart break, the see saw is really out of control. Up and down and up and down. The more up it was, attracted in the first place – the more down it will go, resentful in the end. Emotions are essential in life because without them, we could not experience life. But they are fickle. They have no base in reality. If you think you are right your emotions go up. If you think you are wrong, your emotions go down. Right and wrong have no foundation except in your mind. A fiction that can cause intense pleasure and severe pain. It's all made up.

The miracle is to see through the fiction of your emotion. Here's how:

1. For every door that closes another is spontaneously open. So, if you lose your wallet out that door, another wallet appears at another door. If you lose your relationship out one door, another relationship is spontaneously appearing at another door. Nothing is missing. Nature abhors a vacuum. This is the master stroke of detachment.

2. You might think that you are losing something. But you can not lose something – you can only lose your expectations. If your expectations are broken, in other words if someone does something that you did not expect, then you call it a broken heart. They love you, admire you and respect you, but they left you. So you might say they broke your heart, but really, the only thing they did to not stay around – like you expected. Your expectations got broken, not your heart.

3. People can block your expectations – they can not block your love. So, our expectations get returned. This is the journey of the middle mind. To release the expectations and therefore, the pain. If someone leaves, why not say "I did not expect them to stay forever" – that's wiser than moaning about a broken heart and feeling sorry for yourself: is not it?

4. Nobody is perfect, but when someone dumps you it becomes very easy to infatuate them. I have seen people go from absolute disinterest in a partner all the way to being suicidal without them, just because they got rejected. There's two sides to everyone. Never forget it.

5. You can not make a silk purse out of a sows ear. Basically, people do not change. They change their mind, their religion, their ideas, and their undies, but people do not change. Expecting people to change is a complex drama of the lower consciousness – lower mind. People do not change; but your opinions can.

6. Trust; When my marriage failed my wife said, "Chris, I love you but do not trust you and I can not live with a man I do not trust" – I replied, ambitiously trying to ignore the reality "but I won ' t do it again "She was well coached by her therapist" my trust will never come back "and she was right. You can live with someone you do not love, even an arranged marriage, but you can not live with someone you can not trust. Trust is the real foundation of relationship. Once lost, forever lost.

7. Empower yourself by being the cause of the situation you have. Say to yourself: "I want nothing. I need nothing. Therefore, I have everything"

8. Define which of your three minds is attached. If it is your lower mind, transfer that attachment to someone, something else. Even yourself. That's the real keeper. If it is your middle mind of thoughts and emotions, simply balance it with equal good and bad news. The more thorough you do this, the longer it lasts. Many people just balance the current feelings, but I recommend balancing all the good things you can dream about them, with all the bad things. Really stretch and it lasts a week or two.

9. Willpower. This is the ultimate winner. All of the above help, but without power you are nothing. Without will – there is no human spirit. Without will there is no love. Without willpower we are live leaves in the wind. If we do not take the power of will over our cravings for alcohol, food, sympathy – thoughts, we have no God in us at all. God power is will power. The laws of nature are only intellect if you can not hold your will. So, start learning to master your will. Here's some clues.

Will power is God power.

Many people talk about spirit, spirituality, healing and detachment and forget to talk about will power. Will power is God power because the power of life is not something you call on, it is something you were born with. Will power brings it up and out into your hands. Without will power the only thing left in life is lower mind, middle mind – ego. To have spirit, to hold your heart open in life, to heal, you must have the will power tapped and harnessed.

Can you skip a meal? Maybe so. Can you skip a meal and not feel hungry? Hunger is the lower mind instinct. Your middle mind can control that. You can raise the power of your will for the middle mind to control your instinct. This is consciousness. You can, from time to time, break a habit. Skip coffee – stop smoking – give up alcohol for a year – stop wasting money – eat vegetables. This is not will – this is a discipline or commitment. But to do those things and not miss them: that is willpower.

Will power is the ability to control only your mind, but it begins with your body. Can you freeze your body, lying on the floor for 10 minutes. Without movement. That's willpower too. Absolute denial of sensory habits. If you can do this, not move a muscle for 10 minutes, you have made great progress in your life.

If you can freeze your body sitting in stillness or lying in stillness, you are mastering will. Now, you can progress to the second level of will. Freeze your mind. If you can freeze your mind on one thought, for 1 minute, you have progressed remarkably. Now you can start to apply will power to your life.

The courage to say, "I will think this one thought today" is amazing. So, you might say to people "have a beautiful day" but do you mean it? To hold a thought that life is beautiful and you wish everyone you meet to "have a beautiful day" is the absolute pinnacle of spiritual manifestation. This requires great courage because you have to process your attachments. Things suck you down. So you have to process life to hold your head up high. And say "I am no better or worse than anyone else"

Can you see the real duty for detachment? Letting go needs willpower and people are looking for process and techniques but they do not want to apply their masculine energy. They want to be in their feminine energy, creating and building. But to detach you have to apply your will also. The lower mind must be transferred to other sources that are supporting your commitment to hold certain thoughts. Then your mind must be controlled to hold a balance. Then, you apply will. That's the spirit.

Spray Foam Insulation – Open and Closed Cell

Spray Foam Insulation is a two-component system typically consisting of petroleum oils, plastics, and resins. The polyurethane foam comes in two different forms, open cell and closed cell foam. The polyurethane spray foam is an extremely versatile material that is available in a variety of final physical properties and densities. Although the two types of foam are very similar in their chemical structures and their characteristics and capabilities differ in many ways, which makes it necessary for the user to understand the differences of the two materials so he or she can determine which is the right foam for their particular application.

The open cell spray foam insulation contains a density of 0.5lb. per cubic foot. The greater the density of the foam the heavier, or stronger it will become. This particular type of polyurethane foam is referred to as "Open Cell" because of the nature of the chemical reaction during the installation process. When the polyurethane foam is being applied the tiny cells of the foam are broken causing air to fill the "open" space inside the material, resulting in a soft or spongy material. The open cell foam carries an R-Value of 5 to 5.5 per inch (R-Value is the measure of thermal resistance, which can be found by identifying the ratio of the temperature difference across an insulator and the heat flux). 0.5lb. foam products use significantly less material than 2lb. foam products do when completing the same sized job, making them attractive to an individual concerned with preserving the foam material. Due to the fact that open cell foam requires less material, the cost of the project is much cheaper than it would be if you were to apply closed cell foam. Although, Open cell foam is an efficient and economic product it contains some disadvantages in regards to closed cell foam. One of the open cells disadvantages is it has a lower R-Valuer per square inch than closed cell foam does and open cell foam is vapor permeable requiring it to be covered with a vapor retardant material. Although, open cell foam has some advantages and disadvantages it has been recognized as an excellent insulator, air sealant and sound barrier.

The second type of polyurethane foam is referred to as "closed-cell" or "2 lb foam". The closed cell foam gets its name from its individual chemical reaction. During the installation process the tiny cells that are created during the chemical reaction are not broken and are packed together. These little cells are filled with gas allowing the material to rise and become an excellent insulator. As mentioned earlier the higher the foams density the heavier, or stronger the foam will become. This type of foam carries a density strong enough to improve the structural integrity of the building it is applied to. Due to the higher density of this material it requires the use of more material resulting in a higher project cost. Some advantages of this foam includes its higher R-Value per square inch compared to open cell foam also, this foam is vapor resistant cutting out the additional cost of the vapor retardant material that open cell foam requires and it has the ability to improve the structural integrity of the building it is applied to. One major disadvantage is the products exceptionally high cost. The closed-cell foam commonly carries the highest R-value of any insulation material on the market at a value of 7.5 per inch.

There are many things a home or building owner should take into consideration when considering the type of foam that should be used for their particular application. Although both types of foam are by far the best insulators on the market, each type of polyurethane foam possesses its own characteristics and capabilities. It is imperative for the user to identify which foam is right for them before applying the product.

How to Make a Jewelry Jig – Example, Ear Wire Jig

Jewelry jigs are very easy to make, if you have wood, a saw and a drill. Jigs make duplicating a wire design very easy. I prefer the home made variety jig since the pegs are stationery and do not wobble when bending the wire.

Materials needed:

4 "x4" x2 "thick piece wood
1/8 x 1 "brad nails
1/4 "diameter wooden dowel
20 gauge practice wire
1/4 "drill bit
wooden or rubber mallet
anvil or pounding block
graph paper
file or burr cup
round nose pliers
flush cutters
sharpie pen

To begin, find a piece of scrap lumber at least 4 "x4" x2 "thick. This size should be large enough to make several jigs on the same wood block.

Draw the design on graph paper with a soft pencil.

Mark with dots the places to put brads or dowels (for large curves) for bending.

Turn the paper over on the wood block and draw over the design. This will make a light tracing. Another method to duplicate the design (if you have a prototype) is to trace around the piece on the wood block.

We are going to make an ear wire jig as an example.

To place the dowel, drill with a 1/4 "bit 1/2" into the wood block. Set a drill press to this depth or mark this depth with tape on the drill bit. Cut the dowel piece 1 1/4 -1 1/2 inch in length. Sand or shave off the edges slightly on one end. Insert the shaved end of the dowel into the hole and use the mallet to wedge it tightly into the wood block.

Mark a cross on the top of the dowel to divide it into four equal parts. (Some designs may use a cross marked on the wood block.) At the 3 o'clock position 3/16 "away from the dowel, mark a dot (position 1) At the 6 o'clock position 7/16" away from the dowel, mark a dot (position 2). 5/16 "below the last dot and in a parallel line adjacent to Position 2, mark with a dot (position 3) Position 3 gives a slight bend in the end of the ear wire. or ground to make removing articles form the jig easy. Drive the brad nails in 1/4 "at each position. For other designs, smaller dowels can be used with matching diameter drill bits.

To conserve expensive wire when making an ear wire or any prototype, mark 20 gauge practice wire with sharpie in 1 inch increments. With round nose pliers make a loop large enough to fit the brad at position 1. Put loop over brad at position 1 with the loop opening towards the dowel, bend around dowel, then bend between dowel and brad at position 2, then bend to position 3. Cut the wire at position 3. Remove ear wire or prototype from jig.

To flatten the ear wire or prototype, place on an anvil or pound block, hitting it several times with a rubber mallet. This hardens the metal making it brittle. Never pound where wires cross since the wires might break. Smooth the ends of the ear wires with a file or burr cup.

Determine from the sharpie marks the length of wire used. Mark a line the length plus about 1/4 "on the wood block.

Jigs can be made to make ear wires with beads, a variety of shapes or longer tails. With imagination the possibilities for duplicating jewelry designs pieces made by bending wire are endless.

Although the finished jig looks rough, it works very well.

All Chimineas Are Not Made The Same

The chimenea is primarily a wood-burning stove. The vast majority of companies that offer chimeneas to their retail customers are conscientious; however there is that occasional instance where a Chimenea is misused due to lack of knowledge. You can find chimeneas made of clay, aluminum and cast iron. Each has its own unique characteristics. A cast iron or cast aluminum chimenea is always going to be a better investment that will last many years beyond the clay types.


Iron is an excellent retainer of heat and touching it will cause serious burns. However, before you go running to the iron chimenea dealers, realize that there have been reports that the bottoms have fallen out of those too. Cast Iron Chimeneas need to be painted regularly to keep rust from forming. Lots of companies are pushing the cast iron and aluminum chimeneas over their clay cousins because of the problem with breakage. Great for commercial locations, heavy cast iron construction deters it from “walking off”. Cast Iron and Cast Aluminum patio heaters are very effective for outdoors heating, however they get very hot to touch.


Aluminum chimeneas are becoming increasingly popular for heating patios, decks, terraces and back gardens, and it is easy to see why. Aluminum chimeneas are cast from the same molds as cast iron and look identical to cast iron. The excellent quality of Cast Aluminum Alloy construction requires very little maintenance and will last for years of use. A cast iron or cast aluminum chimenea is always going to be a better investment that will last many years after a clay one falls apart. There are some companies that claim that because of the heating qualities of metal, cast iron and aluminum chimeneas could be dangerous. Cast Aluminum chimeneas require much less maintenance than Cast Iron. They are also much lighter and easier to relocate from time to time.


Clay chimeneas are inexpensive because they are made of burnt dirt. They are constructed in two pieces, by attaching the bottom bowl to the smokestack. Clay chimeneas will get hot as well but not nearly as hot as a cast iron chimenea. Clay chimeneas are not designed to house excessive fires for prolonged periods of time. Clay chimenea quality is based on a combination of many factors, using the right mixtures of clay, proper mixing of clay, firing techniques, using fresh molds, assembly of molded clay, and paint applications, all of which play a part in providing a high quality, consistent clay product. They must also be seasoned to seal them properly for safe use. Once the Chimenea is seasoned you are ready to burn larger fires.

Unlike a fire pit, which is an open burning bowl, a chimenea is built with a chimney. If there are any local restrictions on outdoor burning, be sure your chimenea is not putting yourself or others at risk. A chimenea is actually a modern version of the traditional Mexican outdoor fireplace. In general, a cast iron or aluminum chimenea is more durable and sturdy than a clay version. The best type for a typical backyard is aluminum.