Pointers in Proper Maintenance of Outdoor Decks

Regular upkeep of your deck is necessary. This is exposed to harsh weather and can easily deteriorate. Make sure to wash the decking thoroughly before making any repairs. Use a pressure washer if possible to get rid of dirt and fibers. The pressure stream should be moving or else it is possible to scratch the wood surface. Allow the platform to dry for at least 12 hours.

Fix any loose nails using the hammer. It is advisable to make use of a screw longer than the nail in replacing the board. Cracked wood is an eyesore. Replace or patch up the board so your deck will always have a pleasant appearance. If the plank is ripped right down the center, mark the broken wood near the border of the support rafter beyond the split. Never mark the spot directly on top of the beam. Otherwise, this can dent your saw.

The replacement board may be higher and larger than the existing board. However, this will eventually get smaller as it loses dampness. In case the board still looks higher than surrounding boards after several weeks, use a belt sander to level and make it smoother. All the nail or screw heads should be buried in the wood before you start the sanding process.

The deck is vulnerable to sunlight and wetness. Thus, it is important to seal and stain. Using pressure-treated timber may not be enough. Look for a transparent wood preservative with ultra-violet protector to preserve the wood without causing discoloration. This will also bring a touch of freshness to the surface while shielding it from natural elements. Opt for an exterior stain before adding any color.

These exterior stains are available in solid and semi-clear finishes. Semi-transparent is ideal for outdoor decks but you can choose solid colors to accent railroads. This usually ends up looking like a painted polish. You can buy these stains in oil or latex although both varieties ensure lighter tone and resistance to molds.

Always wear eye shades and gloves for protection. Apply preservatives or stains using a roller brush. The chemical should stay on the wood deck for a minimum of 20 minutes so it will penetrate the lumber. Brush the surface so your deck will have a more consistent finish and eliminate patches or puddles. Apply another coat for additional coverage and protection. Let it dry for two days before applying sealant.

Plastic Model Airplanes

Plastic models are generally distributed as kits which will need to become assembled by the user. The plastic models are also known as scale models and they’re mainly bought for static display. Almost all of the plastic model airplanes are injection and cast in polystyrene, parts are connected together with the help of adhesive or perhaps white glue. You can even get special paints for application on these plastic models. Aircraft insignia and body decorations materials are also available and you could use them on your model to really make it look more realistic.

There has been a pattern among producers to offer airplane kits which usually require a shorter period and expertise to assemble them. Therefore now fully detailed kits have been introduced for the benefit of enthusiasts. These kits require only normal gluing and assembly. Another kind of kit can be purchased wherein you just will need to snap the various parts together and this demands also smaller time and expertise.

Plastic models are created in scale. Usually these models have complete detailing and come in reasonable dimensions. Typically the most popular scales that are available for plastic model aircraft are 1/24, 1/32, 1/48, 1/72, 1/100 and 1/144. Of those 1/48 and 1/72 promote the most around the world.

The flip side of plastic models is that the very high cost production. Resin castings are widely-used on models however when the models become bigger in size the price too increases significantly. Vacuum forming was once popular nevertheless the assembly is really difficult. Extremely lately the manufacturers have started producing models that have really fine detailing that are ideal for resin kits. The grounds behind the sale of plastic model airplanes has changed over the years. Previously these have been distributed as toys to young kids the good news is they are mainly bought to always be kept as collectibles. Technological innovation too has advanced a whole lot and the models that come out there today are extremely innovative in comparison to the old models. It has also raised the price tag on the kits by several notches nevertheless that cannot be aided really in this period of competition.

The very first plastic model airplanes was created in the 1930s’ and these had been manufactured by Frog in the United kingdom. Ten years later several American companies like Lindberg, Hawk and Renwal accompanied the band wagon and began to produce plastic model airplanes. Through 1950s the big players came into picture like the AMT, Monogram and Auror4a in US, Airfix in United kingdom and Heller SA in France. It was only in the 1970s that plastic model airplanes became more and more well-liked in Asian nations and makers began to rise coming from this region too. Timiya and Hasegawa through Japan, AFV Club, Trumpeter and DML coming from China have started taking over the industry with more recent engineering. Today you also find brands through Russia, Central The european union and Korea stacked way up in the local hobby retailers.

As you can imagine these models have created a distinct segment for itself and have adorned the house of many as collector’s items. The purchase price will always end up being a factor for the common people however with passing time and much better technologies these models would end up being within the reasonably priced range of the customers.

Should an External Link Open in the Same Window Or in a New Window?

There has long been a controversy between those who think that all links leading offsite should open in a new window, and those who think they should open in the same window. I maintain that this is not a real controversy.

The “controversy”:

Usually, but by no means always, those wanting to open a link in a new window are the owners of the website, and those in favor of using the same window are standards-supporting web designers.

The usual reason for favoring a new window opening is that the owner of the website is afraid of losing viewers. If the link opens in the same window, then the viewer has left his website. Of course, this does not mean that the viewer is gone forever. To my knowledge, there is no evidence for or against this.

The reason for favoring the same window is that strict adherence to web standards requires not using the target attribute of the link to open a new window, as this attribute has been deprecated.

In addition to this argument, the web designer usually points out that the viewer has two ways of dealing with an off-site link. He can choose to just click it, with the idea of using his BACK button to return to the original website. Or he can right-click the link and choose “Open in a New Window”.

Why there should NOT be a “controversy”:

To the best of my understanding, the reason for the W3C ban on the target attribute is that HTML – the language they are being “strict” about – is supposed to contain only information about WHAT is to be shown in the window of the browser. It is not supposed to concern itself with HOW or WHERE it is shown.

HOW the information is shown is dictated by CSS. Interactions between the viewer and the browser are governed by the DOM. So consequently, opening a new window should be done by scripting.

This is why there should be no controversy. If the site owner wants offsite links to open in a new window, then the web designer can do so by using scripting. This will not violate the “strictness” of the W3C, and the webpage will validate. See the paragraph below for an easy way of accomplishing this.

Gaslighting: How to Recognize

Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation. It seeks to sow the seeds of doubt in the targeted individual. The goal of the gaslighter is to make the victim question her own perception, memory and sanity.

Befriending you and gleaning information from friends and relatives are ways the abuser gains insight into how to undermine your mental health. Should you have even a minor psyche issue, it will be greatly exaggerated and much-discussed.

Dominate or destroy is the basic premise of gaslighting. Usually early childhood issues are played out in the imbalanced mind of the aggressor. Anger and jealousy are often at the root of the situation.

This is not a one-time or temporary situation. It often continues indefinitely until a crisis shines a light on the situation. Concealment is a hallmark of this form of mental and emotional abuse. Isolation and emotional manipulation are common tactics as well.

My sister has been undermining my life, my role in our family and my spirit for decades. I’m not surprised her abuse escalated past vicious gossip and back-biting. As she gained recruits to her cause of discounting me, her feeling of power increased. She needed to flex that power as often and fully as she could.

I avoided meeting anyone in her world. There is no telling how many versions of untruths have been repeated. Her efforts to convince everyone that I am delusional and my mother has full dementia were constant.

There is a term called ‘double doc’ing.’ If two doctors deem a person to have dementia, a third party (my older sister) could commandeer care. The plan was to put my mother in a care facility against her will and be done with her. Her life was blocking use of family land.

She lived in fear and I joined her. As soon as I arrived and blocked her residency in the Lexington Place care facility, I became the target. Immediately, my mental status and the way I behaved was in question.

Both of us feared the end. When Mom passed, I became an open target. The police were at my door with an eviction notice within days of her memorial. A judge gave me and 10 elderly rescue animals five days to vacate.

Friends stepped in or the dogs and I had no choice but plan an extended camping trip at the lake. I literally shook with fear. Gabapentin kept the alcohol cravings at bay but it got dicey. After giving Mom’s eulogy, I started to emotionally shut down.

After the judge spoke, I just wandered out of the courtroom. They were calling to me about court costs but I barely had gas to get home. I got to our tiny trailer in the middle of the Piney Woods and broke down. I needed to grieve my mother.

Soon, more police. I walked out with my new Texas license in hand. I shook hands with both officers and apologized. I told them that they were being used to harass me by my sister Cindy. Clearly, they expected to find me in an altered state. I told the paramedics that joined them that I was willing to take any test. Not necessary.

My sister isn’t finished. Her anger runs through her soul. It has steeped and festered over the years since it began around high school age. Shaking my mental health and emotional stability is the goal. Constantly reminding others of my weakness-perceived or real-keeps the destructive energy alive.

No victim has to stay in the role. It surprised me to defend my mental state on multiple occasions but no one detected a serious defect. Depression/anxiety issues are now a constant. One 10 mg. Lexapro has now morphed into 8 meds per day since I came to live near family.

Gaslighting is serious abuse. It does more damage than is visible. When the core of a person is attacked, survival instincts kick in. I no longer feel safe being in the room with my sister alone. She has suggested often that I may be violent. She would stab herself and throw the knife down and say I did it. It’s that advanced in my case.

“Stop sharing what’s happening on ‘social media’ or you are going to get hurt,” she growled. Her husband chimed in, “And she’ll do it too.” I told her that I didn’t know our people physically threaten each other. My advanced degenerative disc disease quickly reminded me how vulnerable I am to injury.

My situation went way too far. I couldn’t leave my mother’s side and it was unbearable to endure. Watching my mother fade after burying my little sister caused a full breakdown. I had to be hospitalized. It was necessary.

I saw how one person could take my sensitive heart and caring nature and use it to try to crush me. She knew I would stay and take care of Mom but she wanted the credit for being the caring daughter. When I showed up and found her living in filth, I almost called adult services.

Cleaning that entire place was what was needed but with constant attacks by my sister, it was never peaceful for any duration. We did what we could and extended her life by a few years by rescuing abused animals. That part of this journey sustained us both.

Today, I am learning that it was announced through the elders in my family that I am delusional and ‘hooked on pills.’ There’s not an ounce of truth but Dad, my loving aunt and some nieces are worried. It irritates my soul to know I caused concern. My sister delights in the drama.

My feeling is that without divine intervention or a complete meltdown, my gaslighter will find the anger and energy to continue to try to reduce my value in the world indefinitely. It’s such a dark disorder. Many don’t recover. But, I choose to no longer be a victim.

Striking and Admirable Car Pictures

Numerous people across the world enjoy their lives by admiring beautiful things. Most often, we admire the beauty of nature and living things around us. However, you may even find many creations of human admirable too. Our admiration depends on the things that we enjoy watching. Some of us enjoy watching just part of a thing while others enjoy it as a whole.

In recent times, there has been a considerable amount of change in people’s perception to enjoy the beauty and this transformation is into the photographs and wallpapers. For instance, some people show their love for cars by pasting large size wallpapers in their room. There are many people, who have great interest in making a collection of sports car photos. If you have interest in collecting Ford Mustang pictures, then you can take pictures from these sites.

In recent times, making a collection of car photos of different models has become passion for many people. They use it as wallpaper for their computer screen. If you have great interest in car pictures, then you can consider Ford Mustang pictures. You can find many sites that provide excellent combination of beautiful and stylish Ford Mustang pictures. These sites have pictures of the cars that are very rare and unique.

Car pictures are easily available on the Internet. You just need search on one of the search engines and you can get pictures of numerous car models including Ford Mustang. These pictures show the cars from different angles, so you can get an overview of any car. If you have a car and desire to sell it, then it is advisable to visit one of the sites from Internet, which provides car pictures. This can assist you in showing distinctive features of your car to the buyer.

Window Covering Design Selection

Redecorating your home interior requires more than money because it involves knowing what you want to achieve. Same thing goes with designing your window covering. And since window covering brings a lot of weight and overall appearance to your interior, this is probably the single home detailing issue you should spend most of your time on.

If you have yet to realize its importance, try imagining your home without window covering. It's just like the day that you move in to an empty home right? Bare and lifeless; not to mention of course the fact that you can see your neighbors looking at you from afar. Window covering therefore has two main objectives: to cover your interior and accentuate your interior decorations.

Fulfilling these two objectives of course is not just installing any covering you find attractive at the department store. It requires the taste which only you can define. So, choosing window covering is not just picking up the first thing that your hands have laid on.

There are lots of pre-manufactured window coverings out there. And sometimes, selecting one that is perfect for your home can be very overwhelming. But it should not become hard that it already becomes a burden. The following provides information on the different types of window covering designs you may want to consider.

Blinds – There are 4 basic types of blinds: vinyl, aluminum, wood, and fabric. There are 2 basic blinds constructions: horizontal and vertical. Horizontal blinds are used commonly for standard windows Blinds are perfect for corner windows, patio doors, and bay windows. Vertical blinds are perfect for bay windows, corner windows and patio doors.

Curtains – Classic and timeless, curtains are often installed on kitchens with short windows and casement. Design and color selection are wide.

Swags – Swags can be combined with shutters, curtains, shades, and blinds. They can be easily created by simply draping fabric over curtain rods or hooks.

Shutters – Shutters are fixed or adjustable solid panels or louvers and are made of wood. They are fully customizable so they can fit your window of any size. Installing shutters can definitely add decorative effect to your home since the design can compliment to your present interior theme.

Shades – Basically, shades can either filter or block lights from the outside. They are available in a wide variety of designs depending on your light requirement. They coordinate well with furniture or wall coverings.

Draperies – Adding a formal touch to your interior requires you to place draperies as window covering. They can run from ceiling all the way down to the floor which can easily give an effect of higher ceiling. Elegant and stylish, draperies can make your window full and well textured at the same time, keeping your window open to let natural light come to in.

Valances – Valances can be used as shirred, lace panels, pleated draperies, over sheers or toppers. Valances can put balance to the room and create an effect that windows are taller. Depending on the design you choose, valances can set an appropriate mood to your interior.

Art Glass or Stained Glass – Turning your window into a work of art requires one thing: installing art glass or stained glass to your window. In sunny days, it adds light and color to your interior, which have great effect to your room.

Choosing Oak Hardwood Flooring

This is a very popular type of wood for hardwood flooring but it should be chosen with care. The reason is that not all oak hardwood flooring is created alike. You need to make sure that the oak wood will be appropriate for the room you are putting it in and that it will meet your aesthetic taste. When they are properly cared for and of high quality, they will last a long time. There are a number of types of oak that can be used in hardwood flooring. The two most popular oak woods are white oak and red oak. Oak can vary from a deep brown to an almost white color so you need to consider the shade of flooring that you want. Finishes are another thing to consider. The finishes can include a distressed finish to give the floor an antique look or it can be glossy to matte. When you visit a flooring store there will be samples of all types and finishes to help you make your decision as to which flooring you like.

Before making the final decision you need to decide if you want engineered or solid oak hardwood flooring. The difference between the two is that engineered oak flooring is made with veneer. It is then layered onto a base. Engineered flooring does not wear as well as the solid floor plus engineered floors contract and expand less. With solid oak flooring, it is made from plank or solid strips of wood. There is also a variety of floor widths to look at and consider including narrow strips to planks. You can also get it in parquet, which is flooring that made of several pieces of wood that fit together like a puzzle.

Check to see if the hardwood flooring has a warranty, what it covers, and how long it lasts. The longer warranties are often found with floors that are prefinished and the unfinished ones have a shorter warranty. Most homeowners will hire a company to put down their hardwood flooring so be sure to hire a reputable company. You should check to see if they offer any warranties or guarantees if something goes wrong on the job, which if it is their fault they will be responsible for taking care of the problem.

A very important issue with oak hardwood flooring is the installation method. If the homeowner decides to install the flooring themselves may find that they prefer a floating floor, which is a floor that will not have to be glued or nailed to the subfloor of the room. Many professional installers may decide to nail, staple, or glue the oak hardwood flooring to the subfloor, which can be hard to do.

Do Nitric Oxide Supplements Work?

Nitric Oxide is a gas formed in the body by the breakdown of L-Arginine to L-Citrulline through an enzyme group called Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS). Although NO2 is used for many purposes, it's ability to increase blood flow will be discussed in this article.

In general supplement companies claim that NO2 supplements can:

Increase recovery post workout
Increase resistance to muscular fatigue
Increase muscular work output

These three claims are largely based on the assumption that an increase in blood flow to muscle tissue will enable users to experience the claims that supplement companies put forward. Obviously there are many other variable factors that can influence your muscle mass growth and strength gains for example you general diet and training. So the claim is that if your diet and training are in place, taking a NO2 supplement will enable your body to build more muscle mass that the same diet and training regime without the nitric oxide supplementation.

There is absolutely no doubt that NO2 supplements increase blood flow. Just ask anyone how has taken a nitric oxide supplement and they will tell you blood flow is substantially increased. But does this blood flow actually produce the results that are claimed? Or is it mostly a mental advantage from feeling the pump!


Vasodilation is the process of a relaxation of blood vessels, allowing them to carry more blood to and from working muscle tissue. Vasodilation (to high levels) is triggered by the sunset of exercise as the need for oxygen and nutrients is heightened during this time. The process of vasodilation is highly influenced by nitric oxide.

High levels of nitric oxide aid in the conversion of an enzyme (GTP) into another (cGMP) which serves as an important messenger to, among others, the relaxation of smooth vascular muscle in order to create vasodilatory effects. Therefore, if levels of nitric oxide are inhibited vasodilation may not occur to the amount that allows maximum performance.

In essence, vasodilation occurs when high levels of nutrients need to be transferred into muscles for energy production. Vasodilation itself is highly influenced, and limited by the amount of NO2 that is available as it has been observed that a limited production of nitric oxide can lead to vasoconstriction.

It can be suggested that before that if we can enable the body to produce adequate amounts of nitric oxide, proper levels of vasodilation can occur, enabling the body to transport ample amounts of nutrients to working muscle for maximum power output.

What Should Be Supplemented To Increase NO2 Levels?

Most 'NO2' supplements on the market currently use ingredients such as

Citrulline Malate

As nitric oxide is produced by the conversion of l-arginine it can be assumed that supplementing with l-arginine will have an effect on NO levels. However the evidence as yet shows no correlation between oral arginine supplementation and nitric oxide levels. Unfortunately l-arginine concentration does not directly affect the rate of nitric oxide production. Citrulline, the amino acid that l-arginine is converted into in the NO2 conversion process has actually been shown to have a greater effect of nitric oxide levels with oral supplementation. However these amino acids alone do not seem to have a direct effect on nitric oxide levels.


Insulin is an incredibly important hormone that allows nutrients, including glucose to be transported to muscle cells and has been shown to be a regulator in vasodilation and blood flow.

It is important to discuss insulin levels as it has been studied that the effects of insulin on vasodilation are dependent on insulin sensitivity ie how much insulin can be released when carbohydrates are ingested. These studies have concluded that nitric oxide production by insulin can decrease in people that are insulin 'resistant' rather than people that are sensitive to the effects of insulin release.

It can be extrapolated that a heightened in insulin levels can produce hyper vasodilation and in fact, this has been shown in resulting studies.

How Can Insulin Be Raised To Spark Vasodilation?

In fact the products mentioned earlier that are used in many nitric oxide products do increase insulin sensitivity in the body, therefore they do increase vasodilation but through heightened levels of insulin rather than a direct effect on l-arginine conversion.

How Are NO2 Supplements Best Supplied?

Insulin has a linear relationship with the ingestion of carbohydrates; if large amounts of carbohydrates are ateen larger amounts of insulin are released. Therefore many powdered NO2 supplements will combine their ingredients with simple fast acting carbohydrates such as dextrose in order to increase vasodilation and 'the pump'. These carbohydrates are shuttled to muscle literally forcing the carbohydrates into the cells and filling them up like a balloon creating a larger muscle mass.

Powdered products are usually taken pre-workout only as supplementation of simple sugars is not recommended at any other time. Nitric oxide pills do not contain the sugars and will produce a slight effect on vasodilation by increasing your insulin sensitivity. Therefore carbohydrate ingestion is recommended around your workout to allow for the greatest chance of vasodilation trough insulin use.

The Claims

Earlier the three most common claims of the supplement companies were stated and in general it can be concluded that NO2 supplements can produce those results (obviously there are other factors that can influence this). If vasodilation occurs with an increased insulin response from supplementation of NO2 products it can enable users to gain better results from supplementation.

Successful Strategies For Enhancing Fat Loss


With the worldwide obesity epidemic, many individuals are searching for ways to lose weight and keep it off. While the focus is often on total body weight, it is actually excess body fat that represents the real health threat. Thus it is important to understand the role that body fat plays in health and disease and how to achieve a healthy level of body fat.

Overweight or Obese

An individual's body weight or body composition reflects the level of lean body mass (tissue, bone and muscle) and body fat. While the words obese and overweight are used synonymously there is a great difference between these terms in both definition and associated health risk.

Overweight is defined as a body weight above an acceptable weight in relation to height. This term can be misleading because it does not differentiate between excess body fat and lean muscle mass. For example, it is possible to be overweight without being obese. A body-builder would be an example of this scenario. Having a greater proportion of muscle mass would make this individual appear overweight according to standard weight / height charts, yet this person could have low body fat and be in good physical shape.

The body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to determine whether one's weight represents health risk. BMI is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared (kg / m2). A BMI of over 25 kg.m2 indicates overweight. When percentage of body fat is used, women with 25.1 to 29.9 percent and men with 20.1 to 24.4 percent are considered to be overweight.

Obesity is defined as having excess body fat in relation to lean body mass. By generally accepted standards, men with greater than 25 percent, and women with more than 30 percent body fat, are considered to be obese. When the BMI is used, individuals with a value of greater than 30 are considered to be obese.

Since it is excess fat (not excess weight) that is a health concern, when assessing your overall fitness level it is important to look at the percentage of your body that is composed of fat, rather than just total body weight.

Factors Affecting Body Fat

There are many factors that regulate your level of body fat, including:

· Diet

· Activity level

· Basal metabolic rate (rate at which calories are burned at rest)

· Genetics

· Hormones, such as insulin, thyroid, and growth hormone

Health Risks of Excess Body Fat

Carrying excess body fat is linked to some of our greatest health threats, rarely heart disease, cancer and diabetes. The greater the degree obesity – the greater the health risk. Conversely, maintaining a lean, healthy body can help to reduce your risk of developing these diseases.

Obesity is a known risk factor for developing heart disease. The excess body fat creates an increased workload and stress to the heart, leading to high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and enlarging of the heart. Obese people also tend to have high cholesterol levels, making them more valuable to arteriosclerosis, a narrowing of the arteries caused by buildup of plaque. This condition can become life threatening if vital organs such as the brain, heart or kidneys are deprived of blood.

Excess body fat can also increase one's risk of developing cancer. The American Cancer Society has published a report illustrating the relationship between obesity and cancer mortality. Based on the observed association, the American Cancer Society estimated that current patterns of overweight and obesity in the United States could account for up to 14% of all cancer deaths in men and 20% in women.

Obese men are more likely than non-obese men to die from cancer of the colon, rectum, or prostate. Obese women are more likely than non-obese women to die from cancer of the gallbladder, breast, uterus, cervix, or ovaries.

There is also a strong link between obesity and diabetes. Excess body fat can lead to the development of a condition called insulin resistance, where the body no longer responds correctly to the insulin that it produces. As a result, insulin is not able to bring glucose into the cell and blood sugar levels remaining high. The pancreas responds to this by producing more insulin, which the body can not use, so insulin levels are also elevated. This scenario of high insulin and high blood sugar levels are hallmark features of Type 2 diabetes. Developing diabetes increases the risk of developing other health problems, such as kidney and eye disease, and circulatory problems.

Being obese can also make the most simple body process – breathing – a challenging feat. For an obese individual it takes more energy to breathe because the heart has to work harder to pump blood to the lungs and through the body. This can also lead to elevated blood pressure and stress to the body. Excess body fat is also linked to gall bladder disease, gastro-intestinal disease, sexual dysfunction, osteoarthritis, and stroke. The emotional consequences of obesity can be just as serious – low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety.

Body Fat Distribution – Apples versus Pears

Just as the degree of obesity is important in determining health risk, so is the location of the fat. The "apple" shaped body, which is defined by abdominal fatness or 'pot belly', has been found to predispose an individual to Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and early mortality. In fact, waist circumference measurements have been shown to be a better predictor of health risk than the body mass index (BMI).

For men:

Increased risk – waist more than 94 cm (38 inches)

Substantly increased risk – waist more than 102 cm (40 inches)

For women:

Increased risk – waist more than 80 cm (32 inches)

Substantly increased risk – waist more than 88 cm (35 inches)

Men in particular often deposit in the waist region, whereas women tend to gain weight around the hips and buttocks giving them the "pear" shape. "Fat deposited primarily around the hips and buttocks does not carry the same risk as that gained around the mid-section.

The tendency to deposit fat around the mid-section is influenced by a number of factors including genetics and lifestyle choices. Physical activity, avoiding smoking and using unsaturated fat over saturated fat have been shown to decrease the risk of developing abdominal obesity.

Recommended Levels of Body Fat

An individual's body fat is expressed as a percentage of body weight that is made up of fat. This percentage variations for men and for women and with age.

All of us require some stored body fat for fueling energy and cushioning. If the body has too little fat, it will begin to break down muscle tissue for energy requirements.

Below are recommended body fat ranges for women and men according to the American Dietetics Association:


Normal 15-25%

Overweight 25.1-29.9%

Obese Over 30%


Normal 10-20%

Overweight 20.1-24.4%

Obese Over 25%

Checking your Body Fat Level

Height and weight tables, such as the body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to determine how a person's weight compares to a standard. This method is easy to do since it involves simple measures of height and weight, yet because it does not distinguish between the proportions of body fat and lean tissue it is not the most accurate method of assessing one's health risk due to excess body fat.

Here are some methods that can be used to determine your body fat percentage:

Skin Fold Calipers – measures the thickness of subcutaneous fat at various locations on the body. The measurements obtained are used in special equations to obtain an estimated percentage fat value. This method is not very accurate and is dependent upon the skills and judgment of the person performing the test

Bioelectric Impedance – a machine is used to measure an electric signal as it passes through lean body mass and fat. The higher the fat content the greater the resistance to the current. This method is more effective than skin fold caliper testing, but is not 100%.

Near Infrared Technology – infrared light is shined on to the skin (usually bicep area). Fat absorbs the light, while lean body mass reflects the lights back. The reflected light is measured by a special sensor, transmitted into the computer, and translated into percentage of body fat. This method is highly accurate – comparable to underwater weighing but slightly more expensive that the above two methods.

DEXA – stands for dual energy X-ray absorptiometry -uses two X-ray energies to measure body fat, muscle, and bone mineral. This method is highly accurate but also the most expensive and time consuming.

Health Benefits of a Lean Body

Having a lean body is important for overall health and longevity. Our body composition impacts how we look and how we feel. When we are physically fit we feel better about ourselves, have more energy and enjoy better well being. Conversely, carrying excess fat can have a negative impact on our self-esteem, confidence, and body image. It can also cause fatigue and lethargy, making the simplest of tasks, such as going up a flight of stairs, difficult and exhausting.

Numerous studies have found that those who maintain a lean body live longer, suffer less disease and enjoy a better quality of life. It is important to know that even small losses can lead to great health rewards. Studies have found that losing even 10-15% of excess weight (fat) can help to reduce blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides.

Lifestyle Recommendations for a Lean Body

While nutritional supplements can be very helpful, healthy eating and regular physical exercise form the foundation of a successful, long-term weight management and fat loss program.

Below are some nutritional tips to consider for healthy fat loss:

· Eat at least three meals a day, preferably four to five small meals to keep your metabolism and energy level optimized. Do not skip meals as this can raise your appetite, deplete your energy levels and lead to binge eating.

· When you are hungry between meals, snack on healthy foods, such as fruit, yogurt, raw vegetables, nuts and seeds.

· Emphasize fresh, unprocessed foods. Low-fat / low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods are your best diet choices. These include fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans, peas, and lentils) and whole grains. Cut down on processed and refined foods, such as fast food, junk food, white bread / rice / pasta, candy, cookies and sweets. Refined grains lack nutritional value because their outer fiber-rich layer is stripped away during the refinement. Processed food and junk food should be looked upon as providing "empty calories" because these foods are often high in sugar and calories but very low in nutritional value.

· Limit your intake of saturated and hydrogenated fats. Fat fills you up more slowly than other foods because it takes longer to metabolize and absorb from the gastrointestinal tract. The feeling of fullness (satiety) is delayed causing you to eat more. Less chewing is required, so these fatty foods are consumed quickly. Furthermore, fat is more calorie-dense, providing nine calories per gram, compared to only four calories per gram provided by protein and carbohydrates.

· Ensure adequate protein intake. Protein is essential for building and maintaining lean muscle mass. Without adequate protein intake, dieting and exercise can cause the body to burn muscle for fuel and this can result in a lowering of your basal metabolic rate – the rate at which you burn calories. The recommended amount of protein is based on body weight and activity level. For the average person, this amount is 0.8 to 1 gram per kilogram, or one-half gram per pound of body weight.

· Fill up on fiber. Dietary fiber is a powerful asset to anyone trying to lose body fat. Dietary fiber helps balance blood sugar and insulin levels and improvements digestion and elimination. Fiber also makes us feel more full with meals because it slows digestion. Most health agencies recommend 25 to 35 g of fiber per day. Plant foods, such as vegetables, fruit, whole grains and legumes, are excellent sources of natural fiber. Fiber is also available in supplement form, such as powders and tablets.

· If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Alcohol floods the body with empty calories. Depending on the beverage, it provides anywhere from 20 to 124 calories per ounce.

· Cut down on salt and sodium. Most of the sodium in the typical diet comes from the saltshaker and processed foods. A high-sodium diet is unhealthy and causes fluid retention, meaning it can contribute to water gain gain.

Consistent exercise Promotes the loss of body fat in several ways:

· Increased energy expenditure – Exercise or physical activity burns calories and stored fat.

· After burn – Your basal metabolic rate is heightened for four to 24 hours after vital physical activity, especially weight lifting or anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise, such as running or aerobics, typically boosts your metabolism for 60 minutes. It's important to combine both cardiovascular exercise, such as walking, running, biking and anaerobic exercise such as weight lifting to achieve and maintain optimum results, and more importantly, keep the results.

· Increased lean body mass – Exercise is critical for building and maintaining strong, healthy muscles and muscle burns more calories than any other part of the body. Increasing lean muscle mass helps the body to utilize fat more efficiently as fuel. Dieting without exercise can actually reduce your weight loss efforts by leading to loss of muscle mass along with fat. When this happens metabolism slows down and your burn less calories.

· Balancing blood sugar – Exercise pulls stored calories, or energy, in the forms of glucose and fat out of tissues. In this way, blood glucose levels stay balanced and you are less likely to feel hungry.

Nutritional Supplements to Aid Fat Loss

Healthy eating and exercise are the foundation to a successful, long-lasting fat-loss program. However, certain nutritional supplements, when used properly, can be helpful in supporting your program. Below are my recommended recommended supplements to aid fat loss.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Tonalin®)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring fatty acid found most abundantly in beef and dairy fats. Research has found that supplements of CLA can be helpful in reducing body fat while maintaining or increasing lean muscle mass. Specifically CLA acts to stimulate the breakdown of stored fat in the fat cells, reduce the number of existing fat cells, and prevent fat storage.

In a recent clinical trial, overweight subjects taking Tonalin® CLA for one year, without changing their diet and exercise habits, had a 9% reduction in body fat and a 2% increase in lean body mass compared to the placebo group.6

Several additional studies lasting from 4 weeks to 6 months have shown that Tonalin® CLA is effective in reducing body fat compared to placebo groups. Based on the clinical studies, the recommended dosage of Tonalin® CLA is 3.4 grams per day. The product is very well tolerated. No significant adverse events have been reported.

Green Tea

As one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide, green tea is known for its benefits for heart health, cancer protection, weight loss, and much more

Green tea contains a number of beneficial compounds including volatile oils, vitamins, minerals, caffeine, and potent antioxidants called polyphenols. Research has shown that green tea can facilitate weight loss by increasing thermogenesis – the rate at which the body burns calories. This was initially attributed to its caffeine content, although recent studies have shown that this is due to an interaction between its high content of polyphenols, specifically the catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) along with caffeine.7.7

Most studies documenting the health benefits of green tea have involved 3 to 10 cups per day. Tablets and capsules are available. Look for a product that is standardized for total polyphenol content and / or catechin concentrations. Most products provide 60% to 97% polyphenols and / or EGCG.

There are no serious side effects known, even with intakes of as much as 20 cups per day. Since it contains some caffeine, higher doses may cause restlessness, insomnia, and increased heart rate.

Hydroxycitric Acid

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a compound derived from the fruit Garcinia cambogia, which is native to South and Southeast Asia. HCA has been popular as a weight loss supplement for years. It shows that HCA supports weight loss by reducing appetite, enhancing the breakdown of fat and inhibiting fat storage without affecting the central nervous system. There may be other benefits as well as new research has found that it can reduce cholesterol and triglycerides.

No serious side effects have been reported with HCA. While earlier studies found benefits in dosages around 1200 to 1500 mg HCA daily, newer research supports greater benefits at a higher dosage, such as 2800 mg per day.

Phase 2®® Standardized White Kidney Bean Extract

Phase 2® ® is an extract of the white kidney bean that promotes weight loss by temporarily neutralizing starches from the diet. It inhibits the action of an enzyme called alpha-amylase – the enzyme responsible for breaking down starches into sugar. Foods high in starch include bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, and baked goods. Over-consumption of these foods (larger portion sizes) and physical inactivity can lead to weight gain. In several clinical studies Phases 2® has been shown to reduce the amount of sugar absorbed from starchy meals and promote fat loss.

In a study conducted in Italy, overweight individuals taking Phase 2® ® lost an average of 6.45 pounds of body fat after a 30-day study period. Another study conducted at the Northridge Hospital Medical Center, UCLA found those given Phase 2® ® lost an average of 4 pounds of body fat after 8 weeks, experienced an average 26-point drop in triglycerides, and had more energy. The recommended dosage is 1000 to 1500 mg before starchy meals.

Measuring Success

Keep in mind that the bathroom scale only tells you how much you weigh. It does not tell you what your body composition is, or whether you are carrying excess fat. In fact, if you are exercising, losing body fat and gaining lean muscle mass it is possible that you may notice either never change in the scale or even a slight increase in weight initially. While you will be improving your level of fitness, your total body weight may not change. Weighing yourself on a scale tells you very little about your health and should not be relied upon as a measure of success.

Here are some simple / easy ways to measure your progress and success:

· Look in the mirror – take an honest look at your body in the mirror. As you lose body fat and gain lean muscle you will notice your shape change. Your muscles will become more prominent and there will be less flabby areas.

· Evaluate how you look and feel – as you lose body fat you will feel lighter, have more energy and generally feel better about yourself.

· Judge how your clothes fit – as you lose body fat you will notice that your clothes feel more loose and fit better.

· Check your percentage of body fat – using the above-mentioned methods.


Carrying excess body fat is a known risk factor for many chronic health problems, such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes, and psychological issues. Knowing your percentage of body fat is the best way to determine if you are at risk. To achieve a healthy body composition, proper diet and regular exercise are essential. Nutritional supplements such as CLA, green tea, hydroxycitric acid and Phase 2® can provide a supportive role by reducing body fat storage, enhancing fat breakdown, boosting metabolism and neutralizing starches. Monitoring body fat levels with the above mentioned methods will help to guide progress and keep you on track in maintaining a lean body.

Laptop Repair Services

Are you in search of an expert laptop repair service center in the UK? With the rise in laptop buyers its essential for laptop users to make certain they make proper use of their laptop to the fullest and make sure they can achieve the highest performance. Laptop repair isn’t always easy, but sometimes it can be. At times we do realize how frustrating it is when our laptop breaks down and we require a fast turnaround with a professional service. If the laptop isn’t under warranty and you don’t feel happy replacing some of these parts yourself, you’ll have to find a professional laptop repair service center to do it.

Some of the laptop problems many of us face today and for which we need to consult an experienced technician include laptop overheating, laptop DC power jack repair, laptop won’t turn on issues, laptop needs more memory, laptop running slow, laptop shutting down constantly, laptop needs an upgrade, laptop motherboard installation, laptop software and many more.

As of today, there are laptop repair professionals throughout the UK who are devoted to treating customers with respect and decency while focusing on service, quality and value and believe in quality service as a number one standard for success! With an excellent team of technicians, most of the service and maintenance shops provide customers the best in terms of technology and performance for almost all makes of laptops including IBM, Sony, Compaq, Dell, Toshiba, Apple, Asus, Acer, Panasonic, Packard Bell, Siemens, HP, Gateway, Fujitsu, Lenovo, NEC, Alienware, Advent and many others.

Some of the UK laptop repair services offer an onsite service and will be at your door within 24 hours, often on the same day you call. Even though most laptop repair stores provide fast, reliable and affordable laptop repair services, additional time may be required for ordering parts or waiting for the availability of parts. While choosing a laptop computer repair company in the UK, make sure that the company has as much as necessary experience in this field and moreover has professional staff to accomplish the project within stipulated time. As you know that laptop and notebook repair in the United Kingdom is not easy to afford despite the fact that so many companies are engaged in it, it is advisable to ask for the charges and compare it with other companies before settling down to one particular company. Equally, ensure you don’t simply go according to the rates charged; make sure the company you fancy has the knowledge and potential to carry out your repair needs.

Preparations For Garage Door Repair

The use of home garages is no longer restricted to simple car parking or storage of unused items. They are now essential additions to houses and serve multiple purposes. Because of their increased value, garages now require more careful maintenance. One of the most common aspects of this maintenance is garage door repair. This is particularly true not only because garages are prior to damage but also because owners can not afford these parts of the garage to remain broken. While garage repair is an essential maintenance procedure, there are some steps that need to precede it. In particular, there are preparations that you should take before engaging in the repair. Here are some of them.

Learning the Mechanics

Repairing a garage door can not be possible if you do not fully understand its parts and mechanism. This is why the first step in preparing for this repair is to learn the fundamentals. You must learn the different parts of the door, which can be generally classified as either a moving or a non-moving part. In broad terms, though, the door can be broken down into two major parts: the opener and the actual door. Aside of this, you must also be familiar with the mechanisms of the door, which involve the rolling of the door on metal tracks through the aid of heavy springs. Understanding the specific details of this mechanism may be necessary for some cases of garage repair.

Examining the Tracks

After getting to know the fundamental concepts of the garage door, the next step is to check the door for issues. To begin, you should examine the tracks to which the actual door rolls on. One important aspect to evaluate is the condition of the mounting brackets. If these brackets are only loosely holding the tracks in place, then there is a need to tighten certain bolts. The tracks must then be checked for malformations and dents. In addition, you need to determine if the tracks are leased and perfectly aligned. You should also look for dirt, grease, and any debris that may cause an obstruction along the tracks. Finally, the lubrication of the tracks must be examined. If closing or opening the garage door causes a creaking sound, then that is an indication that the tracks need to be lubricated.

Checking the Hardware

Once the condition of the tracks has been evaluated, it is time to check the other mechanical parts of the garage door. In particular, you need to pay attention to the springs and hinges. You need to check whether or not these parts are tightly wounded. If either side of the door is sagging, then that is a sign that the hinges are loose. The springs are meanwhile loose if the garage door does not open or close completely. On the other hand, enlarged screw holes are an indication that the bolts are not tightly fitted to their respective places. This issue can be remedied by replacing the old screws with larger ones so that the enlarged space can be filled appropriatively. A technician at Grapevine Garage Door Repair , will gladly help you with this.

Electric Industrial Demolition Hammer

What is an Electric Industrial Demolition Hammer and what are its uses? How can you safely use this powerful hammer that will make a great impact on the job you are doing?

An Industrial Demolition Hammer is created to break up large slabs of concrete, brick walls, black top and other solid objects. This tool is a super heavy-duty electric jack-hammer for serious demolition jobs. It has a 360 degree swivel auxiliary handle for maximum versatility.

You also need the right bit for the Industrial Demolition Hammer depending what you are going to break up.

Use a bit with a flat tip for an edge trim, a spade for concrete and a point for breaking up solid exterior. Check the surface that you want to break down and make sure you are using the right bit.

Industrial Demolition Breaker Features:

110 VAC – 60 Hz

1700 Watts OR 16 Amps

No Load Speed: 1000-2100 BPM

Cord Length: 16 '

Overall Size: 28 "x 10" x 6 "

With 2 SDS Bits

Heavy Duty Blow Case

Safety Tips:

  • Hard Hat

Wear a hard hat in case objects are flying about and they could easily hit your head and cause considering damage

  • Steel Work Boots

Steel work boots are required by Work safe to protect your toes and feet in case the hammer slips and will cause breakage of bones or other damages.

  • Heavy Duty Gloves

Always wear Heavy Duty Gloves to protect your hands as this will give you a better grip on the handle of the tool

  • Eye protection

Eye protection is for your safety to keep dust and particles out of your eyes, therefore safety glasses must be worn! If something where to fly into the eyes it could cause last damages.

  • Ear protection

The Ear protection is for your safety that will protect you from overexposed noises and keep you from losing your hearing.

In the event that you should have some hearing loss, you will have a really hard time hearing and communicating with your family and friends. When you are in a noisy area, all speech is muddled and you have no idea what is being said. You feel left out because everything is distorted. Please protect your ears while this will benefit you not just for now, but for the future as well. It is hard to comprehend what others are saying while you are missing out on a conversation.

Importance of Air Cylinders

Air cylinders are recognized as the final module in a pneumatic, compressed air control or in any power system. Air cylinders, or pneumatic cylinders, are tools, which switch compressed air power into a conventional mechanical or automatic energy. This mechanical energy generates linear or rotating motion. In this way, the air cylinder works as an actuator in any pneumatic system, so it is as well identified as a pneumatic linear actuator. The air cylinder enterprises of steel or could be of stainless steel piston, a piston rod, a cylinder container and including end covers. As compressed air progresses into the air cylinder, it moves forward to the piston along the length of the air cylinder. Compressed air or a coil, located at the rod end of the cylinder, moves the piston back. Valves are the one that control the pour of compressed air to the cylinder.

Air cylinder producers usually generate two essential types of air cylinders: single acting and binary acting. The single acting cylinders are capable to perform an operating activity in one single direction. A single acting air cylinder further has air pressure on the one side of a piston flange, delivering force and motion, and a coil delivering the return power after force release. Single acting cylinders need just about half the amount of air used by a binary acting cylinder for any single working cycle. A binary acting pneumatic cylinder carries the power of motion in common two directions, with pressure on both sides. When a cylinder is pressed out in one single direction, compressed air moves it back in an additional direction. Air lines consecutively into two ends of the cylinder provide the compressed air.

Pneumatic systems generate large linear pressure group and composer of an input, a course and the output. In this, the input acts as a compressed air from the compressor or from the hand pump. The course is a control device, which directs the air to the bar end or bottom of the container and the output is an expanding or withdrawal piston rod. Pneumatic schemes are used to move, pull, and lift and for other open / close doors in material management and processing. They could also hold, take away and place materials or pieces for the purpose of manufacturing.

Never Cut Your Nails on a Sunday

According to an old European superstition, you should never cut your fingernails on a Sunday. If you did evil stories would be told about you for a week. Even worse the devil would follow you all week. Cutting fingernails was considered not only work, but also being preoccupied with your outer beauty. This was something that was not tolerated on the day of rest and worship.

Cutting your nails on a Friday was equally unlucky. It was said bad luck and sorrow would strike the home if anyone in the household dared to cut their fingernails on a Friday.

Friday and Sunday were certainly ruled out for cutting fingernails. Playing it safe, many would wait until Monday before cutting their nails. It was told that Monday before noon was a good time to bring out the scissors and cut those nails. Cut your fingernails early Monday morning and you could expect a gift. The saying went on like this. Cut on a Tuesday for thrift, cut on Wednesday for news, cut on Thursday for shoes, cut on Friday for sorrow, cut on Saturday to see your lover tomorrow, cut on Sunday for evil.

In the 19th century it was common superstition that if a mother cut the fingernails of her baby before the child was twelve months old, that child would grow up to become a thief.

Even the Vikings had strong concerns about fingernails. It was believed the ship called Naglfar (nail-ferry), was made solely from fingernails and toenails taken from dead humans. When Naglfar was completed, the Jotunns would sail this ship in battle against the gods. This was the final battle. This was Ragnarok, the end of the world. No dead man was to be buried with uncut fingernails. Every precaution had to be made to unsure that the corpse did not supply more material for building the Naglfar. But all was not lost. After Ragnarok a new world arises. Whatever happened to Naglfar, I do not know.

The Best Material For Water Features

There is a huge variety of water features and fountains available on the market. Here we will discuss the different materials used to make these features and their pros and cons, hopefully helping you to make an informed decision about what kind is best for you. The materials we will look at are: stainless steel, rock / stone, resin and terracotta.

Stainless steel is a very popular material for water features. One thing to look out for though, is that the feature you're interested in is made from quality steel. Stainless steel is produced according to different grades – these grades determine the quality of the steel so to get the best, longest-lasting feature, you need to make sure it's made from the highest grade of steel (grade 304). Bear this in mind especially if you are looking for an outdoor water feature – higher grades of steel are less likely to be subject to corrosion or damaged by the outdoor environment.

One of the reasons stainless steel is so popular is that such water features have a very contemporary, sophisticated look. Frequent styles are tubes, spheres and walls and these can often be quite large features. Due to this, they are often favored by businesses as stylish decorative pieces in their offices or showrooms (although stainless steel fountains are by no means exclusive to commercial institutions!)

If you do have it in mind to buy a stainless steel feature, there is one important thing to consider beforehand – due to the material itself and the average size of the features, they can be fairly weighty, so it is best to double check the weight with the vendor prior to purchase.

Natural rock or stone make ideal outdoor water features. As they are hewn from real rock rather than made from a mold, each feature may have slight variations, providing one of their most appealing attributes – no one else will have the exact same feature so yours is unique!

These water features can be supplied from a number of rock sources, including slate, stone, granite and marble. The very nature of these materials ensures that the features are solid and durable; however, like stainless steel, some can also be rather heavy.

The third material to consider is resin. Resin is widely used for the manufacture of water features as it is so versatile. While you may often find that rock or steel are used to create similar styles and shapes, the sheer variety of shapes, sizes, colors and styles of resin features is intense. Within the range of resin features, you will find fountains, figurines, animal water features, wall fountains, spheres, tabletop features and more – the list is endless! The choice available is one of the top benefits of resin.

Unlike some stainless steel and rock water features, those made of resin are also lightweight. This is especially useful if you want to be able to move the feature around, for example if you have a number of guests visiting and you simply want to make more space in the garden (or conversely, move the water feature to a more central location to create a talking point!)

Resin is a synthetic material, however; so if you prefer something more natural, rock or terracotta features are a better option for you. A great advantage of the synthetic manufacture of resin features though is that most are weather-resistant, so are less likely to be damaged by UV rays than the sun in summer or frost in winter.

The final material to consider is terracotta. Please note that sometimes terracotta water features are handmade to order rather than kept in stock – each of these, therefore, is completely unique like rock features. However, it is important to be aware that it will take longer for you to receive a bespoke water feature than one of those that is kept in stock.

Terracotta is a lovely, sturdy material with a warm color and has been a traditional material for pots, jars and various features for many years. For this reason, it is ideal for replica designs of ancient features such as Greek pots water features, giving them an authentic look. Terracotta water features are generally only supplied in that color, however, (terracotta is a peachy-orange hue) so if you would like a wider variety of colors to choose from, resin is a more suitable material for this.

It is worth noting that while all these materials are durable and designed for long-wearing wear, often outdoors, all features must still be protected. Very strong winds may overturn smaller features and damage them, so in cases of extreme bad weather if you can bring the feature indoors, it may be safer there until the weather has subsided. If you are leaving your water feature outdoors during the winter, take care not to let the water inside freeze as it will then expand and this can damage the feature or pump.