A Guide to Extracting Sap From a Maple Tree

How can you deny that rich, luscious, deep flavor of fresh maple syrup? You can cook with it, bake with it, make candies with it, and even top your pancakes off with it! Maple syrup has been around for thousands of years, and continues to be a highly sought-after treat.

This is perhaps why so many people are interesting in learning how to extract their own sap from Maples trees to make their own delicious maple syrup. If you are one these people, continue reading to learn what you will need, what to expect, and a few tips for getting the best results when it comes to extracting sap from Maple trees.

What Will I Need?

To start, you will need a clean 5-gallon bucket with a lid, a tree tap or “spile”, a power drill, a 7/16 drill bit, a hammer or mallet, some rope or string, and some masking tape. If you do not have a power drill, you may be able to use an auger instead. You can purchase all of these materials and many more sap extraction related materials at any local home improvement or gardening store.

Here are some important tips:

Most trees produce sap, but only certain species produce sap that tastes really good. If you are after Maple syrup, stick with a Sugar Maple or Red Maple tree.

Do not use a copper tree spile. Copper can be toxic to trees and plants.

Trees produce sap all year long, but the best times for extraction are between February and March, and between September and November.

Tap trees when outdoor temperatures are averaging around 40 degrees Fahrenheit during the day, and no less than 20 degrees Fahrenheit during the night.

Wait until Maple Trees are at least a foot in diameter before you tap them. A tree this size is around 40 years old.

If sap is running well, you will have to check your container multiple times a day to ensure it does not overflow unless you use a larger bucket. A 5-gallon bucket will likely require a single checkup per day.

How to Tap a Tree:

1. Mark your drill bit at 2 ½ inches with your tape. You only want to drill this far into the tree.

2. Find the side of the tree that faces southeast.

3. Drill a hole at a marginally upward angle, 2 ½ inches into the tree.

4. Use your string or rope to tie your bucket to the tree beneath your tap.

5. Clear out the bark debris in the hole and insert your spile or tap.

6. Tap the spile the rest of the way into the hole using your rubber mallet or hammer.

7. Collect your sap on a daily basis.

8. Store in an air-tight container in a cool, dry place.

Is It Cheaper to Buy Or Build a House?

After years of working hard, you become financially stable, and decided to buy your own space which you can call your home. But then your mind is split whatever you're gonna buy a readable unit or you're going to have it built.

Readily constructed houses

Most new home buyers like the convenience offered by pre-constructed or existing homes. After the lender's pre-approval, you're ready to browse through many options. You can then prepare your shortlist and trim it until you're left with the best option according to your preferences. After which, you can make your offer.

If you're somehow confused with the options you see, real estate agents can help with an easy flow to pick the best existing home for you. They can assist you with negotiations. They can also help you with the associated paperwork.

In general, offers made for existing homes are closed in two months. Then, you can conveniently move in and start a new chapter of your life.

In many cases, costs of existing homes prove to be lower than having to build one from scratch. However, this may not be true at all times. Costs are still dependent on several factors such as location.

Another advantage of buying an existing home is the opportunity to belong to an established community. With this comes associated advantages of being near schools, lifestyle centers, and government centers. There is also a high chance that an existing home has already a preset for a grown landscape for gardens or lawns. You'll have no worry of the task of growing plants and ornaments.

However, there are some drawbacks with existing homes. Because they are readily made, you have to settle with its features and how the house parts are constructed. You may want to have a master's bedroom. You may want a large kitchen, but what's available is one with a smaller size than your preference.

Building your own house

Because of the complexities of getting functionalities matched, there are also new home buyers who prefer to build their own homes. You can carry out your own designs and have the house parts constructed according to your exact needs. However, the task alone of finding the land where to construct it is already daunting. But of course, if you have the patience and enough will power, you can find one which suits your choice of area. This means you can opt for a land which offers an overlooking view or perhaps one in a beachfront.

A new home can also prove to be more efficient in energy usage. This is because, the construction has to comply with new energy efficiency codes.

New homes may also prove to be healthier than existing homes. It can be constructed with materials that are safe for your family's health. It can be made free of molds, asbestos, and lead paint.

The largest drawback to new construction homes is associated with their costs. They are generally higher in price than existing homes. You have to spend for the construction materials, labor, furnishing, and other extra costs. You also have to wait longer before you can move in. But, you can have a defect sense of satisfaction after it is constructed.

Whether it is an existing home or a new construction home you want to become your home, real estate agents in your area can always extend assistance.

Characteristics of a Modern Office Interior Design

A conventional workplace is no longer the norm, as many companies around the world are seeking more creative interiors for their offices. As a result, most of the top corporate organisations have given up the traditional concept of having plain walls and individual cubicles. Instead, they are opting for an office interior design that creates a more open work environment, where their employees can simply plug in their laptops anywhere to do their work. A creative interior design can help the overall environment in the offices as they fulfil the following purposes:

Encourage an Open Work Culture: Today, many businesses are letting go of the traditional concept of individual offices and are introducing more creative and stylish work spaces for their employees. One such revolutionary concept is an office without walls. It encourages transparency and team spirit, whilst making it easier for managers to supervise their sub-ordinates and communicate with them.

Ensure Optimum Utilisation of Space: At times, there is a possibility that a workplace may occupy less space than the original planned work area. No organisation would want to pay for the extra space, and besides, many businesses today allow most of their employees to work from home. This is the reason why it is necessary to plan the required amount of space before designing the office interiors.

Create a Warm and Friendly Reception Area: When clients visit the office of a business enterprise, the reception area is the place that they see first. The reception will create an image of the organisation in the client’s mind and can also leave the client with a lasting impression. It is, therefore, essential for businesses to get the reception area of their offices designed in a way that creates a professional and welcoming atmosphere.

Provide Some Private Spaces: Having an open design is a great idea, but certain private spaces may be required for a private meeting between a manager and sub-ordinate or for an interview. Such spaces would also help some individuals at times to work without any distractions and enable them to be more focused on their work, thus enhancing their productivity.

Inspire Positive Employee Behaviour: It is easier for companies to inspire a particular behaviour in their employees by incorporating certain elements into the office design. Installing recycling stations throughout the office would encourage employees to recycle. A centralised breakout area would encourage employees to build relationships and bond with each other during their breaks.

Allow Flexibility of Space: Keeping the workplace as flexible as possible can be helpful when it comes to adding new employees. Dividers can be used to increase or decrease the space between work stations. The organisation can buy desks and tables that facilitate easy movements, while certain areas lying vacant can be used for team meetings.

When an organisation wants to create a new office or remodel the existing one, the emphasis must be on flexibility, productivity and creativity with less clutter. Hiring an interior design consultancy that uses holistic design principles and the latest technologies in their projects would help companies to create great office interiors.

How to Notch Wood by Hand Easily and Quickly

Incorporating notches in woodworking is something I recommended in a previous article called "Why Wood Notching – Tips and Benefits", but in this article I'm going to cover the step by step process you can use to actually do the job. There are several tools and methods you can choose from to accomplish this task, and I'll be listing them below for your reference:

  • Good ol 'hammer and chisel. This method has been around for a very long time, but its presence has not diminished. When all is said and done, power tools can do many things faster, but there are just those times when the job still requires a hammer and chisel.
  • Router. By setting the depth on a plunge router to the desired depth, you can simply "plunge" down into the work-piece and quickly remove a uniform depth. But unless you have a template set up, you'll have to stop shy of the outer edge and finish it off by hand – aka hammer and chisel.
  • Circular saw. By setting the saw blade to the desired depth and slicing perpendicular to the grain, you can make a series of parallel cuts 2 or 3 millimeters apart. After making the required cuts, you simply "knock" and chisel the thin slices of wood out. Note that this method is only practical when slicing perpendicular to the grain (as cuts parallel to the grain would make the clean removal of remaining slices impractical), and when slicing straight across the board.
  • Power drill. This method is only practical when needing to notch out rather deep notches. Any notches under an inch in depth should be done with a router, as there's just more control that way. However, when needing to go deep, there may not be any other way than to use a drill.

All the above methods have one thing in common. That is that they all need a hammer and chisel to finish the job. Ideally, you've tried to set things up so the power tool can do the whole thing, and there are times when this is feasible. If you're not sure the exact same profile repeatedly, you should probably think about rigging up a template of some kind so your router can rip through the entire notch.

But in cases where this is not feasible, for any number of reasons, you should be prepared to pull out your good ol 'hammer and chisel. Most carpenters will have several chisels of different sizes and depending on the size of your notch, you'll need to pick one out accordingly. And due to the fact that two bodies will be colliding rather forcefully (hammer hitting chisel), you should work on a table that can take the expected impact without too much "jump".

  1. Start by measuring and cutting your lines on your work-piece with a cutter knife. That's right, cut your lines. You may already know this technique, but for those who do not, cutting your lines as opposed to drawing them, makes for far more accurate dimensioning. This is of course, limited to lines that will be cut so as to render the damage the cut line caused irrelevant. Pay particular attention when cutting along the grain – it's very easy to get pelled along the grain. The first few passes should be light, gradually increasing in pressure.
  2. Now you can begin removing the material within the marked lines. My first choice for shallow notches – in the half-inch neighborhood – is the router. Take your router, set the depth, and slowly plunge down into the work-piece. Remove the material as close to the marked line as possible after which you can finish it with a hammer and chisel.
  3. Being that you made your marks with a cutter knife, you simply place your chisel into the conveniently prepared cut line – another excellent reason for using a cutter knife for marking. This ensures that the outer boundaries of the notch are clean and straight – as that's the part people will be seeing. The base of the notch should be perfectly flat due to the precision of the router with only the edges slightly rough from the chiseling.

And there you have it! If you do not have the luxury of a router or any power tools , you can still incorporate the basic principles above. You'll just have to chisel the whole thing out by hand instead of relying on the amazingly fast and accurate mechanical wonder called the router. Well hey, people have been using hammers and chisels for generations before the advent of power tools and they've gotten along just fine.

Martin Bormann – A New Body of Evidence

When anyone mentions the name Martin Bormann most baby-boomers will know who he was, they will also be quick to tell you that even though there was a wild goose chase across the globe to find him, he certainly died in 1945, proved they say, by the finding of his bones in Berlin in 1972. Martin Bormann Hitler’s right hand man and chancellor, the man that controlled all of the vast Nazi loot was tried in absentia in October 1946 at the Nuremberg trials. Found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death by hanging, Bormann evaded the noose due to his mysterious disappearance.

Two Nazi witnesses at the Nuremberg trials testified to the fact that they had seen Bormann and fellow Nazi, Dr Ludwig Stumpfegger dead, only hours after fleeing the bunker where Hitler had supposedly put a bullet through his brain. One going as far as to say that he had even seen Bormann’s dead ”moonlit face”.

From 1945 the hunt for Martin Bormann was on. During the confusion of those early post war years, the West German government kept the heat up, but UKUSA’s ‘hunt’ was only, If anything, luke-warm. A concentrated search effort had been made in 1945 around the site of the supposed ‘moonlit’ scenario of Bormann and Stumpfegger, with who he was last seen alive. With the advantage of hordes of allied troops on the ground to co-ordinate a thorough search, no stone was left unturned. The same was done independently by a Russian recon group, after Lieutenant General Konstantin Telegin, of the Soviet 5th Shock Army was delivered of a diary said to be of Bormann’s, found near the same site.

In those early post war years, it was not yet a ‘cold case’, with memories still fresh and the ground still soft. Any such corpses although decomposed, would have certainly been on, or near the surface and easily identifiable with the minimum of forensics; but not as much as a scrap of flesh was found of either man. At least they had some disputable charred remains of Hitler, but the bodies of Bormann and Stumpfegger had literally vanished into thin air, along with the Nazi loot.

But after construction workers came across human remains near the Lehrter station in Berlin in 1972, the world’s press gathered to hear if this was indeed Bormann. Bormann’s Nazi dentist Dr Hugo Blaschke was called and he recalled from memory his former patient’s dental physiology and gave testimony that they were one and the same, the case was closed. It was not until 1998 that due to modern science the remains were subjected to a DNA forensic study by the West German prosecutor. The reason for this new 1998 investigation was that in 1996 Christopher Creighton, aka John Ainsworth-Davis a former British Naval Intelligence agent and member of the covert British group C.O.P.P (Combined Operations Pilotage Parties) had published a book, OPJB(Operation James Bond). In the book, Creighton using a pseudonym claims that along with Ian Fleming, he was instructed by Winston Churchill and Desmond Morton the head of Secret British intelligence section V to rescue Martin Bormann from a burning Berlin in May 1945. The book, passed off as a novel to protect Creighton from serious breach consequences of the Official Secrets Act unsettled the German government so much that a thorough forensics and DNA investigation was carried out on the remains. The forensic results came back after the legal medical team matched blood from a Bormann relative, the match was positive.

A confirmation of the remains being those of Bormann was released to the world’s press, along with the statement that Martin Bormann had certainly died in 1945 at the site his remains were found.

Due to the 1998 DNA confirmation of the Skeleton, Modern historians teach their students that stories of Bormann escaping to South America are false, nothing more than the rantings of conspiracy theorists and madmen. Investigative journalists and even former intelligence agents have been continually slandered after they have released information to the contrary, that there has been a cover up by the western allies, that not only did Bormann escape, but his escape was orchestrated by the British intelligence services with the support of the United States government.

Anyone that dares to raise any questions as to the true dynamics of Bormann’s disappearance and death, are discredited based only on the DNA match which confirm the remains as being Bormann. But why are there such conflicting stories between the official version and the version by those that have seriously investigated this strange case for decades? Bormann’s remains were found in 1972, but did he really die in 1945? And what exactly is at stake if the facts were proved that he died much later than we are led to believe? Even though his remains were found in 1972 in Berlin, it does not mean that his body had lain there since 1945 and there is no evidence to suggest such. In fact, there is more evidence to suggest foul play by the British and American intelligence services, that Bormann did escape and after his death in the late 1960’s his remains were carefully reburied in the place history likes to believe he fell.

On the publication of the 1998 Bormann DNA report, London’s Daily Expresscalled it a ‘whitewash’. Later the author of the article, Stewart Steven a very experienced foreign editor of the Daily Express, who was hands on involved with a thorough Bormann investigation was sacked 6 days later after he was accused of publishing a ‘hoax’.

If we now suspect, contrary to the official version that Kennedy was certainly not shot by a lone gunman, why is it so hard to swallow that Bormann escaped with the help of British intelligence. After all, numerous Nazi officers who were participant in the brutal slavery of concentration camp prisoners were snapped up by the USA after the war, many of whom were made post WWII heroes in the American scientific community. Notorious Nazi Klaus Barbie known as the ‘Butcher of Lyon’ was tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to death in absentia. Yet it is documented that Barbie was protected and formally employed in 1947 by the U.S Army Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) and later by the CIA to set up the Western Intelligence Network to keep tabs on communist threat. This was a major and shocking betrayal by the USA as to the allied Nuremberg trial sentencing of Barbie. When the French government discovered that the USA were protecting Barbie, they requested he be immediately handed over for execution under international law. The USA flatly refused and consequently gave Barbie a new identity and shipped him off to Bolivia. If the USA could blatantly fly in the face of the International Nuremberg trials death sentence which they were actively participant in by protecting a psychopathic killer such as Barbie, why is it so unacceptable to believe that the allies would rescue Martin Bormann, the man with access to the hidden Nazi funds?

Between 1945 and 1965 there were numerous sightings of Bormann. Bormann’s former personal chauffeur, Jakob Glas, said that he had seen Bormann in Munich months after May 1945 as did many others.

Paul Manning, author, intelligence expert and former war correspondent claimed along with others that Bormann escaped. When Manning tried to publish his extensively researched 1981 book ‘Martin Bormann Nazi in exile’, he was menacingly threatened. After finally getting a renegade publisher to agree to publish his work, within two weeks the publisher had his legs broken in a vicious and anonymous attack and shortly after Manning’s son was mysteriously murdered. In fact Manning’s story is very much in line with the former British Intel officer and author of OPJB. Christopher Creighton states that Bormann escaped, as does Former WWII British army General and war crimes investigator, Ian Bell. Bell can be seen on YouTube telling us that he saw Bormann being taken to a ship in Genoa and when he radioed back to his HQ command, he was told to follow but ”do not apprehend”.

Contrary to the survival story being told by those considered ”crazy conspiracy theorists”, there are many highly qualified and well versed investigators and former intelligence agents that tell us the story we teach our children at school is just that, a story.

Hugh Thomas, surgeon, international forensic expert and author of the 1995 book Doppelgängers wrote extensively about the Bormann forensics investigation that suggest Bormann died later than 1945. According to Jonathan Glancey of The Guardian, Thomas’s ”scalpel-sharp eye for detail” and second investigative work Hess: A Tale of Two Murders, ”precipitated a six-month Scotland Yard inquiry that saw its report immediately suppressed.” Thomas confirms that the original Bormann medical reports in 1972 released only some and not all the information found under the microscope. While it is true the dentistry of the skull found was identified as Bormann, the official report failed to reveal to the public that there was dentistry performed in the skull, which could only have been done in the 1950’s due to the technology used. A man that died in 1945 is certainly not going to go to the dentist in 1950. Also, the skull ”found” in Berlin was encased in a ‘red clay’ type earth, exotic to Germany but local to a place in Paraguay, the very place that many investigators have traced Bormann to in his last years. Those last year’s being as late as 1969. Reinhardt Gehlen former senior Nazi, Cold war spymaster and head of the West German intelligence network, also claimed that Bormann escaped to South America and died in Paraguay.

But probably some of the most disturbing work comes from Ladislas Farago. In 1974, Farago a brilliant military historian, WWII war correspondent and former civilian naval intelligence officer, published ‘Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich.’ Farago, after a long and painstaking investigation on the ground in South America, much of which was spent accessing classified Argentine intelligence documents, presented his evidence including copies of said documents in his book. Not only did Farago examine and get the classified documents he accessed authenticated, he called in a team to join him on the ground in Buenos Aires to witness and document the authentication of such. The formidable 1972 Buenos Aires team with Farago included former intelligence operative and practicing new York attorney Joel Weinberg, Stewart Steven the Foreign Editor of the London Daily Express and four top Argentine attorneys; Dr. Guillermo Macia Ray, Dr. Jaime Joaquin Rodriguez, Dr. Silvio Frondizi the brother of the former President of Argentina and Horacio A. Perillo, the former legal aid to the Argentine President Frondizi. Farago and his teams conclusion were that Martin Bormann certainly escaped Europe in 1945 with the help of the allies and went on to South America where he survived for many years, many of which in Argentina. Even though Farago and his team were highly qualified to make an intelligent and thorough analysis and investigation on the documents made available to them, Farago’s publication was ignored and serious attempts were made to discredit him and the other members of the team. Precedence had been set, when it came to stating or even suggesting Bormann had survived, even experts like Farago, who was also the world’s leading expert on propaganda and clandestine psychological forms of espionage at the time, was not safe from character assassination, ridicule and criticism. It is blatant there were those that were determined to keep the 1945 Bormann death myth in force and such suppression of evidence continues to this day.

But not everyone ignored Farago’s book. The content and evidence produced by Farrago was so compelling that it attracted the attention of Dr. Robert M.W. Kempner, a former Nuremberg trial attorney who decided to reopen the Bormann investigation, based on Farago’s documentary evidence of survival.

Farago, Manning, Thomas and Kempner, are sadly long gone, but the Bormann investigation is far from a cold case, as a new generation of investigative journalists have reopened the dusty Bormann files and have enthusiastically picked up from where their predecessors departed. Recent research reveals that the Federal police archives in Argentina show that the FBI were sending agents to Argentina to follow the Bormann case and his financial trails well into the 1980’s. New elderly witnesses, who till recently refused to talk have also come forward in the past 3 years and startling new evidence has come to light that cannot be ignored and may very well lead to the undisputable discovery that Bormann did escape and lived for many years in South America with the protection of the allies.

One important witness is a former military ADC to Argentine General Juan Peron. This high ranking internationally decorated military officer had been the ADC to 7 Argentine presidents, a close personal friend of Chilean President Pinochet and was the sub chief of the tough Argentine Federal secret police and prominently involved in the dismantling of the Argentine narcotics traffic in the 1990’s. His taped testimony given in 2010 on the premise that it could only be revealed after his death to protect his family is that he met Martin Bormann frequently in Buenos Aires in late 1952 and till the end of 1953. He also testifies that on the instructions of Peron, he organised the personal security for Bormann and escorted him to various meetings in Argentina. This highly credible witness also tells us that Bormann had been installed in a famous luxury hotel in Buenos Aires throughout 1953 which was owned by Germans. The ADC also testifies that he was sent on a weekly basis to collect the Bormann bill from the hotel concierge which he was instructed to take directly to Peron, who paid the bill from his personal bank accounts. This man asked for nothing in exchange for his testimony, all he requested was that the truth be finally known after his death. The official died in 2012 and his testimony is now ready for publication.

Another recent elderly witness with ties to the FBI and CIA, is a former Naval Captain who was in charge of the security for the port of Buenos Aires. He tells us that not only was it common knowledge, but it is documented in the classified Federal police archives that Bormann was certainly living in Argentina in the 50’s and that the CIA were in Argentina keeping close tabs on Bormann’s South American movements as late as 1967.

The most controversy surrounds the author of the 1996 book OPJB. Christopher Creighton writes that he was instructed by Lord Louis Mountbatten and Winston Churchill to reveal the truth of all the ops in which he was participant, 25 years after the death of both. According to Creighton, OPJB is not only the title of the book, but the operational code name given to the plan to rescue Bormann from Berlin. Documents have been seen and recently photographed which were written to Creighton from Lord Louis Mountbatten in 1976 which prove Creighton was not only certainly working for British Naval intelligence at the very highest level, but that Creighton was Desmond Morton’s Godson. This new evidence puts in grave doubt spy writer Nigel West’s claims that Christopher Creighton is a ”charlatan”. There are also letters from James Bond author Ian Fleming to Creighton which testify to OPJB, the highly covert operation as being fact and that he based his James Bond Character on Creighton’s covert naval operations. How did Fleming know? Because according to verified letters from Fleming to Creighton, Fleming was not only part of the operation while he was a Royal Naval commander under the command of Desmond Morton for the British secret service, but he was the commander in charge of the rescue. A British factual film company, Christopher Robin Media Ltd, have in their possession an as yet unpublished 2013 interview of Creighton recorded only weeks before his death. The startling interview gives never before revealed details of various highly covert British Naval intelligence operations, including the assassination of French Admiral Francois Darlan and the operation to remove Martin Bormann from Berlin.

In 2007 a lady whose name cannot be revealed at this time, came forward to investigators with a story that she had been born in a German clinic in Brazil. This five foot two, blonde, green eyed lady was found to be a well balanced, well educated and discreet and trustworthy member of her community, a far cry from a publicity seeking delusional self promoter. Her adoptive father was a senior naval officer for the Santa Dominican republican dictator Trujillo. She claims her adoptive father was entrusted with her in 1953 the year of her birth, after he was in Brazil negotiating arms deals between the Santa Dominican Republic government and the German arms factories in the Brazilian jungle. In 1984 she contacted the Simon Wiesenthal centre after her adoptive father revealed on his death bed that she was the daughter of ”one of Germany’s three greatest men”. Extremely distressed at this death bed revelation and wondering who it could possibly be, she with her attorney approached the Simon Wiesenthal Centre for help. Within weeks her attorney was anonymously threatened with his life and he immediately dropped her representation after the SWC aggressively told him that they were not able to help and would not investigate due to ”lack of funds”. An unusual response from a wealthy organisation that’s main objective has been to track down Nazi war criminals. Even Simon Wiesenthal himself believed till his death in 2005, a full 7 years after the 1998 DNA analysis that Bormann escaped and was frequently outspoken against the official version. It is shocking and detrimental to Wiesenthal’s memory, that those that now head the very organisation founded in his name have obstructed investigations and ridicule others that believe what Wiesenthal believed, Bormann escaped.

Those currently investigating the story feel that if Bormann did escape, then the adopted woman may very well be the daughter of Martin Bormann, not only because of the mysterious dynamics surrounding her birth, but photos of her, the officials involved, the timing of her birth and the fact investigators believe Bormann was in Brazil with Dr Joseph Mengele in the 1952. Recent photos of her son show an uncanny similarity of her son with Martin Bormann’s eldest son Adolf. Access to the true DNA of Bormann is now vital to make a comparison.

The British investigator of this case contacted the SWC in 2010 to request access to the file held by them on Martin Bormann. The investigator was stalled and the SWC refused to help by giving her access to the files. Rather like the famous Anna Anderson and Russian Grand Duchess Anastasia case, all efforts to access information on official files to see if this adopted woman has Bormann DNA have failed. Even if one did access the DNA in the Files held by the various agencies, who is to know whether the DNA profiles held in the official files are indeed those of Martin Bormann? If Bormann did indeed escape, those that covered it up are going to go to enormous lengths to hide any incriminating evidence. Bonafide DNA profiles of Bormann would be the last thing they would leave hanging around. The investigator leading this case is are now seeking genuine close Martin Bormann blood relatives to come forward, to not only cross match with the woman, but also to cross match with the DNA profiles supposedly used to identify Bormann in 1998 and those held in official and public files. Of course if this woman does have Bormann DNA and being born in a German clinic in Brazil in 1953, it will once and for all put to bed the mystery and will vindicate all those that have sacrificed much to reveal what they believed to be the truth. Could that truth be that Martin Bormann escaped and went on to manage the vast funds accumulated by Nazi Germany with the help of Britain and the USA? And according to recent research, those vast funds were probably laundered through and invested into over 750 international companies with or without Bormann.

Since 1972, ‘official’ historians and academics have spun their tales and told the world that Bormann certainly died near the Lehrter station in the early hours of May 2 1945. This oral history is based on no more than unreliable witnesses, two of which were Nazi’s and a DNA match to a skeleton found in 1972. DNA may prove that the remains are those of Bormann, but there is more evidence to prove that he was alive for at least 25 years after 1945. 25 years, in which he could have managed the vast Nazi wealth, including cash, gold, stocks, bonds, shares and priceless works of art. After all, with all the modern banking forensics available to date, not one single intelligence agency or government claims that the vast, fat, booty has been found! Or has it? Yet it has been officially written, printed, signed sealed and delivered, even into our children’s history lessons. Martin Bormann died in 1945 de-facto, the loot disappeared and anyone that tells you different is a deluded ‘conspiracy theorist’.

Proving once and for all with new testimony, documentation and forensic science that Hitler’s handler, Martin Bormann survived, will redeem many damaged reputations and will certainly bury the myth and cause many a red face in the high end academic ”history” community. But more importantly, it will open a very nasty can of worms and raise many more complicated and embarrassing questions to those agencies and governments that will have knowingly perpetrated the Bormann death myth for the past 70 years.

ENDS

How to Adjust Cabinet Doors That Will Not Close

Every once in a while we have been challenged with trying to adjust a customer’s kitchen or bathroom cabinet doors that will not close. There are several reasons for this. Perhaps I can address your particular situation and offer a solution to the problem.

Freestanding Units
If you are working with a “freestanding” cupboard that is not fastened to the wall, your problem could be that the cabinet is racked out of kilter. Push on the top left or right side of the unit and see if it helps the situation any. If it does, you will need to place shims underneath the bottom of one corner of the cabinet. This is going to be a process of trial and error to get the unit situated correctly. If it is setting on carpet, the culprit may be the tack strip that is installed right next to the wall.

The Door Closes But One Corner Sticks Out
This particular situation usually involves the top or bottom hinge being adjusted too far out or in. If it is the top corner of the door that is sticking out, then either the top hinge needs to be adjusted in toward the cupboard face or the bottom hinge must be moved out away from the cabinet face.

The Entire Edge of the Door Sticks Past the One Next to it
Another possible situation might be that when the cabinet door is closed it has a tendency to slightly reopen along the entire edge of the door. If this is the case, both hinges may need to be adjusted toward you, away from the cabinet face. What is happening is the inside of the door is binding on the cupboard face and will not allow it to close completely.

Older Wood Cupboard Doors
Many of the older style wood door kitchen cabinets were designed to have magnetic catches installed to keep the doors closed. Look to see if you have them on any of the interior areas of your cabinets. The door that is not staying closed may either need a new catch or the existing one slightly adjusted.

Do You Hear a Clicking Noise
Sometimes there’s a plastic piece that finally beaks on the interior parts of the hinges. This problem happens on several different hinge styles. There are European concealed hinges that do this and externally mounted decorative hinges. The only way to remedy the problem correctly is to install new hinges. An alternative would be to install a magnetic catch. Obviously, this would not eliminate the clicking sound.

A couple of years ago, the Blum company had a defective piece that would go bad on their concealed European hinges after about five to ten years of use. It was noticeable by the clicking sound that was made every time the door was opened or closed. The doors would often be very difficult to close or open as well. Luckily for many homeowners, the hinges have a lifetime guarantee. The company has since corrected the problem.

Something Inside of the Cabinet is Sticking Out
Believe it or not, sometimes there’s a dish that is just slightly too deep for the cabinet and the door hits it.

Usually it takes a limited amount of tools to adjust cabinet doors. A Phillip’s or flat-head screwdriver is about all that is required. In a case where you need to install magnetic catches an electric or cordless drill will make the task go smoother. If you are dealing with a clicking set of hinges, you will most definitely need to have a power drill on hand.

Pipe Welding Certification Tests – UA Welding Tests

The United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA) identifies their standard pipe welding tests with the letters UA, a dash, and then a number. Like UA-1, UA-2, etc.

There is a list available that goes all the way to UA-92. That does not mean there are only 92 tests ever given. There are many more possibilities but the Pipe fitters Union (UA) had to go all the way to # 92 to identify the most common pipe tests. However, this does serve as kind of an example to how many possibilities exist for pipe welding certification tests.

With 4 different welding processes used for pipe welding (Gas Metal Arc / GMAW, Flux Core Arc / FCAW, Shielded Metal Arc / SMAW, and Gas Tungsten Arc / GTAW) and several different metal groups being welded (like carbon steel, stainless steel, and even aluminum), its no wonder so many different pipe welding certification tests are required to certify welders for the scope of work being done on a job or job site.

ASME Section IX is a commonly referred to document in pipe welding used to determine welder certification requirements as well as qualification limitations.

Some of the common limitations are thickness, position, and diameter of pipe.

For example a welder passing a tig welding certification test on 2 inch schedule 80 pipe in a 6G position is qualified to weld 1 inch and greater diameter pipe, up to 436″ thick and in all positions.

But a welder passing a test on 6″ schedule 40 in a 6G position is qualified to weld in all positions but only up to.560″ thick and only down to 2.875″ pipe diameter.

If you are reading this and are wonder what rectal database they pulled these numbers from, I am with you on that. Its seems kind of silly that once you have.560″ of filler metal deposited, that you are not qualified to put more.

I am just saying.

Hacksaw, Handles & Blades – No, You Don’t Know How to Use One

Hacksaws are one of the most common hand tools. Nearly everyone owns one, and if you don’t have one, you need to buy one. Hacksaws are inexpensive and very economical to use. But most of you never use it because the one time you tried to use it things didn’t go well. You broke the hacksaw blade, the blade kept falling out of the handle, or it kept getting stuck in the piece you were trying to cut. If you did manage to get the piece cut, it took forever and the cut ended up crooked.

The main reasons most people have difficulty when sawing metal with a hacksaw are:

You have the blade in wrong

You aren’t using a sharp blade

There is too much flex in the blade

The number of teeth is to low for the project

You are putting too much pressure on the saw

You don’t clamp the work.

I will cover each of these difficulties as you and I go through this article.

Hacksaws and hacksaw blades are designed to cut metal (I will tell you how to use it to cut wood and plastic) and most people find cutting metal very difficult and frustrating. The reason, most of the time, is that they don’t really know how to use the metal hacksaw.

What is a Hacksaw?

A hacksaw is a metal frame designed to hold a tempered metal blade. The blade is typically 1/2 inch high and the majority of them are 12 inches long. The blade has a hole on each end that fits into pins on the hacksaw. Hacksaws are designed to cut on the push stroke. The handle (grip) on a properly designed saw is angled just right so you put a little pressure on the blade when you push it through the material you are cutting. Even though some so-called “experts” will tell you that you can put the blade in the other way a hacksaw does not work well if you have the blade in backwards.

Do you need a Hacksaw?

You can cut almost anything with a hacksaw. Although it was designed to cut metal, you can use it to cut plastic, wood, metal tubing, aluminum, copper, and brass. It works very well to cut electrical tubing (conduit), BMX (flexible metal tubing), plastic water pipe, (PVT & CVT) and even nuts and bolts. You can use it to cut a 2X4 in a pinch and with the right blade porcelain tile.

Setting up the Hacksaw to Cut.

Step 1. Determine which blade you will use to cut the material. Use a 32 t.p.i. blade for conduit, an 18 tooth blade for cutting off a bolt or plastic pipe and an 8 tooth for wood. In practice you want at least three teeth in contact with the material at any time. If you are cutting deeper than the depth of the blade use a blade that has wavy teeth. The wavy blade leaves a wider slot (kerf) that keeps the blade from sticking in the groove you are cutting.

You can use it to cut wood. It will cut a lot slower than a wood saw, but it works if you don’t have anything else. Use a 8 or 10 tooth blade and mark the cut line on the board both horizontally and vertically. Use the horizontal mark to make you initial cut (groove) and the vertical mark to keep your cut straight. Take your time and don’t put a lot of pressure on the hacksaw.

Step 2. Insert the blade so that the teeth are pointing forward. If you can’t see this, rub your finger gently over the teeth of the blade.

You will feel the teeth “grip” your finger. Put the blade so it grips when you push the saw. The holes of the blade go into the pins on the bottom of the frame. Many hacksaws are designed to take different length blades so if you have an adjustable frame you may have to shorten or lengthen the frame to fit your blade.

The teeth should try to “grab” your finger when pushed. If they don’t feel sharp, the blade is dull and should be replaced. Blades are inexpensive so don’t be afraid to replace it.

Step 3. Tighten the thumbscrew until you can’t turn it with your hand (Hand tight) This amount of tension on the blade should keep the blade from bowing as you cut. Sometimes when I am have problems with the blade falling off, I will tighten it another 1/4 turn with a pliers.

Ok, Let’s Cut Something.

I am going to use a metal pipe for this example. It is easy to cut and once you get a little experience using the hacksaw, cutting metal will be a breeze.

To really use a hacksaw well you need to clamp your work. I have a vise on a workbench that I usually use.

If you don’t have a vise, screw a 2X4 onto your bench and hold the pipe against the 2X4 with your left hand. When possible use a vise or clamp to secure the metal you want to cut.

Step 1. To use a hacksaw properly, grip the frame with both hands. (I am right handed so I grab the handle with my right hand and use my left hand to hold the other end of the saw.) Hold the hacksaw so that your right hand index finger is pointing ahead to help guide the saw. As you push the blade (forward stroke) use your left hand to guide the saw so that it cuts straight. DO NOT use your left hand to apply pressure, just use it to guide your cut. Use most of the blade. If you apply pressure on the forward stroke with your left hand the teeth will usually grab too much and the saw will “stick”. Again a hacksaw handle is angled to give you the proper down pressure on the blade.

Step 2. When you get to the end of the forward stroke, stop and pull the saw back with your right hand. As you pull back don’t apply any pressure with your right hand. (It only cuts in the forward direction and putting pressure on the return stroke will just wear out the blade prematurely). A lot of teachers will make you lift the saw on the return stroke so you don’t destroy the blade. Move your body forward and back as you cut, pressing on the forward stroke and easing off on the return one.

Step 3. Repeat this until you saw all the way through the pipe. With a little practice you will be able to cut at about 1 stroke every second. Don’t stroke any faster than this because it will create too much heat and again wear out the blade prematurely.

Don’t put too much pressure on the blade. You may have to break a blade or two before you get the feel of how much pressure you can apply. Don’t worry, they are cheap. Don’t saw too quickly as that can cause the blade to break as well. Always check to make sure that the blade is secured tightly in its frame.

Reviews. Or Don’t buy one at Wally World

Believe it or not, I could tell you a lot more about using a hacksaw, but this is enough to get you cutting properly. Buy a good quality hacksaw I recommend on my website. Even the cheap one I recommend is good quality and will last you years. With a quality saw it won’t take long before you get good at using one.

DON’T buy a cheap one at the local dollar store. Why? The hacksaw handle has to be strong enough to keep the blade tensioned correctly and the cheap ones will give you nothing but years of frustration. Also buy a hacksaw with the handle tilted like the Stanley 150565. Some hacksaws have a straight handle and are very hard to use for a beginner.

Blades are cheap, so buy a box of them in at least two “teeth” numbers (32 teeth for metal conduit and 18 teeth for solid steel, plastic pipe and general use. But don’t buy cheap blades. The cheap blades are too brittle and you will end up breaking a lot of them. A good hacksaw blade cuts on it’s own with very little pressure from you so change the blades as soon as they get dull. To tell if a blade is dull pull your finger over the blade. If it is still sharp the teeth will try to “catch” on your finger. A dull blade won’t. I prefer Milwaukee blades because they will flex without breaking, and last a long, long time compared to the cheap blades. Better yet, buy two inexpensive hacksaws and keep different blades on each. Dull, worn blades take a lot of work to cut an item, so change them as often as you would a utility knife or razor blade.

Follow the link below for ToolBoxHero to buy your new Hacksaw, read reviews and get more information:

Give Your Electric Guitar A Performance Upgrade

If you happen to be a keen guitar player and treasure your particular axe of choice, you’ll no doubt at some stage have contemplated the most effective way to offer your guitar a performance upgrade. So what possibilities may be out there that won’t involve butchering the guitar and are comparatively straightforward to undertake? Needless to say, if your guitar is a costly model there is every probability that it sported top of the range components, but let us assume for the sake of this particular article, that it is a mid-price to budget model.

The most clear and audible improvement can be had in the pickup area. The materials and the production process of some stock pickups may be less than great, which is reflected by the sound. Some really great replacement humbucking pickups and single coil pickups are available from the big-name companies and additionally some smaller boutique pickup makers. Replacement pickups are generally produced with a more hands-on approach and bespoke versions are offered by several of them.

In my opinion, another early port of call are the original machine heads or tuners. Often the stock tuners are not that great and are maufactured with less good materials. If your guitar is struggling to keep in tune then this is a must (check that your pickups are not too close to the strings as the magnets can occasionally cause tuning issues). You might also just fancy the quality feel and functionality of a top of the range set of tuners. Schaller are an organization who make superb examples for the many various kinds of guitar around.

In case your guitar arrived with a plastic nut then this could also benefit massively from an upgrade. You can buy a new ready-made nut in many different materials such as brass or graphite, or if you are handy with a file you may be confident enough to cut and file a new nut out of bone. This is not the most simple upgrade and the procedure is beyond the scope of this article. Search on line for additional information on this upgrade.

The bridge and tailpiece is another area worthy of consideration. Quite often guitars come with cheaply manufactured versions from China or Korea and impressive gains can be had by utilising versions made from lightweight aluminium and other fancy materials. Again the Schaller range is worth looking at.

There are some other simple upgrades for example changing the standard strap buttons with strap locks to keep your guitar secure if standing and playing, those talked about above are the most essential.

If you really want to go all out there are companies out there who will give your guitar a complete refinish in whatever colour you would like. Not everyone’s cup of tea but if that normal sunburst finish is no longer cutting it for you, this may well be just what you need.

Best of luck!

Facts About Baby Safety Gates

We cannot deny that people nowadays are busier and usually have a lot of things on their minds. They may not intend to, but parents sometimes neglect to look after their kids. Some of them have a lot of things to do around the house that looking after their toddler every minute of the day is impossible. Leaving a child alone in the room while the doors are closed is not a proper thing to do, especially since something might happen and you might not hear your child crying for help because the door muffles the sound. But you can’t leave the child alone and just hope that he doesn’t go someplace he shouldn’t while you’re away, too.

The answer to such problems is simple: get a baby safety gate. Baby safety gates are among the most useful innovations today. It allows you to secure your child in one room, while also making sure that you can hear the kid if ever he cries or calls you out. If you are interested in purchasing baby safety gates, here are some facts you need to know first.

The first fact is that there are two major types of baby safety gates available to you. These two are the hardware-mounted type, and the pressure-based type. The first one is aimed at being placed on foundations that are strong and can hold even if an adult tries to force it. The latter one uses pressure on both sides to maintain the lock, but it can be removed by forcing the sides together. It uses springs to enforce a locking system on walls or on door frames. If you want removable baby safety gates, pressure-based ones are fit for you.

The second fact about baby safety gates is that they are typically made out of either of three materials: wood, metal or plastic. Wooden gates are aesthetically pleasing to the eye, especially if you are working on a theme around the house. Metal gates are really tough, and can last for several generations of babies. Plastic gates are made out of toughened and non-toxic plastics that are proven safe for toddlers. Most plastic gates are colored and design to please your kid. The price actually depends on the brand and the material used.

The third, and final fact, is that baby safety gates can either be the solid type or the walk-through type. The solid type is one that you can never open on a side, making sure that whatever your toddler tries to do, it wouldn’t open. The walk-through type is one that has hinges on one side and locks on the other. This is the one that you need to install if you need to go in and out of the room for several times. Walking over solid type gates is not advisable, especially since baby safety gates are around two feet to three feet tall. The walk-through type is useful for kitchens and bedrooms, while the solid type is highly recommended for the top and bottom of the stairs.

How to Wallpaper Over a Brick or Cement Block Wall

The problems of concealing grouting and rough surfaces are easily overcome. Lining paper, if properly applied, will stretch over and hide the rough patches and the effect can be completed by using a heavy or embossed wallpaper.

This technique also applies to walls built of cement blocks. If you are building with brick or cement block and know that you want to wallpaper certain walls, ask your builders to apply the mortar so that you have a nice flat surface, rather than raking out the joints. With existing walls, the secret is in preparing the raw surface.

These are the tools you’ll need:-

A long table or bench, a trough, sponge or foam paste applicator, scissors, soft brush for smoothing wallpaper on to wall, a ruler, plumb line, razor for cutting.

A paint sealer is applied to dry any moisture from the wall, then a latex based wallpaper liquid size. A well soaked pre-pasted wallpaper lining will be just sufficient to soften the size and bond the lining firmly to the wall so that when wallpaper is pasted over, it won’t weaken in any way.

The same principle can even be applied if you are papering over rough-caste walls (walls that have been plastered and raked or scrolled upon when wet). If your brick wall has an extremely rough and raised surface it will have to be plastered over prior to wall-papering.

Here is how it’s done:-

1. Prior to start working on an absorbent raw wall, you’re first step is to seal and size the wall. Coat it with a paint sealer and leave to dry overnight. Next apply a latex based wallpaper liquid size; this is especially good on absorbent surfaces. This takes about an hour to dry. If time is short you can apply two coats leaving an hour between coats, instead of the over- night sealer.

2. Apply pre-pasted lining paper. Soak it in a trough to soften and roll out to arm’s length. Fold over and back half-way, forming pleats to the end of the roll.

3. Holding the top piece of paper in one hand, and pleats in the other, stretch the first pleat along the wall and flatten out with sponge. Stretch next fold and flatten and so on to the end of the roll.

4. To paper around a corner, leave 25 mm (one inch) overlap and “butt” the adjacent strip of paper on to it.

5. Repeat soaking and folding procedure and bring next roll of paper lining overlapping approximately 6 mm (quarter of an inch) onto the first. By having paper on paper you will prevent the joins from edging into the grooves between bricks.

6. Leave lining paper to dry overnight. As it does so it will tighten and stretch out over grooves and rough patches on the wall surface.

7. Before applying wallpaper, coat again with the latex based wallpaper liquid size as added insurance that the lining paper has sealed properly and tightened on to the wall

8. The type of wallpaper used is important. It should be embossed or a heavy natural weave to ensure that the imprint of the design is not lost when pasted on.

9. Hang your selected wallpaper vertically in the normal way.

Sit back and admire your masterpiece.

House Cleaning Tips for Fall and Winter

Do not let the bed bugs bite. Remember when your mother told you this and it was funny? Not anymore. Bed bugs are becoming increasingly familiar around cities that have never deal with them. In Midwest climate cities such as Tulsa, Oklahoma, or Peoria, Illinois, experts suggest taking care of tasks such as turning over mattresses and washing bedding, including comforters and blankets. Homeowners will find more cobwebs in homes in the fall also, because the spiders are coming in to get out of the cold. A good house cleaning will deter these winter visitors from setting up camp.

Also, get your carpets professionally cleaned – think of all the summer dirt, sand and grass clippings that have been walked in on the kids' tennies this summer. Professional housecleaning services suggest cleaning windows, inside and out, including in between the sills. Many new windows have UV filters and are not provided to be cleaned with glass cleaners. Instead, use some microfiber towels, which will be gentler on the glass. Other deep-cleaning ideas for the fall, but in preparation for winter, include cleaning your house from top to bottom, focusing on public rooms such as the living room, family room, entryway and guest bath. Get out the vacuum. Vacuum the drapes, window treatments, baseboards and in the corners. Move furniture, vacuum beneath and behind it. Vacuum upholstered furniture, or have professionally cleaned if needed.

Vacuum away the dust bunnies from the summer months as well as pet dander and hair. Having the house closed up for the winter months can cause the furnace to recycle unwanted nuisances. Before the chilly weather of fall begins, make sure your furnace is tuned up for the winter and change the filter. Homeowners with a fireplace should check the flue and have the fireplace cleaned if it is wood burning. This is not only a house cleaning tip, but for safety sake as well. Fall is also a good time to have your air ducts cleaned. One of the largest must-do tasks of the season is to clean your home's gutters. If you do not clean out your gutters, you run the risk of water building up in them during cold weather. When combined with falling leaves, this can cause ice damming, which can ruin a roof and wreak havoc on gutters.

In the Midwest, where rogue ice storms do occur, if the gutters have not been cleaned out in the fall, old man winter can rip them off a house very quickly. It's also a good idea to install gutter protectors that keep debris, like falling leaves, out of the gutters, he said. Another important cleaning tip that doubles as a safety tip is to clean the dryer exhaust tube and vent for built-up lint, debris or birds' nests. Make sure the exterior vent door closes tightly when not in use. Plugged dryer vents have started several house fires and caused carbon monoxide build-up in homes. Be sure to use a hot water heater blanket and insulate pipes. Check attic insulation and replace cracked windows.

The benefits of a thorough house cleaning prior to winter weather will reduce your efforts next spring and improve the overall health of your family. Not only that but if you perform many of these tips, it could save your life. It is important to use your time to prepare for winter house cleaning and benefit from energy saving maintenance ideas such as installing ceiling fans, which push warm air down, saving on heating bills. Hire a professional house cleaning service to get the tasks done before old man winter comes to visit for a long winter's nap.

What Do I Do on the Big Island? Visit Hilo's Lovely Metropolitan Parks

The Parks of Hilo Town

Beautiful but wet, metropolitan but decrepit, bustling but laid back, Hilo is a lovely, maddening, heartbreaking, addictive study in contrasts. In can rain all day long for 50 days in a row, yet when the sun does shine, the views of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea from the Lilioukalani Gardens, or of Hilo Bay as you drive down from the mountains on Kaumana Drive, or the rain-forest and waterfall choked gulches leading to lovely small beaches along the highway north of town, make Hilo one of the most truly achingly lovely spots on earth. The seat of political power in Hawaii'i County, Hilo is experiencing a long, painful slide into economic and physical decline. Having long since lost the war of social vigor, the battle for tourists and the struggle for attracting new residents and industry to Hawaii'i's newer, cleaner, harder-working and much sunnier West Side, Hilo seems content to sit back on her laurels as the once-prosperous center of the sugar industry in an era long gone by, haughtily dictating policy and politics to the rest of the island. But even in her dissipation and decay, Hilo is lovely, interesting and intriguing. Like a courtesan in herlining years, who, having squandered her riches and forced to live off the charity of her wealthier relationships, Hilo is still presentable, but far more capable of her raucous, and slowly ribald, tales of past glory. From the peacefulness of Hilo's Arboretum to the lawn-and-tree reply from bustling downtown provided by Kalakaua City Park, Hilo is blessed with an abundance of lovely, restful parks; most of these parks are served by public transportation. Let's quickly visit a few of my favorites.

Bayfront Park

At one time, a furious surf raked the long black sand beach that once fronted Hilo. From here, Kamehameha launched his war fleet of 1000 canoes on his conquests of the other Hawai'ian Islands. Here, generations of Hawai'ians strolled the coconut tree-lined beach, watching sunrises, spotting dolphin and whale, waiting for the fishing fleet to return from the day's toil, doing all those things which all people, everywhere, do strolling along a beautiful beach. No doubt they said to each other the same thing today's residents of Hawaii'i say to themselves every day: "Lucky we live Hawai'i!" Today, tamed by the breakwater that protects Hilo from the ravages of the turbulent ocean, there is still a three thousand foot remnant of now grey-sand beach along the Hilo Bayfront Park. Squozen between the bay and the road, this long, narrow park is phenomenally popular with local surfers and fisherman and is the launching spot of outrigger canoe enthusiasts. It is not much for swimming because the water is cloudy and cold and it makes for dismal snorkeling; still, it is a lovely place to watch the sunrise and to stroll with someone special.

Mooheau Park

The large, gazebo-style bandstand and1930's era bus station mark the center of activity in Mooheau Park in downtown Hilo. Standing on the remains of that portion of bayside Hilo destroyed by tsunamis in 1946 and 1960, are the county bus station, a police substation, an information booth and public restrooms. Wide, shady grassy parklands spread between Hilo and the bay here, inviting you to picnic, nap, or just loll in the tropical sun. On this island, public transportation is nowhere near twenty-first-century, developed-world minimum standards, but the island-wide bus service, inconvenient and confusing as its frequently out-of-date posted schedules may be, enjoys one stupendous advantage that should endear it to every traveler weary of Hawaii'i's steep costs: it is absolutely and everywhere free of charge. Just be sure you understand the schedule completely before you board; buses do not always come back to the city at night, many are parked at the end of their route, so it's quite possible to get stranded way out in the sticks. If this happens, it will soon become clear to you why we call such an apparently small place "The Big Island".

Coconut Island

A small island at the tip of the Waiekea Peninsula, Coconut Island, or Moku Ola – the "island of life" to Hawai'ians, is today the site of a charming park. Accessed by a footbridge from near the entrance to the Queen Lilioukalani Gardens, Coconut Island is a popular fishing and swimming spot with locals. It has a protected swimming hole and children play daring games diving off the remnants of the old wharf, here. When swimming here one should strive to be unconcerned about the fact that Hilo Bay has one of the highest densities of hammerhead sharks in the world. If the sharks are not bothering all those scrumptious, bite-sized children splashing about, chances are they'll give you a break, too. Coconut Island is also home to the Hilo Fourth of July fireworks show as well as various festivals during the Prince Kuhio Day and Merrie Monarch Festival celebrations. Moku Ola was, in times past, a Pu'u Honua, or Place of Refuge, an important place for commoners accused of breaking the law. In pre-contact times, a complex and strict order of law, known as the kapu system, controlled and governed everything in ancient Hawai'i from the order of crop rotation to proper sexual relations, what fish may be and what in season, what foods could be eaten by women and proper respect for the royalty. For instance, it was to break kapu for men and women to eat or together or sleep in the same hale, or house. It was kapu for women to eat pork or bananas, or for commoners to look upon the king or to step upon ground he had trod or his shadow. Under the kapu law system, punishment for any transgression was swift and severe: immediate death by stabbing, clubbing, strangulation, drowning or burning. There was no appeal and no recourse; judgment was immediate and final. Without, that is, the accused could escape to one of the designated Pu'u Honua heiaus, or "places of refugee". Once there, the accused would undergo a cleansing ceremony by the kahuna and would be refused of all crimes and allowed to return to his family and previous life, free of onus. Women, children and the infirm also took refuge at the Pu'u Honua in times of war, as did vanquished warriors wishing to submit to the winning chief.

Lilioukalani Gardens

Named for Hawaii'i's last Queen, these 30-acre formal gardens along Hilo Bay have two miles of paths that wind through the streams, over the bridges and along the pagodas and stone lanterns which make a spectacular place to walk and watch the sun come up over the ocean, or the sunset over Hilo Bay and Mauna Kea. These gardens are a very special place and deserve to be thoroughly explored.

Kaumana Cave

A skylight opening to 25-mile long Kaumana Cave is located at the county park near the 4-mile marker on the Hilo side of the Saddle Road. Concrete stairs take you down through the rain forest jungle to the bottom of a collapse pit forming two entrances to the cave. Most people are drawn to the entrance on the right, a large, opening leading to cavernous rooms. In this entrance, graffiti from hundreds of years ago to the present is preserved, scratched into the rocks. The entrance on the left, however, is more interesting, leading through squeezes and low spots to numerous rooms with fascinating speleo-architecture and cave formations. Both caves go to true dark in fewer than 300 feet in either direction. There are more than 2 miles of easily accessible, wild cave to explore here, but if you intend more than just a cursory inspection near the entrances, bring a hard hat, water and at least 3 sources of light. A quick tour of the caves takes fewer than 20 minutes. Parking for the caves is located across the highway from the park; extreme care should be taken when crossing he road. Public restrooms, water and picnic tables are available at the park.

Wailuku River Park / Rainbow Falls

The subject of recent and ancient legend, Rainbow Falls is the lovely emblem of Hilo town. The cave beneath Rainbow Falls is said to have been the home of Hina, mother of the demigod Maui, who brought fire to mankind. It is also said to be the place where Kamehameha buried his father's bones. The characteristic wishbone shape of Rainbow falls is best seen at moderate river flows … too little water and only a single drizzle remains, too much runoff and the falls merge into a single, roaring flume. At any time, however, it's a beautiful place and worthwhile to visit. Waianuenue in Hawai'ian means "rainbow in waterfall", and just about every village in Hawaii'i large enough to have paved roads, has a "Waianuenue Street". This particular waterfall was called "Waianuenue" by the ancient Hawai'ians, and remains the reigning queen of its namesake. A remarkable and lovely waterfall, the rainbows within it, which are the emblem of the state of Hawaii'i, are best seen in the mid to late morning. Follow the trail to the left along the river bank to delightful swimming and wandering; please note, however, that swimming in rivers and near falling water is dangerous. Do not go in if the current is swift or if recent rains have swollen the river.

Reed's Bay Park / Kuhio Kalaniana'ole Park

Hugging either side of Reed's Bay, a small, boat-filled estuary of Hilo Bay along the Naniloa Country Club, these two parks really form one beach area. The parks are a popular swimming, picnicking, boat launching and general play spot for Hilo residents. A pavilion, port-a-potties, lots of lawn, picnic tables and landscaped shoreline make this a pleasant place to pass the afternoon. Reed's Bay Park is approached from Banyan Drive and Kuhio Kalaniana'ole Park is approached from Kalaniana'ole Drive.

Leiiwi Beach Park '

A real jewel of a beach park, Leiiwi is a collection of tidespools, tidal ponds, lawns and rocks shaded by great palm trees, African tulips and hala trees. This park is one of the better places to pass a day at the beach in the Hilo area. Picnic tables, pavilions, barbecue pits, water and clean restrooms combine the infrastructure at this lovely park

Richardson Beach Park

The almost universal experience of visitors to Hawaii'i is that, although it is certainly beautiful, delightful and a unique, special place, no matter what pre-concepts a traveler may bring about Hawai'i, their experience is a bit different to what they expected. Richardson Beach Park, with its towering palms, fresh water pools, delightful surf, secluded and calm tides, lawns and general ambiance of tropical paradise, is almost certainly very close to what most visitors expect from Hawai'i-it it popularity. If you are here on one of the two or three sunny days Hilo will have this year, Richardson Beach Park is perhaps the most lovely, calming and inviting place on the East side of the island. Views of Mauna Kea at sunrise and sunset from this beach are unparallel. The snorkeling here along the small black sand beach is the best of the Hilo area and the surf is a busy mix of beginner to intermediate level waves. Hawaii'i County Division of Aquatics is located at this park; lots of interesting information is available from these friendly, helpful folks. Frequented by dolphins and sea turtles, the near-shore water is a little cold when getting in, due to fresh water springs, but soon warms-up a few dozen yards from shore. The currents and surf can sometimes be tricky here, so heads-up, pay attention to what the lifeguard is advising. Restrooms, showers, water, picnic tables and a lifetime round-out the amenities of this wonderful place. There is also a Hawaii'i County Police Department substation here.

Onekahakaha County Beach Park

Of the long strip of shoreline encompassed by this park, the most popular swimming is on the east side, across Kalanianaole Street from Loko Waka Fishponds. Here, two protected pools beckon swimmers; the one on the right is sandy and perfect for small or uncertain swimmers, the one of the left is rockier and filled with "vana", or sea urchins. Sea urchins are the spine-covered echinoderms that inhabit the shallower tidepools, bays and lagoons. Snorkeling is fair at Onekahakaha Beach, and locals seem to be able to coax good rides out of the diminutive surf on both boogie and long boards. A word about sea urchins, though: when swimming in any area inhabited by these spiny but beautiful creatures there is no real danger, however, some care must be taken. Stepping on, grabbing, or even handling them can cause painful wounds filled with mild but irritating toxin and the spines may be come embedded, or worse, broken off, in your skin. If you should get stuck by a sea urchin, relief from the burning sensation caused by the toxin can be had by loosely wrapping the wound in a cloth bandage that is soaked periodically in white vinegar. The vinegar, in addition to neutralizing the toxins, will dissolve the strain. Care should also be taken to disinfect the wound and to keep it clean.

James Kealoha Beach Park

James Kealoha Beach Park is sometimes thought of as the "black sheep of the family jewels" in the Hilo park system. This reputation is somewhat deserved, given the mildly rustic nature of the amenities and its history as a rough and tumble hangout for homeless, drug merchants, prostitutes and other assorted ne'er-do-wells. However, the County recently has put a lot of effort into cleaning out the less desirable elements from this park, and it's a really, really secluded, empty, wonderful place to come commune with the ocean and the tropical forest. There is no real beach here, just wild coastline and waves, great shore fishing and some decent surfing in the right conditions.

Make Money Without Money – Repairing Lawn Mowers, Take a Cut For Yourself

Most families these days are looking for any way they can to make a little extra money without having to put out any money, if you are handy with small engines why not start a lawn mower repair business?

Lawn mowers need plenty of maintenance, especially when they sit all winter long. Most of that maintenance is fairly simple such as tune ups, draining gas and replacing it with fresh, or sharpening the blade. Often times though people do not think to get these things done and before long, simple maintenance becomes more costly and complex.

This leaves the door open if you know how to work on small engines such as these, not only lawn mowers, but gas powered weed eaters, snow blowers and any other sort of small gas engine. Many people do not know how to properly maintain this type of equipment and just advertising maintenance alone could bring you a good source of income.

If you have the tools offer blade sharpening services, and even engine repair, while most mower repairs are simple, there will be the odd motor that will need to be replaced. As you make a bit of money invest it into purchasing used mowers and other equipment that you can bring back to life and sell for a profit. There is a thriving market for used lawn equipment pretty much anywhere you live.

Deciding what to charge your customers is easy, make calls to the repair shops around your neighborhood and ask them what they charge. Since you will be new to the business, be prepared to seriously undercut their prices, this will help you get and keep customers, and since you will be working out of your home, your overhead will be low anyway.

You will need to have a garage with a decent work bench and space to work, or even better yet if you have a van or truck you can advertise mobile repair. Mobile repair brings an even higher hourly fee since your customers are relieved of the responsibility of transporting their dirty lawn mower in the back of their brand new SUV.

The best way to advertise your business will be by enlisting your family to pass out fliers around the neighborhood, leave signs on telephones and advertise at your local grocery store.

Since this is a seasonal business keeping customers is essential, try to offer them extras if you can, like a free oil change or a loaner lawn mower while theirs is being worked on. Little extras like these along with a friendly attitude will keep them coming back year after year.

How to Fix "Photoviewer" Errors

In today’s social media generation, taking pictures is now as easy as breathing. It’s no wonder that a popular social media site gets 350 millions of photos through uploads each day among their 1.15 billion users. Windows users in particular are well acquainted in utilizing the Windows Photo Gallery or Photo Viewer (depending on the version of your operating system). Once photos find their way to your computer, these applications would let you work magic to some of the uploaded photos. You have probably tried rotating, re-sizing, flipping and cropping images to your liking. You can also specify how you would want to print your selected photo. You are also given the option to email photos. If you are sending out photos to friends, you can burn it in a cd using those applications. Collecting and selecting photos are made much easier as well. Indeed, there are a ton of things you can do with, and Photoviewer.dll is what enables the programs to run smoothly.

What is “Photoviewer DLL”?

It is an essential system file in running Windows Gallery. Basically, it enables photos to be opened in the Gallery just by clicking on their respective files. Whenever you click on an image file (for example, IMG1001.jpg), one of the “Photoviewer.dll” command line options run such as the following:

“rundll32 “C:ProgramFilesWindows Photo ViewerPhotoViewer.dll”, ImageView_Fullscreen IMG1001.jpg”

Parameters will be running in the back end and the end result is when the photo is displayed.

Are you having a DLL issue?

It will be a real bummer if you encounter issues wherein you cannot see your photographs or make the necessary modifications before showing them to the world. When your photo viewer programs malfunction, you often encounter any of the following error messages:

“missing” or “could not be found”

“not a valid win32 application”

So what messes up this dll file?

Corrupted or infected image files that access the DLL file are some of the primary causes. If you downloaded an image from the Internet, for instance, and it came with a virus, that might mess up your computer’s registry.

A failed installation or upgrade of Windows Photo Gallery could also cause errors with the DLL file. This usually happens when a user upgrades from Windows Vista to Windows 7. In fact, one of the most common windows 7 photo viewer errors is brought by missing or deleted DLL files from the “C:Program FilesWindows” Photo Viewer directory

Just like with other DLL errors, accidental deletion or replacement is also a major cause. There are also some viruses that delete these files as their way of destroying your system.

So how do you fix the issues?

A lot of online references, forums, or technical advice sites often recommend grabbing a copy of Photoviewer.dll online. However, this is quite risky as dlls in general, similar to executable file, may contain malicious or extremely harmful data and codes.

For instance, a file you download from the internet can have manipulative code that can delete photos even if a crop or re-size command is executed. An infected file can also be used by hackers to access not only your prized photos, but also other sensitive information in your computer. It can also be used to invade your privacy as some photo files contain location and time stamps.

While anti-virus programs might be able to do something with the corrupted file, it might not be able to totally fix the problem. Once the registry keys are altered, these are out of reach for most anti-virus programs.

The ultimate last resort is re-installing your Windows OS from scratch. But bear in mind that this is a laborious and time-consuming effort. You’ll be required to backup all your files (not just your photos, but ALL your other files). And if an infected file manages to get into your backup, you will most likely bring the virus to your freshly-installed system.

One of your best courses of action when it comes to corrupted dll files is by acquiring a dll repair tool. This tool specializes in restoring missing files, as well as fixing altered registry values to their correct state. Your computer system will be back to normal in no time once the tool has diagnosed and fixed all potential problems. The time spent in online researching for manual fixes will be shortened after the tool has worked its magic.