Wedding Toasting Flutes

Wedding toasting flutes are a great way to add a touch of elegance to your wedding day. Not only are they used for your first toast as husband and wife, but they are a great keepsake. There is such a wide variety of choices and many you can find online and for a reasonable price.

Wedding toasting flutes can be made from a variety of materials. For example, you can find toasting flutes made from plastic, glass, crystal, silver, or pewter. They are also available in a variety of styles. The great thing about champagne flutes is that they come in so many styles. If you are looking to add a special touch to your wedding, I would suggest having them personalize with your names and wedding date.

If you decide that you do not want to have the traditional champagne flutes, toasting goblets are a great alternative. There are a great variety of unique wedding goblets to choose from. The Silver Plated Interlocking Heart Goblets or the Classic Styling Interlocking Heart Stem Toasting Goblets are two perfect styles. Wedding goblets are a great choice if you are considering a theme wedding.

Choosing your toasting flutes can be so much fun. So have fun making your selection. There are so many to choose from you will certainly be able to find one that fits your own personal style. Your wedding toasting flutes will say a lot about your personal style and remember you do not have to spend a fortune.

Top Five Tips For Better Barbued Ribs Today

Have you ever tried to make barbecue ribs like the ones that you get at a real barbecue joint, and instead ended up with a plate-full of discharged out tough bones with hardly any good ateen on em? You expected fall of the bones tasty goodness, and instead ended up with a broken heart. Well then, here are five easy tips to follow so you will get the barbecue results you seek when making pork spare-ribs.

  • You need to smoke your ribs with a barbecue smoker. A barbecue smoker allows you to cook with indirect heat, which is necessary to get that juicy fall off the bone tenderness. Also, you need a smoker so that your ribs get that great smokey taste. You can purchase a smoker at on-line or at almost any of the big box home improvement stores. Even WalMart has decent smokers!
  • You need to cook the ribs "Low and Slow." This means to cook them at a low temperature (around 235 to 250 degrees) for a long time, about three to five hours.
  • You need to spice your ribs prior to cooking / smoking with a barbecue rub. A barbecue rub is a spice mixture that is rubbed onto the meat to add flavor during cooking. There are about as many different recipes for barbecue rubs as there are barbecue pit masters. Find one you like, or create your own.
  • Barbecue Sauce. A sauce is generally applied to ribs to give them that glazed sweet / spicy taste. Like a rub, there are as many different sauce recipes as there are barbecue chefs. Find one you like in a cookbook, or online, or ask your neighbor. You can even use one of the packaged sauces from the grocery store right out of the bottle or doctored up!
  • Wait for the very end of the cooking process before applying the sauce. Barbecue sauce usually contains a lot of sugar, which will burn easily. Applying the sauce at the very end will limit the chance that you will be serving charred bones instead of juicy meat.

Plastic Folding Chairs

Setting up the venue for large gatherings like office affairs, conferences and even big party celebration is somewhat a tiring thing to do. Thus, as much as possible, the things you should use should help you make the job done easily.

Every event requires seats for guests to sit and be comfortable. And since large gatherings are expecting more guests, the best things to use are plastic folding chairs. This kind of chair is proved to be the best solution for large gatherings not just because of the function is offers but also the good qualities the chair has.

Plastic folding chairs are lightweight so using it is easy. You can carry two or three chairs at the same time so you can probably finish the set up in just a few hours. Though lightweight, the chairs ensure durability because of the hard-wearing materials used for construction. The plastic back and seat of each chair is made of polypropylene plastic that is weather and elements resistant. The back and seat is supported by powder-coated steel frames. The steel used is also hard-wearing which makes the chairs suitable for outdoor use.

Most manufacturers equipped their products with safety locking mechanisms for the steadiness of the chair while it is in use. This is for the safety of the person sitting on it.

Folding chairs come in different designs, styles and sizes. The modern appearance of the chairs can add elegance to the setting. It comes in different colors so you can pick the units that would complement to your other decorations and fixtures.

Aside from the qualities, affordability is also the factors that you can take into account why folding chairs are widely used in any gathering events. And if you purchase this item in bulk order, some dealers offers discounts for bulk orders.

It would be a good idea if you acquire numbers of folding chairs and tables so anytime you have an event in the house whether big or small, you have these things ready to use for your setting arrangement.

Toddler Danger: Even Under Supervision – It Only Takes a Moment!

As a father of three I recall only too well that the toddler phase of each of my kid’s lives was wrought with danger from the moment they woke up in the morning to the moment they went to sleep at night. Everything was new and inviting to them – like an intriguing pot handle on a stove or the magic of shimmering water. You only had to turn your back and they were into something they shouldn’t be! This thought-provoking article reminds us that with toddlers, we really do need to have eyes in the back of our heads!

Loving families do things together. When the kids were small my wife and I once took them on a trip around rural New South Wales as part of helping them understand that loving families tend to do things together from an early age. This particular day we stopped for a rest break in the central NSW town of Gundagai where the legendary dog of yesterday’s droving culture still ‘Sits On The Tuckerbox’. We’d just pulled into a little park down by the river for a picnic when we spied a sign explaining the history of the now dilapidated wooden bridge of the Hume Highway that spanned the formidable Murrumbidgee River. So Jan and I decided we’d wander down with the kids and take a look.

The mile-long bridge with its old planks and railings was quite a sight spanning the expanse of the mighty Murrumbidgee. And we were relieved to see that the end of the bridge closest to us was fenced off by a 3m high Cyclone steel-mesh barrier. And just as well, for on the other side of the fence was a sheer 10m drop to the swirling dark waters of the Murrumbidgee, which, from way up where we were, looked forbidding indeed! So safely behind this substantial steel mesh fence little 4-year old Linda and 5-year old Felicity felt very secure as we surveyed the ‘scariness’ of it all… or so we thought.

Before I could stop him, little 2-year old Richard had found a small hole big enough for him to squeeze through and was suddenly standing on a crumbling ledge on the other side of the fence where I couldn’t get him! He was holding on to the mesh and laughing, fully primed to play the next part of this exciting game with his dad.

I spoke to him very softly. My heart stopped for I knew that one wrong move would be the end of it. If I startled him or yelled at him he would have turned and slipped, disappearing over the edge into the murky waters far below. I’d already made up my mind to leap over the barrier and follow him down if that happened… So I spoke to him very softly, mindful of the precarious state we were in. His little feet dislodged pebbles and clods of dirt which disappeared over the precipice. The only thing that prevented him from falling was his firm grip on the mesh, pent up as he was for the next step in this exciting game. Then out of sheer desperation, Jan said something that changed the situation completely.

“If you’re very quiet Richard, Mummy’s got a nice lollypop for you in her bag!” This changed his focus. His attention now on what his mum was doing, Jan began rummaging around in her handbag for something to give him.

I moved with lightening speed. Before he could realise what had happened my hand was through that opening and latched onto his arm like a vice. Startled, he let go and his little legs slipped over the edge… This time the sturdy fence came to my rescue and gave me support and leverage for there was no way I was going to relinquish my grip and let my little boy go. With him kicking and screaming and my last ounce of strength, I managed to pull him through that hole to safety.

Scratched, bruised and shaking all over, I bundled everyone into the car and we got away from that place as fast as we could!

The interesting thing is that now the kids are much older, Richard and the girls have no recollection of this incident at all – but Jan and I certainly do! If there’s a life-saving message here it’s this: Toddlers move fast and are into everything. Never let them out of your sight or assume everything is completely safe and secure. Remember they see things differently from you and will probably find an ‘opening’ somewhere that you weren’t aware of.

How To Plan A Garden Right

Gardening is a hobby that brings joy, entertainment, and a better quality of life. It is a creative activity, the result of which is a more aesthetically appealing home.

Thoughtful planning of a garden starts with the type of garden you would like to have. Deciding on a type of garden is essential before choosing which design elements to include. Will your garden be just a place to plant a bunch of flowers, which will blossom only during the growing season? Or would you rather have a thoughtfully-chosen herb garden? Or maybe just a vegetable plot?

Another issue to consider is the climate in your location.
It can be surprising how little we know about the facts, figures and statistics of the weather where we live. You may want to consult an online map to get statistical data regarding climate elements like rainfall per month or average temperatures.

The next step, after having decided about the type of garden and after researching the local climate, is to figure out the plants that you would like to grow in your garden. Think of plants that are suitable for the duration of the growing season in your location and that will survive the changes in temperature, typical for your location.

The thoughtful planning of a garden involves one more factor to consider – how much shade is necessary for each of the plants. You need to make sure that there is enough light all over the places you plan to plant your garden.

When you have finished with planning in theory, it is time to start planning the plots in your garden. Again, think for a good plan – one that brings joy, is easy to keep to, and at the same time efficiently using the available space.

Think about where to place plants that require a lot of sunlight. The best place for such plants is away from buildings and taller trees because these block the light at daytime.

Deciding which plants to grow near the house, and which should be in the open also requires some thought. If you prefer the sunshine streaming through your windows, then you are best not to have bulky trees or bushes near the house, where they will block the sunlight.

If you have decided that you will be growing herbs and vegetables, the best place for them is near the house. When they are near the house, it is more likely that you will be using them for cooking. Besides convenience, you should also think about the location of vegetables as far as their needs for sunlight are concerned. This is especially true if yours is mainly a vegetable garden.

Last, but not least, take into account your personal preferences, when designing a garden. If there are particular extras you would like to have, for instance winding pathways or gazebos, include them in the initial design of the garden. Your outdoor garden is constrained only by the limits of your creativity and the growing season in your location.

About Hair Loss

Hair loss or baldness is one of the most disturbing misfortunes that happen to most ladies, in men baldness is commonly associated with high levels of testosterone, and therefore it’s more common to them than to their counterparts. This, thus, makes baldness in women a very sensitive matter since their hair constitutes a more significant portion of their beauty. The issue has prompted beauticians to come up with numerous ways of masquerading the hair loss and among the ways is by hair replacement and use of real human hair wigs.

On the other hand, there are those that do not suffer from this condition, but they either have a slow growth rate or have a different hair preference other than theirs. This lot has found more solutions in wigs and extensions that give them the ultimate intended look. These methods are relatively cheap compared to hair transplant and other advanced permanent solutions to hair loss.

What Causes hair loss in women.

Genetic causes

Some women are born with a genetic makeup that leads to hair loss. Androgenic alopecia is the genetically inherited condition that causes baldness mostly in women. This can, however, be noticed earlier in life and therefore mitigating remedies can be applied to prevent one from becoming completely bald.

Lack of minerals such as Iron

Deficiency of this essential mineral can cause balding especially to women who experience heavy menstrual periods without putting up a plan to replenish the lost Iron. Beside anemic condition, hair growth is also impaired, and it is one of the early indicators of this disease.

Also protein and other minerals such as vitamins are equally important for healthy hair growth and it is of great essence to ensure that you balance your diet.

Too much Hair-do

Once in a while styling is advisable but too much of setting, excessive use of chemicals, dying and other hair treatments can lead to the weakening of the hair and hence its impaired growth. Heat, for example, used when blow drying has an adverse effect on the hair shafts when done so often.

Autoimmune conditions

An autoimmune condition is where the body’s immune system fails to recognize specific body cells and attacks them as foreign. Condition like lupus is one where the immune system attacks any cell and when it attacks the follicle cells, hair growth is compromised.


Any form of stress affects the immune system and some of the effects are manifested through conditions like Dandruffs and thinning of the scalp. Avoiding these stress and proper rehydrating can take care of this.


No woman should suffer from baldness, get yourself a nice human hair wig or a clip on hair topper and regain your elegance.

Jet Skiing Is a Rush, But There’s a Down Side

Jet skiing is fantastic fun. It combines boating and skiing with one awesome toy. You can use a jet ski for all kinds of different activities.

The obvious use is to ski. That includes jumping, hardcore turns, racing and even diving. Opening up a jet ski on glassy turquoise water is a feeling that words can’t describe. You can also just go cruising with your sweetheart on a beautiful sunny day.

People have used theirs to fish with as well. You can troll a lure or drive to a great spot to bottom fish or go snorkeling. This is a very versatile toy that has a negative side.

“Middle-aged couple on vacation are killed in horror boating crash after their jet-ski hits 59-foot dolphin tour boat ‘dead center'”

“Lower Gwynedd couple dies in jet ski accident in Clearwater, Fla.”

“9-year-old boy killed in jet ski accident on Lake Norman”

I could fill this page with articles of accidents involving these powerful toys. Unlike a boat, a ski has no protection from collision. Just like boats, people operate them unsafely. A jet ski is very light for the speed they can attain. If hit by one, your chances of extreme injury are very high. Anyone can buy a ski and get out on the water but how many are learning the safety issues before going? This is almost like giving the keys to your car to your 11 year old or to someone who has never drove in their lives.

To the Coast Guard, a jet ski is considered a personal watercraft and is guided by laws similar to boat operators. There are laws specific to personal watercraft that one would be required to know should you break one of them and get into an accident or you’re pulled over by the USCG or the Harbor Patrol.

Before heading out into the public waterways it’s best to know the laws governing personal watercraft operation as well as having enough experience operating a ski that you are not a threat to others. A little practice is all you should need. Wear a quality life jacket, you’ll enjoy the comfort and the protection and it’s required.

Lastly, I believe it’s important to learn the Rules of the Road. These laws are about sharing the waterways with other vessels. The US Coast Guard consider your jet ski a vessel and you should too.

When learning this fun sport give it the respect it deserves and learn to be a safe and responsible operator.

Hawkins Pressure Cooker – Product Description and Review

Hawkins Cookers Limited, considered as the largest cookware company in India manufactures Hawkins pressure cooker. They have three manufacturing plants in India and they export their products to more than 60 countries worldwide.

Hawkins is designed with safety and convenience in mind. It has an inside fitting lid which you cannot open unless the steam pressure inside the cooker falls to a safe level. It means that it is pressure-locked, therefore you can avoid the hassle of pressure cooker exploding and messing up your whole kitchen. Another one of its safety feature is the superior-pressure regulating system which ensures the rapid cooking. They boast of their cooker as being leak-proof, has a shielded safety valve and a long lasting gasket. When you buy them, they come with colored cookbooks and five years warranty.

There are several models of Hawkins namely Futura, Classic, Bigboy, Contura, Ekobase, Ventura, Miss Mary and the Hawkins Stainless Steel. They are made either of aluminum or stainless steel depending on which type you choose. Each one has its own functions and special features to tailor fit to your specific needs.

Hawkins is definitely a great product as it has the safety features and functions that are expected and more. Being backed-up by a company that has been around for years, you can definitely expect durability and functionality. Performance wise, the users of Hawkins have nothing to say but satisfaction and happiness. The best thing about Hawkins is its very affordable ($20-$80), very fitting for those who are on a tight budget but would want the convenience and time-saving benefits that a pressure cooker delivers.

Piano Tuning And The Safety Issues Involved

When you think about the sheer number of strings in a piano – multiples per key, remember – and the tension to which they are stretched, you realize that there must be a colossal amount of force trying to break the piano in two. This explains the need for such heavy construction – a frame of cast iron is needed just to resist the tension of the strings. It also explains why a professional piano tuner can be an important person to call if you need piano tuning.

It is tempting to compare tuning a piano to car maintenance – you can do it yourself, but you may feel more comfortable putting the risk in the hands of an expert. However, the situation is even more important than that, as the process of tuning a piano is far more complex and takes far more patience than most ordinary vehicle servicing. Changing the oil or the spark plugs is nowhere near as involved as tuning two hundred or more high-tension wires.

Attempting to tune a piano yourself is certainly possible, but there is a range of knowledge and skills that only an experienced professional will have. One aspect of this is in understanding the current condition of the piano. Since you are reading this article, you may have a piano that has sat around without maintenance for quite some time, and the cost of professional piano tuning seems prohibitive. However, it is precisely this kind of piano that can be dangerous, as a neglected frame may have started to develop weak spots that increase the risk of the entire structure collapsing violently in on itself. You would not want to have your hand inside a piano when this happened. An expert piano tuner can recognize the danger signs much more readily than you will be able to.

Having said that, if a piano technician has confirmed that your instrument is in good shape, you can certainly begin learning about piano tuning yourself. If nothing else, it takes patience. It can be very easy to give up part of the way through tuning and ruin the whole process. There are also various skills that must be picked up along the way, such as the piano tuners’ method of setting the pins in such a way as to promote tuning longevity and prevent the piano from sounding sour for as long as possible. Piano tuning certainly takes effort, but it can also be a rewarding process, and maybe even therapeutic.

Which Phone Plan is Better for Me

In looking at maps for Verizon and Cingular it looks like most areas are covered well by both providers. There are pockets that have lesser coverage, but the major of the area looks good. You are going to find the prices for their rate plans are pretty similar and both providers will have low cost devices.

If you are interested in the "Push-to-Talk" feature (which you referred to as "Walkie-Talkie", Cingular has this feature for their users. -on to their voice plans. Keep in mind that you must have a voice plan in order to have the PTT add-on.

Both Cingular and Verizon have Family rate plans which allow you to pool your minutes (for all your employees) which would save on costs. Also, with either provider, calls between your employees will not count towards your minutes because they are considered "mobile-to-mobile" and the major of the rate plans include free, unlimited mobile to mobile calls.

Regarding customer service, Verizon was rated number 1 and Cingular was rated number 2. These types of surveys are typically conducted by companys hired by the providers, so I would not put too much stock in these. I would base my decision about customer service and reputation more on word of mouth, ie, people you know who have had good (or bad) experiences. This is a much better indicator.

The good news is that you can try each of the providers' service and if you are not happy with the coverage, you can cancel your service without penalty – with Verizon, you have 15 days, with Cingular you have 30 days. If you are not satisfied with the service, you can return the device and cancel your service without penalty. You only pay for the minutes you used, ie, pro-rated portion of the rate plan that you signed up for. No termination fees.

So, if I were you, I would pick either Verizon or Cingular and get one or two devices and try them for the trial period. If you are happy with the service, then I would get the rest of the devices. If you are unhappy, then I would try the other provider. Or better yet, get two devices from Verizon and two from Cingular (and sometimes even two from Sprint – they have a 14 day return policy) and see which ones work best for your employees. This way, you can see for yourself what works best for you and your employees and you will not have to guess or trust what the providers tell you.

One more FYI, all the providers will claim "least dropped calls, most reliable network, largest network", etc., but keep in mind that your location and the phone device also has a lot to do with your experience. Dropped calls typically relate more to the phone devices themselves.

One last thing. Verizon uses CDMA technology for their voice users and Cingular uses GSM (Sprint uses CDMA and T-Mobile uses GSM). GSM is the "global" standard, so people who travel overseas and want to use their phones, would want a GSM provider.

The Top 5 Things To Consider When Shopping For A Wireless Mobile Cell Phone Service Provider

Technology is being innovated and implemented faster than we can keep up! This is a major reason why consumers are constantly looking for better deals and better technology from their wireless mobile cell phone service provider. As the technology grows up, the pricing of obsolete and older technology goes down. Therefore a constant turnover of customers and accounts is expected. When upgrading your phone or switching service providers, one should definitely do some research to find the best deals and technology.

So you are looking to upgrade your current wireless plan, or you are considering switching your service to a different wireless provider. Here are the top 5 things that you should consider before you make the move to change your mobile cell phone plan:

1. Contract or No Contract – All of the major cell phone service providers in the US offer their version of contract and no contract plans. It is important to decide which option is right for your particular situation. A contract plan usually lasts for 2 years. When purchasing a 2 year contract plan, the major wireless carriers will usually offer a brand new cell phone for free in exchange for the 2 years of service that you are promising to fulfill. The price of the “free” phone is calculated into the service plan, and you end up paying for the phone anyways. This option is superior if you need a new phone right away. The other option is to go with a no contact plan. When going with a no contract plan, the wireless carrier does not usually offer extravagant deals on new cellular devices. Long story short, you end up paying almost full price for your wireless mobile cell phone. There are a handful of companies out there that will allow you to bring your own device to a no contract wireless service plan. Bringing your own device will allow you to take advantage of the lower pricing of a no contract plan without having to buy a phone.

2. Coverage Map – It is very important to look at the service coverage maps from each of the different companies that you are looking at. There is no reason to go with a company that is going to give you a killer deal on a plan and a mobile cell phone when you are not going to be able to take full advantage of the service coverage area. Cell phones really are not of any good use when there is no service, or the service is weak and intermittent.

3. Data Speeds – There are now dozens of cellular networks that traverse the country, and many of them offer high speed data capabilities to the service coverage area. These networks consist of 3G, 4G, and LTE. It is very important that you take a peek at what networks each service provider is using, and to check the availability of these networks in your area. It is also a very good idea to check network data capability with the wireless mobile cell phone that you are using. For example, an iPhone 3GS is not going to be capable of using the high speed LTE data network because it is an older phone and is not engineered to use the newer and faster data networks.

4. Unlimited Everything Plan – Most people gravitate toward a plan that includes unlimited talk, text and data because they are using their cell phones very often. However, most people do not really pay attention to their actual usage, and they could possibly be leaving a bunch of money on the table. Before deciding on a brand new unlimited everything plan, take a look at a recent wireless phone bill and see exactly how much talk, text, and data you are actually using. Then compare these numbers to the new plan that you are looking at to see if you really need to pay all that money for a truly unlimited plan. You might actually be surprised as to how little you use the services that are paid to be unlimited.

5. Customer Service – Last, but not least, one should do some research on the service providers themselves in order to see what kind of customer service these companies are offering. It is never any fun to have a problem with your wireless service provider, and it is a lot less fun to have to call them only to find out that no one in their call center speaks your native language, and they don’t really have a good idea about how to help resolve your issues. Poor customer service can be a real deal breaker! Take some time to look at a company’s track record, do a few Google searches and take a look at a handful of genuine customer reviews.

Shopping for a wireless mobile cell phone service provider seems like a pretty cut and dry process on the surface, but there can be a lot of variables that will apply differently to each personal situation. When you are ready to switch service providers or upgrade your plan, I recommend taking the time to do the due diligence and find the one that works best for your situation and your location. There can be a lot of monetary savings coming back to you if you can find a service plan that is tailored to you and your personal usage.

Open Houses – Things You Need to Know

Open houses are the most common method for marketing your property. While the majority of sellers see this as an effective way to sell their properties, some find open houses as just a waste of time. Neighbors and curious visitors mob to your house and go around, checking your private living space. Most of these individuals have no intentions of purchasing your house. This can be hazardous, as some of these strains are in fact thieves, wanting to inspect your house.

Some brokers opt to hold private open houses, where other brokers in the place tour the house, remember their clients. This is helpful for both the buyer and the seller. The buyer acquires info inside about a house from their broker as soon it is placed on the market. The seller has the advantage of not having to bother about opening their doors to just anyone else along the street.

You might be wondering what the purpose of a public open house is. Word of mouth is a very effective marketing strategy, especially in the real estate industry. Curious individuals may not be in the market for a new house, but they can suggest your house to their friends who happen to be looking for a new place to stay. The type of matchmaking costs nothing, and can provide a firm offer on your property.

A well-planned open house can earn more offers and probably higher offers from buyers. The more people that look at your home during an open house, the more it can make a competition. It looks like your house is a hot property and that interested buyers make them offers immediately.

If you are a curious neighbor, do not be hesitant to inform the agent on hand. It is ideally acceptable that you are checking the place because as indicated earlier, most of the sales come from word of mouth. And by informing the agent the truth, you would not waste their time and keep them from really interested buyers.

Open houses have long been an effective marketing strategy in the real estate world. They are already proven and tested for a long time now. Even if they have fallen out of favor in today's time, open houses can still be valuable for making potential leads. Give your home the opportunity to have the right amount of exposure and create some noise about it. A good word of mouth can lead to your home being sold immediately and for the price that you wish.

Outdoor Lighting Helps You Enjoy Your Backyard More

Outdoor lighting enables families to extend the use of their backyard facilities at night. There is a wide range of lighting products in the market, encouraging families to use their outdoor facilities more and more after sunset.

Here are just some examples:

There are underwater lights for your fish pond or water fountain; and what better way to greet your visitors by installing well-lit post lights in the front garden. Outdoor pathway lights can have different motifs such as cottage, rustic or traditional. Wall or ceiling lights that can stand up to any weather conditions can provide accent to your home.

With flood lights strategically installed around your garden, you can be sitting under your favorite fruit tree enjoying a relaxing drink. These fixtures can be made of copper, iron, metal or steel.

Lighting the steps of your wooden deck, porch or gazebo can provide both elegance and beauty. They can also prevent accidents such as tripping in the dark.

Invite Your Neighbors In For A Barbecue Or Night Party

Colorful ceiling lights can be strung to your garden gazebo. Watch the children jump and splash in the pool illuminated by underwater lights. Solar underwater lights are popular and can be used to focus on any water feature.

Nowadays you can buy special outdoor lights to brighten up your parties and barbecues from most lighting stores or department stores. Note that if you are installing lamp posts or pathway lights you will also need to get anchoring equipment.

Solar And Low-Voltage Lights For Your Outdoor Areas

Lights powered by the sun or low-voltage bulbs are most often used for outdoor lighting. Solar lights turn on as soon as the sun sets and switch off when the sun rises. A lot of people buy solar lighting kits for outdoor use. During the day a special type of battery is charged by sunlight and that battery gives the outdoor light power during the night. They conserve energy and do not need electric current to run. Instead of the normal household current, low voltage lights use 12 volts.

You don’t even need an electrician to set up 12-volt outdoor lighting systems, so it is a relatively simple project for anyone.

The Powerhouses of Global Steel Production

This article takes a look at some of the principal producers of steel across the world and how the profile of the global industry is evolving, with focus moving to the East, both in terms of production and consumption.

In the latter stages of the 20th century, through to the present day, there has been a shift in emphasis within the steel producing industry, from the old powerhouses of Europe, where production has significantly decreased since the 1970s, to the new manufacturing hubs of Asia, with their vast natural resources – including of course the iron ore and fossil fuels required to produce steel. As the industry has become more efficient and reliant on mechanical processes the number of individuals employed by producers has dropped but this effect has been more pronounced in these old powerhouses, demonstrating the relative scaling back of operations. For example, in the EU, employment declined by 72% between 1974 and 2000, from 996,000 employees to 278,000; while in the US it was down by 71% from 521,000.

The following lists the top 3 steel producers in the world using 2012 output figures from the World Steel Association and highlights the changing landscape of the industry.


China has emerged as, by a distance, the largest producer of steel across the globe accounting for a whopping 46.3% of the world's annual production in 2012, according to the World Steel Association. Most countries, witnessed a dip in 2009 due to the economic difficulties but China's output marched on regardless, rising by 221.6 million tonnes between 2007 and 2012 – a margin in itself double the total level of output of the next main producer Japan. China's output of 716.5 million tonnes in 2012 was over 4 times that of the entire European Union put together, and over 8 times that of the US. The UK, who sit 18th on the list of global suppliers, meanwhile have an annual output of a mere 9.8 million tonnes, just 1/73 of China's.

The eastern superpower also claimed to be the top steel exporter in 2011, although not by the same margin due to the size of their internal market and consumption. In total, 47.9 million tonnes left the country in 2011 despite due to China's filed demand for the raw material and their consequent imports of foreign steel, the country slips to 2nd when it comes to the top net exporters, behind Japan.


In contrast to China, the output from Japan has actually dropped a little in the last 5 years (-11%) but it remains the second highest producing country in its own right (the EU collectively has a higher output), producing around 107 million tonnes. However, Japan does almost catch China when it comes to the amount of that steel that is exported rather than earmarked for internal consumption (40.7m tonnes) and indeed takes top spot as the highest net exporter in the world, above its neighbor. As well as having slightly lower levels of steel imports than China, Japan exports a far higher proportion of its output, around 38% in comparison with China's 7%.

United States

The US has slipped to 3rd in the pecking order, and, similar to Japan, has been hit by the recession with production levels almost halving between 2007 and 2009, before rallying in 2012 to sit just 10% below 2007's levels. With output of 88.6 million tonnes in the last year it looks inevitable that the US will be made and overtaken by India in the next few years as their steel output sets just 12 million tonnes behind, having risen by 43% in the last five years.

Due to the scale of manufacture in the US, the superpower consumes most of its steel internally and thus, as well as sitting far down the table of exporters, holds the position of the worlds primary importer of steel, both in sheet numbers and when offset against their own exports. Only the EU (thanks primarily to Germany) as a collective can claim to import more of the world's steel than the US.

In summary the global steel markets are witnessing the US and EU moving away from production and instead relying on imports, particularly from Asia, to meet their high levels of demands. China meanwhile, has taken on the role of the industry's megalith, with almost unparallel natural resources and driven by the need to meet both global demand along the manufacturing and building demands of its own mammoth population and internal markets.

Building Your Own Computer: How Many Steps Are Involved?

In the space of this very short article, I'm going to tell you every step it takes to build your own computer. Why? Because I want you to know just how easy it is.

First, you start with the motherboard. Before you install it in the case, attach the CPU, heatsink, and fan. The CPU literally drops into place. It's called a Zero Insertion Force socket. The heatsink and the fan attach to the CPU socket by means of a steel clip. That's all there is to it.

Now, plug in your RAM modules on the motherboard. Little plastic arms will click into place at each end when they seat.

With all this stuff pre-attached, install the motherboard in your case. Usually 7 screws and a couple of plastic standoffs hold it to the chassis. The most technical part of this step is to know how to use a screwdriver.

You can slide your hard drive into place now. It goes into one of the case's 3.5 inch bays, and is held there by four screws. Connect it to the motherboard with a ribbon cable. You'll also need to connect it to the power supply using one of the four-wire leads.

It's much the same story with your CD / DVD, except it goes in a 5 inch bay. It gets a ribbon cable, and the same type of power line. A separate sound wire will connect it to the motherboard.

Since cooling is always a concern, a case fan, or maybe two, will be needed. Screws hold it in place, and it will take a wire from the power supply to run it.

Go ahead and plug in the case wires to stuff like the start button, the front USB ports, and the speaker that makes that annoying beep when you do something wrong. These are labeled, although the print is tiny.

Any cards you require, like a graphics card, modem, and the like, can go in now. Push them straight down into their slots. At the back end they're held to the case by a single screw. There's no power to connect. They get their juice from the motherboard.

Now, boot up your new machine, and install your operating system.

Are there more "particulars" you need to know about building a PC? Yes, but you can learn them easily with a good guidebook. With a book, parts, and a spare afternoon, you can build your own computer!