Left 4 Dead Versus Mode

VS Mode

VS is by far the most difficult and complicated mode in L4D (kinda depends on how good the other team is too). Playing against zombies controlled by people who think and devise coordinated strategy's is lots of fun. It's even more fun with tips and tricks that will help you win!


Playing as survivors is where you make all your points. The further you get with more people the higher you're score is. To kick a teams ass in versus you need to be a good survivor.

Health – Pills / Med packs

Managing your health correctly is huge in vs. Unlike campaign you do not wait to wait for black and white mode to hit. Human controlled special infected are too dangerous to take that risk, also if you make a mistake and get killed you wont respawn.

However, the lower your health is the more health you recover, and the higher your team score will be. You almost never want to heal with health that is either green or orange. When your health reaches red its time to use pills.

Always use pills before med packs. Pills are easier to find and there's a good chance you'll find more and be able to hold on to that med pack a while longer. Of course if you have no pills its time to heal up. Always let your team know that your going to heal (Do not want to get left behind in vs!). Try not to heal out in the open. Smokers and hunters target weaker lower health players. If you're healing that's you! Get your back to a wall and if possible get some over head cover to prevent high damage pounces.


Speed ​​is every thing in vs. Going slow lessens your chance of reaching the safe room. Why is that? The infected players are working with a spawn timer. Every time you kill them they have a set amount of time before they can respawn. So the faster you move the less spawns they get and the less chances they have to do damage.

There are some limits to speed though. You do not want to move so fast that you get mobbed by common infected, this makes you an easy target. Moving too fast is also a good way to get split up. We do not want one guy making it to the safe room and leaving every one else out to dry, or have the guy who runs ahead get killed on their own.

You do not want to be a fast player. You want to be a fast team! Good voice communication is the best way to achieve this. It's pretty much impossible to type and move fast at the same time.

Pipe bombs

Speed ​​is key. Pipe bombs are great because they can help you maintain speed. Unlike campaign mode you do not get to hold onto equipment from previous maps. You do not want to waste useful items like pipe bombs by getting to the safe room with them still in your inventory.

Like I said before the best way to use a pipe is for maintaining speed. The most common slow down is a multi hit boomer vomit. If two or more players get vomited on then you have a good reason to part with your pipe. If only one player has been hit try to save it. Its pretty easy to help out one guy who's been gacked on.

Overcrowded rooms are another good spot to use bombs. If you can not cut down a path in under 10 seconds its justifiable to use to use your pipe. Same thing with random hordes. If you're going to use a pipe on the horde make sure you do it early. There's no point fighting half of them off then deciding to throw the pipe. If your in an easily defensible spot I would recommend holding onto it.


I always take molotovs over pipe bombs in contrary. Pipe bombs only take care of common infected which most of the time are just a nuisance. Molotovs are good for handling the big guy. A player controlled tank is the most dangerous opponent in Left 4 Dead. But even the best tanks still burn.

Molo's can also be used to burn down other infected. Although you want to be careful throwing one near a hunter. Burning hunters do double damage. Every other class of infected slowly burns until their health runs out. I do not recommend using molotovs like this without you have tons of them or have no choice. They do not attract infected so you can only kill them in one small area.


It's recommended that you play campaign mode before jumping into a versus game. No amount of campaign will get you ready to play infected. But that's okay because I have you taken care of my friend. I'll sort out how to be an effective infected player.


Teamwork teamwork teamwork. Did you catch that? Why wont I shut up about team work you say? I'll tell you why! Because you are not beating any survivors without it! If you've ever won a game of versus you have used team work, even if it was an accident.

Infected are weak on their own. Filtering in weak infected one at a time is incredibly easy to beat. Many players lack patience, do not be that player. They immediately spawn in as soon as their timer is up and throw them selves at the enemy. They do not care what the survivors or their own team are doing they just want to jump into the action.

And 90% of the time those players get their shit owned. Usually they end up with the most deaths and low score. No class of infected can stand up to a good survivor team by its self, even the tank needs a little help.

Support the tank

Like I said before every body needs some help, even the tank. Even a good tank player can get killed doing little or no damage to survivors. If the tank is going to do any serious damage you have to even up the odds a little. His rage meter is longer than 30 seconds, so you can afford to wait for most or all of you're team to spawn in.

If you're really luck you might even get to play 5 vs 4. When the tank first shows up some one is going to be told they are becoming it. If you are spawned in and get this message the computer will take over your common infected while you get to play as the tank. So if every one else gets spawned in you will have 5 special infected in play.
By far the most important infected for supporting a tank is the boomer. Getting a good boom off can almost guarantee a win. The boomers prime target should be any player with a molotov. Checking the score board will tell you if the enemy players have molotovs or pipe bombs. Normal player with molos will move to the front when a tank comes and hold it out. The perfect target for a boomer. If you can get that guy occupied with your minions the others should be tank food.

Hunters / Smokers are also important supporters. Any one with a molotov is some one you want to pounce / pull first. A good strategy is to pounce a guy out front. Then have a boomer pop out and vomit on the front runner and any one who comes to help him while a smoker pulls one of the none boomed residents away, the tank cleaning up any thing left behind.

This means play as the tank takes patience. Do not just charge in because you have 5,000 health. It goes down quickly between molotovs and focus fire. Taking the extra seconds to wait for team mates makes such a huge difference in tank effectiveness.

Check my site for more tips!

Weight Loss to Attain That Flat Tummy

Well so you have finally declined to lose weight, there is some good news and some bad news. The good news that you could lose your flabby tummy and become thin. The bad news that in order to do so, you will have to reduce the amount of lard you have through your body, not just in your stomach. If you want a flat tummy, you have to work your whole body as well as your tummy muscle during exercise and strength training routines. If you want to lose tummy weight, you should talk to a nutritionist as cut back on your calories and mass lodged in your stomach and still eat healthy.

The second paragraph will tell you ways how one can lose tummy weight. It comes as shock to most people that you can not actually lose fat that is around your tummy, you can however only reduce the size of your mass cells. This can be done through regular workouts and dieting, but to get a very flat tummy, or in the case of men to get a 6 – pack like a lot of celebrities and models have; you have to follow a strict diet with very few carbohydrates, which is not what most nutritionists advise.
Your body needs energy, in fact, in order to lose weight you need energy. As far as the ideal flat tummy goes, you do not need to work your abs more than every two days. You actually do not know this but they are working all the time until you sleep.

You also work your abs when you are doing sit ups which apply pressure and most other upper body moves. You must take part in at least 2 days of energetic exercise into your week if not everyday and make sit ups a must in your exercise routine. This way you do not allow tires to form outside your abs. Sit ups will help Your tummy to lose weight the most and you need to workout regularly and in a healthy manner.
It no doubt is not as easy as it sounds but do it the old fashioned way that still works the best.

Rapid Changes Are Happening in Online and Cable Television Markets

The television broadcasting landscape is changing so quickly these days it’s difficult to predict how things will play out. Local cable providers continue to expand their watch anywhere at anytime presence by pushing on demand, online, and mobile viewing options. Netflix is courting more content providers in an effort to provide more online choices. Hulu is finding its rift between networks widening while it contemplates changing its delivery model. Now Amazon has now joined the party with news that they plan to launch a film and TV streaming service to compete with Netflix and Hulu.

Cable companies like Comcast, Charter, and Time Warner Cable have begun to offer more online options to existing cable TV subscribers. Most cable customers who subscribe to both television and broadband Internet service can view network and cable content on most provider’s websites. This includes not only network and cable channels, but sometimes premium broadcasters such as as HBO, Showtime, and Starz. As more and more users begin to expect to watch TV and movies on mobile devices providers are starting to respond. Netflix and Hulu are already available on streaming devices such as Roku, game machines, and Blu-Ray players. Additionally, both services are available on Apple’s iPhone and iPad and are expected to show up soon on Android devices. Some analysts suspect Cable TV providers want to make sure customers remain cable TV subscribers in the face of ubiquitous online content. Towards those ends, Comcast has announced the release of an iPad app called Xfinity TV that provides Comcast Cable and Broadband Internet subscribers access to streaming programs.

Trying to lure cable customers, news outlets are reporting that Hulu is considering changing their delivery model and moving to live channel and on demand content. By bundling channels into packages similar to what cable and satellite providers offer Hulu hopes to build a new market for end users who are comfortable getting all their entertainment online. At the same time Amazon is set to announce a competing streaming service as a part of their Amazon Prime membership program. Amazon Prime currently offers free shipping on all orders for a yearly fee. By adding streaming movies and TV shows Amazon hopes to pump up their streaming rental and purchase business that has lagged far behind Netflix. In the end, all of these changes should be good for customers. More choices from more competitors will push streaming content further then could even be imagined just a few years ago. The question now is how much are customers willing to spend for the convenience. With so many content providers available, there will be both winners and losers. Right now each one is scrambling in hopes that they’ll remain standing when the dust settles.

Fruits and Vegetables and Phytochemicals

I'm willing to bet you probably have not heard the word 'phytochemicals' before. But you've been eating them your whole life and they are vitally important to your life and well-being. They are one of the keys to real health.

So, what are they? Phytochemicals are biologically active substances in food. They have health enhancing abilities and possibly curative abilities. They number in the hundreds in most plant foods. They are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes and grains.

Phytochemicals work together with nutrients to promote health and prevent disease. When you eat some broccoli or a tomato, you get all of these phytochemicals. So, can not you just take a supplement? You could, but first of all, scientists have isolated only a few of the phytochemicals in foods. But These work best in combination, so taking just one, isolated phytochemical is not anywhere near as effective.

For example, let's look at lycopene. It is found in tomatoes and is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are a large and important subject, but for now, let's just simplify and say that antioxidants help to repair cellular damage.

Scientists did studies and found that tomatoes had a noticeable effect against prostate cancer. They analyzed the tomato and isolated lycopene. Then the scientists did more studies, using lycopene. The effect on prostate cancer was much less. Does this mean that lycopene does not work?

No, it means that it works best in combination with all the other phytochemicals in tomatoes, and the nutrients. You do not get that from a chemically identical, but lab-created, lycopene.

Eating a logo is good for you, of course. But eating all the tomatoes you would need to get what you need from them would be quite a task. So, a whole foods powder that I use, Berry Greens, offers freeze dried tomatoes, in a form that retains the nutrients. And a whole lot of other vegetables and fruits as well. You get all the benefits of eating all those fruits and vegetables, without having to consume all that food.

Most foods have not been analyzed and even those that have been, scientists have only been able to isolate a few of the phytochemicals. Most vegetables have hundreds of phytochemicals, and it's not likely they will all be isolated, analyzed and understood any time soon. We do know now, though, that they do work together to provide real health for us.

Diabetes Treatment for Systemic Complications

The presence of high sugar levels characteristic of diabetes mellitus in the blood leads to formation of plaques in almost all blood vessels of the body. Because of this, the function of blood vessels of supplying blood to different organs of the body is impeded – thus, the manifestation of the various systemic complications of the disease. Because of this, diabetes treatment is complex and varied.

Usually, the recommended treatment is geared toward solving a particular complication, therefore, differs from person to person. The below items are the possible diabetes treatment options geared at remedying, if not delaying, the fatal effects of a particular complication:

1) Reduced or absence of insulin production. Oral anti-diabetic drugs such as sulfonylurea are initially prescribed. When they fail to control blood sugar levels, insulin replacement therapy is initiated. In severe cases, oral and IRT is combined with oral drugs taken in the morning and insulin injected at bedtime.

2) Stroke. Blood glucose levels are routinely checked. Fast acting carbohydrate sources are avoided because they contribute to stroke. Aspirin is usually indicated and patients are monitored for bleeding.

3) Heart attack. Blood pressure is routinely monitored. Drugs such as oral nitrates, beta-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers are prescribed.

4) Death of tissues. Integrity of tissues is checked daily for presence of lesions and pulse as well as changes in skin color. Keeping the skin clean with the use of mild antiseptics is recommended as part of the daily hygiene measures. Antibiotics are also prescribed.

5) Retinopathy. Activities that increase eye pressure are avoided such as lifting of heavy weights, bending down, and others. For treatment of the disease, laser therapy is indicated to prevent further growth of new blood vessels, thereby, preventing hemorrhage.

6) Nephropathy. Intake of sodium and protein is reduced. Drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme for diabetes treatment are prescribed for reduction of blood pressure, which leads to death of renal cells.

Basic Hydroponic Gardening – Advantages of Using Hydroponic Gardening Techniques

Gardeners have dreamed of ways to grow plants (particularly vegetables) all year in any climate. Growing plants, in soil, in front of windows works well but it has a limited capacity since there are limited spaces and limited hours of sunshine in most window locations.

You might want to consider Hydroponic Gardening. Hydroponic Gardening can be transported out inside your own home or in greenhouses. It has great advantages for older gardeners who no longer feel comfortable digging holes, weeding – bending and stooping in general. You can raise your Hydroponic gardens off the floor and work with them at a comfortable height. No soil is used, so no back breaking digging or lifting of heavy pots.

Inexpensive Hydroponic grow systems can be home made or you may purchase one of many complete kits are available on the Internet. There are a number of excellent books available in addition to many videos with a Google search of "Hydroponics + Youtube". If you are comfortable using hand tools you will be able to use materials found at your nearby hardware store. Plastic buckets, tubing, pumps etc. can easily be adapted for Hydroponic grow systems.

If you are not particularly handy with tools, you might consider starting with an inexpensive complete kit. Hydroponic kits can also be purchased and can save you lots of time and effort. In today's market you can even buy specially designed self-contained Hydroponic closets in various sizes which have grow lights, pumps, Hydroponic plant boxes, and nutrient systems that are specifically suited to urban living.

Here are some tips for successful Hydroponic Gardening and Hydroponic Growing Systems:

Make sure that you have the right lighting, humidity, location and temperature in your Home Hydroponic Gardening spot. The location of your garden should be in a high traffic place in your home in order to insure the maximum amount of carbon dioxide in the air. Optimum temperature should be between 65 degrees and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Median humidity is appropriate.

Once you have selected your location, you will need grow lights, a timer, Hydroponic grow boxes, and other Hydroponic supplies in order to set up your Hydroponic gardening system. Go as big or as small as you have room for.

Your grow lights are an integral part of your Hydroponic home gardening system. You will want to begin your young plants on 8 hours of sunlight per day for a while. Be careful not to use too many grow lights or too many hours of sunlight as over exposure can harm your plants. If you want to experiment with lighting levels, introduce more lighting slowly.

A key to successful Hydroponic gardening is obtaining and maintaining the best balance in the nutritional formula used to feed and maintain your plants. pH levels are of great importance. Plant roots must be maintained in this nutritional formula in order to produce healthy vegetables, herbs, flowers. Beginners should probably obtain one of the prepared formulas on the market. The ingredients should combine: calcium nitrate, potassium, nitrate, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate.

You will also need sulfates, copper, iron, zinc, boric acid, and finally magnesium chloride. Best usage of this formula would be every day for fourteen days for young plants, then every seven days once your Hydroponically grown plants reach maturity. Fortunately, there are many fine hydroponic suppliers that can simplify the nutrients for you. You must also create an optimal absorption rate in your plants. This can be done with proper air circulation using an air pump and hose.

Gardeners are finding Home Hydroponic Gardening a great method for growing year round crops. Imagine fresh red tasty tomatoes in December. Fresh herbs all year round for seasoning your meals. With the bonus of fresh beautiful flowers year round.

For more information, to watch training videos, purchase hydroponic growth kits, supplies, and grow lights please visit our website .

Some Great Gift Wrapping Ideas Just In Time For The Holidays

The traditional way of wrapping gifts through colorful ribbons, wrapping paper, tape and scissors added a personal touch to the gift. A lot of time, attention and energy were devoted to gift wrapping. Today there is no time to spend hours on innovating ways to wrap gifts elaborately. Here are a few suggestions on traditional as well as modern gift wrapping to be used depending on your time and mood.

For wrapping gifts the traditional way, you have to decide on the wrapping paper. There is usually a wide range of papers to choose from, depending on the occasion, be it birthdays, Christmas or Easter. The ideal wrapping paper sets the mood of the gift and communicates the right impression.

Traditional wraps can be complicating. Thanks to modern technology and creativity, most of the wrapping papers have grids and lines behind them. It is now easier to measure the amount of wrapping required. The paper should be cut along the lines to create the perfect shape and make your gift attractive.

While cutting the wrapping paper, make sure that there is enough space, at least one and a half times the size of the object, on either side of the paper. Use a cello tape in the middle where the papers meet. Fold the sides of the gift into a triangle and tape it on the gift neatly. Ribbons can be used to make the gift look stylish.

You might be a too busy to wrap a gift in the traditional way even for a loved one. If that is the case then here are some tips on the hassle free, modern way of wrapping gifts. This way you can still add a personal touch without getting involved in too complicated presentations.

You can wrap the entire gift in a trendy fabric bag or with a designer material that would match with your mood and your relation with the receiver. The gift can be sealed with a single ribbon used all across the gift. Adding a bow will make the gift look special. This works well for gifting colleagues, friends, relatives as well as your loved ones.

There are readily available decorative boxes for gifts. One has to find a box best suited to the gift size. However, extra spaces in the box can be filled with tissue wraps, trinkets and even sprigs for adornment. For a final touch, a ribbon or bow can be used to make the box look warm and creative.

Lastly, you can also put the gift in a convenient yet stylish gift bag. They are chic, beautiful and very popular. Often shrink wrapped for branded items; there are a lot of retail stores which have amazing gift bags to further the brand status of your gift.

Since there are numerous gift wrappings readily available, making your gift pretty is actually quite an easy job.

The Basics of CNC Machine Tools

To most of us, CNC sounds foreign, but equipment belonging to the CNC category are a daily thing for those belonging to manufacturing and fabrication industries. CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control which has been used since the 1970’s at the onset of computers. That is how it got its name, except that it was first called only NC or numerical control when it was first introduced.

The CNC is programmed to reduce manual intervention in a certain fabrication process, thus reducing production time and wastage, thereby resulting to increased production efficiency. To illustrate this, metal preparation using conventional tools would require the operator to manually bore hole on the metal using a drill press. But before he can do it, he has to secure the metal in place, select the desired speed for rotation of the drill press, activate the spindle and manually drive the drill into the metal. That takes a lot of steps and errors and accidents are bound to happen at each step of the process.

The CNC machine simplifies all these work for the operator. With the CNC equivalent of the drill press, he only has to position the metal in its place, activate the spindle, set the controls and the machine does the rest. It is very well like the automated ways of doing things. Everything that an operator is required to do with the conventional machine tools is programmable with CNC machines.

Another advantage of a CNC machine is being able to produce consistent and accurate work pieces. Once the programming controls had been set, the CNC machine can produce thousand of identical pieces in a short span of time. This is almost impossible if done manually.

CNC machines are also flexible since processes are programmed. You can run a specific program for one piece, save it and recall it again the next time that piece is to be reproduced. These machines are also easy to set-up, thus, allowing you to meet your deadlines faster.

All CNC machines have motion control, whether linear or rotary. This is one of the things that they have in common. The path or direction that the machine follows is called axis. The more axes the machine has, the more complex it is.

Common industrial examples of CNC tools are welders, drills, grinders, routers and lathes. But it is noteworthy to know that are even home tools that belong to the CNC category. These are electronic paper cutters, quilting and embroidery machines and yes, your computer printer which operates on the X axis only.

Without us knowing it, some tools that we encounter as we do about our respective businesses may be CNC machines too. The use of these machines is not only exclusive to the metal industry but in large range endeavors as well, especially those that require mass production of articles. As the demand increases, the need for producers to meet these demands becomes more urgent as well. But thanks to CNC machines, production processes are made easier, faster and safer.

Investing in Medium Term Notes – A Safer, More Effective Investment

Medium term notes are those that have all the features of a corporate bond, but are sold in much higher frequency. Corporate bonds offerings are made every three or four years while medium term notes are often sold on a weekly basis. These notes mature within nine months to 30 years, though maturities between 10 and 30 years are becoming most common. When you look into investing in these notes, you will only be dealing with the highest-quality companies that exist. With this kind of investment, you can appreciate a better return than if you simply maintained a savings account that earned interest over time.

These notes are considered to be a customized investment that lasts for a fixed period of time between two and eight years. The interest rate during this time remains constant, and your investment is repaid at the conclusion of the period. Annual interest earned from the account is credited directly to you. The minimum amount you must put into investing in these notes is generally around $ 1,000 and there is no upper limit. Their concept took shape in the early 1980s as a way to fill the gap between short term and long term investments. The best word used to describe this kind of investment is flexible.

There are many benefits that can be had by investing in them. First, since they are not traded like stocks, periods of fluctuation in the stock market do not affect your investment. This makes them a very secure choice to invest in. Also, its market gives investors a vast array of opportunities to put their money, including banks and other financial institutions, corporations, the federal government, and utilities. The chance to diversify risk is desirable, and these options allow for that.

Also, because of the nature of continuous offers, investors have a broad range of the types of notes that can purchase, how much they cost, and when they mature. Traditional bonds may be unable to fill gaps in an investor's portfolio the way these notes can. Finally, there is increased liquidity when investing in them than in other markets. If you understand how liquid the corporate bond market is, you will be pleased to know that medium term notes are just as liquid, so allowing investors to execute transactions at competitive spreads.For more information on investing in investment opportunities typically or not typically not found in the marketplace, click here!

12 Must Know Things You Need To Know When Buying Hardwood Flooring!

I am about to reveal to you some key facts that hardwood flooring manufacturers do not tell you about and it could save you thousands of dollars on your next hardwood floor.

Being an owner of a third generation family flooring business, I have seen flooring stores come and go all the time. I have seen gimmicks and tricks from manufacturers, representing their flooring products with impressive statistics and new “technologies” to guide people into how “their” product is better than the next. Sometimes the changes in product are actually viable and do work, but others are just plain nonsense.

Let’s talk about some things you may not know when it comes to hardwood flooring, both engineered and solid hardwood.

Did you know that wood flooring has a comfort level too? Wood flooring will perform best when the indoor environment in which it is to be installed has a relative humidity range of 35 to 55 percent and a temperature range from 60 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. This is about the same comfort range that we as humans enjoy.

Let’s talk about the first thing you must do as an installer and the home owner. Ready for this…READ THE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST! Before you go gung ho and rip open the boxes, as most men do, take 10 minutes and read the complete instructions for the material provided. There should be a copy that comes in every box of material. Sit back, have a beer, and READ!

Now that we have that clearly understood, you need to INSPECT to know what to EXPECT!

1. Acclimation: The moisture content of the wood and subfloor must be within 2-4 percentage points of each other and the subfloor must not exceed 12% moisture content. The farther the percentage points are away from the subfloor moisture percentage, the more problems you will have. For proper acclimation, material must achieve room temperature (65-80 degrees F) for 24 hours PRIOR to installation. This means that the heat has to be on and working way before you try to install the flooring. To get proper acclimation, store the material according to the manufacturer’s directions. The instructions will specify whether to store opened or unopened and whether to store in the center of the room or at the edges. This leads into the next big topic of moisture content.

2. Moisture Content: What is the ideal moisture content of the actual hardwood product? Every manufacturer will very slightly, but the average approved moisture content in the hard wood flooring itself should be between 6-9%. For example, if the moisture content of the subfloor is 12% and the hardwood flooring is 9% there is a 3% difference between the two wood products, which is in the allowable tolerance of installation. Although some movement can be expected even in this range, dramatic expansion and contraction can happen outside of these measurements. There are several electronic moisture meters available on the market to test the moisture content of the hardwood and subfloor. These are generally a pin probe type meter and they can give you an immediate reading of your wood’s moisture level. It is very important that it is set to the species of wood that you are installing and that you take moisture measurements from several boxes of material and from several areas of the subfloor throughout the area that is to be installed.

3. Climate Control: Climate control might be the single most common reason for customer dissatisfaction with their hardwood purchase. It is CRITICAL, that the proper temperature and humidity level be maintained throughout the life of the hardwood installation. Improper climate control will result in the material swelling in the summer and shrinking, or gapping, in the winter. Without proper climate control within the house, gapping and shrinking will definitely occur. In the Northwest we do not have a huge problem with this issue unless there is a device used in the home which dries out the air to an extreme amount like a wood stove. This is why a pot of water is ALWAYS recommended to be kept on the wood stove when using it as a heat source. The pot of water keeps moisture in the air. Special Note: Some products that are constructed with HDF cores, are more stable and less prone to expanding and contracting.

4. Floating Floors: A key thing people miss when installing floating floors is to allow for an expansion gap around the room. Just as real dimensional lumber expands and contracts, so does your floor. There must be enough space left at vertical surfaces, like walls and posts to allow for this movement. The larger the area the more space that is required. Rule #1 – Always leave the required expansion gap called for by the manufacturer. Rule #2 – If your installer says that it is not necessary, fire them and refer to rule number one.

You can cover all expansion gaps with wood wall base or quarter round wood trim or a combination of the two.

5. Expansion Joint: Expansion joints are almost always required between rooms, where a room meets a hall or in large expanses. You can use a “T” molding in these areas to allow for the floor expansion and contraction.

6. Moisture Control: Here is a big one! Moisture in the subfloor, called “hydrostatic pressure or vapor emissions”, is a MAJOR reason for flooring failures. The subfloor is not to exceed 65% relative humidity. There are several moisture meters that can be used on the floor that provide accurate readings, or a calcium chloride test, used for “concrete floors”. If your wood subfloor is above 12% with a meter, do not lay the floor. If your wood subfloor is above 12% then you have to find out why – it could be a new floor and just needs to dry out. If you have concrete floors, you have to find out the source of the moisture. If you still cannot figure out why the floor is above 12%, don’t use hardwood. Period. I mean it…you will kick yourself. If your floor is OK to install, remember to always float an engineered floor over 8 mil plastic when going over concrete so as to eliminate and minimize water vapor coming through the concrete floor.

7. Glue down Flooring: In residential installations, most flooring that is engineered is either click together or tongue and grove. I don’t think I, personally, would ever glue down an engineered floor. It is an acceptable way to install but I find that it is terrible to rip out years later. Either glue it together or click it together but don’t glue it down to the subfloor unless you have a very specific reason to. I have seen more problems even stapling it down to the subfloor. Stapling down your engineered floor will just lead to squeaks and creeks that will drive you nuts. Pull out the instructions that you threw in the garbage and look up the manufacture’s installation methods, then go file the instructions with your purchase receipt for future reference.

8. Nail Down Flooring: A very common mistake we have seen in solid flooring installations is proper nail length, gauge of the nail, and spacing between nails. Always refer to the manufacture and double check the subfloor thickness. When using a pneumatic nailer, pay close attention to proper PSI settings.

9. Natural Product Variations: One of the inherent beauties of hardwood is the differences between boards and how much or little they accept stain. No two pieces will ever be alike and that is one thing that makes wood flooring so luxurious and realistic compared to laminate flooring. Pay careful attention to the layout and selecting the color and grain of each board when you are working with the product. Work out of 4-5 boxes at a time when doing a layout, this will randomize any variations between boxes of hardwood.

10. Culled Material: In every natural product like wood, there will be some pieces that, while not defective, and within industry standards, are not what the consumer, you, wants visually. Generally allow for 5-10% waste factor on material. This means that you need to buy 5-10% more material then what your job physically measures out to be. Larger jobs of 1000+ sf could work with 5% while jobs under that square footage can figure 10%.

When buying material from the “Big Box” stores you have to keep in mind that when they purchase materials for a “stocking special” they purchase a product that they can sell at the lowest possible price to use in their ads. This means that the hardwood that they pick up is “Tavern Grade” which means it does not meet the specs of normal running line material. The product will have more voids, mis-filled holes in the face of the hardwood, warped boards both side to side and up and down, and broken toungs. This product will have a lot more waste factor to it, even as much as 20-25% compared to the professional flooring stores stocking inventory. Buyer beware, what you could think is saving you that 10% difference in price, could be costing you 20-25% more in having to buy more wood for the same size job. Oh, and by the way, always keep 1-3 full boxes of material for doing repairs. Do not return them to the store. You will NEVER be able to match the floor again should you need to. Paint would fall into this same realm of thinking. When you need to touch up a wall, they will NEVER be able to exactly match the color. In hardwood there is not only color to match but grain of the wood, board width, color and the number one factor, gloss level of the hardwood or “luster”.

11. Scratches: All hardwoods scratch – it’s a fact of life. You just cannot change it. You will scratch, scuff, and dent your hardwood under the right conditions. Scratches occur more frequently under chair legs that are small in diameter and at entry areas where abrasion dirt is tracked in on the bottom of shoes. The industry has developed more scratch resistant surfaces like those containing aluminum oxide, they tend to show less scratching but the wood still dents under pressure. To help save your floors use felt chair protectors under all of your free standing chairs. Area rugs are great for rolling chairs in the kitchen, or replace the cheap plastic wheels with rubber barrel casters. The more expensive casters will spread the weight of the chair out more efficiently. The best first line of defense is an area rug by the front door or a tiled entry way to catch the dirt and sand “before” it gets dragged across the hardwood floors. Good rules of thumb, shoes get checked at the door.

12. Cleaning: For heaven sakes ask a flooring professional! Your wood floors are tough but they are delicate when it comes to moisture and cleaners. Throughout this article we have talked about moisture, now we don’t want to ruin the floor by trying to maintain it improperly. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

DO NOT: Use a wet mop system, a steamer, a bucket and mop, any “Wax” finish, no soaps, no polishes, and for heaven’s sakes do not over wet your floor with a wet mop.

The best way to clean your floor is to use a microfiber mop and spray a professional hardwood cleaner onto the mop head, to dampen the head, and then clean your floor. If you see streaking or a wet trail, you have used too much cleaner and immediately wipe up the excess with a terry cloth towel.

If you treat your hardwood floors with the love you would treat your wood dining room table, you will be happy for years to come.

Cheap and Effective Folding Box Board Packaging

Folding Box Board packaging is a special form of packaging made from layers of mechanical and chemical pulp that is bleached. This material produced is usually a manilla white colour. This type of folding board is the base for many packaging solutions. It is used in food, cosmetic, medical, photographic and frozen food industries and many others. The folding box board can then be coated for various packaging needs. It can have many treatments applied including adding lamination or aluminum foil to serve certain requirements. The board can be highly polished to a matt or gloss shine.

A greaseproof lining is sometimes used in folding box boards to accommodate different products. The board can be adapted to be suitable for many things including toys, beverages and clothing. If you need packaging for your product then you should find out more about cheap and effective packaging like a folding box board. Specialist suppliers can answer any questions you may have about this form of packaging material. There are several specialist companies on the Internet. It may be worth taking a look at their services and the products they can produce for you.

Samples of folding box board designs can be requested to assess the suitability for your requirements. The box board can be coloured, decorated, embossed, varnished and various other adaptations. Most suppliers will have an in house design service or you can provide your own prototype idea for production. Marketing, promotion and product launch samples are some of the services provided. A good supplier will have an impressive client list and produce quality goods. A good retailer will work with you whether your design is in house or bespoke.

Folding box board packaging is very flexible and absolutely ideal for many multi purpose packaging requirements. It has been tried and tested in transportation and durability for many decades. It is a solid, lightweight yet strong material that is a cheap, reliable and effective enclosure for any product. It is also easy to crease and fold into place to be interlocked or glued together. This type of packaging is very cost effective even when buying small amounts. The single or multi layered board can be printed on to with commercial ink and printers.

Folding box board is used in the creation of many kinds of packaging. It is used in regular packaging as well as promotional or sample packs. It is a very versatile pulp substance that can be molded into any shape or size. It is more often used for outside packaging rather than inner linings. The raw materials of these box products are primarily hard and soft wood, and recycled paper. The dual pulping process extracts the wood fibres to form this heavy duty cardboard.

Bleaching is done mainly for cosmetic purposes but it does increase the purity of the finished product. The material also appears to be a lighter colour following the bleaching process. Folding box board is low density and its layers reinforce its stiffening properties to make it ideal for cartons. This board packaging material is the perfect home for many well-known brands.

Pottery Painting, Soap Making and Decoupage Parties

There are 3 crafty party ideas which can be really good fun to do and learn from. Whether you have artistic and creative flair or not, you can always produce something that looks good.

  1. With pottery painting, although what a person might create on a chosen piece of pottery might initially look a bit drab, once it has been glazed and fired it always comes out looking really great. Painting onto bisque (white unfired pottery) is very easy. After washing the bisque down to get rid of any residue and dust you apply the paint to a maximum of three coats. You must start with the light colors and add the dark. The colors applied change quite dramatically in the firing process which takes roughly 24 hours.
  2. The second idea is the process of sticking colorful paper onto any hard object and has become known as decopatch. As its name suggests the origin of decoupage comes from France. This is a fantastic newish art medium and does, to a degree, take you back doing collage and paper mache at school. It has however, evolved. The lovely thin paper with dramatic colors and patterns can be stuck onto almost anything producing a unique and personal piece of work. It is remarkably simple. All you do is tear the paper and stick it onto your object either randomly or not.
  3. We all go to the shops and spend mountains of money on beauty products but making soap and and other bath items such as bubble bath and gels can be so easy and so creative. This is the 3rd idea and it can be fun because you can add the flavors you want and make the items the color you really want … maybe to match your bathroom.

RC Construction Toys Erect Your RC Design And Cranes Arrange The Building Supplies

Your RC construction toys build any radio control design your brain conjures up. You can use them regardless of what type of design your project requires.

And once the moment comes to place your construction supplies, you’ll require your RC cranes to do the weighty lifting, and positioning.

You begin your plan with remote control excavators. The primary task is clearing the ground, or area, to make it shaped for your structures, roads, hills, mud bogs, and lakes or ponds.

With the RC excavators you remove surplus dirt to begin the leveling. The RC excavators also heap dirt up everywhere you require to change the shape of the ground, or maybe you require hills for your off-road pickups to crawl over. The excavators also dig the beds for your bodies of water.

For a city design you’ll build houses, parking garages, gas stations, fire stations, police stations, and office buildings. You want those structures to stand on different levels. And you’ll slice roads in and around those structures so your remote control vehicles can come, and go, to and from their city destinations.

Then you start up the RC front loaders to shovel up the free dirt, and fill the beds of the waiting dump trucks.

The front loaders level the surfaces for the structure foundations. They also prepare the surface of the roads before you pour the concrete, or install the blacktop.

When you’re all set for construction supplies semi flatbed trucks carry them to your build location. The forklifts unload the pallets, and position them around the construction area.

All those RC construction toys do the preparation labor. They prepare your location for putting together your radio control design.

Once the you’re ready to begin the building work of your design you use the remote control cranes. With the cranes you’ll elevate the construction supplies to their building position, and place them exactly where they go.

When you erect your city the cranes place the blocks for the structure foundations, or the wood for the concrete molds.

After the foundation sets your cranes go to work placing the framing supplies. And the workers can start putting up the walls.

As the building reaches toward the sky the cranes lift the supplies. They position those supplies where the construction workers have trouble-free access to them.

If you planned a racing event center the RC cranes move the material into position for the barrier walls, bleachers, and observation towers.

Does your drawing call for the assembly of a monster truck contest arena?

The excavators erect the mounds for your trucks to leap, but the cranes lift the automobiles (that your pickups soar over) into position between those mounds.

No matter what type construction design you erect you’ll want to arrange the construction supplies. That calls for the construction cranes.

Cranes have a valuable position in your fleet of RC construction toys.

Changes to Dutch Contracting Laws for 2015

Significant change is on the horizon for the methods and rules that manage fixed-term contracts within the Netherlands. The changes are a result of the Dutch Senate and the execution of the ‘Work and Security Act’, applied in June 2014.

The reasoning behind the implementation of the June 2014 act is to clamp down on the gap between permanent and flexible employment, which is viewed as a huge issue for the authorities while also preventing abuse of the current regulations.

The biggest change is on the ‘Transition Payments for Termination of Employment’, due to take place from the 1st of July 2015. This change results in a statutory transition payment for employees who have been contracted out for more than 24 months should their contract not continue; either on the initiative of the employer or under circumstances where the employer is at fault.

The financial amount making up the payment depends on the number of years employed for the company or agency. For example, during the first decade a 6th of the monthly salary will be due for each half-year of employment with the agency or company. After this, a quarter of a monthly salary will replace the previous amount if employed there for over ten years. However, there is a cap on compensation for top end salaries, over EUR 75,000. At the other end, small businesses are allowed to pay out lower amounts of compensation should they have to dismiss staff due to poor financial situations.

A further scheme allows employees aged 50 and over to receive half of their monthly salary for each set of six months employed beyond their 50th birthday. In relation to small businesses this over 50’s scheme is non-applicable. This will be allowed up until the 1st of January 2020.

While not yet cemented in place, it is predicted and expected that the normal rates of social security and tax will be applied onto these payments. The ongoing analysis concludes that only contractors working for over 24 months in the Netherlands will be affected by this change.

A further change is to the ‘Restriction of Probationary Periods’. This will take effect as of January the 1st, 2015. This highlights that any fixed-term contracts finished after the 2015 date should not include a probationary period at all. If, after this date, there is a probationary period then it is not deemed valid. The main impact with this legislation change is that contracts will need to written up in a different manner; something concerning all contractors in the Dutch market place but not expected to have an impact on the demand for contractors.

A further law to change on the 1st of January 2015 is the ‘Restriction of Non-Competition Clauses’.

This amendment outlines that any fixed term employment contract wrapped up after the start of 2015 will not include any non-competition clause unless it can be shown that the clause is vital or necessary for reasons that could affect the employers business or company. This has only been announced so far, no examples have yet been given and therefore the final result of this change is hard to assess until working cases pop up through time.

The impact this will have is unclear, so experts can only speculate. However, in the light of the other legislative changes, the insertion of non-competition clauses in order to protect a business, agency or payroll provider is not going to be accepted as a valid reason not to include the new legislative requirement. In the end, it will most likely boil down to the upstream providers to manage the risk – as this is the case in other countries such as Switzerland.

Changes are also being applied to ‘Notification Obligations’, also commencing from January 1st 2015. This includes all on going contracts. It’s a big one, with any fixed or long-term contract of employment longer than six months

This is a big one, as any fixed or long-term employment contract that is longer than half a year or six months required to be extended or cancelled in writing no later than a month before the end of the contract. The written notice will also need to include all conditions and clauses for any extension granted. Failure to do so will result in the employer paying a full one-days gross salary for every day throughout the delay. Should the employer completely fail to provide notice then the contract will continue under the same terms as the contract previously.

This legislation update is a touchy one, with contractors and business owners stating that the new law will defeat the point of a fixed-term contract. It will also, therefore, be up to the employers to manage their staff or workforce and the requirements of their clients; to avoid falling foul of this charge.

Finally, the ‘Limitation of Successive Fixed-Term Contracts’ is being modified to take effect July the 1st, 2015.

Hereby, employees can be given a maximum of three fixed-term contracts over a maximum of two years before their employment is considered permanent. Once considered a permanent employee, he or she will be entitled to all benefits and rights. In order to not be considered consecutive, the period in between contracts will need to be 6 months.

Fixed-term successive contracts have always been a very important aspect, not just in Dutch employment law but also in the eyes of the Dutch authorities. This new and restrictive change is intended to encourage employers to be cautious of using a temporary workforce with the result being that businesses are encouraged to work with a higher staff turnover, rather than a high conversion rate to permanent employment. However, only time can tell what this change will result in.

The long-term impacts from all of these changes will likely only be made clear once the following year is over with teething problem and issues ironed out, paired with the intricate rules revealed.

The Netherlands has, for a long time, attracted all nationalities and is viewed as a very attractive place to for international contractors to work and this is highly unlikely to change. However, these changes within the new ‘Work and Security Act’ bill are going to draw wide scale attention to the complex procedures of doing business within Dutch Borders and the vital need for expert assistance when setting up a payroll service, or starting work in The Netherlands.