Ryoko Tani – The First Woman Judoka

Ryoko Tani, the first woman judoka to successfully defend an Olympic title, will compete for a record third consecutive gold at the Beijing Olympics in 2008.

She has won two gold medals in the Olympic games, one in the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the other in the 2004 Athens Olympics, both in the 48kg-category. She defeated France's Frederique Jossinet in the final at Athens.

Tani, who by leaving the dojo in 2005 to raise her baby boy for two years ended an unbroken run of six world championships dating back to 1993, has made it clear that motherhood has not softened her.

Months after returning to the mat in 2007, Tani defeated Cuba's Yanet Bermoy to win a record seventh world championship in Brazil last September.

In Beijing, Tani will be suiting up as a wily veteran of four previous Olympics, a fighter who has tasted disappointment and glory in equal shares.

She entered the Olympic arena at the 1992 Barcelona Games as Ryoko Tamura, an unheralded 16-year-old. There, she stunned the world and a string of older, more-fancied opponents but lost to France's Cecile Nowak in the final bout.

Tani returned as a battle-hardened double world champion at Atlanta in 1996, but despite an 84-match winning streak and overwhelming favorite status, was upset by DPR Korea's Kye Sun-hui in the final.

Under intense pressure in Sydney four years later, Tani needed only 36 seconds to win gold, throwing Russia's Lyubov Bruletova to win automatically with an ippon and finally mount the top of the podium.

Tani, who married Olympic baseball player Yoshitomo Tani in 2003, has advertised everything from rice to do-it-yourself goods on Japanese television, but her comic book looks and bubbly public persona believe a ruthless streak on the competition mat.

When she attended her childhood idol, Britain's Karen Briggs, at Barcelona in 1992, she dislocated her shoulder, and kept attacking the injury after her opponent wrenched the joint back into her socket. Briggs, in intense pain, was always disqualified for passivity.

The Introduction Is The Key To A Great Public Speech

When drafting your speech every part is important if your audience is to be entertained, informed or persuaded. However, from your point of view the introduction is the by far the most important. You should devote much time and effort to getting this part right. If you start well your chances of delivering a great speech are enhanced. If you start badly it is unlikely that you or your audience will recover from the experience.

The reasons for this are as follows.

Your introduction is the first experience that your audience will have of you. Humans tend to judge others within seconds of meeting. You must work to make that judgement favourable to you.

The introduction sets the tone for the speech. Will it be interesting and informative or dull and banal? Your first words should electrify your audience about your subject and make them yearn for more..

The introduction is the point in the meeting when you establish control of your audience. Clearly in this sense control does not mean that they bend to your every whim. No, I refer to that symbiotic relationship between the audience and the orator in which the former agrees to concentrate and listen and the latter therefore wins the right to address them.. If you fail in this they will probably still sit quietly as most people are polite but they will have detached from the relationship that is essential for all good speeches.

Quite apart from the effect a good introduction has on your audience it has great benefits for you.

It calms your nerves. The anticipation is over. You are up and speaking and you know you are speaking well. You have prepared this part and you are confident.

It warms up your vocal chords and allows you to set the tone of your voice.

This helps you to pitch the loudness of your voice depending on the acoustics in the room and any sound system that you may be using..

It gives you the chance to slow down your delivery. Most people start talking too quickly and need to slow their rate of speech so that the audience can catch up. It is often taught by voice coaches that there is virtually no such thing as a delivery that is too slow provided that it does not sound like a cassette tape when the batteries have run down.. A slow deliberate speaking style establishes authority as well as allowing listeners to keep up.

It is your first opportunity to establish eye contact with your audience. You will have memorised this first part of your speech so that you can look your audience in the eye. Look round the room and draw every part into your contact routine. You cannot possibly look every individual in the eye but each section of the room must feel that they are being addressed. Remember that each member of the audience can tell if you are avoiding eye contact even if you have not looked at them directly.

It allows your brain to relax and let the subsequent passages of your speech come more easily to mind.

For all these reasons you can see how important the introduction to your speech is. The good news is that you can fashion a few standard introductions to almost every speech that you make. Take particular care over making it as easy as possible for you to flow into it. Your standard opening remarks must be easy to adapt from the closing words of the person who has introduced you which in turn move on to some phrases that can be used on almost any occasion..

A useful one is to tell a story about yourself. Once when I was giving a speech without fee I was introduced by the chairman who was no doubt a delightful if rather flustered person with the line, “We now welcome Mr. Ross who has kindly agreed to speak for no fee which means that next month we will be able to afford a proper speaker.” This always gets a laugh and is a great ice breaker. No one can take offense as the joke is directed at the speaker..

A familiar and well rehearsed opening gives you the comfort of getting on to familiar ground which will be the springboard of your speech.

5 Things You Can Do To Avoid Computer Repair Problems

We somewhat take our computers, laptops, and other such devices for granted, but these are just like any other electronics and sooner or later develop some sort of issues, which require repair.

In many cases, the nature of the problem may be small, but you need to get it right before it turns into a bigger problem. However, you can apply a number of easy techniques to avoid computer repair problems in future.

Let’s check out a few tips that can help you to stay ahead in maintaining your computer or other similar devices.

  • Make A List Of The Symptoms

When your PC starts showing any kind of operational issues, you will be appeared with particular error messages. These error message should be composed alongside alternate symptoms and disappointments confronted by you.

You may not be able to figure out the correct nature and reason of the PC problem because of their technical nature, yet when you catch these points of interest in a detailed and thorough way, then it will help the expert to recognise and take care of the issue rapidly. So you should observe the PC issue and note it down properly.

  • Get The Telephone Services

Sometimes it is impractical to visit a PC repair shop because of its far location or because of your busy work routine. So you have to investigate the remote consultation services that offer help to repair the PC. You can get the numbers from the official website of the company.

  • Make Notes The Repair Process

When you are giving over your PC to the onsite computer repairs centre, you should make a point to gather reports from the organisation specifying the particular PC equipment or programming that should be replaced alongside the correct time needed to repair the PC. It is likewise vital to approach the organisation for post repair guarantee. This basic documentation technique will help you to save some extra costs or charges.

  • Prepare The Computer For Repairing

Before you choose to give the PC for repair, you need to backup all the critical data on the PC including serial number of the PC hard disk, modem’s serial number, and serial number CD-ROM and different parts of the computer.

When you get the PC from the computer repairs and fix centre then these details will help in verifying your computer. Further, you have to delete a wide range of personal and classified information from the PC before giving it for repair.

  • Talk About Exchanging The PC At A Discounted Price

If you have one of the older models of the PC, the PC parts needed may not be available because of the model being out of production or guarantee period. In such cases, you can consider the exchange offers available to replace the current PC with another one by paying a discounted amount. There are no particular rates of exchange, so you need to negotiate with the buyer and see what you can get in return.

Business Success – It’s All About You

As a business coach and mentor over the past 15 years, I have seen many business owners get caught in the cycle of overworking, in their pursuit of a great idea matched with guts, hard work and determination. But often the result is simply under- earning, even as they stop along the way to chase “gurus” believing that they will show them the way and things will finally click.

Looking outside for a “cure all” or a “quick fix” only leads to continued frustration for business owners because without looking inward at the things that stand in the way of success, the same situations show up repeatedly. The key to success for each of us lies within ourselves.

If you are committed to building a great business and bringing the key elements of success to the surface, you need to adapt these 15 strategies into your business and personal life.

1. Realize It’s All About You

Your business is a reflection of you. It is a container for our own rich spirits, talents, gifts and energy. It also contains your issues, blocks and attitudes. What we experience in our business is a mirrored image of the values, beliefs and images we hold within. In this way your business is all about you and can only get as big as you are, no more and no less. You may want to blame the economy, lack of money, busy-ness…yet to grow your business you must be willing to work both on the inner game (seeing yourself clearly and clearing beliefs that keep you stuck ) as well as, the outer game of action and technical know-how (knowing what to do and doing it). Once we recognize that the difficulties and limitations in our business (and our lives) are reflections of our own patterns, we have a powerful tool to change patterns and to create what we truly want.

2. Grow Yourself

A client once said, “Having a business is the best personal development course you’ll ever take.” This is very true. If you want to grow your business, all the marketing systems, secrets and strategies in the world won’t help you unless you first grow yourself. For example, if you have a belief that you have to work 16-hour days in order to be successful, then you will end up working 16-hour days. And you may or may not be successful. If your leadership style is disrespectful of team members and customers then the energy of the business will reflect this. Only second-rate team members will be attracted as you will only attract people who are OK being disrespected and not appreciated. Your business will only achieve a fraction of what is possible. Your style and level of development sets the tone for your entire organization. Everything is reflected back to you multiplied, exaggerated and often dramatized. This means, if you want your business to change, if you want your team to change, if you want your results to change… It all starts with you. Many people work on growing the business, their teams, and sales, yet leave out the most important factor in the entire equation -you.

3. Get Out of Your Own Way

One of the biggest obstacles most of us have is that we get in our own way. It is as if we are driving down the road to success with one foot on the gas and the other one on the brake. We don’t do it on purpose or get up in the morning and say, “How can I sabotage my success today?”

It looks different for each of us, even from day to day. Sometimes it may be just being too busy to do the things we know we need to do. It could also be fear. This, too, could show up in many ways.

We may be afraid we are not good enough, so we procrastinate or become overwhelmed at the thought of doing the task. A personal favorite of mine was the fear of being wrong, so I played it safe and limited myself to things I already knew I could do well.

Clutter is another way we slow ourselves down. Besides the physical difficulty it causes, clutter can also weigh us down subconsciously. Marie, a small businesswoman, was pitching clients to increase business. But no one was signing on with her. After a brief discussion it was obvious that she was exasperated; I could feel this in just a short phone conversation. When I asked Marie to describe her office, she told me about the piles of files on her desk, projects on the credenza and other items on the floor, plus the spillover into her personal space. The piles represented unfinished business; work that she knew she needed to do but could not get around to doing.

When she would visit new prospects she would say the right words to solicit their business, but energetically she was saying, “Please, don’t hire me! I can’t handle what I have; I don’t have any space to take on additional work!” After several days of completing outstanding projects, not only did she clean up but also achieved a sense of peace. As a bonus, she noticed that several prospects to whom she had pitched earlier called to hire her. Coincidence? When we get out of our own way, major things happen.

4. Focus on What You Do Best

As an entrepreneur you wear many hats, but some don’t fit or may clash with your personality. Too often I see small business owners or solopreneurs fretting incessantly about sending out invoices, following up with clients, or marketing. This constant worry drains their energy and keeps them from focusing on the parts of the business they do well.

Rather than trying to be all things to all people, it is better to focus on your strengths and become an outsourcing expert for the rest. Do what you do best and delegate the rest.

5. Define Success

What does success mean to you? In a world with so many coulds, shoulds and wants, how do you know if you are successful? Many clients have found that until they take the time to define success for themselves, it tends to be defined for them — and often not to their benefit. When you live by someone else’s definition, you may feel boxed in, un-empowered, as if you have no choices. You end up chasing goals that aren’t yours, and although you might achieve things you thought would make you feel successful, you find that something is still missing. You don’t feel any different than you did before.

Define what success means to you and you’ll notice a tug to make changes in your life, both significant and small. You’ll have a better idea of what you really want to do, deep down inside. By defining success on your terms, you’ll release yourself from priorities that are not relevant and be free to enjoy life completely.

6. Be Responsible

In the syndicated comic strip Frank and Ernest, two bums are sitting along a wall talking with each other. One says to the other, “Do you believe in fate?” The other replies, “Sure. I’d hate to think I turned out like this because of something I had control over.”

You have control and you are responsible for everything that shows up in your life. If you believe that someone or something else is the cause of whatever is happening, you are choosing to be a victim. Look at the word responsibility: response-ability; the ability to choose your response. Recognize this responsibility. Don’t blame circumstances or conditions. It all comes down to your choices.

The good news is that since you are solely responsible, you can make changes. You don’t have to be stuck in a bad relationship, a dead-end job, fear, or whatever is not working for you. Owning your behaviors allows you to see what makes you unhappy and gives you the opportunity to change it. Taking responsibility for your behaviors and actions, thoughts and beliefs is empowering and one of the simplest ways to make lasting changes. You are the creator of your life.

7. Become Conscious

Other than when sleeping in bed at night, aren’t we already conscious? Not always. Too often we operate at a level below sensitive awareness. We go through life never stopping to think about what we are doing or why. We get up in the morning, turn on autopilot and let it take us through the day. We react to whatever comes our way, overlooking many choices available to us.

Mark’s pattern was to see the world as a dichotomy. He would unconsciously put things in one of two categories: black/white good/bad, either/or, yes/no. For him there was never an option in between. Although he knew something was not working in his life, it wasn’t until he could objectively see this pattern and associated beliefs that he could accept that other options do exist. With this new consciousness many choices suddenly became available to him.

Linda struggled to increase her business and make it profitable. She became aware that she did not value herself and would under-price her services or even give them away. Her unconscious pattern of unworthiness led her to believe that no one would actually pay for what she had to offer. As she began to clear these beliefs and patterns her profits grew; and more importantly, she began to do the work that before she had only dreamed of doing.

To become conscious is to become aware. When we are present with our mind, body and spirit we accept responsibility for the choices we make and move from being victims of situations and circumstances to self-actualized human beings.

8. Get a New Perspective

“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them,” said Albert Einstein. Knowledge and understanding is limited to one’s own experience. We see things through our own story and beliefs and are oblivious to other possibilities.

Any decisions we make from this vantage point are always through old paradigms. We continue to do the same things over and over, making the same mistakes and wondering why things never change or get better for us.

It takes courage to go beyond our limited perception to see that which we believe to be true is only true for us. From another perspective things look different. For example, the idea that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west is only true from our perspective on earth. From space the sun always shines. Both versions are true only from their respective vantage point. As you move beyond the limits of your own perspective, possibilities emerge and a new world opens.

9. Build Community

You are never alone. Everything is in contact with other things, which connect to more things, like an interconnected web. Nothing and no one exists independently. If such a thing did exist then it would be incapable of change.

It is a common misconception that the end of development is independence. Each of us is a living link in the chain that binds us all together. Only with an attitude of cooperation and communication are we able to produce viable results, come up with creative ideas, and create what we want.

Through cooperative endeavors community is made. As a part of the chain, every one of your gifts will shine and the joy and pleasure that may have been lost will be restored to you. Each individual becomes part of a giant mosaic of endless possibilities.

10. Get a Life

When you expect your work to provide meaning and fulfillment it ends up being a desperate search for something that can not be found there — a life. Your work is not your life! You are more than what you do. You are the sum of your parts, only one of which is work.

Too often work becomes our identity and we put off the rest of our life. As a work-centered culture, we have lost touch with ourselves. We skip lunch, conduct business while in our cars and at our kids’ soccer games, and are always connected, even on vacation. We perceive we have no choices and consequently feel like victims. In realty, we are using work to avoid other things.

When this happens we feel trapped in circumstances of our own making. Busy-ness, procrastination, crisis, drama, struggle — these are all ways of avoiding things that we would rather not deal with. Choice and responsibility are keys to creating the lives we want.

11. Keep It Simple

Life is simple. We are the ones who make it complicated. There is a difference between effort and struggle. Consider nature… it puts forth effort in sustaining itself, but does not struggle. It just is. Living requires effort. Running a business involves a certain amount of effort. Struggle, however, is optional. It is a battle we fight with ourselves.

What is struggle to one person is gentle effort to another. Struggle is mixed with fear, anxiety and worry and comes from what we believe about a situation or event, not from the event itself. What you believe, consciously or unconsciously, creates your reality.

“Change the way you look at things and the things you look at change,” said Wayne Dyer. As you begin to take responsibility and accept that you create your life, you can move beyond the struggle toward an inner calm. Life was never meant to be a struggle.

12. Be Kind

We’ve all heard our mothers tell us to be kind. I interpreted this to mean to be kind to others. And while this is important and certainly makes it easier for everyone to get along, there’s another point of view to consider.

Be kind to yourself. Most of us beat ourselves up mercilessly. The way we talk to and treat ourselves would cause anyone else to run away. So why do we think it’s okay to act toward ourselves that way? Value yourself as you would a dear friend or family member. Do not judge, criticize or beat yourself up, even in your thoughts. In addition, take care of yourself and your needs. If you are constantly taking care of others at your expense, then you are mistreating yourself.

13. Accept What Is

If your life is about wanting for the future instead of living now you will end up with a life filled with a lot of wanting and very little living. Life is here, now. It is not going to happen one day when all the stars in the sky magically align, your business takes off, or everything in your life is working out perfectly. Life becomes easier and more enjoyable as we accept what is happening and showing up right now — even if you do not want it, like it, or enjoy it.

Recently, someone had put in an offer to buy our house. Since it had been on the market for a few months, we were excited. A few days later however, they pulled their offer and we were back at square one. While we were disappointed in the turn of events, it really had no other impact. My choice was about aligning with what was actually happening rather than trying to control and manipulate the events. This is more than just positive thinking; it is truly accepting things and having no expectations. It is attachment to expectations that cause our hurt, pain and disappointment. As we move toward acceptance, each day is ours to enjoy regardless of outside circumstances.

14. Find Your Own Answers

Sometimes it seems easier to look outside of ourselves for answers, to rely on words from others or stories we tell ourselves based on external factors rather than facts. The problem is that these external answers don’t bring us closer to our truth. More than likely, they drive us farther away. Seeking answers requires patience and awareness; everyone has a unique way of finding them.

My job as a coach and mentor is to help individuals find their own answers in a way that brings them closer to their truth. And even if your answers don’t agree with the experts, know that while they may be an expert on certain things only you are the expert on you. Consider all the pioneers, inventors and explorers who were all told they were wrong and that what they wanted to do was impossible. Only you know what’s best for you; be willing to ask the hard questions of yourself and listen carefully to the answers.

15. Go With the Flow

Everyone today is busy. We are conditioned to being busy and wear it like a badge of honor. People overload themselves with unimportant tasks or commitments, most of which have little benefit. Being busy is different than doing. Doing has a sense of purpose, a feeling that something is happening, even if you can’t see it yet. Busy is doing a lot but never getting a sense of accomplishment. Many people are addicted to busy and spend their days never doing anything.

Being busy is also an excuse for poor performance or to ignore parts of life or business that require attention. Many people mistakenly believe that busy means important. Busy really means out of control, frenetic and unorganized.

The other choice is flow, a unique state of mind where productivity and creativity are at their highest. Flow happens when you are fully present and engaged in what you are doing, where time melts away in a commitment to the goal-oriented activity. Admit that you cannot do everything and devote your time to what’s most important. You will have room to be focused and enthralled.

Some of these tips may be familiar to you while others may challenge your paradigms. Each one has the potential to change your life within as well as without. No matter how many goals we achieve, or how much success we have, if we don’t change what’s on the inside, the outside is never enough. Use the tips and techniques daily to achieve success in your business and your life.

10 Most Valuable Brands in the Middle East

Emirates has been the most important brand in the Middle East as far back as Brand Finance started its positioning in 2010 and the Dubai-based aircraft has been best of its industry at a worldwide level throughout the previous five years, However 2017 sees a sensational shift. According to Brand Finance’s Middle East 50, (The yearly provide details regarding the world’s most important Middle Eastern brands), Emirates’ image esteem is down 21 for each penny to $6.1 billion. This sees it lose its place at the highest point of its industry; three US brands (American, United and Delta) have surpassed it. Significantly more drastically in any case, Emirates has lost its place as the Middle East’s most profitable brand to STC.

1. Emirates

The carrier has reliably overwhelmed the rankings and from 2015 to 2016 has grown 17 percent with a brand estimation of $7.7 million. This year there has been an adjustment in system and mentality which has seen the organization turn out to be more open to associations. In banding together with Qantas, Emirates can offer more flights to more goals and has since shaped a littler manage Malaysia Airways.

2. STC

The Saudi Telecom Company positions by and by as a standout amongst the most significant brands on the planet and placed second in the Middle East in spite of a one percent drop in mark an incentive on 2015. In the same way as other telecoms organizations, there is an attention on development through innovation to help drive beneficial development while changing the business to address the issues of its clients. STC additionally means to drive financial improvement in Saudi Arabia and in its different markets by empowering a learning based economy.

3. Etisalat

With the development of four percent in the course of the most recent year, Etisalat is another telecoms organization making the main 10. Situated in Dubai, the organization is spearheading 5G trials in the UAE, including coordinating the advancement, plan and sending of future innovation stages for fifth era portable broadband. Since government confinements on interest in the organization were lifted in June 2015, shares have encouraged.

4. Qatar airlines

With the biggest development in the main 10, Qatar Airways has bounced 26 percent in mark esteem going from $2.7 million out of 2015 to $3.4 million out of 2016. This development over the bigger Emirates aircraft is down to the way that Qatar Airways serves more goals while as yet having space to grow, dissimilar to Emirates which is restricted by its center point of Dubai International.

5. QNB

Banks make up a tremendous 50 percent of the main 50 marks in the Middle East with Qatar National Bank at the best with a brand estimation of $2.4 million. The esteem has dropped six percent in the course of the most recent year however insufficient to move the brand from fifth in the rankings.

6. Al-Rajhi Bank

Al-Rajhi Bank, in any case, has seen the development of 13 percent in the course of the most recent year. It’s one of the biggest Islamic banks on the planet with a client driven approach that positions it as one of the main and most dynamic banks in Saudi Arabia. Its development is down to proceeded with broadening of its administrations to address the issues of its client base.

7. Almarai

Almarai has made some amazing progress since its development in 1977 and today is the world’s biggest vertically coordinated dairy organization. The proceeding with development is down to its particular system and proceeded with devotion to enhancing the center advertising. Enhancement has likewise been an expensive piece of the brand’s development as it’s moved into the juice business and is currently a reasonable market pioneer in the GCC.

8. NCB

The National Commercial Bank was the main Saudi bank to be authorized in the Kingdom and is one of the main money related organizations in the district. It’s new to the Brand Finance rankings with an amazing bounce into the eighth position.

9. Emirates NBD

This bank keeps on developing with an expansion of 23 percent on its image an incentive in 2015. This is down to the growing Dubai economy and more individuals taking out advances through the bank. In the same way as other different banks, Emirates NBD offers an assorted determination of items that fulfill a scope of client needs.

10. Oooredoo

In position 10 is Oooredoo, an interchanges organization devoted to making Qatar a standout amongst other associated urban communities on the planet. It’s climbed from position 11 with a 23 percent expansion in mark an incentive on 2015. With an AA rating from Brand Finance, Oooredoo is one of the most grounded telecoms organizations in the district.

In the full Middle East 50, the competition between the UAE and Saudi Arabia stays close. There are 21 Saudi brands introduce in the table against the 16 from the UAE. Nonetheless, the last are fundamentally more profitable with the aggregate brand estimation of UAE brands at $27.9 billion contrasted with $26 billion for Saudi Arabia.

STC grew 11 for every penny in esteem this year to US$6.2 billion. Brand Finance Middle East Managing Director Andrew Campbell remarks, “The Riyadh-based monster shows a takeoff from its once customary approach; it is leaving down a way of ‘humanization’, re-connecting with its numerous partners with a crisp, charming standpoint. A reasonable sign of its prosperity is the 5-point increment in its image quality file score, demonstrating that putting some heart into it pays off.”

Are Brands in the Middle East Ready for the Challenges of IOT?

Qatar National Bank, the Middle East’s most profitable bank mark is up 56 for each penny. QNB finished the procurement of Turkey’s Finansbank this year and keeps on fortifying its position not simply in the Middle East but rather in Africa and Asia as well, Brand Finance report says.

The Middle East’s second most significant bank mark is Emirates NBD, which like QNB has grown 56 for every penny in the most recent year. National Bank of Abu Dhabi and Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank are up 62 for every penny and 77 for every penny separately.

Aircrafts is the third most critical division by mark esteem and has seen its offer of the aggregate tumble to 14 for every penny.

And in addition incomes on the up, the brand is picking up support with clients as well. Its score for recognition, thought, inclination, fulfillment and, vitally, its proposals are all up.

The Cold Heading Process for Small Metal Parts

Their function seems so simple, but small metal parts play a huge role in keeping certain industries afloat. For example, where would the electronics industry be without the screws, contact rivets, and miniature components that are used to build products? And where would the automotive industry be without the bevy of metal fasteners used to keep cars in one piece? Imagine trying to drive a car held together by rubber bands and duct tape. That’s a world without simple metal parts. Despite the relative importance of these parts, however, few people know how and where they are made. Even the executives of the companies which keep the metal part industry in business are often far removed from the manufacturing decisions and industrial knowledge.

The truth is that there are many metalworking processes-die casting, extrusion, forging, and so on. Each of these processes falls into one of the following categories-forming, cutting, and joining-and has its own strengths and weaknesses when it comes to industry. One in particular is extremely useful for manufacturing small metal parts. This is the cold heading process.

Cold heading is a process which shapes metal by applying force to a metal blank with a punch and die. Once the force applied by the die exceeds the metal blank’s yield strength, the material begins to give and take on the shape of the die. Why is this process so effective? For starters, it allows a supplier to make extremely precise parts given the use of a die. Many different shapes and designs can be realized, and furthermore it is easy to create custom shapes for individual clients. Second of all, the cold forming process strengthens the metal through deformation. This makes cold headed parts far more durable and resistant to shock and fatigue than small metal parts created through a different process. Thirdly, there is no scrap produced since the metal is shaped rather than cut or otherwise removed. This means that production can occur more quickly and efficiently, without the extra labor that is required to remove the scrap. The bottom line is that the cold heading process is able to produce small metal parts quickly and cheaply when compared to others means.

While the cold heading process is fantastic for small metal fasteners such as screws, contacts, contact rivets, and other fasteners, it is not ideal for everything. Larger projects may be served better by another type of metalworking. Furthermore, cold heading companies can only use certain types of materials with their stamping machines. Metals such as steel, aluminum, copper, and nickel work well with cold heading machines. As do precious metals such as silver, gold, and platinum. Iron, however, is an exception. As are magnesium, refractory metals, titanium, and zinc.

Given the widespread use of cold forming processes, it is important for executives in many industries to understand the process through which their components and products are manufactured. Knowing whether to look for a cold heading company or another type of industrial supplier will help businesses save time and expense, as well as create a better end-product.

Old School Flash Photography

When I first got into photography, a flashgun was something that fitted into a camera’s accessory shoe, and plugged into a PC socket via a short cable. At its most sophisticated level, the PC cable was not required, and the camera and flash both had a hot shoe connection. All it did was produce a burst of bright light, timed to coincide with the camera shutter being fully open. The art of flash photography was all a matter of calculations and best guess adjustments.

The main problem with film flash photography is that the lighting effect cannot be seen until a print has been made. Additionally, the position in which the flashgun is mounted to the camera is less than ideal for some types of photography, portraiture for example, since it produces a very flat light, and casts disagreeable shadows. Good results therefore require the photographer to understand how they can manipulate this set-up, and knowledge stems from careful experimentation and experience.

There are two ingredients to successful film flash photography. The first is correct exposure. Every flashgun has a “guide number” for every speed of film (although the number for 100 ASA/ISO is most frequently used), and that number is based on the flash firing at the subject directly. The higher the guide number, the more powerful the flashgun is, although some manufacture’s tended to overstate the capabilities of their products. It’s important to know the guide number for your flash.

The second piece of information required to calculate the correct exposure is the subject’s distance from the camera. If using direct flash with an SLR or rangefinder camera, this measurement will be easy to establish. The exposure calculation is the guide number, divided by distance, and the result equals the required aperture.

Guide Number = Aperture


So if a flashgun has a guide number of 80, and the subject is 10 feet away, the required aperture is f/8 (80, 10). The shutter speed should be inconsequential, due to the flash synchronisation requirements of focal plane shutters (i.e. commonly 1/60th of a second). With leaf shutters, anything is possible, so long as the camera’s speed doesn’t exceed that of the flash duration (but with typical electronic flash duration at around 1/1000th of a second, this shouldn’t be a problem).

Some flashguns have a small exposure guide table printed on their casing, which shows the appropriate f-stop for a range of distances (the calculations have been done for you). Others have a “calculator wheel” where distances (and film speeds) are dialled-in and a suggested aperture setting revealed (in the manner of a hand-held exposure meter). Additionally, some flashguns require the user to work in metres rather than feet.

Anyone serious about flash photography might wish to experiment with his or her flash, and take a series of bracketed exposures of a test image (i.e. with variations to the f-stop used), allowing re-calculation of the true guide number for their gun based on the best exposures in their experimental prints (i.e. distance x aperture = guide number).

Further exposure calculations are necessary when the flashgun is used off the camera, or the light output is modified in other ways. Both these techniques can improve the performance of a basic flashgun.

Bouncing light

Some of the better (yet still simple) flashguns have an articulation to the light-producing window. This generally either tilts by about 90° (i.e. points at the subject or straight up, and any angle in between), or rotates from side to side (and sometimes they can do both). This allows light to be bounced off a nearby reflective surface on to the subject. Bounced light has a more diffused nature, and will cast softer shadows. Its direction (from above/one side) can better resemble natural ambient light. Suitable reflective surfaces should be white, so as to avoid introducing a colour cast to the lighting: ceilings are often a good bet. The photographer needs to aim the flash at an estimated point where light will reflect back on to the front of the subject (somewhere between the camera and the subject).

Adding the total distance from the camera-to-reflector to the distance from the reflector-to-subject, and dividing the guide number will roughly determine the aperture size required. Some illumination will be lost, so the aperture needs to be increased by one or two f-stops: exactly how much extra exposure is given is a matter of judgment borne of experience.

Off camera flash

If a flashgun does not have swivel or tilt capabilities, then it can be used off the camera. This set-up has a few inconveniences. The flash needs to be mounted on a tripod (cold shoes with a tripod bush are available), plus there is a requirement to connect the flash to the camera via a longer trailing lead. Improved illumination is often achieved when the light source is away from the camera and at an angle to the subject (with or without bouncing). As with bounced flash, something important to recognise here is that flash photography isn’t necessarily done at very low light levels, and there will often be ambient light. Moving a flashgun off-camera allows it to be placed in a position where it will not cast shadows that conflict with the natural light source. Sometimes, a very powerful flashgun is not the most useful tool.

Home made diffusers

Some flashes come with a white semi-transparent diffuser. If your buying second-hand equipment, these accessories are often missing, but it’s easy enough to produce a home made alternative using something similar: paper tissues held on with an elastic band can have the same effect. This diffuses the light, and reduces the intensity of the flash, thereby minimising hard shadows.

As before, exposure determination starts with dividing the guide number by the distance, to derive the requisite aperture setting and then adding an additional f-stop (or two) based on the thickness of the diffuser, and experience. It’s also possible to simultaneously diffuse and bounce flash.

Other ways to use flash

I’ll just touch on this here, because the subject is big enough to fill another article, but there are many other ways in which a straightforward flashgun can be used (rather than simply mounting it on the camera, and pointing it directly at the subject). These include outdoor flash, fill-in flash, and using more than one flashgun.

In summary

Becoming adept with a flashgun takes experience gained from experimentation, but there are a few simple rules that, if followed, will take away some of the guesswork and get you into the ballpark of an accurately exposed, and sympathetically lit shot.

5 Of The Best Ways to Finger a Girl

Fingering a woman is not the same as putting on an oil filter. She requires more skill and attention than your 1967 Shelby GT. Mustang. A woman needs loving care and your attention. Some of the best ways to show her affection is through foreplay. There are tons of ways to perform foreplay but some of the methods are harmful in nature and should be avoided. Foreplay consists of finger play, oral sex, regular sex and sometimes other forms of sexual activity.

Today we are going to concentrate on finger play. Here are my top 5 best ways to finger a girl.

#1 The Slide Rail

This technique is once she is comfortable, and the fingering has gone beyond the point of getting her wet from rubbing her outer vagina. Use your index finger and middle finger, one on each side of the clitoris. Slowly slide your two fingers down until you reach the vaginal opening, at which point return to the starting position.

#2 Clitoris Stimulation

You can apply your fingers to the clitoris and rub in a gentle fashion. The right amount of pleasure will cause her to climax. There are different ways to use your fingers to pleasure your girl. Some women prefer a dry rub, while others prefer to have some form of lubrication. The speed and direction are important in achieving a climax, her preferences should be considered first. You can use more than one finger and is recommended to reduce the stress on the wrist and hand. The position that you lay or sit in effects the amount of strain on the arm.

#3 Happy Hands

Don’t just use your fingers, you have more tools at your disposal. Your extra hand can be fondling her body in other sensitive areas. If you are lying next to her use your legs and feet to get close and make that physical connection.

#4 Twist and Shout

Push your index and middle finger into her vaginal opening, start slow, and make sure the region is already wet and lubricated prior to penetration. Try rotating your fingers as you enter and exit, this will provide a different and enjoyable sensation.

#5 Discovering The G Spot

The G Spot can be found if you are facing her with your index or middle finger inside her vagina. Make a “come here” motion with the finger. It’s almost like you are aiming for her belly button from the inside. You should be able to feel the spot, as it has a unique texture and feel. Somewhat like the top of the mouth.

So there you have it. These techniques will help you get your women to really appreciate your efforts in bed. Have fun with them, and experiment. In University I was dating a girl that would go crazy for these techniques. She was so exhausted afterwards from the multiple orgasms that we didn’t even get to penetration. As a result whenever I was looking for a release, she was happy to help. Relationships are about give and take. The more you give you more you will receive in return.

SEO a Scam? The Truth About the Industry

I frequent many SEO and Web Marketing forums on a daily basis and every so often there is a debate about the SEO industry and ethics. After being involved in a number of these debates, it has become really obvious that the main problems are the facts that no two SEO companies are alike and there is no unified methodology. It’s very hard to make statements about the industry as a whole because it’s debatable what exactly ‘SEO’ is. Mix in the fact that most SEO companies keep their methodology and campaign strategies secret and we have a situation where every company is totally different with very different results.

Fact 1 : There is no unified SEO methodology. SEO is actually defined by wikipedia as a process of improving traffic from SERPs to a site. Of course, HOW they do that is the real question and causes the debates.

Fact 2 : The effectiveness of an SEO campaign depends on the site structure, site content, keywords, methodology used, and how popular the site is. A site cannot just rank for any random keyword. SEO is also not voodoo. It is logic, problem solving, and Web marketing mixed together. If your site provides no value to users, it probably won’t rank.

Fact 3 : Some ‘SEOs’ do search engine optimization and some do search engine manipulation. Of course, it is all marketed as SEO. Unethical optimization provides results at any cost and is always short term (usually ends in a banned domain name). Ethical optimization opens up the site to the search engines and provides long term benefits.

Fact 4 : Most SEO companies get paid whether or not your site gets any rankings. Unfortunately, this is the case with the industry. Most SEO companies implement A, B, and C and move on to the next client. Hopefully, the site ranks. If it doesn’t, they always have more clients.

Fact 5 : Most SEO companies use both ethical and unethical inbound linking strategies.To maximize profits, it is very common for SEO companies to buy bulk links from India, links on spam/scraper web sites, or sell large directory submission packages. It is also common for SEO companies to place huge amounts of the contract into inbound linking to make up for the poor quality of the site optimization.

I don’t think it is fair to characterize the industry as a whole without figuring out what is wrong with it and how SEO companies can overcome it. So how exactly do we determine what is good and bad about the industry? I have now been involved with the Web for over 10 years and, specifically, with the SEO industry for almost 4 years and I’ve seen the inner workings of major SEO companies and worked with clients who had been burned by their previous SEO campaigns. Combined with numerous Web postings and forum debates talking about the same basic problems, I’ve compiled a list of the most common issues.

Problem 1: Responsibility for Results

It’s no secret that the vast majority of SEO companies take no responsibility for results. It is a fact that no SEO company can guarantee results (and if they do, they are lying to you). It is also a fact that the client is taking a risk by spending money with an SEO company that basically says ‘We’ll do what we can’. SEO companies simply guarantee they’ll do the work to ‘optimize’ the site, but without full disclosure of their methodology, what exactly is the client paying for? No other industry sells a product with no guarantees and no specific list of work that will be completed. Of course, SEO work is basically the sales of information and keeping the specifics of a methodology is important, but the combination of secrecy and no responsibility for results really makes SEO campaigns risky. So, how can an SEO company reduce the risk for the client and provide the best grade of service?

Answer 1: Incentive Based Pricing

The only real way to reduce the financial risk of the client is to share the risk. Through incentive-based pricing, the SEO company can charge a certain percentage of the total contract (say 70%) to cover their intellectual property and time while placing the rest of the contract price (remaining 30%) in incentives for success. Of course, incentives and their percentage of the contract would be totally relative depending on the campaign. This first step into sharing in the risk provides both reassurance to the client that the company believes in its methodology and places some of the financial burden of the campaign on the SEO company. At the moment, however, very few SEO companies are willing to share in the risk and charge the same price whether the client gets top rankings or no rankings at all (or possibly even lower rankings).

Problem 2: Unethical Optimization

Unfortunately, unethical (or blackhat) optimization is still very prominent on the Web. It’s also unfortunate that ‘SEO’ has been mistakenly confused with ‘Blackhat SEO’. This is still the biggest problem for SEO companies. Saying that all SEO companies deal in blackhat optimization is like saying everyone who emails is a spammer. Blackhat optimization is not optimization at all…it is search engine manipulation. Because there is so much money tied to top rankings, there will always be a market for unethical SEO and search engine spam. Until companies realize what is ethical and unethical and stop supporting those blackhat SEO companies, they will continue to thrive. This makes the industry as a whole look bad and does not reflect the ethics of good SEO companies. Blackhat provides fast, short term results, but is never a good option in the long run.

Answer 2: Ethical Optimization

There is no quick and easy solution to blackhat optimization’s stain on the SEO industry. I would suggest that all marketing departments research optimization techniques and educate themselves on what techniques are unethical. No SEO company is going to say they do unethical optimization. It’s also not a good idea to immediately trust a company or product based simply on their rankings. Unethical optimization DOES provide rankings…just not for the long run.

It would also be helpful if the major search engines would be more open and accessible to SEO companies. Currently, the major search engines and SEO companies do not deal with each other and have formed a sort of love-hate relationship. Because of this, many ethical SEOs have slowly moved into dark territory. Ethical optimization seeks to make sites more easily accessible to the engines and help to improve the engine’s search results. The problem is that the search engines mainly clump all SEO companies together the same way as uninformed users do: search engine manipulation. This is just not the case. Search engines do not want to reveal what they consider unethical because it would basically be providing a list of holes in their algorithms that blackhat SEOs would be able to manipulate further, but a defined list of ‘what not to do’ would provide a definitive list for businesses looking for an SEO company.

Basic Rules of Ethical Optimization

Any campaign that does not abide by the following rules is dealing in unethical optimization techniques and should be avoided.

1.) What the user sees and what the search engine sees should be exactly the same. Do not hide anything.

2.) Your keywords (and the resulting optimization) should exactly reflect the content of the page.Keywords should always reflect what your site is about.

3.) Do not build out pages exclusively for search engines. The site should always cater to both audiences (users and search engines). Catering to only users is why optimization is necessary. Catering only to search engines is optimization gone too far into blackhat.

4.) Do not participate in manipulative inbound linking schemes like link farms, bulk links, triangle linking, or any other unethical manipulation of your Google PageRank or link authority. Inbound links should be relevant to the content of your site and you should always know who is linking to you and where your links come from.

Problem 3: Assembly Line / Software SEO

With the growth of the SEO industry has also come the automation of SEO. The absolute first thing any prospective SEO client should know is that all effective SEO campaigns are custom. There is no checklist of items that will work exactly the same on every site. If the SEO company claims there is, then they are not doing full optimization and the campaign is minimal. A good optimization campaign optimizes the site architecture, text content, and code of the site. Assembly line SEO does not take into consideration the unique needs/design of the site and may even deal in blackhat optimization. SEO software especially should be looked at closely. There are really only two things SEO software could do that would work for any site: doorway pages (showing engines one thing and users a different thing; which is unethical) or a system of pages build exclusively for search engines (often called info or information pages and linked in an out of the way part of the page). Doorway pages are 100% unethical and info pages are deep in the gray area. Neither of those two methods address the architecture of the site, proper keyword analysis, or effective text content. The following links are examples of automated SEO software freely available on the Web. All links contain ‘nofollow’ to prevent the sites from getting inbound link credit from our site. These sites are NOT recommended by TreeHouse SEM.

http://doorwaypagemaker.com/ – Doorway page system; UNETHICAL

http://www.doorway-wizard.com/ – Doorway page system; UNETHICAL

Answer 3: Custom Campaign and Assessment

‘SEO Software’ may be cheap and affordable, but you get what you pay for. Any campaign that is going to slap on additional pages are simply sell you links is NOT an effective SEO campaign. Any SEO effort that simply has you add a few ‘optimized’ pages to your site is not going to be optimal. If you wanted to convert a street car into a race car, you don’t simply add racing strips to it. Don’t think that dumping a few pages on your site targeted to some random keywords is the same as a real SEO campaign.

If your SEO company will not sit down and talk about the layout, architecture, and aim of your site, then it is not providing a top-end service. Remember that the vast majority of ‘SEO software’ either is for building doorway/landing pages or simply providing you with data about your site (data that is already free to everyone on the Web). Good SEO campaigns take into account both the user and the search engines…not one or the other. An SEO company should have a commanding understanding of user experience and search engine optimization and use these in combination to create a campaign that will provide the best ROI. The end goal should always be leads/sales. Bringing in piles of non-targeted traffic often leads to extremely high turn over rates and very low lead conversion.


Do your research. Find out what you want from an optimization campaign and then ask the right questions. Make sure that the sales representative you talk to knows what they are selling. If they do not, they are definitely not the person to get information from. A lot of SEO companies use hard sale tactics and the reps are less than knowledgeable about what they are selling. Ask the following questions and see what they have to say.

1.) How do you assess keywords? If an SEO company simply optimizes for whatever keywords are sent to them by the client, the SEO campaign starts off on very shaky ground. Keyword analysis should be performed that takes into account the number of searches in all the major search engines and the relative competition for those terms. The site should also be compared to the keywords to see if they support each other.

2.) Do you plan on building out pages specifically to house keywords? Landing pages and doorway pages are not effective long term SEO options. SEO companies like them because they do not have to touch the rest of the site and it’s very easy to simply add band aids instead of performing surgery.

3.) Will my SEO campaign also help improve the user experience of the site? Proper architecture and usability goes hand in hand with SEO and helps increase ROI. You should want to bring in new traffic and convert it.

4.) Does my revenue model affect my keyword selection and the optimization as a whole? Any SEO company that does not optimize based on the target audience is NOT providing the most effective campaign. An ecommerce site marketing to comparative shoppers will want to optimize heavily for product names and model numbers. An online magazine wanting to bring in recurring traffic will want to optimize for article topics and specific themes. Local companies will want to optimize for geo-targeted keywords.

5.) I want to optimize my site, but do not want to change any of the existing content or layout…how would you go about this? Any SEO company that says they will simply add on landing pages or hide text is selling blackhat. This goes back to the earlier analogy. You are really saying that you have a car that you want to modify to be very fast, but do not want to modify the engine and the mechanic simply adds racking stripes and charges you full price.

Socio-Technical Systems and Organizational Values

Modern organizations define themselves using statements of vision. They state their vision in terms of human resources and technology, a socio-technical view. Modern organizations also define themselves in terms of values. New employees entering the organization learn the value system from employees with longevity in it. How organizations incorporate socio-technical systems as a reinforcement tool of their value system is the focus of this paper.


In business, small and large, values determine course the business sets for itself. Yukl (2006) defines values as key statements of an organization. The value statement is ideological, what the organization considers important. Many values find their way into organizations including customer service, innovation, satisfaction of internal and external constituents, and excellence. Yulk’s view of values suggests something deeper. Organizational values and value creation are the soul of competitive edge, competitive advantage.

Hill and Jones (1998) write of management values as statements of how managers will conduct themselves and how they will do business. Managers in high performing businesses conduct themselves with stakeholders in mind. Winston (2002) suggests that high performing leaders accept the values of the organization as being of higher consequence and importance.


Values of an organization (customer service, innovation, satisfaction) imply an organization is a system. Senge (1990) tells us that organizations are organic systems of interconnected and interrelated sub-groups. This suggests more than brick and mortar structures, it suggests organizations of people, technology, and social interaction. Technology, according to Davis (1996), is a “conceptual bridge” between science and economics. This link gives form to how organizations manage. Conversely, Wren (2005) presents the view of technological change being disturbing to the social system of an organization. Socio-technical systems offer leverage to dispel the disturbing nature of change.

Socio-Technical Systems

Lee (2000) explains social of the socio-technical systems as the habitual attitudes of people. He includes the relationships between people with their values and behavioral styles. He also describes it as the formal power structure identified using traditional organizational charts. However, he continues with the aspect of an informal power structure based on influence and knowledge. The technical system makes up second part of the dyad. This system, according to Lee (2000), is “machinery, processes, procedures and a physical arrangement.”

A socio-technical system, abbreviated STS for the remainder of this paper, is people and technology blended. Yet, this is a much too simple definition. Some elements of STS are closely interrelated; therefore, it is not easy to distinguished items within a STS as purely technical or purely social. Aldridge (2004) explains STS as approaching organizational work groups as social systems and macro social systems. A third level of work observed is primary work systems. The primary work system according to Aldridge is one or more work units involved in face-to-face work. Work units collaborate jointly and have support of management, relevant technology, resources, and workplace specialists. Aldridge includes the writings of Trist (1981) when defining macro social systems, “…macro social systems include systems in communities and entire business sectors as well as societal institutions” (Trist, 1981, pg. 11). The STS design in work groups is increasing productivity of the group and increasing job satisfaction through optimization of social factors and integration with technical factors.

Elements of STS

According to an anonymous article on STS, the author explains some of the components integrated into a functional socio-technical system. Explained separately, each component has its own character; however, it is clear how closely linked each is and overlaps the others.

• Hardware is computers and computing peripherals, the classic technology of modern business. Organizations today do not exist without some kind of computing network, connecting wires, routers, and individual workstations.

• Software includes operating systems (Windows, UNIX, Apple, etc). As technology advances, it is increasingly difficult to separate hardware and software. Software varies based on organizational needs; yet software allows companies to create data for storage on hardware devices. The software often runs from the same hardware devices used for storage. Software facilitates social interaction by allowing distantly remote people an opportunity to message each other in almost real-time.

• Physical surroundings (physical setting) help establish the social and technical rules of engagement. Building with an open floor plan and open desk arrangement allows open social interaction among workers. Buildings with offices separating workers reduce interaction. Managers with an inner sanctum guarded by a secretary’s office establish a hierarchy of power.

• People, by name and by title, make up an integral part of any organization culture, social environment. Within an organization people have roles they play, positions they work in, and ancillary roles they exercise. Within their roles, they use their surrounds with hardware and software to support their roles.

• Procedures define operational procedures in an organization. Procedures are statements of rules and norms formally written. Outside the formal written procedural statements are unofficial ties to data flow and reporting relationships. Procedures attempt to define culture in a STS but the informal norms and behaviors are equally important to understand when developing a STS model.

• Laws and regulations are similar to procedures but impose stronger public sanctions when violated.

• Data and data structures in STS involve collection and storage of an organization’s information. Additionally, this element explains data use, retrieval, or presentation for use.

An organization’s socio-technical system supports the business as a great place to work. More than that, STS is a key factor to supporting leadership initiatives, vision, and values. Observed in 1949 in Great Britain, researchers developed socio-technical systems in South Yorkshire coalmines. They saw the technical improvements in mining coal combined with highly motivated work groups who self-regulated and collaborated closely became more productive than traditional work groups with the same technological improvements. Another observation was the self-regulated and collaborative teams were more cooperative among themselves, performing multiple tasks rather than one man one job, and committed to Ortgeist (spirit of the place) (Aldridge, 2004).

STS Applied Organizationally

A recent Internet search found the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration Logistic Center’s statement of beliefs and commitments. Not all cited here; however, these selected ones reinforce concepts of socio-technical systems.

• Results Oriented – The Logistics Center constantly drives for results and success. We drive issues to closure, persist despite obstacles and opposition, and maintain a high energy level. Our employees readily put in the needed time and effort to achieve results.

• Innovation – The future of the Logistics Center is assured only as long as it welcomes and rewards innovation, creativity, and resourcefulness. We recognize “trial and error” as being elements of innovation and continuous improvement. Innovation has been the cause of success for the Logistics Center.

• Quality – We provide the best quality in all of our products and services. Our goal is to exceed industry benchmarks.

• People – People are our most important resource. We respect the individual’s dignity and value their contributions. We invest in training and education to give our employees the tools to make the Logistics Center a world-class organization.

• Teamwork and Collaboration – The Logistics Center provides a positive and challenging environment that supports the achievement of mission goals and fosters team spirit. We are partners with our customers, stakeholders, suppliers, and are committed to union/management partnerships.

• Integrity and Openness – The Logistics Center values trust, sincerity, honesty, and candor in relationships both personally and organizationally. We encourage our employees to express ideas, opinions, and thoughts in an honest and genuine manner.

• Corporate Citizenship – The Logistics Center values a positive corporate image and is sensitive to our corporate responsibilities to the community. We actively participate and support community involvement.

In post-industrial organizations, STS helps leaders create constructs that are enabling, empowering, in turn, enabling and empowering accelerates communication, and learning and knowledge. Within the context of knowledge building and knowledge, sharing, STS, through collaboration, allows work groups’ flexibility to develop original work patterns and competitive advantage.

Leaders Role in STS

Davis (1996) urges successful leaders to lead as if the future is now. Accomplishing this means seeing the final product rather than the processes of the product. STS employs the right people and the right technology at the right time within a structure that supports organizational values.

In an environment of rapid change, having a competitive advantage allows organizational foresight. However, foresight requires maintaining core values. Socio-technical systems support organizational values by maintaining organizational memory and shared experiences. Memory and shared experiences provide views of where the organization was while keeping everyone tracking toward future vision. An organization with strong STS standards uses their technology to preserve history, create performance benchmarks, and develop knowledge and learning environments. Strong quality systems demonstrate teams’ abilities to eliminate obsolete practices while staying within the framework of original values.


Stated earlier, organizations are systems of interrelated parts with differing skills and skill levels. STS, working within an organizations value system promotes wisely those with skills, knowledge, and ability. Additionally, STS, working with the value system, provides workers with the tools needed to grow in the skills, knowledge, and abilities so they, too, can be promoted. Members of self-directed teams seek new or improved skills from within the STS and through their interconnection with team members.

Self-directed teams improved productivity and commitment to the team and organization in English coalmines in 1949 and self-directed teams continue being productive and committed. Therefore, an organization employing socio-technical systems can grow into the future, yet hold fast to its historical past and the values making the group viable.


Aldridge, J. W. (2004). aboutChange Solutions. Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning (ISBN 0-7619-2451-5). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Anonymous, (no date). Why a Social-Technical System? Retrieved online January 12, 2006 from [http://www.computingcases.org/general_tools/sia/socio_tech_systems.html].

Anonymous, (1996 – May-June). Maintaining Organizational Memories. TQM/CCI News. Retrieved January 22, 2006 from [http://www.grafix9000.com/documents/ccinews_organizational-memory.pdf].

Davis, S. (1996). Future Perfect. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Hill, C. W. L. & Jones, G. R. (1998). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Lee, Q., (2000). Quality in the Balance: Six-Sigma – A Socio-Technical System. Retrieved online January 12, 2006 from [http://www.sixsigma.com/library/content/c020902a.asp].

Senge, P. M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The art & practice of the learning organization. New York, NY: Currency and Doubleday.

Trist, E. L. (1981). The evolution of socio-technical systems: A conceptual framework and an action research program. Ontario Quality of Working Life Center, Occasional Paper no. 2.

U. S. Federal Aviation Administration – Logistics Center. Organizational Values. Retrieved online January 22, 2006 from [http://www.logistics.faa.gov/StratPlan/values.htm].

Winston, B. (2002). Be a Leader for God’s Sake. Virginia Beach, VA: Regent University, School of Leadership Studies.

Wren, D. A. (2005). The History of Management Thought (5th Ed.) Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Wren, J. T. (1995). The Leader’s Companion: Insights on Leadership Through the Ages. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in Organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Where to Shop for Automotive Parts and Equipment

A complete range of automotive tools and equipment can be found online. Consumers do have the advantage when shopping on the Internet, as they are not only provided quality merchandise, but merchandise at a discount. Top providers on the Internet will stock a wide range of automotive tools and equipment from recognized brands in the industry. Many consumers are turning to the Internet due to its affordability. Automotive tools and equipment, are expensive, and if you are in search of parts that are hard to find, the Internet is often the best source there is. When you begin to shop and compare the various online sites, you will notice that the greater reputability a company has, the more automotive tools and equipment they will offer. Automotive tools and equipment are necessary at some point in time for every driver that performs repairs on their vehicle. Workshops require automotive equipment that is specific to repairs so that they can safely and efficiently perform the repairs.

What types of automotive tools & equipment will you find online?

Automotive equipment will include all the automotive equipment that is found in the marketplace today such as:

* Tire changers

* Suspension and brake testing systems

* Brake lathes

* Short and mid-rise lifts

* Pit lifts

* Post lifts

* Mobile column lifts

* Auto lift equipment

* Wheel alignment and wheel balancers

* And, more

Other types of automotive equipment and automotive tools that you will find from the online vendors that are used by both the automotive shops and the home mechanics will include:

Lubrication Equipment: Each vehicle on the market has so many moving parts that comprise the operation of the vehicle and each of these moving parts need lubrication. Grease valves, oil meters and oil pumps are just some of the lubrication equipment that you will find online.

Air compressors: Air compressors are used to inflate a tire or tires. They may also be used to operate other pneumatic tools, as it is a source of compressed air. Air compressors come in many different makes and designs such as the electric powered, gas powered or diesel powered.

Other Automotive Tools: Other automotive tools that are used in both the industry and by the at home mechanic are hammers, dollies, screwdrivers, jacks, and monitors. These are specific for automotive repairs and automotive tools that the online vendor should have a variety to offer.

Service and Exhaust Equipment: For the shop or mechanic that is servicing vehicles, the proper service and exhaust equipment is necessary. This equipment includes brake fluid exchangers, booster cables, paint, battery chargers and so on.

When you do find an online store that seems to provide you with exactly what you need, make certain that they are reputable. The online site should have everything in tact on their site from their terms and policies to their customer service. Also, a description of each product that they offer to the consumer should be detailed. Dealing online is one of the greatest advantages to the consumer, and in the auto industry, the advantage is even greater.

Warning – 10 Tips For Safe Workouts

When I was a kid, I used to weight train 6 days per week and play soccer 7 days per week … sometimes with two games in one night!

But that is not a recommended schedule for anyone … not even for a 17-year old boy. If I only knew then what I know now.

And it's not just me who has trained too much. I see people overdoing it everyday.

Too many people get hurt by training too hard and too often that they end up stopping working out for life.

In fact, I believe there is a dark side of cardio that can result in overuse injury and stops you from burning fat.

So while I like to see people workout harder and more intense, it is also very important for all of us to train conservatively and not overdo things.

If you currently do cardio or interval training 6 days per week, I highly recommend that you cut back to 3-4 workouts per week. If you lift weights more than 4 times per week, there is a good chance you will get a shoulder injury from overuse.

So be careful!

So here are 10 tips to train safe.

1) Do not do any exercise that you are not sure how to do. Always get personal instruction from a certified trainer.

2) Do not do anything that hurts or "does not feel right". There are plenty of alternative exercises for every movement. Just ask a certified trainer for substitutions.

3) Whenever you start a new program, use lighter weights than normal, and do only 1 or 2 sets per exercise. You must always expect additional soreness when starting a new program just because of the new exercises, so do not try to set world records in a new program right away.

4) If you need extra recovery within the workout or between workouts, do not hesitate to take it. Safety first.

5) Use a spotter if you are training with heavy weights. If you train alone at home, follow my recommendations in the manual and do NOT train to failure.

6) Check your ego at the gym door and start with a beginner or intermediate workout, even if you have been exercising in the past. The new exercises, and new style of movements will cause muscle soreness even from workouts you think "look easy".

7) Do not do interval training more than 4 times per week. Even pro athletes do not play hard everyday, so why should we?

8] Never skip a warm-up. Use the general bodyweight warmups and the specific warm-up sets in each workout.

9) If you want to start a workout program but think you have an injury, get medical attention and have a professional therapist rehabilitate your injury before starting an exercise program.

10) Check with your doctor before starting any new exercise or diet program. All together now, "Safety first!"

Bonus 11) If you decide to use running as your form of interval training, make sure you have good running shoes, always do an extra warmup, and choose a safe running surface (grass or trails rather than pavement / concrete). If you use a treadmill, please operate it safely.

Train hard but train safe!

Quilting Sewing Machines – Easy and Fun to Get Started

Using Quilting Sewing Machines at home is not that difficult to get started, and there are a few simple rules to be aware of: First, ensure you pin your quilt strictly by stretching first & while actually quilting, begin from the center and spiral outwards as you work. If you work side to side, or begin from a corner, you will probably end up distorting your quilt, so you have been warned!

I find wearing a pair of quilting gloves allows a good grip on the quilt while moving it under the needle. If you are trying to create complex patterns on your quilt then using some specialized techniques such as stipping and / or loopies around the main element of your design will greatly enhance the finished article. Also try to do some background quilting along with some 'stitch in the ditch' around the main design which improve the overall quality of your quilt design.

A midarm machine is the best system for quilting as they are great for stitching three layers while keeping a good tension between them (top, backing and batting). Another benefit is that it allows for the best working space without being too cramped (which is what you unfortunately get with smaller set-ups).

As there are lots of different machines in the midarm market, ensure you research all the different options before deciding on which model you are going to buy. I find the best setup is a 15 "- 18" deep throat 'WITHOUT' a Stitch Regulator. These automatic stitch regulators develop glitches over time and will end up hindering your workflow in the long run. Please try a number of different machines & frames before finally deciding on which make and model of machine you will buy, while remembering that a good machine can also be cheap !! A basic machine is usually more reliable (as there are less things to go wrong) and extremely cheaper too!

Do not attempt to use Longarm Quilting Sewing Machines for home quilting, as the large 28 "to 30" throats & 14 "frames are mainly designed for the bedspread industry. quilting at home, which is why they were cleverly marketed to the home quilting crowd with great success.

When deciding on your machine, it's essential you can access the battling whilst quilting. If you can not reach it, or it is awkward, then this will be a problem. Ask for a demo in the shop first !!

Using an ironing board is a great tip. Simply take off the cover and you will notice the ease of movement as the quilt glides smoothly on the metal surface. The ironing board can easily be adjusted to suit and also folds away when finished.

Should I Purchase A Maintenance Contract For My Forklift?

When you buy a forklift, you are making a serious investment towards whatever purpose you have in mind for it. Typically, you get one because you are going to use it in a business situation such as a factory, warehouse or for construction work. These can be incredibly useful machines and because of that, you would definitely do well to keep them in top form. That is why most people who own and operate their own forklift choose to go ahead and get a maintenance contract, even if they are skilled at doing their own repairs on cars or trucks. If you are using a forklift on a regular basis then you do not want to have to take time away from other important tasks to tune it up nor do you want to have to do this if you are not using it day in and day out . For that reason, a maintenance contract for your forklift is definitely a must. It saves you time and, in the end, quite a bit of cash that you would otherwise spend trying to keep it in good shape yourself.

A forklift is a complex piece of machinery and it has very specific needs that the manufacturer or dealer is going to have a much sharper insight into. This is why trusting a pro is a smart idea to protect the money you spent to buy the forklift. If you are using your forklift in a work place then you also need this kind of inspection and maintenance done in order to be OSHA safe and keep your company a lot safer in the process. Since it's simple and cost effective, and it streamlines your efforts in your business, it really makes the most sense to get a service contract that is going to get the job done for you. The most important thing to realize is that you are eliminating down time by having skilled maintenance done on a regular basis.

One thing to keep in mind is that even if your company has a maintenance department, you may not have specialized people who focus on forklifts. This is why so many companies get the contract option. It usually provides them service within a few hours of something needing repairs and the regular, routine maintenance is the best way to avoid large scale repairs. It makes sense to keep your machinery in the best working condition than you can afford to because that affects your bottom line. Not only do you reduce time wasted by employees who can not keep working, you avoid the expensive repairs by solving problems early on. In the end, it is always your choice, but most in business opt for the contract.