3 Reasons To Buy Oil Painting Reproductions

People around the world want the beauty of original and classic art works in their homes or offices. It is not possible for everyone to spend on a Picasso original oil painting because it’s very expensive. But that dint stops them to look up to his paintings and would probably want to make them their own in some way or the other. Unluckily most original classics are so high-prices that they are way beyond the means of the average public. Oil painting reproductions is about as close as one can get without spending hundreds of thousands of dollars for the original. Oil painting reproductions are earnest attempts to make works of art that has fascinated us for ages, more accessible. Oil painting reproductions are an affordable way to display replicas of favorite works of art in the home or workplace.

Although it is possible to get reproductions of nearly any artwork, still famous artists whose works are commonly used for oil painting reproductions are Monet, Degas, Manet, Munch, Vermeer, Fabian Perez, Cezanne, Gauguin, Renoir, Botticelli and Van Gogh. People buy oil paintings mainly for three very important reasons: decorating, collecting and investing.

One way to add color and elegance to your home or office decor is to hang beautiful wall paintings. Oil printings can be purchased online or in high street galleries and shops. Oil paintings have passion to their color that no print can reproduce. Wall paintings come in different shapes, sizes and themes and enable you to add bright colors to any room of your home. The living room, dining area and bedrooms can each be accented with large wall paintings. Small paintings can be hung on your bathroom walls and kitchen walls to meliorate and create a reposeful atmosphere.

If you are collecting then you would really need to decide on some themes for your collection, what kinds of art and what sort of artists are you going to build your collection around. You can try looking online as there are now many galleries displaying original art from all sorts of artists at every price level. The important thing is to buy art, which you really like and enjoy, and at the same time select pieces that go together in some way to form a collection, which feels like it belongs together.

If you are buying for investment, then buying art for purpose of making money is an unsafe thing to try. At times you can earn some quick cash but at times its very dangerous ploy. It has to be said that anyone who thinks they could invest in contemporary art and then sell it on swiftly at a profit is likely to be disappointed. It is always best to collect art that you really like and perhaps, if you are lucky, a long while in the future some of it might be worth something.

Oil painting reproductions are earnest and true efforts to make paintings more popular. Talented painters punctiliously recreate the magic of sacred paintings. Indeed, some of the reproductions are so good even the most discerning viewer will not be able to tell the difference from the original. There are large number of companies available online which produce oil painting reproductions. It is believed that oil painting reproductions brings a certain flair and look to any room that highlights the beauty of the art and creates a powerful ambience.

Budget Friendly Contract Smartphones for Youngsters

If you appreciate technology then Smartphones are designed especially for you! Magnifying popularity of smartphones compared to the contemporary one clearly state the growing craze of technology among youngsters. However, the greater the computing and connectivity features, the pricey the gadget. Yet there is a way! The online mobile phone deals are coming like that revolution which is making normal mobile users fall in love with as they are not only affordable but are accompanied by attractive gifts. With a perfect understating of the demands great new deals are set each day.

When one thinks of having a Smartphones it’s advised to purchase online which provide a huge collection of such hi-tech gadgets to choose from. A comprehensive study reveals that owing to the demand of smartphones every leading brand today is busy in manufacturing the most sophisticated gadget of all. Based on studies, Blackberry is on the top of these types of mobile phones. Most of these smartphones fall in the business category.

Apple and Nokia Smartphones are also very famous. A huge collection of Nokia smartphones boast about the 5 mp to 12 mp camera, zippy internet connectivity owing to 3G, Wi-Fi and HSDPA. Such phones present today come with various offers and deals that can really amaze. You may also go for looking into the deals of LG Smartphone. They are not only great in looks but will surprise you with extensive feature list. With them you will be able to enjoy this hi-tech journey successfully.

Other brands in this league are Sony Ericsson and Samsung. The best part of buying a smartphone online is the opportunity to make a proper comparison of prices and services. Your comparative study will enable you to get the most successful deal. It enables you to understand who offers the best service in cheapest price.

Smartphones are greatly in demand. All the famous brands that offer such elegant masterpiece smartphones are available online and one can easily purchase them via online booking. Go, Flaunt in style your latest smartphone and make people around you jealous.

All About ISO Shipping Containers

ISO shipping containers are a major innovation in the movement of cargo both inland and overseas. The term ‘ISO’ means ‘International Standards Organization’ and sets the standard for the movement of freight worldwide.

It is essential that these units meet the exacting standards set by the ISO because of the large volume and different types of product they carry. And, not only do they need to be able to bear extremely heavy loads they also must be sound enough to be stacked when being shipped. And, of course, they need to stand up to extremely harsh conditions such as when being transported in rough seas as well as being rust resistant for when they are being transported on heavily salted roads during the winter months.

In order to be cargo worthy most shipping containers are CSC plated. They come in various sizes, usually between 20 and 45 feet in length, though some can be anything up to 100 foot long. There are also varying types of container, such as Steel Dry, Hi-Cube Steel Dry, Open Top and Flat Rack. The type of container to be used will depend on the cargo and the conditions under which it will be carried. The container service provider will also be able to give advice on the best type of unit to be used.

The design of shipping containers depends on how they are to be transported. The larger ones, which are usually constructed from lighter materials, are used mainly for inland – road and rail – transportation and are weather proofed – resistant to wind and rain.

As well as being useful for the mass transportation of cargo by road, rail and sea, shipping containers can also be transported by air, though the various air freight lines often produce their own containers, specifically designed for their aircraft.

The mass use of shipping containers has revolutionised the movement of goods worldwide.. A survey of American ports as early as 1998 showed that moving goods in bulk using shipping containers sped up the operation by up to 2,000 per cent. Not only does does this mean that the product will reach the customer much more quickly, it also saves heavily on transportation and labour costs, leading to the prospect of cheaper prices for the consumer, and bigger profits for the manufacturer.

The usage of ISO shipping containers is an economical, safe and efficient way to transport goods anywhere in the world, hence their ever increasing popularity in carrying products from the factory to the consumer.

Ways to Hire An Air Conditioning Repair Professional

Air conditioning unit is one of the most and effective way to stay cool in summer whether you are in home or in business place. If you are living in the extreme and hot climate then it is a mandatory thing you should have rather than an option. Almost each and every residents or commercial place installs this cooling unit in order to beat the heat and dehumidify the living place. As Tampa is being situated near the ocean therefore the people experiences hot and humid weather in summer. The frequent and regular use of this unit takes toll on its internal machinery parts and which is liable to breaks down once in a year. Therefore, it is always better to take some precautions to keep this cooling unit effective rather than ignoring the regular and periodic maintenance. There are lots of companies which deals with Air Conditioning Repair Tampa and provides all variety of services ranging from installation to repair and maintenance. But, in order to get effective services from these companies make sure you spend some of your precious time in search of trustworthy company and an honest and qualified professional. Here are some basic information’s about the periodic maintenance that most of the companies include in their maintenance cycle.

The first and primary thing that most of the companies include in their air conditioning maintenance cycle is air filter maintenance. It is one of the most important things that need frequent attention in one or two months. If not maintained at regular interval can cause lots of problems and damaged other internal machinery parts such as blowing fan. Apart from these, it also reduces the air flow which minimizes the cooling effect. A clogged filter accumulates dust particles and debris and also makes harder for the cooling unit to provide cooling. Therefore, depending upon the situation of air filter should be cleaned and changed typically one or in two months. The next and second thing that most of the ac repair Tampa companies include is the air compressor maintenance. If the compressor will not be in good condition then you may face lots of problems. The air will not flow properly through the vents in spite the condenser fan runs. Therefore, make sure that anything not covers the air compressor like leaves, toys and many more items. During winter days, when the air conditioning unit is not in use then it is better to cover with piece of cloth so that dust and debris will not accumulate.

Apart from these regular and routine maintenance, one of the most demanding service is AC Recharging. But due to the shortage of recharging experts this service generally gets delayed. Other thing which should be checked prior to recharging is that thermostat temperature should be below the room’s temperature. Evaporator coil should be maintained and cleaned properly. Therefore, in the event of requiring best and effective service and avoid problems with ac repair Tampa residents should perform the routine maintenance and tune up their system.

The Need and Promise of Lubrication Equipment

Anywhere that you find machines or automated products, you will know that they will need care. Lubrication is the most important part of keeping a machine healthy, which is why a lot of attention and money is spent towards it. There are several ways to keep machines lubricated. While manual lubrication is a possibility, it is not always practical, which is why lubrication equipment comes in very handy.

Lubrication equipment is essentially something which automatically ejects lubricants into the machine parts and enables them to be well oiled. This is a controlled procedure, which may seem simple, but has its own intricacies.

Manual lubrication would require a constant check on the state of the machine and need you to inject the lubricant in yourself. This may be complicated, and you may not be able to get the position just right. However, when you have equipment available, the process becomes easy.

The key is finding a balance between the right location, right timing and the right amount. Too little lubricant, and the machine will start to cough and get stuck more often. If you have too much, it will start to leak and get onto the components and finished goods. When you have the timing wrong, you are certain to have the machine oiled when not required at all.

All of this can be accomplished easily, when you have automated lubricant equipment. There is greater precision and better process. All you need to do is feed in the necessary parameters, and the rest will be taken care of. Not only do you need to have all this addressed, but also have the lubricant let out at the right temperature and with the right pressure. This is virtually impossible to accomplish manually.

There are grades even within lubricant equipments. The simplest forms will have only three of the most essential elements, namely, the reservoir, the filter and the pump. When you opt for more complex or sophisticated machinery, they will have their own added frills and conveniences, although they will, in essence, perform the same function. You may, however, need something more sophisticated if you have a large assembly line or a complicated piece of machinery.

Lubrication equipment is mandatory with all machines and parts. They are important to ensure the ball bearings, chains, gears and pumps move smoothly, and thereby ensure that the process continues accurately and unhindered. What you have at the end is a product which matches your needs perfectly.

Simplify Your Marketing With Promotional Pens

Are you thinking about promoting your business with the help of promotional pens? Marketing ideas are really important for every business because it can help in making or breaking the brand value and therefore as a businessman you have to be careful about how you promote your products and services. With promotional pens you can simplify your marketing ideas and help in spreading more awareness about your business. Promotional pens have always been one of the important items used in the marketing especially for those who want to keep their marketing ideas simple and straight to the point.

If you are planning to promote your business with the help of promotional pens you can try to use them at different places. However, first you need to make sure that the pens that you are going to distribute to your customers are really worth. Here, you can design the pen the way you want. There are many websites where you can design your own promotional gift pens and then the supplier will be able to print the same design on the pen. On the other hand, if you are not that good with it you can ask the supplier to provide you with some good design that is really popular in the market.

The idea of ​​marketing your products and services with the help of your promotional products has been successful over a period of centuries and therefore there is no doubt that it will not work. However, it also depends on how you use these pens to your advantage. If you are interested in putting your stall in one of the trade shows happening in your city then you can marketing your brand with the help of these pens. These pens can work wonders especially in a crowded place like trade shows and exhibition because there are many people who can get their hands on promotional gift pens that you have provided them.

You can even provide these pens to all your loyalty and new customers because it would help you to promote your brand in a simple way. No customer would say no to the gift pens that you are providing because pen is a universal item and everyone may need a good pen in daily life. You can even provide these pens to your employees and other members associated with your business to make sure that more and more people see the logo of your brand on it.

Things You Should Know About New Carpet Installation

It's not as difficult as it looks to purchase a new carpet. With a combination of well informed decisions and having the carpet installation made by a team of professionals, you're sure to have a positive and rewarding experience.

The best way to make the right decision on a new carpet is to create a list of the things to consider while browsing different kinds available, of which there are many. If you patiently take everything on your list into account whenever you see a carpet you're interested in, you'll make a wiser choice. Avoid making a rusched decision at all costs.

Your feelings about the color of the room's existing carpet should be pretty significant when deciding to install a new carpet in your home. Dull or unflattering colors will have similar effects on the entire room so go for colors that will suit and enhance a room's decor. A lot of the time, a change in carpet color that is as slight as tone could have an incredibly positive effect on the appearance of the carpeted room.

Basically, the color you choose will either compliment the room or it will not. If you do not believe the current carpet or floor color is flattering, then the obvious choice is to pick a completely different color for your new carpet installation. Different colors will create different effects relative to their characteristics. For example, a bright color will brighten a room and so forth. Do not forget to consider the room's walls and curtains – they are big features and should flow with the carpet color.

Another aspect that should factor into your new decision decision is texture. You can go for an extremely plush carpet or even one that is harsh and coarse all the other textures available within that range. Think of the existing textures visible in the furniture and fabrics already in the room you are having re-carpeted as they should flow with the carpet texture.

When deciding on a new carpet you also have size to think about. Do you want wall-to-wall carpeting? If you have nice hardwood floors it is a tasteful choice to choose a carpet that leaves a significant border around the room. The carpet and flooring will contrast with each other in an attractive and flattering way.

Do not forget to consider maintenance above all else! When you purchase a carpet, you're usually making a much larger investment and therefore need to think about a carpet that will last the longest in the location for which it's purchased. You want a carpet that can be easily maintained in relation to what kind of activities will be happening on and around it.

Carpets are usually a main focal point for any room they happen to occupy, so you should not make any final decisions without having several good options to choose from, all of which meet the requirements listed on the list you prepared. Once you are completely satisfied that you have found the most suitable new carpet, it's just as important to have it properly installed by trained professionals.

Moroccan Rugs – Unique Ways to Enliven Your Home Decor

Moroccan Rugs: Worlds colors and eclectic fusion all in one

Adding a touch of ethnicity to your home's interiors by using furniture, furnishings, and rugs is a sure way to brighten the atmosphere! Over the past few years, decorating homes in ethnic styles has become extremely popular. Sensing the demand for original tribal art from various places around the world, even big stores such as Target have been known to launch complete furnishing lines that reflect a particular culture or region such as Indian or Japanese home furnishing lines.

One of the most popular emerging styles is Moroccan, especially in the rugs and carpet industry. Hand-woven Moroccan rugs are a fantastic way to invite warm and create a bright and charming atmosphere in your home.

Moroccan rugs have been infusing the magic of color and art to the homes of millions over the world. Moroccan rugs and art have been broadly connected to the west and examples of this can be seen in Bauhaus movement or in the works of American designers like Billy Baldwin during the 1960's and 1970's.

The simple geometric patterns of Moroccan rugs have been used for long to lend a stylish, urban and sophisticated look to most of the modern furnishings. The famous pile carpets from the Middle Atlas Mountain region of Morocco are proudly displayed in renovated historic homes such as Frank Lloyd Wright's iconic Fallingwater and Charles and Ray Eames spectacular Pacific Palisades house in California.

And with the late 1990's, Moroccan rugs revival was imminent as designers and public showed a renewed interest for elements of the 1960's and 70's era both in terms of style and color. Bright and warm hues of oranges and saffron yellows reflecting in Moroccan rugs geometric patterns were scene stealers. Moreover, these rugs are made from spun wool and had an authentic indigenous character making them 'one-of-a-kind' with a quality that was hard to find in their synthetic factory made modern cousins.

Moroccan rugs were and are still still made by the Berbers, who are an indigenous tribe of North African region living in Morocco. These weavers use hand-dyed wool to weave the rugs and each rug is unique in its design, use of colors, and patterns. The designs of Moroccan rugs are often similar to those found in the weaving of Native Americans.

Another type of Moroccan rugs are 'kilims' or 'hanbels' although these are lightweight, flat in weave and motifs are made with variations of red, blue, green, yellow, mauve and white. The price of Moroccan rugs and kilims are usably determined by the size, quality of the design and the colors used.

Why Buy Moroccan Rugs?

A holistic mix of modern and ethnic styling and design, Moroccan rugs lend a distinctly stylish look to your home decor. Warm and bright, they can simply liven up any space and make it look trendy, colorful and luxurious. Romance is an integral part of Moroccan culture and your Moroccan furnishings can bring some of that feeling in your room or home.

Rectilinear Moroccan carpets and rugs are visually striking and rich, and vivid with interesting motifs, making them a perfect floor accessory for your living room or bedroom. Made from organic, hand woven wool, Moroccan rugs can be hung on walls hanging or used as a throw.

Let's look at some of the things you should know before you set out to purchase Moroccan rugs for your home:

Moroccan Rugs: Authenticity -Always shop around. Extremely low priced rugs may mean that the products are not authentic. All Moroccan rugs are made from wool and have very bright colors. Also, good quality rugs should have 120 knots / square inch of weave; turn the carpet over to look at the knots. Handmade carpet will feature variations in the knots as compared to factory made carpets. Ask the shopkeeper if you can burn a small bit of the fringe to check the authenticity of the material – silk and wool being natural fibers will smolder when burnt.

Moroccan Rugs: Design – Patterns, visually enticing motifs and sparkling colors, Moroccan rugs are eye-catching to say the least. If your room already has a lot of visual movement and your furnishings are heavily designed then opt for a less conspicuous pattern.

Moroccan Rugs: Formality –Casual and comfortable appeal of the Moroccan carpets is a reflection of the tribal heritage of the indigenous people. You may not be able to achieve an authentically layered look as the Moroccan rugs are made in larger sizes to fulfill modern living room requirements.

Keep these things in mind when buying Moroccan rugs and enliven your home decor today!

How to Choose the Right Storage Systems for Your Business

Choosing the right storage system is fundamental to any business, be it a supermarket, a brick and mortar store or even a library. Many people when they hear the words “storage systems” the first thing that comes to their minds is big warehouses with huge shelves of products stocked waiting to go to the high street shops.

Before we dig any deeper into selecting the right shelving systems to your business lets make it clear what storage systems are. First of all, shops and warehouses are not the only type of business that needs storehouses. Offices, libraries and even restaurants need proper places to store files, books and food.

Storage systems range from simple shelves that you see in a library to heavy duty pallet racking units that support thousands of pounds of weight.

Now that we have better understanding about depository systems it is time to choose the ideal one for your type of business. With some businesses out there it will be hard to talk about each one of them individually, so I’ll give you a broader idea about certain storage systems and you choose the one that is closely related to your trade.

Business like brick and mortar stores, auto shops and industrial warehouses will need heavy duty shelves, extra heavy duty shelving and pallet racking units. These shelving units are generally made of galvanized steel to support heavy weight products.

If your trade works with light weight products like papers and files you will need totally different depository units. Say you have a law office, a marketing agency or any other type of office that builds up paper work that cannot be thrown away, you will need archive and file storage systems to keep all that paperwork organised and for easy access as and when you need it.

Libraries and book stores require shelves that are divided into uniform segments for a better organisation and to make it easier for customers to find what they are looking for.

Supermarkets and restaurants are a totally different ball game. Such businesses require depository units to store food and sometimes these shelving systems need to be installed in places like a walk-in fridge, so choose shelves that are made of stainless or galvanized steel. No need to worry too much about the weight in this case.

Now that you now a little more about storage systems and its different types all you need to do is contact your local shop fitting supplier and order yours according to your trade needs.

Get Furnished Apartments on Reasonable Rent

Globalization has forced people to migrate from one place to another. This has created a need of furnished apartments across the globe. Fortunately, there are rental apartments which are fully furnished and comprises of every civic amenity. They are spacious, comfortable, surrounded with lush landscape and are available at reasonable rates.

In such apartments, you will feel like home as they are well furnished with all necessary furniture. The spacious bedrooms, lobby, living area and garden provides various reasons to love your furnished apartment. Secondly, the next reason to love such apartments is the security system. Your home is secured round-the-clock by modern security alarm system and guards. Your enjoyment, luxury and peace are never hampered with any external annoyance.

The apartments are constructed in resemblance to private resorts spread over hundred of acres providing homes to thousands of people. Such furnished apartments are surrounded by green landscaping providing the nature’s song heard all the time. The nature’s calmness and peace is incredible and highly appreciated in such apartments.

Such apartments are built keeping in mind the various luxurious requirements of the residents. Whether it is shelves, platforms, drawers, wardrobes or even the connecting doors, all these and other things are well designed to provide at par satisfaction to the occupants.

The community of furnished apartments are well equipped with sports club, fitness center etc. For the basket ball and tennis lovers, they could find enough space to excel their hobby into excitements. The interiors are well decorated and furthermore can be decorated as per the tenants wish and desire. Such apartments can portray your style statement for luxury.

The rooms are well equipped with facilities such as television set, kitchen appliances and other furniture utilities. Secondly, furnished apartments are well associated with vendor services such as pest control, package deliver, currier service etc.

With advancement of technology, we all have became addicted to electronic gadgets and services, therefore, tenants will find their homes well connected with Wi-Fi services with unlimited access.

Most of the time people prefer to search for such apartments in the supplement newspapers or get in touch with some property dealers. The best search options which everyone can choose are the websites. Here they would not only get the comparison tool to compare different apartment’s prices but also will get the option to select furnished or non-furnished apartments. So, select the best furnished apartment with all affordable deals to live a luxurious life.

Utilizing Transition Metal Ionization For Poultry Water Disinfection

There are many challenges in today’s treatment of poultry water. Water quality standards for growers have not been fully established and most growers are utilizing untreated surface or well water. Problems with waterborne pathogens and scale are common. Because of the poor quality often found in well or surface waters, many growers started utilizing city/community water. The high cost of this trend has affected the bottom line of the grower tremendously. This research will focus on cost-effective water disinfection solutions that do not affect water chemistry or produce harmful disinfection byproducts. In order to justify this approach, currently utilized disinfection methods were analyzed.

Chlorine and its various forms (chlorine gas, chloramine, chlorine dioxide, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, etc.) have been utilized as disinfectants in public water supplies for about a century. In poultry, there is a growing focus on oxidation reduction potential (ORP) levels without consideration of the water’s pH. Growers are actually over chlorinating their water to reach target ORP levels. This is significant because recent studies have shown that chlorine may directly or indirectly be the principal cause of many forms of cancer.

The EPA adopted a trihalomethane regulation in 1979 to limit the allowable level of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBP) in drinking water. Although chlorine is a good disinfectant, it also can form trace amounts of a DBP called trihalomethane (THM) (Swichtenberg , 2003). THMs are chemicals that are formed when organic materials (e.g., decaying trees and leaves as well as urban farm run-off) combine with free chlorine. This has caused great concerns about using chlorine in recent years and the EPA and water companies have searched for ways of reducing these byproducts.

Chloramines are actually used as DBP inhibitors in 30% of the nation’s surface water supplies and are expected to grow to 65% within 10 years (Long, 2005). Chloramines are formed by the mixture of chlorine and ammonia in water. Chloramines can also affect the palatability of water. Chlorine dioxide can also be utilized as a DBP inhibitor. When added to chlorine, a reduction in total trihalomethane (TTHM) has been observed (Rittman, et al., 2002). At the same time, chlorine dioxide is known for producing chlorites that are identified as causing hemolytic anemia (Condie, 1986). Currently, the maximum contaminant level for total THMs is 0.1mg/L in public drinking water.

Gasified chlorine is becoming more prevalent in poultry production. Chlorine gas (Cl2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2 also referred to as anthium dioxide) can be generated onsite or delivered by specialty shops. This is by far the most dangerous disinfectant available on the market today. In fact, chlorine gas was utilized in chemical warfare on our troops during World War II. The greatest concern is that chlorine gas will create organochlorines. Organochlorines are formed when gasified chlorine comes into contact with organics. Organics can include tannins, algae, bacteria, and biofilms. Their chlorine-carbon bonds are very strong which means they do not break down easily and they resist metabolism. Organochlorines tend to be bioaccumulative and are stored in fatty tissues. As we move up the food chain, the problem becomes more severe. When a predator eats another organism, any fat-soluble substance in the prey that the predator does not digest will be retained in its fats (Thornton, 2000). It is comparable to mercury poisoning in the fact that organochlorines can be passed through the food chain and has been observed in breast meat of ducks (Tsuji et al., 2007, Braune et al., 1999, Braune and Malone, 2006,). This can potentially be a huge liability for the poultry industry.

Ozone has also received a lot of attention recently. It is highly effective for deactivating all groups of organisms (particularly viruses and bacteria) and it can treat high volumes of water. Ozone may be the strongest and most capable disinfectant against cryptosporidium. However, it does have its disadvantages as well. Ozone can produce excessive bromates (which is a potential carcinogen) if the water contains bromide (Siddiqui, et al., 1995). It also possesses a reduced efficacy in cold water. Ozone also does not provide a persistent residual disinfection capability, may require high capital investments, and has relatively high operating and maintenance costs (Funyak, 2003).

Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is becoming more popular and economical than ever before. UV light is a point-of-contact disinfection system that is highly effective in the inactivation of protozoa (viruses remain most resistant) and does not require the addition of any chemicals, requires short contact times, and posses no known DBPs. It does this without altering the chemistry, taste, and quality of water. However, turbidity (defined as a decrease in the transparency of a solution due to the presence of suspended and some dissolved substances, which causes incident light to be scattered, reflected, and attenuated rather than transmitted in straight lines) however, does affect the quality of disinfection because of what is known as the shadowing effect. Also, as in the case of ozone, UV has no residual disinfection capacity.

Acidification of water using sodium bisulfamate or citric acid has shown promise in reducing bacteria levels in poultry water. However, acidification is not a disinfection process. Its affect provides a less habitable environment in which microorganisms can grow. It was widely accepted that acidification of water led to increased feed conversion. A recent study has reported the opposite (Watkins et al, 2005). Also, research on pathogen reduction has shown that chickens fed with acidified feed developed a relative growth retardation that increased during the first two weeks before it stabilized (Heres et al, 2004). It is then plausible that when broilers are provided acidified water combined with acidified feed, it could detrimentally affect feed conversion and possibly lead to a condition of acidosis. Water with too low of a pH could also corrode plumbing, nipples, foggers, and shorten the life of cool cells.

In the United States and abroad, transition metal ionization (TMI) has been used for years as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection in many applications. Copper-silver ionization has been proven to be very effective against some of the most resistant organisms, such as Legionella, in hot water systems and has proven long lasting residual disinfection capabilities. Copper ions, in the form of copper salts, have been utilized for years in livestock feed to kill and prohibit the growth of Salmonella, E. coli, and Campylobacter. Research on copper surfaces in processing facilities has shown its ability to control Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni (Faundez, et al., 2004).

Even though the hazards associated with chlorine are known, it is still the most common disinfection method. There is sufficient evidence that TMI can offer superior disinfection capabilities over currently utilized methods without changing the water chemistry or producing harmful disinfection byproducts. It is further believed that the proposed disinfection method will provide required nutritional trace elements to broilers that can help build immunity against common avian pathogens. The USEPA is spending millions of dollars to research disinfection alternatives that do not produce DPBs. The industry focus does not need to be on the reduction of DBPs such as TTHM, but on eliminating them altogether.

Copper-silver ionization is becoming more widely accepted as a disinfection method, especially in hospital hot water systems. The biocidal effect of copper and silver stems from a combination of mechanisms. Positively charged metallic ions attach to the negatively charged bacteria cell membrane and cause cell lysis and death (Britton, et al., 1978; Freedman, et al., 1968; Slawson, et al., 1990). The copper ions disrupt the enzyme structures of the cell allowing the silver ions to penetrate inside where they rapidly kill the cell’s life support system. This is because the positively charged silver and copper ions have an affinity for electrons and when introduced into the interior of a bacterial cell, they interfere with electron transport in cellular respiration systems. Metal ions will bind to the sulfhydryl, amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids, thereby denaturing the proteins they compose. This renders enzymes and other proteins ineffective, compromising the biochemical processes they control. Cell surface proteins necessary for transport of materials across cell membranes also are inactivated as they are denatured.

When copper binds with the phosphate groups that are part of the structural backbone of DNA molecules, the result is the unraveling of the double helix and consequent destruction of the molecule (Meyer, 2001). Copper concentrations of 0.2 to 0.4 mg/liter and silver concentrations of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/liter are recommended for sufficient disinfection levels according to in vitro and field studies (Lin, et al., 1996; Liu, et al., 1994; Liu, et al., 1998).

Zinc ionization utilized in water treatment has not been researched but zinc is often added to feed and antibiotics. Significant growth-promoting effects were observed in broilers receiving zinc-bacitracin (Engberg, et al., 2000). This is probably attributable to the significant reduction in the number of coliform bacteria (C. perfringens and Lactobacillus salivarius) in the ileum of zinc-bacitracin fed birds. It should also be noted that zinc-bacitracin had no influence on enterobacteria counts in the ileum. Zinc, like copper, has excellent antimicrobial effects.

Unlike chlorine, transition metal ionization does not result in dangerous halogenated organic by-products such as trihalomethanes, chloramines and chloroform. Also, these ions are stable, making it easier to maintain an effective residual disinfection (Meyer, 2001). Furthermore, the ions will remain active until they are absorbed by a microorganism. However, using soluble metal salts as a source of these ions and monitoring their concentrations to maintain consistent effects is cumbersome at best. Consequently, most modern ionization systems use electrolytic ion generators to control the concentrations of the dissolved metals. The electrolytic ion generator is the most cost effective approach and is the approach that will be utilized in this study.

The efficacy of TMI disinfection is dependent upon several variables. The concentration of metal ions in the water has to be of sufficient levels and is determined by the water flow, the volume of water in the system, the conductivity of the water, and the present concentration of microorganisms. This is similar to chlorine in the fact that active disinfection levels decrease upon contact with microorganisms.

Copper-silver ionization is highly effective against Legionella, known to be resistant to most disinfectants and will even disinfect the bio film this bacteria produces. The copper ions remain within the bio film, causing a residual effect. When copper and silver ions are added to water constantly, the concentration of Legionella bacteria remains low. Copper-silver ionization also has a deactivation rate slower than that of ozone or UV. Another benefit of copper-silver ionization is that ions remain in the water for a long period of time causing long-term disinfection and protection from recontamination (Neither ozone nor UV has this capability). Copper and silver ions remain in the water until they precipitate and are absorbed by bacteria or algae, or removed from water by filtration.

The TMI systems have several advantages that include:

  • Installation and maintenance is easy
  • Efficacy is not effected by water temperatures
  • Very good residual disinfection protection
  • Recolonization is delayed because transition metals ions kill rather than suppress
  • Effective on even on Legionella and Cryptosporidium.

Supplemental copper intake in poultry and swine diets has shown growth promotion abilities (Burnell et al., 1988; Cromwell et al., 1989; Dove, 1993) which are believed to be attributable to the biocidal affect of copper (Varel et al., 1987). Contradictory findings have been published on intake level where increased dietary copper levels (above 120 ppm) have shown adverse growth responses and toxicity (Kashani et al., 1986; Harms, et al., 1987). These discrepancies may be attributable to the difference in breed, age, length of treatment, type of diet, and growing conditions among the various experiments. It should also be noted that only 1.3 ppm is the EPA standard of copper in drinking water for human consumption (Amount tested in the aforementioned research was 100 times above this amount) and even the EPA regulations are substantially higher than what is being proposed as the disinfection level (

Obtain a Home Equity Loan Or Credit Line

You've probably seen the ads for home-equity loans. They normally show a tanned and fit couple frolicking on the beach during their dream vacation or an all-American-looking family smiling in front of their gorgeous new van. Sometimes they show a blushing bride to be wearing an engagement ring with a diamond the size of a Volkswagen or a kid grinning ear to ear as he opens the best Christmas present of his life.

Home-equity loans and home-equity lines of credit can be very convenient. In fact, they can be lifesavers if you have unexpected expenses or expenses you just can not cover. This type of loans is taken, as the name follows, against the equity you've built up in your home. Your equity is used as collateral on the loan. Always remember, though, that there's a big risk associated with home-equity loans. If you default on the loan, you lose your home.

What is a Home Equity Loan?

A home equity loan is simply a loan keyed to the equity in your home. The equity in your home is the value of your home less the balance of the mortgage you used to purchase the home and any other debt secured by the home, such as a tax lien, judgment lien, or second mortgage.

Using the equity buildup in a home to finance purchase is an alternative to refinancing. Home equity loans are of funds for homeowners to use for a variety of financial needs, including the following:

* To finance the purchase of expensive items.

* To consolidate existing install loans or credit card debt.

* To pay medical, education, home improvement, or other expenses.

Obtaining a home equity loan has advantages and disadvantages. If all of your debts are unsecured and your house is exempt from collection. It's almost never a good idea to put your home into jeopardy by getting a second mortgage or home equity line of credit. If you're behind your house payment, you'll be better off negotiating a mortgage workout with your lender.

If you decide that you do want a home equity loan a mortgage workout or for some other reason, be sure you understand all the terms before you sign on the dotted line. It is extremely important that you find out how much the loan will cost you each month and determine whether you can afford it.

Consider the following pros and cons of home equity loans and credit lines.

Advantages of Home equity Loans and Credit Lines

You can barrow a fixed amount of money and repay it in equal monthly installments for a set period of time. Or, you can barrow as you need the money, drawing against the amount granted when you opened the account: you'll pay off this type of loan as you would a credit Card bill.

The interest you pay may be fully deductible on your income tax return.

Disadvantages of Home Equity Loans

Some home equity loans are sold by predator lenders at very high rates. Predatory lenders target people in financial trouble or with past credit problems. Often, predator lenders count on the borrower not being able to make the loan payments and expect to forelose on the house when the borrower fails to make payments.

Teaser rates may make a home equity loan look more attractive than it is. Equity loans often have a variable interest rate that increases or falls with a particular interest rate index. But often, the rate for the first six months to three years is much lower. Once the initial period ends, the rate automatically jumps up to the regular variable rate, which can make your loan payments much higher.

Before you take out s home equity loan, be sure you can afford the monthly payment.

Why Cable and Internet Are a Part of Our Lives

Cable and internet has become an integral part of almost every American's lives. Watching sports, movies, news, etc. is just as much a part of the average American's life as hamburgers and fries. Internet connection is now a must have for every home.

Many people can not work with internet connection. Checking e-mail, Facebook, and chatting on skype have become common relaxants. There are many more ways that internet and cable have become intertwined in the American lifestyle. In this article we are discussing the role of internet and cable in the average American family in an entertainment capacity and not in the American corporation point of view.

Some people have raised the question whether TV and internet are healthy. The answer to that question is pretty complex. It has to do with how much time people actually spend on the computer or in front of the TV. Psychologically speaking, it is really not that healthy for children to spend their most creative years stuck in front of a monitor or a TV screen when they should be out playing, learning, and experiencing the world.

For adults the answers vary. It depends what occupation adults are in, and how they relate to their jobs. Many people have desk jobs working on a computer all day long. It can be training on the eyes to come home and then spend another few hours on the computer of watching cable TV.

Moderation seems to be the key when it comes to cable and internet for entertainment. Different strokes work for different folks. For some it could be a perfectly healthy way to relax. Others enjoy sports and should be out in the fresh air and sunshine learning how to hone their sport skills. Yet others like to stay in touch with friends via the internet but also enjoy getting around and partying. It take moderation to live a healthy balanced life.

Reverse Mortgage Brokers: Do not Settle For Less Than The Best

With the dramatic increase in senior citizens turning to reverse mortgages as a way to finance their retirements, the importance of having ethical reverse mortgage brokers has increased dramatically as well. Ethical standards for reverse mortgage lenders have been established in the National Reverse Mortgage Lenders' Association Code of Conduct, but not all reverse mortgage brokers deal with members of the NRMLA.

What Your Broker Should Tell You

Many people who decide to take a reverse mortgage rely on their reverse mortgage brokers for information about the costs of the process about which an ethical reverse mortgage broker will be forthcoming. Yours should be willing at the very least to tell you the following:

o The cost of your application fee may not be refundable, so potential borrowers clarify that in advance. The application fee covers the cost of a home assessment and a check to determine if the potential borrower is in arrears on any other federally-insured loans.

o Closing fees can be added to the loan itself, but if they are, will accrue interest. Some of closing fees are comparable to the closing fees of regular mortgages, but others are strictly designed as part of the reverse mortgage process. The origination fee and continuing loan servicing fees will differ significantly among reverse mortgage lenders.

o At the loan's termination, there may be shared equity or value assessment fees assessed. If so, they will entitle the reverse mortgage broker to a share of your home's residual value.

If you find reverse mortgage brokers hesitant to discuss these fees, immediately see warning signs and look elsewhere. Reverse mortgage brokers who take advantage of the ignorance of prospective borrowers are, unfortunately, far more common than one would like to think.

The sum you will actually receive for your reverse mortgage payment , whether you take it as a single amount, in monthly payments, or as a line of credit, can differ by thousands or tens of thousands of dollars, depending on the abilities and honesty of the reverse mortgage brokers with whatever you consult.

Take Your Time

Take the time to shop among reverse mortgage brokers for the lowest fees; if you have family members or friends who have taken out reverse mortgages, ask them about their experience and whether they are satisfied with the performance of their reverse mortgage broker; If there are senior citizens advocacy groups in your community, find out whether they can recommend any reverse mortgage brokers.

Make sure your reverse mortgage broker finds the loan which is right for your needs; you have the right to a retirement as worry-free as you can make it!

Tips For Interior and Exterior House Painting

Here are some excellent interior and exterior house painting tips.

First, gather the tools that you will need to paint the interior of the house. Being organized is the first step in preparing to paint the inside and outside of house. Find a good brush to do the trim, rollers to roll on the paint, drop clothes, rags and plastic bags to assist you with keeping everything tidy.

Next, remove the furniture from the house or move everything to one place in a room. Cover the furniture with drop clothes. Make sure that you cover everything well to avoid spills on the furniture. Cover the furniture with old sheets after you place the drop cloths over them for extra protection. You may wish to remove all the hardware from cabinets, switch plates, and light fixtures from the wall. A lot of people try to paint around the hardware, but inevitably get drips all over it.

Prepare yourself for house painting. Wear old comfortable clothing and shoes. Wear a hat, scarf or a shower cap on your head to protect you from spills while you are painting the ceiling. Wear shoes that are easy to remove to prevent from tracking paint from one room to another.

Now that you are prepared to paint, prepare the interior surface that you are painting to receive the paint. If there is wallpaper, you must strip the wallpaper and prime the walls with a good quality primer. If the walls are not clean, you must wash them with a solution of three tablespoon of laundry detergent to one gallon of water. Any paint that is peeling or cracking should be sanded and any cracks should be fixed.

Choosing your paint can be quite a task. Do you want water-based or oil-based paint? Water-bases paint is easy to clean up and it dries quickly. Oil-based paint is great for cabinets and woodwork. Clean-up can be accomplished with paint thinner.

Once you have chosen the right color and gloss for your walls, you can then begin to paint. Now you may thing that you just aim and begin to paint. However, here are a few tips to make the job a little easier. Start with a small brush and paint the areas where the roller will not fit. Make sure that you use painter’s tape to cover areas that you do not want painted.

Roll a light coat of paint in one direction. Your goal is to apply a light coat and then a second heavier coat of paint in another direction. This will hide the streaks.

In preparing the exterior of your house to be painted, all you may need is a good washing down. You can utilize the water hose and scrub the dirt with a brush and detergent. You may even need to power wash it.

Your home may need additional attention before you can paint it. Some of the shingles or siding may be split. Nails may have popped out or you may have peeling paint, rust stains and mildew. After identifying the problems that you may have, then you have to correct those problems.

Bushes and trees can get in your way while you are painting the exterior of your house. Any branches that are hanging should be pruned. Large bushes should be wrapped with a drop cloth. Smaller shrubs and flower beds should be covered with drop cloths. The sidewalk and driveways should be protected with drop cloths from spills as well.

Once again, you must choose a quality primer for the exterior of your home. A primer makes the paint adhere better. You must choose paint that will withstand the elements. Consider whether you will choose water-based or oil-based paint. Take your time painting. Do not be in a hurry. Paint from the roof to the bottom to prevent streaks. Combine all of the paint together so that the color will be uniform. Choose the right time of year to paint. Extreme humidity will make the paint bubble.

Be careful when you are choosing your finish. Gloss paint will protect the high traffic parts of your home, such as porches, doors and window frames.

Finally, once the paint job is complete, you should inspect the caulk every year, remove mold, mildew and touch up blisters and peels.