The Importance of Welding in Industries

Welding means the process of joining metals by causing coalescence due to heat. It happens by melting the workpiece with weld pool. The joint gets stronger when it cools down. It’s heats when the weld pool is used with the workpiece & produces weld in that time. In all fabrication companies welding is very essential. Since welding has been used in steel fabrication its uses has expanded in other industrial sectors like construction, mechanical and car manufacturing etc. If we look back in the past, we can see that welding had been used for many years. It has been passed through the Bronze age and the Iron age and it has branched around the world.

There are three kinds of welding, they are ARC, MIG and TIG welding. There have been many different kinds of welding which have branched as the years passed. Arc welding is done by consumable electrode by aiming to an electric arc. Parent metal & the addition of metal must be together when the electrode is stuck. Metal Inert Gas or MIG is the easiest way of welding. It is like wire but combined electrode and filler material. It is easy to use because the welding process has been made very easy. TIG welding uses a permanent non-melting electrode made of tungsten. This kind of welding process is very flexible because the metal added separately.

These three kinds of welding requires a power supplier for maintaining electric arc between electrode & base material to melt metals at the meeting point. DC or AC currents can be used for these kind of welding. In every type of welding some semi-inert gas is used o prevent combustion in the welding region.

A welder must be well trained for welding works. Sometimes many problems occur because of lack of safety precautions. Working unsafely i.e without welding glass and near combustible materials can be a dangerous. By taking preventive measures, the risks of death or health hazards can be reduced. For example, in the Arc Welding the worker must wear helmet, hand gloves & other protective things which helps the welder to work in safely the process is very essential and has been used in various industries.

How To Assemble A Futon Frame

Most futons are made very similar and use the same parts to assemble them. When shoppers buy their futon they often have a set of instructions that came with the futon frame. Time passes and these instruction disappear or get misplaced and it’s time to move the futon. Not having assembled futons on an everyday basis, it may not be immediately clear how the futon goes together. In this article we’ll examine the parts and assembly of a standard futon frame to hopefully help those who may have lost instructions.

Laying out the parts:

When you purchased your futon you most likely had 6 main wood parts. 2 arms, 2 rails and a seat and back section. The back section looks different than the seat section as it has 3 pre drilled holes on the sides with the wood sides extending down to allow the seat section to be connected to it. Versus 1 or 2 holes on the seat section. Your hardware will consist of 8 bolts, 8 barrel nuts (shaped like a barrel), 4 nylon rollers, 6 metal pins, 6 washers and 6 cotter clips, allen wrench.

Attaching the hardware:

Take the 4 nylon rollers, 4 metal pins and 4 cotter clips and locate the wood backrest of the futon. It will have the three holes drilled into each side. Two of these holes are close together and the 3rd hole is towards the bottom of the side. This hole by itself will connect to the seat section. The nylon rollers have two ends. A small round top and a larger round bottom. The larger round bottom is placed against the wood over the hole and a metal pin is pushed down through the small round top through the roller and out through the hole in the back rack. On the other side slide a washer over the pin use your cotter clip and push it through the small hole in the metal pin to secure it. Repeat this step for the other three nylon rollers.

Next find the wood seat section and locate the hole closest to the end on the side. (Sometimes wood seat sections have two holes. The second hole towards the middle is for attaching what is called a kicker block. Your frame may or may not have this.) After you have located the holes on the ends of the seat section lay the wood seat and back sections face up meaning the slats in these section are facing up or are closest to the top. Now take the 2 remaining metal pins and push them through the remaining holes in the sides back section in through the holes in the seat section. Slide a washer over each pin and secure it with the remaining cotter clips.

Attaching the arms and stretchers.

Locate your two wood arms and two wood stretchers. Look at the arms and notice that one side of the arms has two routed out grooves. During assembly these routed out grooves need to face inward towards each other. Next, locate your two stretcher rails. These rails will have 4 small circular holes drilled out on the one side of the stretcher on the ends. During assembly make sure these holes face in towards the holes of the stretcher across from it. Take your barrel nut and place it inside one of the holes intended for the barrel nut. Barrel nuts usually have a phillips or flat screwdriver point and make sure this is facing out. Also make sure the threaded hole in the barrel nut lines up with the holes in the ends of the rail as your bolt will need to thread into them. Now take the bolt and push it through the outside of the arm and into the rail threading it into the barrel nut and use your allen wrench to wind the screw into the barrel nut. Repeat this step on the other bolts leaving them loose. On the rail that is closest to the routed out grooves in the arms leave two of your bolts out and make sure this area allows you to move the arm outward somewhat. [The reason for this is to make sure we can spread the arms enough to get the seat and back section into the frame without scratching our arms.]

Moving the back/seat section into the frame.

The backrest has 2 nylon rollers on each side. The top roller needs to be lined up with the routed out grooves in the arms that go up and down. If you installed the rollers correctly, the end of the nylon roller will fit into the groove and will push into it. (If it doesn’t, your rollers are installed backwards, take them off and flip them around so that the larger part of the roller is against the wood.) Now take the bottom rollers on each side and line them up into the routed out groove that runs left to right. [This step might require a helper to get the rollers lined up in the grooves.]Important Note: Make sure that the seat and back section slats are facing upwards to where the mattress will rest right on them. If it looks like the mattress will sit down into the back and seat section because the slats are facing the ground, you’ll need stop and flip the decks over and do this step again.

Finishing assembly.

Now finish putting the remaining two bolts and barrel nuts into the back arm and connect them together as discussed in the above step about attaching arms and stretchers. Go ahead and tighten all of the bolts. Tight enough but not too tight. Your futon should now be ready for use.

I wrote this text version of futon assembly instructions as a guide to help those who are missing assembly instructions. Often you can contact the futon company you purchased your futon from for a set of replacement instructions. However, if that isn’t an option, I hope this guide will get you through the process of re-assembling your futon so you can start using and enjoying it once again. Many websites also include picture instructions you can use and this page futon assembly instructions might also be of help to you.

Sex Drive Killers 5 – Things That Shrink

The Swimming pool shrink is what water does to the penis after being wet for a long time. Just as it makes your skin shrivel so does it make your penis draw up.

This causes a temporary loss of libido and to stay hard you need to stay warm and dry. This cold water will interfere with blood flow to the penis.

It doesn’t cause impotence but it can make you feel like impotent men. Libido herbs are good to help counter act this problem and they will make you last longer and stay hard longer. To be impotent would keep you from having an erection and to have a max libido you need your male herbs.

The cold water from the pool will make your penis tighten up like a slinky. It will draw up like an accordion. It acts like its trying to get in close to the body to get warm.

A woman’s nipples get erect when they get cold but the ole wanger gets shorter. A woman’s erect nipples can also mean arousal, but a cold penis from swimming spells no erections or sex drive at that time.

This can be embarrassing if a man’s wanger is seen after getting out of the pool by a woman. A woman that’s not aware of this occurrence as I’ll call it could see this and think his little winkie is only an inch long.

The cold water can turn a hotdog into a Vienna sausage.

The truth is that cold water can make even the biggest soldier retreat from battle. I know you’ve heard of taking a cold shower when you get aroused to kill the urges. Well this is what happens to a man in the swimming pool.

High blood pressure is another thing that shrinks the sex drive. So if at all possible seek natural substances that won’t interfere with your blood pressure. Seek out a doctor of holistic medicine that deals with natural remedies.

Arginine supplements can help treat impotence also. No libido is no fun. But in most cases impotency can be cured.

Next we have the cold weather shrink. This is when it’s so cold outside that a man starts to shiver. The penis will run and hide just as it does during the swimming pool shrink. But with the cold weather shrink the whole body is freezing cold not just his wanger.

Think about it have you ever had a ring drop off your finger in the winter time when it’s freezing cold? Sure you have unless you live in Florida. When it’s cold your ring gets loose on your hand and it starts sliding off.

Some times it falls off; some times it just loosens up and slides around your finger. But the point is that when the hands get cold fingers shrink and the rings loosen up. You find your self constantly sliding it back on your finger.

This why they put ice on an injury, it makes the injured area cold and it makes the swelling go down. The cold also deadens the nerves and causes the pain to be reduced.

This is what the cold weather does the penis. The nerves get cold and it loses its sensation. It shrinks up like a tight spring in search of warmth.

So when it’s cold, erections and the sex drive are not up to pare. But when they start warming back his little buggar starts getting that warm blood flowing again and arousal returns and it’s looking for action.

OK now let’s move on the nut bump shrink. You can get the nut bump shrink from many situations. Any hit to the scrotum ever so slight can cause you to wince in pain and along with it goes the blood flow and any sexual thoughts that you may have been having.

You can pick up something and it can bump a nut, and you go unhhnnn. Then have to try to look cool so no one will know. It doesn’t double you over but you know it. A kid can be playing around you and accidentally bump a nut with a fist or toy, yes you get the pain but you don’t say anything.

You can even bump a nut trying to squeeze through a tight spot. There’s so many ways you can get nut bumped and if you’re a man then you know what I’m talking about, that’s why you’re smiling right now.

A man even sometimes can sneeze and have it feel like he was bumped in the nut. He will have that same dull ache as a direct nut bump.

When a nut get gets bumped all your thoughts of sex or erections go south and all you can think of is breathing and sitting down somewhere.

You can walk up to something and get a little a too close and at the wrong angel and bump a nut on a table corner or your hand can slip off of something and it springs back and you bump your own nut.

There are many ways to get nut bumped and when you get one, sexual thoughts flee for a season. America’s funniest home videos show nut bumps all the time.

They try to make it look funny and I guess it does look funny to everyone except the man that got nut bumped. So ladies if your man gets nut bumped plan on taking a time out for a while and let him get his breath.

The last thing I will talk about in this edition of sex drive killers is the brain fog shrink. Brain fog is when you loose your concentration, your mind gets cloudy and you can’t focus on anything very clear for very long..

This can come from eating too much sugar, it can and will come from lack of water, it can come from lack of sleep and of course prescription drugs. Antihistamines are bad to cause brain fog.

But your brain needs to stay hydrated in order to think clearly, and no, coffee won’t do it nor will all those canned drinks you swill down, and those six packs of suds you drink every weekend won’t help your brain to get hydrated. Just because they have water in them doesn’t count.

The only thing that will hydrate your body and mind properly is pure clean water with nothing added. So put down the cans and pick up clean clear bottles of water.

This is a common problem that’s why you see products on TV for focus and concentration. When you have brain fog you are forgetful, your mental clarity is dull and you feel kind of spaced out.

When you have no mental focus you can’t concentration on making love. You can’t fantasize or visualize or anything going. Your mind just wanders from one thing to another.

It’s a good thing that this just a temporary ailment. But none the less it does kill ones sex drive. So drink plenty of water and get plenty of sleep.

You need to make sure you take your male herbs to keep things healthy. Herbs for libido are a necessity.

Remember a sex drive is too valuable too waste.

Benefits of a Baby Gate

The Baby Gate is a great tool to keep children away from the hazards of a home. Often times a baby gate is used to keep children away from stairs or other objects that could cause injury. Another use for the baby gate would be to keep the child or children in one room or part of the house to ensure they are always kept in sight of the adult.

There are many harmful chemicals and obstacles in the typical home. By using a baby gate to keep children away from or out of rooms with such hazards, makes it easier for the adult to safely care for the children.

Using a baby gate at the top of or bottom of a staircase is an excellent idea. Children who are learning to crawl love to crawl up the stairs and do not know that they could fall down when trying to crawl up the stairs. In addition to keeping crawling infants from crawling up the stairs, an even bigger danger is for the crawler to fall down the stairs. Children as young as 8 months do not know that stairs are dangerous. They see the stairs as a new area to explore, not a hazard. The baby gate is a necessity for crawlers.

Another use for the baby gate is to keep children in one specific area or room. With multiple children in one home it is even harder to keep track of the children if they are let loose in the entire house. By keeping them in one room or part of the house they are more easily looked after.

Some baby gates can be hooked together. When this is done it forms what is known as a play den, super yard, or play yard. This can be used inside a large room or the more common use, outside. Often these play yards are used for small pets inside. When the homeowner does not want the small animal all over the house or does not what children in direct contact with the animal a play yard is used. A play den is great to use when playing in an outside area with no fence. The play den can be used for children too young to understand to stay in one area. The play den is also great for the crawling infant. A blanket can be placed inside the play yard for a soft crawling surface.

Which Stock Tank Is the Better Choice, Poly or Galvanized Steel?

When choosing a water tank to keep your horses watered, you have two basic choices, the good old standby which is the galvanized steel stock tank and the more recent addition to the stock market the poly plastic stock tank. Both the plastic and the steel water tanks come in all sizes from 25 gallons all the way up to 800 gallons of capacity. They all come with a standard one-year manufacturer’s warranty against defects regardless of the manufacturer.

The question most equestrians ask is which is better and which will last longer? I have owned both styles of stock tanks, and they both have benefits as well as disadvantages. Really, it all comes down to a matter of personal preferences when making this decision.

Poly plastic tanks usually offer a removable drain plug at the bottom of the tank; this allows the use of drain plug stock tank heaters in the winter, which is perhaps one of the biggest benefits to a poly plastic tank. Drain plug deicers screw into the drain plug at the bottom of the water tank, which inhibit curious and bad horses from pulling your stock tank heater out of the tank and playing with it! The other big benefit to a drain plug deicer in the winter is they are less expensive than other traditional water tank heaters! Typically a drain plug deicer will range about $34.99 new versus the standard sinking tank deicer will cost $47.00.

Galvanized steel tanks are easier to clean algae out of in the summer months with a brush versus the poly plastic, which requires a bit more scrubbing and elbow grease. The steel tanks are sealed with a silicon product at the seams; this does disintegrate over time and causes the steel tank to leak at the seams along the sides and the bottom of the tank. This process will also speed up if you have horses that like to kick steel stock tanks when the water starts to get low, I have the full on chain gang in our back yard constantly beating our steel tanks. To remedy this you can reseal the tank seams with a silicon sealant or JB Weld also works wonderfully for this type of application. The key is to really work the product into the seams when you have to reseal the tank and be sure you are applying the product to a clean, dry surface, and then allow it to dry per the manufacturer’s recommendations before refilling the stock tank with water.

Steel stock tanks should also come with a bottom drain plug, although you will find they are difficult to remove and if you lose the plug, they are even harder to find a replacement. Poly tanks, especially Rubbermaid water tanks, the drain plugs are readily available should you lose it. In general a steel tank is easier to push over when you need to empty the stock tank to clean it.

When comparing initial cost of these livestock tanks, poly versus steel they are going to be very similar and are all different based on the gallon capacity of a tank. A 149-gallon poly tank will cost about $150.00, a steel stock tank with the same capacity will cost between $140-$160 depending on where you are in the US. The cost fluctuates more with steel due to the steel prices changing on a regular basis.

Poly tanks will degrade more at higher elevations to the to the increases UV exposure. The tanks will fade in color over time and become brittle. The major downfall with poly tanks is once they become brittle, there is no repairing that can be done to the stock tank. A steel tank can be bent back into shape, kicked, beat, and be exposed to brutal cold, and extreme heat and still be repaired after years of use. If you have a horse that likes to kick stock tanks you may be best advised to stay away from poly tanks in general and be ready to reseal you steel tank every couple of years.

Both styles of livestock tanks should last for years with proper care and no abuse. My galvanized steel water tanks that I am using are over 15 years old. I have seen poly tanks this old as well. Bottom line is your water tank choice is a personal preference, and anyone can get his or her money’s worth out of either product for many years to come with proper care. Which brand do you go with? HW Brand makes an outstanding Galvanized Steel Stock Tank and Rubbermaid or Fortiflex both make a great quality Poly Plastic Stock Tanks.

To Gutter Guard Or Not to Gutter Guard

Everyone has heard stories about gutter guards that don’t work. I’ve been installing gutters for 14 years. I can remember the time when there weren’t 50 choices for styles of gutter guards. Back then there was a cheap screen-flimsy aluminum, Gutter Helmet-the original cover, and the do it yourself plastic screens from Do It Yourself Centers. And that is where many of these negative stories about gutter guards come from. They are from people who installed or know someone who installed the cheap do it yourself plastic screens. Those screens are money wasted for most people. They don’t attach securely to the gutter, sometimes blowing off or shifting and allowing debris in.

For gutter guards to be effective, they need to slide under the shingles and securely attach to the gutter with screws. I’ve installed Gutterglove, LeafSolution, Guttershingle, GutterGuardian, Leafree, and other name brands. For any of them to work, those 2 principles need to hold true-under the shingles and screwed into place.

There are many different situations and different scenarios: Different kinds of leaves and debris from trees Different pitches to the roof Different roof heights(distance from the ground) And of course, different people-age, health, income, etc.

So different guards will do different things for different people. But most people will find it much easier to have gutter guards than to not have them. Even an inexpensive screen will make life a lot easier if it is installed properly. With an economy screen some debris still gets through the openings. But it is maybe 3% of what would have gotten into the gutter before. So gutter cleaning is drastically reduced.

Many people wonder though-Won’t it be more difficult to clean out my gutters if there is a gutter cover or screen on them? Not usually, as the small amount of debris that does get in tends to wash to the downspout opening and collect there. So, rather than have to clean the entire gutter just that one spot needs cleaned. This involves removing a couple of screws and a 4 foot section of gutter guard, scooping out a handful of debris and then reinstalling the gutter guard. This step can often be avoided by simply installing larger size (3×4 inch) downspouts. The larger downspouts don’t usually add much to the cost of the gutters and downspouts.

Cleaning is drastically reduced in occurrence. Without gutter guards, gutters may need to be cleaned several times a year. Many people have them cleaned spring and fall, or just in the fall. A few days after cleaning they can get clogged and stay that way for months. It only takes a few leaves to clog a downspout.

With the gutters guards on the higher end, most or all of the debris is kept out of the gutter. There is still some maintenance. Don’t let a pushy gutter salesman tell you otherwise. You may need to spray with a hose from the ground or use a reverse brush(also standing on terra firma) to clean on occasion. But the maintenance is cut in 1/10 or 1/20th. It is drastically reduced.

Gutter guards make life a lot easier for most homeowners. They are not always zero maintenance(although in many cases they are) but they will drastically reduce the amount of maintenance.

Framing Gable and Shed Dormers

Dormers are very popular in homes on the East coast. They are used to allow for more space in a steep pitched roofing system. For most dormers, you will need to frame the roof first and then raise the gables and set the ridge beam. It is also important to understand where the roof load is designed to distribute the weight on the rafters and floor joists. Then you will know where your bearing points are so you can install extra framing beams to carry the load and transfer down to the home’s foundation.

Framing Gable Dormers

Gable dormers are built perpendicular to the existing roof plane, extends out the edge of the existing roof line and includes a gable roof. Gable dormers are designed to have the weight of the dormer rafters carried through the side walls and on to the existing roofs rafters. Knowing this, you will want to double or triple the roof rafters on either side of the new dormer so the side walls of the dormer have a strong support to rest on. By doing this you will not have to add additional joists under the attic sub-floor.

Just like framing a new skylight, you will need to cut and head the existing rafters that run through the opening of the dormer. You can use a recip saw to do the job.

If you are framing a wide gable dormer, you can expect the load to require extra attention. You may need to use steel I-beams on the floor system to hold up the roof. You may also need to add extra beams in your first floor walls to help carry the weight to the foundation. You can do all of this before you cut into your roof to limit the amount of time your home is exposed to outside elements.

Shed Dormers

Framing a shed dormer is easier than framing a gable dormer. All the weight of the shed dormer is placed on the end wall instead of the side walls so there is no load-bearing issue if the end wall is framed on top of the exterior walls of the home. If the end wall of the dormer is located away from the exterior wall, the floor joist will need to be doubled or trippled to provide adequate support.

The top of the shed dormer can either meet with the main ridge or existing roof. If the top meets below the ridge, you will need to install a header to support the load of the dormer rafters. The header must be correctly sized to carry the tail joists and connect the rafters and the ridge. The side walls of a shed dormer do not carry any weight of the dormer so you will not need to reinforce the rafters on either side under the sidewalls.

To save on the amount of time your home is open, try and have all of your materials pre-cut. You should be able to frame a gable or shed dormer in less than a day.

How to Build a Garage: Save Thousands Building DIY Garage Vs Hiring a Contractor

Learning how to build a garage is not as daunting as one would expect, well, for detached structures at least. Homeowners who build their own garage can save thousands over hiring a builder who, in many cases, will subcontract to the same construction crews that you can hire. Or if feeling adventurous, or just downright thrifty, one can invite friends over for a few beers over the weekend and put them to work.

There are many items to consider while in the early planning stage such as:

Garage size: One car, two car, or even a three car garages can be designed with various sizes, but the lot and homeowner’s budget are generally the limiting factors. Local building codes vary, but typically a structure must not encroach within eight feet of property lines in rural areas and from zero to four feet in city limits. Detached garages must also be set back from other buildings by a minimum of eight feet, but this must be confirmed with local building offices as bodes vary. One important consideration is roof overhang. Eave and gable end overhangs are typically 12″ – 24″ (although less than 12″ is common in windy areas) and must be considered when determining building size and placement.

One method of determining the perfect size is to add 12′ to 15′ of width for each vehicle. If planning to use the interior walls on the sides for storage this will require another two feet of width per side. The length should be a minimum of 22′ and add four to ten feet for a work bench and storage. A two car garage could be calculated as 2 x 12′ +4′ for storage along each wall = 28′ x 22′ long without a work bench. Common sizes include:

1. One car: Common garage sizes include 12′ x 24′, 14′ x 24′, and 16′ x 24′. A length of twenty four feet is pretty much the minimum if you have a full size truck and even with a small or mid-size car there will be little wiggle room at twenty or twenty two feet.

2. Two car: The most common garage size in many states and provinces is 24′ x 24′ because many building codes required an engineered drawing and two inspections by a structural engineer for concrete floating slabs (monolithic) larger than this size. If space is scarce and the two cars are small to mid-size a 20′ wide may adequate, but certainly not comfortable.

3. Three car: There are many three car garage sizes due to more room for numerous designs and homeowners often have larger budgets when considering these larger construction projects. Common sizes are 36′ – 42′ wide by 26′ – 30′ long.

Foundation: floating slab (monolithic) and slab with frostwall are the two most common foundation options. The floating slab is less expensive and easier to build, but often require an engineered drawing and two inspections for larger concrete slabs (i.e. 24′ x 24′). In cold weather climates many contractors install 2.5″ foundation foam under the concrete to reduce heaving during freeze/thaw events. Engineered floating slabs in cold climates usually require this with an addition two feet extending out around the perimeter of the slab.

Adding 6′ x 6′ #10 wire mesh to the slab is an inexpensive method of increasing the floor strength and reducing cracking of the concrete. Most contractors install floating slabs with a thickened concrete perimeter 12″ – 16″ thick around the outer 16″ – 24″ of the perimeter. Adding two rows of #4 rebar will increase the edges. Concrete strength should be a minimum of 3,000psi and many contractors use 4,000 and 4,500 psi as the additional cost is minimal. Another consideration is ordering concrete with fibermesh, and macro-synthetic fiber used for secondary reinforcement of concrete. Local concrete suppliers can provide costs for adding this to concrete. Slab thickness is dependent on the concrete strength and reinforcement designs, however a good rule of thumb is to pour a 4″ or thicker slab.

Frostwall minimum depth is determined by local building codes and is typically 48″ in cold climates and 36″ in more moderate areas. Once the trench is excavated a footing approximately 12″ wide by 8″ thick is formed and poured and a keyway is etched the length of the footing to prevent movement of the concrete wall. The frostwall is formed and poured on the on the footing and anchor bolts are installed in the to attach the walls to the foundation. The concrete slab is then poured to designed thickness. Obviously this foundation system requires more time and expense.

Wall construction: If the garage is going to be insulated now or possibly any time in the future the wall studs size is important as 2″ x 6″ studs allow more insulation that can meet building code requirements (for garages with apartments) than 2″ x 4″ studs. Of course, 2″ x 6″ studs are stronger, which results in a more structurally sounds building.

Walls height: Walls are generally 8′, but 9′ and 10′ walls are common. In city downtown areas there is often a height restriction on structures, such as less than 16′ to the roof peak based on the average height from the four corners measuring at grade. This means that you can get a little extra height if the garage is nestled into a bank with a concrete curb or retaining wall on this end and backfilling to top of retaining wall. Another method to maximize height in these areas is to pour a 12″ concrete curb on the concrete slab perimeter and backfill earth up to the top of the curb and grade away from the structure. This method can gain 12″ of height while still meeting the height restrictions (confirm this will local building offices prior to implementing this strategy).

Garage door placement: The garage doors can be on the gable end or the eave side. A few things to consider:

1. Existing house design may dictate the direction of the roof line. A method to assist visualize this is to take a picture of the house and include the area where the garage will be built. Print two copies of the picture and hand draw in the garage using both the gable and eave options.

2. If the garage will be built in a cold climate the garage doors in the gable end is a better design as snow and ice will slide down the eave end.

3. Flexibility with the garage doors in the gable end allow height for a future car port.

Roof style: Often the roof style is dictated by the existing house, for example if the house has a hip roof this would be a good option for the garage. If this is a DIY project and the homeowner is building the garage it should be noted that a hip roof is more difficult to build than installing standard trusses. Roof pitch must be considered as well and often this should match the existing house. Roof pitch less than 4/12 (rises 4″ for every 12″ of run or length) is not recommended due to increased chance of water leaks. Higher pitch roofs with certain truss designs can allow for storage, loft, or even apartments above the main level. The most common roof trusses for garage roof design include:

1. Standard Fink: This is the most common residential truss.

2. Double fink: Designed to handle high weight loads for higher snow load requirements.

3. Attic: Common for designs that allow storage above the main floor. Access can be stairs or attic drop-down stairs and the option available may be dictated by local building codes.

4. Scissor: This options provides cathedral (vaulted) ceilings that provides more interior ceiling height. For example, a 24′ x 24′ garage with an 8/12 pitch may have a ceiling height of 12′ in the center and 8′ at the wall. This system is usually weighted against building with regular fink trusses and higher walls.

If this is a DIY garage project don’t forget to order two gable trusses for each gable end. Otherwise two regular trusses will require wood filling for attaching sheathing and siding (not too mention the building inspector may not pass the framing inspection. If insulating the ceiling consider ordering “raised heel” trusses to allow adequate insulation between the wall top plate and the roof sheathing. This is the only way to meet many attic insulation level requirements (i.e. R40).

Garage plans: Once decisions are made on the above items it is time to get the garage plans for the building permit application and the builder. It is important to obtain good quality garage plans that are easy to follow, accurate, and provide a materials list (well, a material list is not important, but it will certainly save a lot of time). There are several websites that offer garage plans create by dozens and hundreds of different company so consistency and quality control are something to keep in mind. There are a couple of companies that do their own in-house drafting and a search of the internet should find these companies. Another option is to hire a local draftsperson to create the garage plans.

Plot (plat) plan: The building compliance department will require a drawing showing (site plan) the lot with existing structures, proposed structure, and property lines with measurements indicating distances between property lines and structures. This can be a hand drawn diagram of a marked up copy of the plot/plat plan. The building department may require a survey to confirm accuracy of measurements for precise garage location requirements.

Building Permit: Make an appointment to meet with a building inspector to discuss the project and submit the garage plans, material list, and site plan to the building department. A building permit may be issued at this time or the building inspector will require a few days to a couple of weeks to review the documents.

7 Tips for Buying Oil Paintings – Portraits and Reproduction Online Art

With the advent of online galleries and shopping it’s important to know what to look for when dealing with an online gallery.

These Lucky 7 tips should help you through the online maze!

1.Look for a high-quality gallery. Many galleries are set up by people on a whim, with no real idea of what constitutes high quality and fair pricing. Talk to the people running the site and feel free to ask them for photographs of there previous work or contact details of satisfied clients.

2. Does the online store have a physical address? Check to see if the online site has a physical address. This is a good indication that the site has a solid foundation and accountability. PO Boxes are usually an indication of an amateur set up.

3. What is the Return Policy? Check the policy page of the site to insure it has a solid and well articulated returns policy. If there is none, or the policy is vague….keep looking elsewhere!

4. Can you speak to someone in ‘real life’ (On the telephone or in person). Does the online store have a landline telephone line? If it does give the number a call and talk to the person running the gallery. For example, if you call 03 9018 6782 (Direct Art Australia) you will talk to Julian, the Manager; a real person (what a concept!).

5. Get the right size. Take out your tape measure or ruler and measure up the place where you want to put the artwork or portrait. Believe me, this will be some of your best work! There’s nothing worse than a picture that won’t fit…then order one for that size. Most galleries will be happy to paint a custom size.

6. Know the difference between a print, canvas transfer and an oil painting. It can be confusing understanding the difference between all the different types artwork and mediums available. Here is a basic explanation: The best quality artwork is generally 100% hand painted oil paintings on canvas. Individual artists paint these and there is no computer enhancement…the artists are highly trained, in most cases; and there paintings generate a wonderful energy. Poster Prints and Glicee canvas transfers are computer enhanced images (except for screen prints and limited edition series prints) and are usually lower cost and quality.) They can be produced en masse and do not require the skill of a well trained artist. There are exceptions to every rule!

An Overview Of Some Of The Best Maldives Resorts

There are various resorts on the Maldives that will suit any taste and budget. If you are planning a trip to Maldives, feel free to read this article and you will know a lot about Maldives resorts and which ones are more suitable for you.

If you would like to relax and rejuvenate while treating yourself to some spa procedures, then you should not look any further than Angsana. This resort is located in the Ihuru islands and is not far from the capital of Maldives. This resort is quite small, consisting of only 45 villas, but all of them have pleasant verandas, private gardens and, what is more important, are located along the waterfront. Angsana resort offers many different spa procedures like massages, facials, etc., as well as diving and snorkeling opportunities.

The next Maldives resort is Asdu Sun Island. This resort consists of 30 rooms and is located in the Kaafu Atoll. It is not the most luxurious place, but it has to offer a wide range of recreational activities like canoeing, diving, snorkeling, fishing and others. Asdu Sun Island also has a library, where visitors can take out books and read them on the beach, an Internet caffe to keep in touch with your friends while on vacation and a video hall to watch some movie when the weather is not allowing for other outdoor activities.

Another very popular Maldives resort is the Bandos resort. It consists of 225 standard and deluxe rooms as well as Jacuzzi beach villas, garden villas and water villas to choose from. Bandos was opened in 1972 and since that time it has grown and became one of the largest Maldives resorts. It has to offer tennis courts, five restaurants, a coffee shop, a disco and a bar, a sauna and a gym, a billiards room, a few swimming pools, a beauty salon and even a diving school.

If you would like to get some luxury, then Banyan Tree Maldives resort is a perfect place to go. This resort offers a wide variety of rooms from standard to ocean view villas. It offers four restaurants, an exclusive spa salon, excellent recreation facilities and deep sea fishing.

Set in the North Atoll, Club Med Farukolhufushi is the island resort which is famous for its scuba diving and water sports. It is a 4-star resort that has to offer a wide range of recreational facilities and 150 guestrooms. There are windsurfing and sailing schools available if you would like to master any one of these fantastic activities. Besides that, you can also go in for some kayaking, soccer, beach volley or a water-polo there. The resort has a spa salon, a swimming pool, a TV and billiards room, arts and crafts workshop.

This is only a small portion of the holiday resorts that are available on Maldives. Most of them are mid to high end but there are a few affordable Maldives resorts that will fit even the tightest budget.

Absolute Ways of Preserving a Starfish

We cannot deny that starfish are among the most beautiful creatures of the ocean. They are mysterious and stunning. Individuals, old and young alike, gather these animals to keep within their houses as memorabilia of their beach travels.

If you need to go out on a beach vacation soon, conserving these starfish make a great gift. Star fish conservation is easy and simple. To properly conserve a starfish it needs the following namely; isopropyl alcohol, or if you can secure formaldehyde, so much the better.

If you happen to see a starfish, Immediately make sure the thing is dead, you can easily discover this by turning the starfish upside down and see any movement. If ever the starfish is still alive, don’t even consider taking it home with you. Rather, put it back to the sea. Give the starfish a chance to live, as starfish usually crawls up the shore to look for food. Other People will try to clean the starfish, and some will not. Cleaning it before preservation goes a long way. Dilute your common detergent in a pail of water. For best results, soak the starfish in isopropyl alcohol or formaldehyde. Soak the starfish in this solution for around 4 days. If you do not have time to preserve the starfish during your travel, make certain that you completely dried the fish right away after washing. Drying the starfish is a very simple process, just let it parched under direct sunlight, and you should be fine. Take extra precaution with the starfish’s arms. In order to prevent curling of the starfish’s arms, it is good to put some weight on it. Store appropriately.

In the process of drying the starfish, it is expected that odor will emit from it. This is perfectly normal and will usually disappear as soon as it is dried. Put the starfish in a dry location of your house. There are numerous methods of displaying a starfish. Other people use a box to put the starfish inside. This practice ensures that damage will be kept to a minimum as these aquatic animals after they have dried up are very fragile. You might additionally look at using a clear container. Some prefer to use shelves in displaying their starfish and other items from their beach vacation. Be careful that insects and mice do not eat into the starfish, the chemicals used to treat the starfish will deteriorate in time and when this happens decay will set in.

By conserving this gorgeous sea creature, you also will protect your wonderful beach memories.

Trees? True Story

This is a true story. One that taught me a little bit about my communication skills.

My youngest son and I had a conversation (over 26 years ago) when he was about 5 years old.

He had received a toy for his birthday that was battery powered. One of those little Remote Control Trucks. After playing with it for a while the battery ran down so we had to put it on the charger.

While it was being re-charged he and I talked. I told him "When I was little, like you, there were not Remote Control Cars and Trucks to play with." And he asked "What did you play with Daddy?" so I began to tell him.

I told him about my Sand Box, I had built him one and he had spent many hours in it and he also enjoyed climbing on a small tree we had in the back yard.

Anyways, I began to describe the toys I had back then. My favorite were the ones I could take outside to my sand box. Nothing technologically shocking but to me they were fantastic. They were called Tonka Toys and I still remember the joy of playing with the Bulldozer and the Crane. Those he could understand because I had bought him a few Tonka Toys and similar products for him to use in his sand box.

Then I talked about the games we had … card games like Go Fish and Memory. I also said a few words about the games Grown-ups played with "real" cards and board games like Monopoly.

I told him we did not have games like Nintendo of the Sony Play Station. Also the TV was only black and white. I showed him a picture in the newspaper that was black and white when he asked what that meant.

We talked about playing ball, "hide and seek", and "Your It" type of games with other kids too. Plus I explained that I did not get to play in the snow because where I lived when I was little it never snowed. He liked playing in the snow so that seemed amazing to him … that I never got to play in snow. I was raised in Florida.

Any, after about 30 minutes of us talking he looked up at me with an almost sad expression (I can still see that look on his face) and asked "Daddy, did you have trees back then?"

I laughed and said "Yes, we had trees." Then I explained that there was not one in my yard and I was not supposed to leave my yard so I did not get to climb a tree like he had in his yard. A look of relief came over his face and then we put the charged battery in his truck and played with technology again.

Now, every time I see a "blank" look on someone's face when I say something, when I did not communicate clearly enough for some reason, in my mind's eye, I see that little face and hear the words … "Daddy , did you have trees back then? "


Sewing Machine Settings – Adjustable Presser Foot Pressure

Sewing machines come with many different settings and features and deciding which are best for the sewing projects that you would like to undertake is an important consideration.

One setting in particular is the presser foot pressure adjustment setting. You may note, for example, that many machines come with adjustable pressure for the presser foot. Other machines have automatic pressure that adjusts automatically to the pressure needs of whatever is placed under the presser feet. This might sound somewhat confusing or even a bit technical but, it’s really not.

Remember that the presser feet hold the fabric against the feed dogs to assist them in moving the fabric along. Presser feet also apply varying amounts of pressure on the fabric to keep it secure as you sew. Lighter fabrics will usually require more pressure than heavier fabrics. The adjustable pressure settings allow you to determine the appropriate amount of pressure to be placed on the fabric. Why is this important? Using the incorrect pressure setting can drastically affect the outcome of your sewing; it can create problems such as skipped, uneven or irregular stitches, fabric puckers or the machine not feeding the fabric properly.

Many times when you encounter these problems with your sewing you may think that there is something wrong with you or something wrong with the machine. You may assume that you need to troubleshoot some other machine problem when what you really need is to just loosen the presser foot pressure setting, depending on how much you are placing under that foot. If the problem is indeed with the pressure setting then doing this can dramatically improve your sewing machine’s performance: fabric will feed evenly and smoothly with perfect stitches and no puckers.

You will need to check your manual for the proper pressure settings on your machine but typically you will use the normal setting for regular sewing and non-stretchy fabrics. Lowering the foot pressure slightly may keep fine fabrics such as chiffon, lace, organdy etc. from puckering. Knits and fabrics with a lot of stretch may also require a lower pressure setting to help maintain the pliability of stretch in the fabric. Typically,however, a lighter setting works best with heavier fabric and lighter fabric such as cotton may need a heavier pressure setting.

Take the time to understand your sewing machine’s pressure adjustment settings and use it to smooth out any problem areas in your project and remember to check your sewing machine manual. With practice and patience you can master it in no time.

Specialized Roubaix: Evolution of the High Performance/High Comfort Road Bike

Pro Bike Geometry Dominates Road Bikes Business from Mid Eighties to 2000

Following the road bike boom in the 1970s and early 80s, road bikes declined in popularity as the mountain bike market emerged. The road bike market from the mid eighties until the turn of the century was dominated by bikes with aggressive, race-oriented geometry. This trend was exaggerated by two trends: longer top tubes on road bikes became the norm with American manufacturers who were capitalizing on the success of pro cyclist Greg LeMond, and the use of threadless headsets which had a lower stack height than the older, threaded models.

These two factors made the front ends of most road bikes too low and too long, leading to discomfort, especially on longer rides. The trend helped facilitate the rise of the hybrid bike market. Hybrid bikes used shorter top tubes and taller head tubes. This gave greater comfort in the short run, but the hybrids were inefficient and heavy compared to road bikes.

Comfort Became an Issue for Road Bikes at the Turn of the Century

In 2003, Specialized Bicycle re-introduced a bike that they had made for a few years in the early 1980’s – the Sequoia. The original Sequoia was a lugged steel bike with sport touring geometry. This allowed for use of racks, fenders and wide tires, but without the add-ons and with a 23 or 25mm tire the bike was light, responsive and fun to ride. The new Sequoia was made from an aluminum frame with a carbon fiber front fork. You could put racks on it but there wasn’t enough clearance for fenders or wide tires. Strong sales of the new Sequoia demonstrated that there was a market for “endurance road bikes” as Specialized called them. Here was a bike that was comfortable, relatively light and had a shorter top tube and longer head tube than most other road bikes of that time. The Sequoia was ideally suited to century and club rides, or touring if you didn’t have to carry your own gear.

The Specialized Roubaix Road Bike Revolutionizes the Industry

The following year, 2004, capitalizing on the success of the Sequoia, Specialized introduced the bike that changed the industry: The Roubaix. The Roubaix, which took its inspiration from the famous Paris-Roubaix race (run over many sections of uneven cobblestone), was a bicycle with a full carbon fiber frame that introduced several important innovations. The top tube was longer than the Sequoia but not too long, more in line with European stage-race geometry. The head tube was much taller than the norm, which allowed more flexibility in handlebar height.

A multi position stem was used to enable a greater range of handlebar heights than most other road bikes at the time. The carbon fiber frame was engineered to be torsionally stiff but compliant (flexible) vertically, which maximized pedaling force while allowing the frame to absorb road shocks effectively. And an elastomer material, which Specialized trade-named “Zertz” was inserted into the seat stays, seat post and fork. This Zertz absorbed the high frequency road buzz that lightweight bikes amplified and transmitted to the cyclist, contributing to the riders’ fatigue level on longer rides.

That first year, 2004, the Roubaix was available in four models with the highest being the Roubaix Pro. That put the bike on an equal footing with Specialized’s highest-end road racing bike, the Allez Pro. The very next year, Specialized introduced its S-Works line of bikes, the very pinnacle of cutting edge technology for each bike type. For 2005, the S-Works Roubaix was sold as a frameset only. In 2006, it was sold as a frameset and a complete bike. By now, the other big players in the bike market were trying to copy the commercial success of the Roubaix, but they never put in a wholehearted effort to understand the bike or its market, and Specialized was staying 2 – 3 years ahead technologically. The 2007 S-Works Roubaix added SL to its name, signaling a significant weight reduction from previous models.

2009 Sees Specialized Bicycle Company Introduce the SL2

For the 2009 model year, Specialized did something extraordinary: they introduced a major technological frame advance in the S-Works Roubaix only, dubbed the S-Works Roubaix SL2. By now, Specialized-sponsored Pro Tour teams like Quick Step and Gerolsteiner were using Specialized’s race-specific bike, the Tarmac. By giving the Roubaix more cutting-edge features than the Tarmac, they were signaling that the Roubaix was a bike to be taken seriously by professional and elite-level riders as well. And indeed, their efforts paid off with the Roubaix coming full circle to its original inspiration: Quick Step rider Tom Boonen won the 2008 Paris-Roubaix on an S-Works Roubaix. He would repeat the following year, and in 2010 Saxobank’s Fabian Cancellara took the title, also on a Roubaix.

The 2011 Roubaix saw a number of startling changes. The S-Works Tarmac had been upgraded to a new frame technology, dubbed SL3, for the 2010 model year. This construction method created the frame in four parts: the top tube/head tube/downtube section was made in a single unit. The seat tube was a separate unit, as were the seat stays. The bottom bracket area, chain stays and a short lug to connect the seat tube and down tube were fashioned as one piece. This gave the Tarmac best-in-class bottom bracket and chain stay stiffness, the part of the bike where torsional flex would waste the most power. And it allowed the bike’s engineers to build in vertical compliance in the seat stays and top tube, to give the bike a smoother ride.

The 2011 Roubaix got this innovation, plus a few more. The Cobra head tube wrapped some fibers from the top tube and down tube around the front of the head tube, widening the top and bottom of the head tube as well as the connecting ends of the top tube and seat tube. This stiffened the head tube junctions for quicker, more predictable handling with less material, saving weight and maintaining the vertical compliance of the top tube. Also for 2011, the Roubaix gained internal cable routing plus redesigned fork and seat stays.

The Zertz inserts were no longer all the way through the carbon. They fit into a concave section in each area, maintaining the vibration-damping properties as before while also making the fork and seat stays torsionally stiffer for better power transfer and handling. And perhaps the boldest innovation of all: the Pro and Expert models of the Roubaix also gained SL3 construction and internal cable routing, bringing the technology that one year earlier had been available only on S-Works bikes costing upwards of $8,000 to models starting at around $3,500. Also, the entry-level Roubaix Elite at under $2,000 and Roubaix Comp at about $2,600 were given SL2 framesets. Talk about trickle-down!

What Does the Roubaix Revolution Mean for the “Rest of Us?”

So what does all this bike geek-speak really mean to the average cyclist? It means that now, almost any rider can get a bike that is super-light, super-fast and super comfortable. The Roubaix handles like a dream, accelerates quickly and maximizes rider power and comfort. It can flatten hills, shorten century rides and make road biking a true joy for beginners, elite riders and professional cyclists alike. That’s a pretty impressive achievement for a bike that defined a whole new category just seven short years ago.

Micropile 101 – How Do Micropiles Work?

Cracks and settlement are facts of life when it comes to construction using concrete foundations. There have been many methods of repairing structures once they have settled, including helical piles, push piers and Micropiles. Each has it’s own uniqueness and applications where they should or should not be used. Helical piles are a simple and cost effective solutions to light weight structural repairs. Push piers are great for lifting heavy structures in a cost effective manner. Now, Micropiles are growing in popularity for reducing the effects of settlement in new and existing structures.

There are many names for Micropiles – minipiles, pin piles and root piles being the most common. These piles are rotary drilled and grout reinforced small diameter piles which can be installed to depths of 200 feet and through very dense layers of soil and rock. Unlike helical piles or push piers, Micropiles are unaffected by cobbles and trash in the soil. Their sacrificial bit is designed to drill through these tough soils and embed themselves in load bearing rock layers, while maintaining a grout column around a structural steel member in the center of the column.

Like helical piles and push piers, Micropiles can be installed in limited access areas with relatively small equipment. This maneuverability makes them ideally suited for foundation repair applications. Portable equipment has been developed to allow for access to basements and other low overhead applications where soils or access is limiting to other more conventional methods of foundation repair.

The process of installing Micropiles begins with drilling into bedrock using a specialized drilling rig. Soil cuttings are expelled with air, water or grout followed by grouting the column that has been created by the sacrificial carbide bit and threaded rod. The Micropile tops are cut to elevation and a sleeve is inserted to adapt to the underpinning bracket system. Load testing can be easily performed on production piles or test piles near the proposed locations.

Micropiles and their inherent advantages have grown in popularity and acceptance by contractors and engineers alike over the past several years. With the advancements in drilling equipment and underpinning brackets, Micropiles are sure to become more popular in the foundation repair industry. For more information about foundation repair visit a site like