A Beginners Guide to the Rose Garden

Roses are one of the most popular domestic plants around the world today. Protected and treasured, they hold universal appeal; whether around the cottage doorway or the grandest palace grounds. Today there is a rose for every place and purpose, from the formal garden, arbors, trellises and wings to hedges, accent plants and decorative features on patios or terraces. One of the most versatile plants, the rose is an exciting plant for any one interested in gardening.

There are several factors in successfully growing roses of fine quality in your home garden. They include: location, fertile soil, drainage, correct planting, pruning, fertilizing, mulching, winter protection and the control of pests.


In order to produce a good bloom, roses need a minimum of six hour of sun light a day. While not necessary, roses should get a good dose of light shade in the afternoon as this will help their blooms retain color longer. Shrubs or hedges which are heavy surface feeders as this will deprive the roses of much needed nutrients and water. Roses also need good air circulation and do not like confined spaces.


The most important requirements for the soil in which you will grow your roses are drainage and fertility. Roses can thrive in fairly heavy clay or sandy loam soils if these two requirements are met. The Ideal soil for growing roses is a good garden loam with lots of organic matter. Roses also favors a slightly acid soil with a pH between 5.5 and 6.5


While roses need large quantities of water for their best growth, it is absolutely essential that they have good drainage as they will be seriously injured in standing water. To fix areas with high water tables or poor drainage, laying tiles or crushed stone under the planting will assist the water draining away.


Roses may be planted in the autumn after the bushes have stopped active growth and are dormant but before the ground freezes. They can also be planted in the early spring while the plants are still dormant or they can be planted as potted roses after growth has started. Spring planting should be done as early in the spring as the ground can be successfully worked. Care must be taken when planting potted roses to not break the ball of earth it was planted in.

Growing distances will depend on the type and variety of the roses you will be planting. However, because of their very lively growth habits most roses should be planed about 2 feet apart in general.

The roots of the rose should never be exposed to the sun or wind before planting, but should be kept wrapped in wet paper or moss and left in a dark place like a plastic bag or the garden shed.

In a hole of ample size, place the rose so that the roots are in a natural position and the point of union between the stock and the scion is between 1 and 2 inches below the surface. Planting to high will cause the rose to not have enough support and planting to deep will starve the rose of oxygen. After back filling and packing in the soil firmly, thorough watering will be needed.


The purpose of pruning is to remove dead or weak wood and to maintain height and form. Pruning is dependent on the type of rose you have planed and the part of the world you are in. However there are several fundamentals which apply to all varieties and locals.

1. All dead cane should be removed at the base.

2. Winter damaged canes should be cut back to sound wood.

3. Canes interfering with the height or shape of the plant, or canes that are rubbing other canes should be cut back or removed.

4. Sharp pruning should always be used. Dull shears will damage the plant making fungal and bacterial growth easier.

5. Cuts should be made just above the bud, slanting in the same direction of the bud and as close to the bud as possible without causing damage to it.

Mulching and winter protection

Roses benefit from mulching in the summer. Mulch roses with your desired material making sure not to exceed 1 inch in depth.

Winter protection is dependent on local, climate, exposure and hardiness. Make sure that the ground is well supplied with water. Soil should be brought up around the roses to a height of 10 to 15 inches. After the ground has frozen, mulch with hay or a similar material.

There are few flowers which bring the Touches of warmth and graciousness, of the color and beauty to the surroundings of the modest home like the rose.

Top 10 Benefits of Male Chastity

Many people find the concept of male chastity fun and exciting. This is particularly true if the male partner is somewhat submissive or the female partner is somewhat dominant. But, it’s not only for couples in those kinds of relationships. In fact, it can benefit almost any heterosexual relationship.

Male chastity is not just fun and games – there are real benefits to the male chastity lifestyle.

Because the topic is so personal, often those interested fear ridicule and embarrassment so, many of their questions go unasked. Just check out a forum or two where someone dared to ask a question about male chastity…”weirdo, whack job, pervert, sicko…” are often the unkind comments returned. It is a personal choice in life, like anything else and can be discussed sensibly like anything else. That’s why I want to take some time today to write about the top 10 benefits of male chastity – for those who are to shy to ask about being under loving lock and key.

1. It stops your man from wasting his time and libido masturbating. If you are in a relationship, all of his sexual energy should be directed at you. It should not be wasted on him touching himself and thinking about other women. As long as he can masturbate, he is psychologically cheating on you – and lying to you by default.

2. Your sex life will improve. Because he’ll have to please you in order to get his release, he’ll become a more experimental and better lover. You will have more orgasms per week than you’ve ever had before.

3. Your relationship will become stronger. Male chastity encourages open and honest communication about each other’s needs. This is an incredible benefit for any couple, and why male chastity can help any couple improve their natural bonding.

4. His orgasms will improve. As long as he can masturbate regularly, he is taking action that desensitizes his penis. Once he is on a more normal ejaculation schedule, his penis will become more sensitive and his orgasms will become stronger.

5. You will never have to worry about him cheating on you. Face it – most men, no matter how much they love their wives, can’t turn down an attractive, sexy woman. Male chastity makes it impossible for him to act on these urges, so you are helping him remain faithful.

6. The romance will come back into your relationship. As long as he knows he can have sex with you any time he wants, there’s no reason for him to romance you. That’s why the romance stopped after you got married. By limiting his sexual access to you, you’ll train him to be the romantic lover he was when you were still dating.

7. You’ll never have to perform oral sex on him again. Of course, you can if you want to; but he’ll be quite happy with any sort of release, and certainly never bother you to do it for him.

8. Your friends will compliment you on what a wonderful, attentive husband you have. They will be so jealous of your strong, committed relationship.

9. He’ll become much more helpful around the house. Knowing that the only way he can get the release his body craves so badly is by pleasing you, he’ll actually volunteer to do the dishes, clean the bathroom and make the bed every morning. Won’t that be nice?

10. He’ll feel better about himself. Most men are ashamed that they masturbate so often (usually seven to 15 times a weeks! Ewww!). But, they are slaves to their libido and can’t help themselves. It’s an addiction. Mostly it makes them feel like little boys who can’t control themselves. Once he no longer is able to give into the temptation to masturbate, he’ll feel proud of his self-control and behave more like a grown-up man who releases his sexuality into his wife, instead of down the shower drain.

Those are just the top 10 benefits of the male chastity lifestyle. While male chastity may not be for everyone – many couples find it to be the perfect solution to relationship woes and bedroom boredom!

55 Years Old – Don’t Buy A House

If you have owned a house and paid off the mortgage over the years you know the first 10 years is almost all interest payments with very little equity.

There is nothing wrong with buying a house as long as you can qualify. That means a good down payment and a steady job. None of that no-down-payment nonsense. The buyer must be serious about making those monthly mortgage payments and have a good job. Banks are checking these days.

The financial community in the recent past has been required to make mortgages for those who did not qualify with no down payments and had no serious intention of paying if it became economically uncomfortable. It is too easy to walk away.

The true cost of home ownership is not just the monthly mortgage payment. In a new house all the appliances, plumbing, roof, pool equipment, window frames, etc., etc., everything has an estimated life expectancy after which they need to be replaced.

Buying an older home means all of the above will occur sooner. Replace or repair can be expensive.

The true cost of keeping the house is the mortgage payment plus upkeep. Oh and let’s not forget taxes. Then there is a little thing called insurance that is required by the mortgage holder.

The industry calls it PITI = principle, interest, taxes and insurance. Depending upon the length of time of the mortgage and whatever your down payment was it normally comes out 10% annually of the selling price divided by 12 or 1% of the selling price each month.

If the house cost $200,000 that figures about or close to $2,000 per month.

If you are 55 years old do you want to take on that obligation? Wouldn’t it be smarter to rent? If the same quality home can be rented for $1,200 per month the renter could save the difference of $800 each month and in 10 years at retirement have $96,000 plus interest. I can guarantee he would not have that in home equity if he bought the house when he was 55.

Furthermore renters pay much less for rental insurance and have the ability to move to a new location any time. Renters do not have to put on a new roof or replace an old hot water heater. No major upkeep out of pocket expense.

How about a 6 month rental in Canada for the Summer and 6 months in Florida, Mexico or Dominican Republic for the Winter? The only extra would be travel expenses.

With so many rentals available the foreclosure prices are not yet a great buy. If a person wishes to buy there are yet about 4,000,000 more distressed properties to hit the market in the next 2 years. Prices will be even lower than today.

Do the numbers before you buy.

5 Responsive Web Design BLUNDERS To Avoid

Responsive web design offers an amazing web experience. If you are looking to develop and design something for traditional desktops, probably you are making the biggest mistake of your life. Yes, this way, you are just catering to 75 percent of the audience, leaving the other 25 percent. Gone are those days when you used to browse websites on your PCs; today is the era of Responsive web design. With technology making its’ presence in almost each household, your website would be visible on anything that has a screen i.e. smart watches, desktops, laptops, tablets and phones. If you ignore these experiences, the effectiveness of your website would be reduced, thereby limiting your online exposure. Obviously, the investment of effort and time required to develop a responsive website is more as compared to its desktop-only counterpart, but the potential and audience gained are immense, as these websites can be accessed anytime and anywhere. However, many developers make certain mistakes while embarking on a responsive web design project. In such cases, it is good to let a company specialized in responsive web design services, handle the task. Read on to know in detail about the few common mistakes and also the ways to avoid them.

Mistake No. 1 Not analyzing the behavior of visitors!

Probably in an excitement and rush to build a good mobile presence, retailers often tend to miss out on visitor behavior. For responsive web design, this analysis is extremely critical since it reveals many statistics such as highly performed operations, frequently used devices, conversion rates, issues raised by buyers and much more. You need to consider all this to perfectly meet the needs of your beloved visitors.

Mistake No. 2 Concentrating on desktop version first!

When it comes to e-commerce website development, the majority of merchants focus on getting their desktop version design first and then move to smaller versions for mobile screens and other devices. Developers tend to overlook the technical challenges that might be faced when the site is scaled down from desktop versions to mobile ones; it is good to start with the small screen and then scale upwards for traditional desktop versions.

Mistake No. 3 Proper testing not done!

Before you make the responsive website public, it is mandatory to test it thoroughly. Often, developers release these responsive sites with minimal or no testing at all. Some retailers don’t have sufficient resources and in a hurry to make the site live, they avoid testing it thoroughly.

Mistake No. 4 Designing small call-to-action buttons!

Developers make all attempts to adjust everything on small screens and as a result of this, the call-to-action buttons which they design, are too small. Owing to this, users end up clicking the wrong buttons and boil with frustration, thanks to the tiny size.

Mistake No. 5 Less Content

Often, developers hide content to make the website page appear smaller. Now when the content is not visible, the SEO performance is hindered to a great extent, since the search engines find content missing from alternate versions. This reduces the value of the website, leading in low SERP.

Seek the help of a good e-commerce website development company that can guide you through the ins and outs of responsive web design.

Durability Difference Between Beech Wood And Rubber Wood For Restaurant Chairs

Durability is the ability of any product or thing to survive for longer period of time and not to wear out quickly. When we think of buying wooden chairs for restaurants, we need to get serious on the durability factor. These days, there are lots of cheap restaurant chairs being influx into the market. Their construction and style are similar; however, the quality of raw material is different. Historically, European Beech Wood is the industry standard and has been for the past 30 years. Beech wood offers numerous benefits for wood workers: it’s a heavier and dense wood, it’s easier to work with and it’s color and stain are relatively consistent. Only in the recent few years, rubber wood has made its way into the commercial market. Primarily used in economical home furniture, rubber wood has become increasingly common in the commercial furniture industry because of its lower pricing.

However, rubber wood restaurant chairs fall apart. This is not baloney. Once taken out of its native sub-tropical environment and exported to the US, the wood expands and contracts because of its innate absorption properties, thereby causing the frame to swell and contract and eventually break. Also, much like pine, rubber wood likes to move quite a bit. By moving, it refers to the way the wood likes to bend and twist. Chairs joints are susceptible to this problem.

The way you can tell the difference between rubber wood and beech wood is by its wood grain. Rubber wood has a complete absence of any grain whereas beech wood will have some wood grain. Rubber wood is not a very clear color wood and attempts to color it will result in some yellowish tints. Most of the time you will see rubber wood in some dark color that can mask the coloring. Lastly, wood rubber is lighter than beech wood. On a standard chair, it is about 2 lbs lighter. When you knock on wood, it sounds like your knocking on rubber.

If you are going into the furniture market, you need to give your special attention on the durability factor and should not forget to the furniture seller about the about the materials used to make the chair before purchasing. It is nothing but the material used in making furniture that always matters the most.

Many large restaurant chains use laminate tables because they are cheaper and more durable than solid wood tables. Solid wood tends to warp or level water rings, and will wear down after continuous chemical wears down the top coat.

Advantages of Using Car Wreckers

Disposing of old automobile parts and accessories is a difficult task that relies on innovative technology and expertise. Car wreckers have the heavy-duty tools and know-how to dismantle the wide range of vehicles that have no future practical purpose. Many of the vehicles in these yards are old, no longer operable, severely damage, or deemed to be a total write-off by insurance companies.

The process of breaking down a car and using or recycling the parts is much more favorable than using a landfill site. This not only gives an economic advantage, but also has the ability to offer environmental benefits.

Here are several benefits that relate to using the services of the car wreckers:

Saves you money

Car wreckers generally have a long list of genuine vehicle parts in stock that can be purchased at a very attractive price. Buying second-hand parts from a yard has the potential to save 50% to 90% of the store-bought prices. Before crushing the body of the car the reusable parts are removed with the intention of selling on in the future. So, for the car restorers, gear-heads, or others planning vehicle maintenance, repairs, or an upgrade, a first stop to source the required auto parts or accessories can include the car wreckers.

Environmentally friendly

Car wreckers offer the more eco-friendly solution to help dispose of an old or neglected vehicle. Cars left on barren land or landfill sites will at some point start to leak harmful chemicals or pollutants into the ground or the atmosphere. This will result in long-term damage to the local soil or water sources and make it difficult for the same ground to be used for other purposes in the future.

Nearly 76% of all parts in an automobile can be reused in another car or truck which is appreciated for its ability to give long-term benefits to the planet. Many of the salvaged materials from the wrecked vehicle are reused in the automobile industry. For instance, rubber sourced from an old vehicle can be recycled and used in the production of floor mats, gas pedals, and tires.

Earn a profit

For those planning to have their old vehicles removed by the car wreckers it is possible to get cash reward in return for some of the metallic parts inside the car. After dismantling a vehicle, the yards, rely on a high-powered magnet which has the capacity to easily collect every last piece of scrap metal which is resold to other companies that have a practical need for it.

In addition to collecting the metallic parts, the car wreckers can also drain the vehicle’s fluids like oil, coolant, and gas, which is sold on to other parties or reused in the fully functional vehicle.

Buy obsolete parts

With the speed in which automobile technology is progressing, it can be difficult to source certain tools, parts, and accessories which are deemed to be obsolete. So, for those searching for parts to fit the older vehicle model long out of production, it can help to get in contact with a local car wrecker company to see if they have the types of parts and accessories needed. Most of these services are likely to dismantle all makes and models of vehicle, so are more likely to have a greater inventory of old stock compared to the automobile shop.

In view of the fact that automobiles are one of the most recycled products, there should be no shortage of supplies need in the process of completing a future upgrade or renovation.

How to Maintain Your Home’s Exterior Wood Doors

It’s no secret that buying a wooden exterior door is an investment in your home. It’s not the cheapest type of exterior door you can buy, but it will probably last many years longer than most other types of doors. Unlike other more flimsy mediums, exterior wood doors are built to stand the test of time. But, the best part about owning a wooden exterior door is probably the fact that it can be repaired. If you have a fiberglass door, there isn’t much you can do about chipping or deep gauges that may end up on the surface. Exterior wood doors are a home investment that can last a lifetime, if they’re properly maintained.


Polishing is the first step you’ll take to maintain the look of your wood door. Over time, you’ll find that the finish gets dull and needs a little refresher. This is completely normal, especially for the outside portion that is getting direct sunlight and being exposed to the elements. Polishing exterior wood doors is easy. All you need is a good furniture polish and a dust rag. If you have any dirt or other marks on the door, clean them off with a wood-approved cleaner before polishing your door. For this, you can use the same cleaner you use for your hardwood floors.

Maintaining Finish

Even if you polish your door regularly, the finish will fade over time. Exterior doors that are protected by a storm door and mostly sit in the shade will last many years before you have to worry about restoring the finish, but doors that are often exposed to the elements may need to be spruced up a little sooner. To restore a dull or cracking finish to its former luster, you’ll need to start by sanding off the outside layer, and then wiping away all dust with a clean damp cloth. Then, you simply apply two coats or more of a fade-resistant (this is crucial for an exterior door) exterior polyurethane with an ultraviolet inhibitor (this will protect the finish from fading in the sun, much like sunscreen for your door).

Maintaining Paint

If your door is painted instead of stained, you may encounter some of the same problems. Some colors and brands of paint fade quicker than others, but you should be able to get quite a few years out of each coat of paint. Follow the instructions for maintaining finish above, but just pick out the paint color you want. Be sure to get an exterior paint with some ultraviolet protection.

Trimming Swollen Wood

This maintenance method is at the bottom of the list because it will probably be many years before you have to worry about trimming down swollen wood on a new door. However, if you have an older door, you might notice that the wood has expanded. Maybe there was water damage or maybe it absorbed excess humidity in the air, but your door is no longer closing as it should. You’ll need some woodworking tools to pull this one off, so if you aren’t comfortable trimming the swollen wood off of your exterior door, hire a professional to do it for you.

When you buy a wooden door, you’re buying a product that is truly built to last. They are designed to brave the elements for years with very little care and maintenance required. However, if you’ve had your exterior wood doors for a few years already, you should at the very least consider polishing them. A little maintenance will go a long way.

Rock Phosphate Impurities And The Impact On Manufacturing Phosphoric Acid

Rock Impurities:

All elements in rock phosphate except PO43- or Ca2+ are considered as impurities. Major impurities are MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, fluoride, chloride, Uranium, Cadmium, Insoluble, Sulfate, and Carbonate etc. Some of these impurities are soluble in phosphoric acid. Insoluble impurities do not have major impact on phosphoric acid manufacturing process as these are separated out with gypsum during filtration. All problems are created by the soluble impurities. Problems such as scaling, corrosion, production of sludge, increase of acid viscosity and process instability occur due to the presence of these impurities in the acid. Such problem can be caused by either one single ion or the presence of a complex group. For example a small increase of the potassium, aluminum or iron content of phosphoric acid can produce a large quantity of sludge in the storage tanks. Sometimes impurities like silica and aluminum are added to the reactor to improve the filterability of gypsum and reduction corrosion due to fixing the fluorine as SiF4. Presence of high chlorides causes severe increase in corrosion rates. Combined with fluoride, sodium or potassium, silica can form fluosilicate salts which cause heavy scaling on filter cloth, pan, and piping while reducing filtration rates. Some of the major impurities are:


The main significance of CaO is that it consumes sulfuric acid by the following reaction.

CaO + H2SO4 = CaSO4 + H2O

The quality of rock is assessed by viewing the ratio of CaO/P2O5 rather than just the CaO content. When reviewing at the effect of CaO, Al2O3 and MgO in the rock there are clear relationships between the CaO/P2O5 and the BPL, Aluminum and MgO content of the rock. The CaO/P2O5 can be reduced by 0.05 by an increase of 9 units of BPL, a decrease of 0.40% MgO or an increase of 0.25% Al2O3.


Magnesium is present in the rock mainly as Dolomite (mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonate). Essentially all the Mg dissolves in the digestion of the rock. Since all the P2O5 in the rock does not dissolve, it is possible to have a higher ratio of MgO/P2O5 in the digestion acid than in the rock. MgO is known to have a significant effect on P2O5 recovery in the acid digestion step. Based on operating data, an increase of 0.1% in MgO in the rock will decrease P2O5 recovery by at least 0.25%. MgO can also affect the production rate. There is a 4.3% reduction in rate for every 0.1% increase in MgO.


Fluorine is removed mainly due to evaporation of phosphoric acid to a higher P2O5 strength. Evaporating the acid (particularly to 54% P2O5) liberates the fluoride as SiF4 gas which is absorbed in scrubber as fluosilicic acid (up to concentration of 18%). Some quantity of fluorine is also removed in the attack section of the reaction tank. This removal can be enhanced by using the high heat of dilution of the sulfuric acid during addition. Most of the fluorine that is removed has to be replaced with sulfate or nitrate ions to keep the anion/cation balance in the slurry. Fluoride like chloride rapidly increases corrosion rates and requires special protection.


Iron is mainly removed from the phosphoric acid by desludging during concentration. It precipitates when the acid is evaporated. The precipitated iron can be removed by centrifugation or clarification. The iron precipitates as complex iron phosphates and it is economically desirable to utilize them in other fertilizer products. Unlike MgO, which does not significantly precipitate upon concentration of the acid, essentially all iron above 0.9% in the rock will precipitate as the acid is concentrated.


Most of the phosphate rocks contain small quantities of uranium. The quantity is so small (about 1 pound per ton of P2O5 for Florida rock, generally less for other phosphate rocks) that it has an insignificant impact on the ability to make fertilizer grade acid.


Cadmium being a heavy metal is a major concern in Europe and other areas of the world as a residue in fertilizers. This is because cadmium is taken up by some plants and passed through the food chain. Many of the world’s phosphate rocks contain 10’s of PPM of cadmium.

Sulphate ions:

All phosphates contain some sulfate. This corresponds to free sulfate and is advantageous when calculating the sulfuric acid required digesting the phosphate rock. However, it is relatively constant at about 0.8% in most phosphate rocks.

Carbonate ions:

Carbonate is contained in all phosphate rocks. It is present mainly as limestone or dolomite form. Presence of high carbonate causes excess foaming in the rock digestion process and can cause increased phosphate losses due to the foaming and overflowing. Generally the foaming is controlled by the use of a defoaming agent. The quantity of carbonate in phosphate rocks should correlates well with the MgO content of the rock.

The importance of Insoluble:

Insoluble is the material remaining after digestion of the rock. In general the digestion leaves mostly the silica as the insoluble. In the plant, a significant portion of the silica dissolves in the acid forming fluosilicic acid. On the other hand some species such as iron pyrites are not soluble in the plant digestion.

Low grade rock limits the production rate and P2O5 recovery in the phosphoric acid manufacturing process. Processing low grade rock phosphate ores is a challenge that will require increased attention in the decades to come as the overall quality of rock ores is depleting.

How to Make a Backup Mother Mould

A mother mould is a special casing which supports a flexible latex, silicone or polyurethane rubber mould. It helps to prevent them distorting or collapsing when the casting material is poured in. These rigid supports can be made of any rigid material such as plaster, fibreglass or polyurethane plastics.

The current material of choice for making mother moulds for larger subjects is fibreglass. The low cost and light weight of this material makes it ideal. Mother moulds for smaller objects tend to be made of plaster. If a latex mould is less than 200mm in height then you probably wouldn’t need one at all. Moulds of this size can quite successfully be poured by suspending it in a hole cut in cardboard. On the other hand some 3D tile moulds of around 100mm in size with a wide flat horizontal surface may distort and would definitely require a mother mould to support it.

The rigidity of mother moulds is important so that it offers sufficient support to the flexible rubber mould. It is therefore important that the rubber mould has no undercuts as it can be difficult to remove from the rigid support when cast with material. The rubber mould can however have undercuts on the inside. The undercut on the external part of the mould can be filled with flexible sponge dipped in latex. Additional coats can then be added to make the outside of the mould smooth.

It is also important to make the mother mould immediately after the rubber mould is made. The original object inside the rubber mould will hold the rubber mould to its true shape and the mother mould will support the mould accurately.

Making a Plaster Mother Mould for a Latex Mould.

As soon as the latex mould is complete and dry apply a fine coat of petroleum jelly on all exterior surfaces of the mould. This will aid in the removal of the mother mould when complete.

Most mother moulds need to be a two piece casing which needs to be fastened together around the latex mould. You will need to find the easiest parting line for the two pieces to separate from the mould. This is usually on the less detailed areas of the mould. Once you have decided where your parting line should be mark it out with a pen on the latex mould.

Now you can make your first half of the mother mould. Using non-hardening oil based clay build up a wall up to the parting line. Make this wall about 50mm in thickness and add some grooves into the wall to act as a registration point so that the two mould pieces will slot together in the correct place.

Plaster can now be applied to the first half of the latex mould right up to the clay walls. Make sure the clay walls with the registration grooves are covered with plaster. Small squares of hessian can be soaked in the plaster and added to the plaster already on the mould to add strength to the mother mould. Make sure you overlap these hessian squares. Build up the plaster mother mould until it is about 15 to 30mm in thickness and allow drying.

Once the plaster has set you can remove the non-hardening clay. You will now need to apply a release agent to the plaster which was left with registration grooves when the clay was removed as we will now add the second half of the mould. If no release agent is applied to this part of the first mother mould piece the plaster will stick to the second half. We can use petroleum jelly for this.

Now apply plaster to the second half of the mould in the same method as the first piece with hessian for strength. Once this second piece has set both halves of the mother mould can be removed. These pieces should come away easily. The mould support is now complete. The original model can be removed from the latex mould and casting material can be poured in. Thick rubber bands can be used to hold the plaster mother mould pieces together while casting.

Note: When making the plaster mother mould it might be a good idea to ensure the top is level as when you turn it upside down to cast it will need to be freestanding unless you plan to support it with braces.

Making a fibreglass Mother Mould

The method of creating a fibreglass backup is basically the same as the one we described above.

Apply the non-hardening clay in the same way at the part line and apply petroleum jelly or wax as a release agent to the latex mould. Coat the latex mould with the polyester resin before applying any fibreglass matting or strands. This will ensure there are no air bubbles and the resin will get into every shape and corner. When this first coat cures to a tacky state apply the fibreglass mat which has been saturated in the resin. Continue to apply the mat to the entire surface of the latex mould ensuring that you overlap your matting. Once completed allow to cure and repeat with the other piece of the backup.

35W VS 55W HID Conversion Kits: Which One Is Better?

HID conversion kits have been available for quite some time now so there are many different types and styles available to choose from and it may seem very confusing. A common question that gets asked is the difference between a 35W and 55W HID conversion kit. Besides the wattage, there are other differences such as brightness, heat, reliability, and color. Choosing the correct one for your needs is very important and there will be several factors that will play a role in your decision. This article will summarize the differences and provide a clear understanding of these two conversion kits.

The first difference is in the wattage and name itself. 35W HID lights is the standard output for most kits on the market as well as factory installed HID lights from manufacturers. 55w kits produce a significant increase in power output which results in a much brighter light. 35w HID kits are approximately three times brighter than the standard incandescent halogen bulb; 55w HID kits are even brighter and provide up to four to five times more output. These would be ideal for those looking for the best and brightest light available, but with the increased brightness does come with some downsides. The overly bright 55w HID bulbs may also cause excessive glare on many reflector based headlights, but to be fair, a 35w kit also causes some glare as these types of housings were not intended for HID usage. Having a projector housing will help with distributing the light to where you want it to.

One issue that a 55w HID conversion kit may face is overheating. Typically, HID lights run cooler than most incandescent halogen bulbs they replace, but a 55w kit creates excessive heat that can melt the housing or even the wiring that connects to the light. There are headlights that are made of metal which can withstand the heat better, but there are many headlights that are made from plastic that are susceptible to this kind of damage. The wiring can be upgrade to ceramic plugs instead of plastic to better handle the heat, but there will still be risks involved.

Next up is the reliability, 35w kits are designed with brightness and longevity in concern whereas 55w kits are not. 55w kits are intended for superior and maximum light output. The higher wattage allows the 55w kit to be brighter, but it does cause more evaporation of the electrodes and gasses that make up the HID bulb over time. 35w kits may outlive your vehicle when used properly, but a 55w kit may only last as long as a regular incandescent halogen bulb or shorter as the material evaporates every time the light turns on.

The last difference is the color for the HID bulbs. 6000K will look different on the two HID kits despite coming from the same manufacturer and this is due to the output. The colors in 55w HID conversion kits tend to be more “washed out” and stepped down so a 6000K will look similar to a 4500-5000K color. This difference in color is acceptable for most as white is the best color for the human eye to see in and would function very well in limited visibility conditions. While there are higher Kelvin temperature 55w HID kits available, it makes little sense to get it as the higher you go in HID Kelvin temperature, the output reduces; this would cause a 12000K 55w HID conversion kit to produce similar output compared to a 8000K 35W HID kit.

In concluding this article, there are obvious benefits of using a 55w HID conversion kit for your vehicle, but there are also downsides to it as well. In the end, the variables will have to be analyzed and studied as some may not apply to the application and some may. With this being all stated, there is a specific reason why factory HID systems are only rated at 35w. 55w kits are available for those who want the brightest light out there and like what basic economics state; when there is demand, there is always usually a supply.

Pipe Welder Jobs: 6G Welders Are Making $12,000 And More A Month In The US Now, Demand Increasing

Isn’t it crazy?

In the middle of a huge and nasty recession pipe welders are making crazy money. Sounds like fantasy land but it’s true. Why is it true? Where is it true? Like all good things worth having, it isn’t as easy as we would like to be.There are reasons why welders are being paid $12,000 and more a month in the middle of a big recession.

REASON # 1: You will need to have the valuable, high paying skill that is pipe welding.

Only about 5% of all welders can weld pipe. However, if you’re a structural welder, you can make good money too, just not as much as the pipe welders. Pipe welders have been and will probably always will be the cream of welding. It is not an easy skill to master. It is a hand-eye skill. Pipe welding requires the welder to be able to weld in all possible positions.

REASON # 2: The $12,000 a month money isn’t in Hawaii – we’re talking North Dakota.

Why not Minot, (North Dakota)? You’ll find out. Just be sure you take every warm piece of clothing you ever got in your life (and ask your mom for your baby blanket back too). Why? because you’ll be putting it all on at one time. Temperatures can be 40 degrees Fahrenheit, BELOW zero. North Dakota isn’t the only place there is work or will soon be work. The big pipeline from Canada to Texas will start up soon, and you are likely to see demand for pipe welders explode.

REASON # 3: Do you have a roof over your head right now?

Roofs are hard to find in North Dakota. This small population State has been invaded by workers hired to get the shale oil out of the ground. This recently discovered oil is making farmers rich over night, and making it tough for workers to find a place to sleep. Take grandma’s RV with you. Even at that, you’ll be blessed if you can find a place to hook it up. It would be a good idea to have a good generator, and a lot of gerry jugs to haul water, gas, and sewage. Why? Because you may have to spend some time without hookups.

Is pipe welding the only good paying job in North Dakota?

No – anyone who can work (hard) is going to make relatively good money in North Dakota. The unemployment rate is under 4%, so if you can fog a mirror, you’ll find some work. Making hamburgers pays up to $15 an hour, and you may get a nice bonus of $300 to $500 just for signing up. Pipe welding is near the top of the highest paying jobs in demand, because pipe moves oil, and not everyone can weld pipe. However, pipe fitters, structural welders, roust abouts, and just about any trade including general laborer is in demand.


No matter what you WERE doing and what you were making before they told you they no longer had work for you, you’ll make roughly double that in N.D. Before you burn the barn, bundle up the baby and blast into after-burner, do a little a research and see if you can find a place to hang your hat in N.D. or you may soon be coming back.

What should you do next?

Foods That Act As Aphrodisiacs

Down the ages there have been many foods which have been considered aphrodisiacs; some are still considered to be so; but others? They are very common foods and not at all sexy. The humble swede is one of these and celery is supposed to be a natural Viagra, lasting for a few hours. If you boil five or six celery stalks to a pulp, then your man should be able to conquer any erectile dysfunctions if he eats them hot.

Oysters and other seafood allegedly have aphrodisiac properties, as does caviar. However, could it be that the cost of these items and the rituals around eating items such as caviar give them a potent sexual aura? Lobsters are reported to be aphrodisiacs, but not necessarily crayfish, whereas a friend of mine swears by prawns. What is it that these foods have in common? The answer is quite simple- the minerals zinc, potassium and selenium combined with vitamin B1 thiamin. Oysters also have iodine, iron, calcium, manganese and phosphorous packed into them, but it would seem that males need zinc and potassium especially to help them.

Throughout the centuries saffron has been regarded as an aphrodisiac as have cinnamon, vanilla, sesame seeds, pistachio nuts, almonds and walnuts, pomegranates, pine nuts, avocado, angelica, lychees, bamboo shoots, and the oils of patchouli and jasmine, along with the most expensive oil of all – oud oil. Then there is kiora or kewra which is obtained from the screw pine and can be used in cooking, particularly in desserts.

One of the foods that you can find in the wood is the pignut, earth nut or earth chestnut, and Nicholas Culpeper, the 17th century English herbalist says of this tuber: –

“They are called earth-nuts, earth-chesnuts, ground-nuts, ciper-nuts, and in Sussex pig-nuts. A description of them were needless, for every child knows them.

Government and virtues. They are something hot and dry in quality, under the dominion of Venus; they provoke lust exceedingly, and stir up to those sports she is mistress of; the seed is excellent good to provoke urine; and so also is the root, but it doth not perform it so forcibly as the seed both.”

Remember that these could be an endangered species, where you live, so check before you rush out to forage for them. They grow in bluebell woods and the roots look similar but bluebell roots are poisonous.

The easiest aphrodisiac to find is celery or swede, and of course, tomatoes, once called “Love Apples” also had a reputation as an aphrodisiac. We now know that tomatoes contain lycopene which is best heated and this can enhance a man’s sexual prowess as well as helping to reduce the risk of prostate problems. Any red fruit also contains lycopene, watermelons, red raspberries and strawberries for example.

While some foods undoubtedly have an aphrodisiac effect on some people, it may be that they do not work in he same way for everyone. You can set the mood with a few glasses of champagne which will serve to lower inhibitions of course, and then compose a meal of any of the foods mentioned above. Combine this with jasmine-scented candles, and with some patchouli oil somewhere in the room, but not too much as it can be overpowering, have a candlelight dinner which I hope you will remember for its good points.

Pralines by Haitian French Creole Natives

Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti) was the richest sugar colony for the French during French occupation of that Caribbean island during the 17th century. Haiti was the backbone for the beginning and duration of the French sugar industry. The knowledge and resources for processing cane sugar to refined sugar, gave the French the advantage of becoming the leader in the sugar industry during the 17th century. The abundance of sugar in Haiti provided the French with the opportunity for creative desserts in Haiti and in France. The praline was one of the French desserts created from the abundance of sugar during that time. However, this confection did not take on the “praline” name until its introduction to the United States.

Pralines are often defined as caramelized nuts or sugar coated nuts. Credit is often attributed to one well to do French sugar industrialist that lived in France during the 17th century. However, Haitian French Creoles believe that this is a recipe that was created in a French Plantation home in Haiti during French occupation of Haiti and transported to France where a French industrialist took credit for the creation of this recipe.

Although praline is well known only to American living in the southern states, every native Haitian knows this confection because it is a true part of their culture and livelihood. The Haitian’s name for praline is the “Haitian Tablet”. This recipe was later introduced in New Orleans by the French and their Haitian Creole house servants traveling from Haiti to New Orleans.

Haitian Tablets (Pralines) take two forms in Haiti. Made with brown sugar, this confection has a chewy consistency due to the molasses found in brown sugar. Cream and white sugar is added to the recipe to create a less chewy but creamier candy. The introduction of a variety of nuts like almonds, peanuts, coconut and cashew made for a great variety of pralines in Haiti. Peanut was and is still the most popular Haitian variety of this confection. The Haitian has named this confection, “Tablet Pistache”. Translated, this is the peanut variety of praline. Coconut is the next favorite variety of this confection for Haitian. Due to unfavorable condition for growth, pecan was not a nut option for this confection on the island of Haiti. Most Haitians are not familiar Pecan Pralines. This variety of praline became popular once this recipe was introduced in New Orleans because Pecans was abundant in the southern states of the United Sates.

French culture and cuisine was introduced in Haiti during French occupations of that island. Even though Haiti is a free country today, the French cultural influence and cuisine are still observed in Haiti’s language, mannerism and culinary skills.

The Haitian Tablet (Praline) is still abundant today and throughout Haiti’s main cities and countryside. It is one of the oldest confections produce by Haitian natives in Haiti. It is also one of Haitian’s most favorite treat.

Although pralines are simple to create, they are seldom authentic because those who create this confection are seldom direct French descendants and their recipes are often gathered from present day resources about the generic praline. There is one manufacturer of this confection that can call this recipe “authentic”. Le Gourmet Praline is a praline manufacturer owned by a Haitian French Creole who is a direct descendant of French and Haitian parents and was born on the Island of Haiti. Le Gourmet Praline recipe was handed down throughout the generations. There are family secrets to this recipe that makes this confection unique from any other pralines in this industry.

Automating Sliding Gates on a Slope

The issue of installing automatic sliding gates on slopes has come up over the years and has been the subject of much debate. It concerns gates mounted on two wheels that run along a track fixed to the ground that are opened and closed by a sliding gate motor.

Many years ago, installers were told by manufacturers of gate automation equipment that an incline of up to 4% was acceptable for sliding gates. That gives a height change of 4 cm for every metre of track. With a typical 6 m track length, that means a total height change of 24 cm.

Anyone who has ever done basic physics or has ridden a bike will know that things with wheels are pulled down slopes by gravity. And on a slope, a sliding gate is exactly the same, requiring energy from the gate motor simply to stay in one position. Once it is moving downhill it will require substantially more force from the gate motor to bring it to a stop. And to start a stationary gate rolling uphill takes considerably more force than it would do on a level track.

Sliding gate motors are designed to move an automated gate backwards and forwards and stop it on level ground. They are not built to cope with the completely different forces at work when either driving automatic gates up hill or controlling them as they descend.

The different forces involved when operating a sliding gate motor on a slope will also affect its operation and there are likely to be difficulties even in setting it up. Also, without clever electronics, this type of use is likely to lead to rapid problems with mechanical elements such as gearboxes that bear larger forces than their original design specified.

The suggestion that sliding gates could be automated on sloping ground was made prior to the more recent tragedies caused by automatic gates. These have illustrated how a badly designed and installed automatic sliding gate produces incredible shearing forces and consequently acts as a horizontal guillotine.

Today, we have additional safety devices such as safety edges and obstacle detection that is built into the gate motor or control panel electronics. However, gate safety features are only as good as the engineer designing and installing a safe automatic gate system.

Now gate automation manufacturers that recommend their equipment for use with gates on a slope of any kind are hard to find. Even with safety edges it would probably be impossible to guarantee that such an installation meet current requirements for gate automation safety.

Today, safety is rightly placed as the major consideration when designing and installing automatic gate systems. So, if you have a slope and need a sliding gate, the best answer is either to level the ground or to use a cantilever gate.

How to Make a Dehumidifier Empty Automatically

A dehumidifier is a very important device for those homeowners with a damp basement. Dampness can lead to mold, mildew, and increased incidence of allergies.

Unfortunately, a dehumidifier can be a real pain in the backside because you have to keep emptying the water storage bucket. Simply getting it in and out of the machine can be difficult. Getting the bucket to the sink without spilling its contents can sometimes require the balancing abilities of a juggler.

A better method is to add a drain hose to the dehumidifier so the water drains by itself. This eliminates the dreaded trek to dispose of the water.

Drain connection ———-

Firstly, make sure your dehumidifier has a threaded drain connection. This is a threaded nozzle at the rear of the machine that empties into the water bucket.

Remove the water storage bucket. You should see a threaded nipple connection. A few models have a connection on the water bucket itself. Either allows a drain hose (or a piece of a lawn hose) to be attached to the rear of the machine.

Once a hose is attached the water drains into the hose. The hose can then be directed away from the dehumidifier into a floor drain.

Above the sink method ———-

Not every home has a floor drain. Therefore, some consumers install the dehumidifier above a sink to allow for easy draining. This does require the installation of a wall bracket or shelf higher than the sink. The water produced by the dehumidifier is then simply allowed to drain directly into the sink or laundry room standpipe.

The above the sink method works but limits their usage to one area. Also regular maintenance, such as cleaning the filter, becomes difficult. Simply leaving the dehumidifier on the floor is more convenient. Plus it allows you to quickly move it to others rooms, if required.

Drain hose method ———-

A better method is to take advantage of the threaded drain connection at the rear of your dehumidifier. With a lawn hose added for draining, the distance between dehumidifier and drain becomes virtually unlimited.

Remember water will always flow downhill. Therefore if the drain point is lower than the drain connection on the dehumidifier, the water will run down the hose.

Throughout this article the term ‘floor drain’ is used. If you have no floor drain then an alternate can be used. Consider a shower stall drain, a toilet, a sink, a sump hole, or a standpipe for a washing machine. Although a floor drain is easiest, any of the other drains work equally well. The fact that they are higher above the floor level simply means the dehumidifier end of the drain hose will have to be raised higher to compensate.

It sounds simple enough, but the dehumidifier may be in one part of the basement and the floor drain another, with 50 feet of lawn hose between them. Finding the correct height for each end is the whole trick. You therefore have to determine their height relative to one another. This in turn will be the secret to eliminate the need to empty the machine.

The simplest way to do all this and make your dehumidifier drain automatically is the following:

1. Lay a drain (lawn) hose along the floor between a floor drain and the dehumidifier. At the floor drain end insert the hose a few inches into the drain. At the dehumidifier end locate the hose close to where the dehumidifier will be operating.

2. Lift the dehumidifier end of drain hose up until it’s approximately level with the top of the water storage bucket.

3. Pour water into the drain hose and have someone advise you if water empties into the floor drain. If ‘yes’ proceed to step number 7.

4. If water backs out of the hose without flowing into the floor drain the hose end is not yet high enough. Raise the hose a few inches and repeat the process. Continue repeating until water flows out the floor drain end of the hose. When it does make note of how high above the floor level you had to lift the hose. This height is important.

5. To further refine the proper height add more water to the end of hose while alternately raising and lowering hose. The prefect height is slightly above the point where water backs out of the hose.

6. Raise the dehumidifier so that its threaded drain connection is above the height determined in step number 4. If this requires the dehumidifier being elevated off the floor do so temporarily, using blocks or supports under the machine. A more permanent structure can be constructed later.

7. Reconnect the drain hose to the threaded drain hose connection at the rear of the dehumidifier.

8. To test, pour water into the drain trough pan at the rear of the machine. On most dehumidifiers this is a small plastic trough or pan just above where the drain hose is now connected. If your machine has a rear cover remove it to gain access to the drain trough.

Pour water into the drain trough. It should run out the floor drain end of the hose freely. If the trough overflows go back and start over at step number 3.

9. Reconnect dehumidifier to electricity. Allow it to operate for 24 hours with the drain (lawn) hose connected. If it appears to be operating properly, proceed to final step.

10. Construct a permanent stand to hold dehumidifier. Run the drain hose along baseboards and secure. Secure drain end of hose into drain.

Your dehumidifier drain is now fully automatic. Every time the dehumidifier cycles off the accumulated moisture will run into the drain trough, down the drain hose, across to the floor drain, and down the drain. No more having to empty cumbersome water storage buckets.

Lastly, you should make note on a calendar to clean or replace the dehumidifier filter every month. This, along with some occasional maintenance, will keep your dehumidifier working efficiently far into the future.