Brief History of Cement Mixers

When we look all around us we see huge buildings, little houses, bridges, sidewalks, roads, walls, offices etc. how often do we stop to think how these came about? They have not always been there, they evolved with mankind. There was a time when clay had to be baked in ovens made especially for this purpose. Bricks made like this were in vogue even in the ancient Egypt. Nowadays the construction scene has changed tremendously. A landmark in the construction industry came with cement mixers. Today we take the cement mixers that we see in construction sites for granted but this was not always so. Long time ago, the Greeks mixed asphalt with water and other things to get a substance which when hardened became ideal for construction. This concrete like material was named “cement”, which in Greek means “secure”.

Cement is actually a mixture of various substances. Besides asphalt, which was mentioned before, there is sand and limestone. The Greek who invented cement were making many structures out of cement in the ancient times. Babylon flourished with new constructions and all the new buildings employed asphalt and cement in around 625 BC. For next several centuries we occasionally find some mention of this method of making cement. Around 16th Century, this art found a revival. Most European civilizations once more started employing it. This was because Venezuelans were still using the construction techniques of the ancient Greeks. Soon, this approach caught on and this idea was being used in many places, including for making ships!

By 19th century cement construction was introduced to America, along with other aspects of industrial revolution. Natural resources were tapped in making cement in Trinidad. By 20th century some new elements were being experimented with. When some new materials were added to cement, concrete developed. This form of concrete is commonly seen on the roads.

When so much was happening in the cement industry, the art of mixing it just had to revolutionize. Cement mixers were becoming pretty popular by early 20th Century. This coincided with increased usage of motorized vehicles. Cement mixers had trays. These trays were heated on simmering coal. A mixture was set to dry in this. This was followed by asphalt being poured on it. In the rudimentary stages, the cement was mixed manually. Then the drums were invented. They used to be fixed in one place. Then some enterprising person added wheels to it and made these drums mobile! There was a huge demand for these as good roads and sidewalks were being laid out in large numbers. This was the state of affairs till 1960s.

But things were not all hunky-dory. Cement mixers got caught up in environmental issues in 1970s. A few changes had to be made. Technology of cement mixers had to be improved to become environment friendly and abreast with the changing times. Now, cement mixers do not cause noise pollution, are weather-friendly and more efficient. The cement mixture is better and durable. Over 90% of roads we see have been made by cement from these cement mixtures!

Concrete Radius Cutting

Concrete radius cutting for decorative purposes is an option that is available to homeowners, and when done properly, can transform a backyard into a more inviting space. Special care in regards to planing and layout can turn dull uninviting backyard, into your own backyard paradise.

Quite often, I am contacted by homeowners who feel their backyard has too much concrete, and would like to have some portion removed for the creation of additional planter space. Usually, they have some rectangle configuration in mind, and after discussing with them what they would like to achieve, I will mention that they’re not limited to straight line concrete cutting, and that we can do concrete radius cutting configuration as well.

Most often they are taken back that concrete radius cutting is even an option, and that we can come up an unlimited amount of different configurations. Concrete radius cutting done properly, can really dress up, soften, and give a backyard a much more natural inviting space.

We start this process first, by stating with the layout. We take a hose, lay it on the concrete and shape it into the desired configuration. After we get the shape and look were after, we then take a pencil and scribe out the radius we just created with the hose. After the pencil mark is scribed out, we take clear lacquer and spray it over the pencil line to keep it from washing away when we do the concrete radius cutting.

Next, I’ll take a handheld demo saw and start making very shallow cuts following the radius pencil line that was just put down. The key is to make very shallow passes, around 3/4 or less per pass. Whatever concrete radius cuts that are to drastic, we’ll leave for the next step. Anything that is not able to be cut with the demo saw, I use a small electric hand grinder with a 4” concrete blade. This small blade allows you more flexibility for the extreme curve cuts. I finish any cuts that can’t be made with the demo saw, with this 4” electric hand grinder. Keep in mind, that you will only be able to cut a max depth of 1 1/2 inches. After all the concrete radius cutting is done, I will take out the big flat saw machine, (walk behind machine) and start cutting one or two inches away from all the radius cuts, cutting down all the way through the concrete slab in a straight line fashion. By cutting behind the radius cuts all the way through the slab, relieves pressure and allows for the demolition of the concrete to begin. Cutting through the slab is probable the most important step, because, it allows for total separation between the slab that is coming out and the concrete that is staying.

Air jack hammers are used for demolition of the concrete slab. We’ll start breaking out the slab with the large air jack hammers; usually, starting towards the center, and continuing to work outwards towards the finished radius cuts. As we get close to the concrete radius cuts, we’ll switch over to the smaller handheld chipping hammers. This is where we take our time, and slowly chip away the remainder; keeping in mind that these cuts are most likely not cut all the way through. So a little extra time here is critical, as to not chip or break the finished edge.

Used Radiator Vs New Aftermarket Radiator

If your radiator has more holes than a slab of Swiss cheese and left you high and dry, then it’s time for a replacement. If you’re on a tight budget you might be considering a used radiator or an aftermarket radiator, but which is a better choice?

Obviously buying used can have a huge cost benefit. Unless you have a rare or high-end luxury or sports car, a salvage yard special will be between $25 and $50. Not bad compared to the cost of a new cooling system from your local dealer.

The problem with buying used is that you have no idea what condition the unit is in. Appearance is not a good indicator and you have no way to do a pressure test. So, what do you do?

If you must buy used, be sure to do a thorough visual inspection. That means you need to look inside and out. Inspect for internal corrosion and damage to the cooling fins and hose connections.

To get a good look inside you will need a flashlight, so be sure to take one to the salvage yard with you. Look for excessive scaling and corrosion. If it does not look clean, then it was not well maintained.

Check the joins, too. Look where the cooling coil connects with the tanks. If you find an accumulation of sediment or mineral deposits from external corrosion, this is a pretty good indicator of poor condition.

Look for repairs. If you see big blobs of “cold weld” cement like J-B WELD, the unit has been patched and should be avoided.

If it’s an aluminum system check for corrosion and epoxy around the tank joins. Aluminum radiators need special coolant. If it’s not used they will corrode rapidly and begin springing pin leaks. Also, a common failure with aluminum cores is separation from the plastic tank. The common repair is epoxy cement. Stay clear if you see these obvious repairs.

Before you scour the salvage yards, consider aftermarket. For just a little more money you can get a high quality, aftermarket replacement unit with a warranty. The average price for an aftermarket radiator in 2011 is $120 shipped.

Most aftermarket components are exact, original equipment (OE) specification. In many cases, the manufactures provide the parts to the car manufacturer. In other cases, the components are “multi-fit,” which means it is the correct capacity and size for your vehicle, but it will have mounting hardware or attachment points for a range of fitments.

CSF, Inc. is one of the world’s largest manufactures and specializes in multi-fit radiators. According to CSF, they provide the overall best value. All of their products meet or exceed original equipment engineering specifications. Their manufacturing plants meet ISO 9000 standards and provide parts to OE manufacturers. They make over 1,000 different models that fit 2,001 vehicle fitment applications. If that wasn’t enough, they offer an industry leading warranty. Simply put, you cannot buy a used radiator with the same quality or assurance of performance.

If used is your only choice, be sure to inspect thoroughly. For complete confidence, invest in a quality aftermarket radiator.

Railroad Sights of Long Island: Hicksville, Oyster Bay, and Wantagh

1. Long Island Railroad Origins:

Defined by, and developed because of, the Long Island Railroad, the slender, almost fish-profiled tract of land originally called Paumanok by indigenous Indians and now bridge- and tunnel-appendaged to New York, owes much of its existence to it.

Earthly distances require means, speed, and sometimes intermodal connections to traverse so that miles, as measurements, can be reduced to hours and minutes. Untethered to the continental Untied States, and thus surrounded by water, Long Island itself sought solutions for the population which grew after the farmers were attracted there by the promise of sprouting crops. But not immediately.

“The century year of 1800 found Long Island to be a largely rural region of remote villages located along the shores,” according to Robert C. Sturm in his book, “The Long Island Rail Road Company: A History, 1834-1965” (Long Island-Sunrise Trail Chapter, National Railway Historical Society. 2014, p. 3). “The principle means of transpiration and communication were carriages and sailing vessels. The fact that travel was slow, arduous, and sometimes perilous meant that the average person rarely, if ever, traveled further than 20 miles from his or her place of birth.”

Integral to the seed that evolved into the Long Island Railroad and ultimately resolved this dilemma was the ten-mile Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad Company, whose April 25, 1832 incorporation was envisioned as the first step in a land-and-sea link to Boston, essentially bypassing Long Island itself, but reducing the primitive, three-day horse-drawn coach and 16-hour all-steamer methods to 11 hours.

The second segment of the intermodal journey became reality on April 24, 1834, when the Long Island Rail Road Company was chartered to operate from Brooklyn to Greenport on the North Fork. The third was the cross-sound ferry voyage to Stonington, Connecticut, whose hilly and river-interspersed southern shore otherwise eclipsed technological, track-laying capabilities, and the fourth was the continued and final rail link to Boston on the Norwich and Worcester.

Two years later, on April 18, or the very day that the Brooklyn and Jamaica was completed, the barren island began sprouting tracks, along with its crops, reaching Farmingdale in Suffolk County in 1841, Deer Park the following year, and Medford two years after that, and met the North Fork-originating, westward-laid rails by summer, although a shortage necessitated a temporary, two-mile, heavy timber and strap iron crowned insertion until the final section was delivered from Britain.

Inaugurating service on July 27, 1844, the fledgling, steam-powered railroad immediately demonstrated its capability, covering the 94 miles from Brooklyn to Greenport in three-and-a-half hours.

But the ground which supported it began to crumble after only a few years of operation, since the previously considered “impossible” southern Connecticut rail route was conquered by 1850, eliminating the need for the Long Island Railroad’s intermodal and inter-state purpose and leaving it to serve a sparsely populated farm community. Now, more than ever, it needed to grow branches that would cater to developing towns, after its initial, cross-island line spurred their development.

Today, tunnel-connected, beneath the East River, to Manhattan, the Long Island Railroad operates nine branches to 124 stations, covering more than 700 miles of track, and is both North America’s busiest commuter railroad, feeding and fielding the daily workforce, and the oldest one still operating under its original name. In 2009, it celebrated its 175th anniversary and six years later carried 87.6 million annual passengers.

Its rich history can be gleaned through Long Island’s many railroad-related sights.

2. Hicksville and the John Bull Locomotive:

Located on the flat, barren, 60,000-acre Hempstead Plains–the largest such prairie in the eastern United States-Hicksville was first claimed by Welsh settler, Robert Williams, in 1648. But, despite the promise of population, it remained just as virgin for another two centuries, until Valentine Hicks, a Jericho businessman, acquired the site and formed a land association to establish a town on it in 1834.

Because the first 15 miles of track had reached the area three years later, in March, its then terminus status transformed it into a destination or, in the reverse direction, a gateway to Manhattan in the west, establishing a tether to a major city.

Not coincidentally, Hicks himself became a Long Island Railroad board member and its second president, while the station, ultimately located at the crossroads of the Main Line and the Port Jefferson branch, evolved into a hub.

But financial panic at the time of its inception ensured that it remained the terminus for four years, until the intermodal connection could regain its momentum and ever eastward-laid track could imprint the ground. In the meantime, however, the railroad transported people, who, in sedentary form, translated into population, and the once barren farmland took root as a town comprised of stores, businesses, residences, and hotels. Its “Hicksville” name, again not coincidentally, reflected its Valentine Hicks founder.

The Long Island Railroad’s first locomotive, the “Ariel” and the 19th constructed by Matthias W. Baldwin, was delivered in November of 1835 and, aside from providing motive power for the inaugural Hicksville service, was employed for some two decades.

“The original locomotives were of simple construction, comprising a five-tube boiler mounted on a frame that also accommodated a two-cylinder engine,” wrote Sturm in “The Long Island Rail Road Company: A History, 1834-1965” (p. 10). “Hand-cut pine, which was conveniently harvested from the Pine Barrens, was the fuel. Water was carried on the tender car, either in casks or (in) an iron tank. There were no brakes; coasting to the station and finally ‘plugging’ the engine (running it in reverse) was the only method used to stop the trains.”

Insignificant in size and primitive in construction, it nevertheless made a major impact. It lit the fire on the steam revolution, shrank distances, and served as the threshold to the industrial era.

Ordered by Robert Stevens, who needed propulsion for the Camden and Amboy Railroad he established, the very first such John Bull locomotive commenced its journey as a collection of crate-cradled parts in Liverpool, England, in 1831, arriving on this side of the Atlantic from the Robert Stephenson and Company factory marked “one locomotive steam engine.” Assembly, needless to say, was required.

But after it was, it inaugurated New Jersey’s first rail service, as its name implies, between Camden and South Amboy two years later and plied tracks with it or other companies for 35 years. It was not retired until 1866, at the end of the Civil War.

It was ultimately operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad, which took over the Camden and Amboy and later owned the Long Island Railroad.

Featuring a 14.9-foot length and 6.3-foot width, the ten-ton engine, with a 0-4-0 wheel configuration, had a 4.11-foot wheel base and four-foot, 8.5 inch gauge. It was equipped with a 10.07-square-foot firebox and a 6.9-foot-long boiler, which had a 2.6-foot diameter.

Power was transmitted to the driving axles by means of pistons mounted under the boiler between the two front wheels.

The initial ground-level Hicksville Station was served by several depots throughout its history, including the second, which opened in 1873 to replace the first, consumed by fire nine years earlier; the third, which replaced the second after it was moved to a private location in 1909; and the fourth, which was temporarily employed between 1962 and 1965 while the tracks were elevated. That $8.8 million project, which covered three miles, but involved 11 miles of track, eliminated five grade crossings on the Main Line and two on the Port Jefferson branch, and required the extension and relocation of Newbridge Road under a viaduct.

Not far from those elevated tracks is a full-sized, non-operating replica of the John Bull locomotive named “Valentine’s Dream” and located in Hicksville’s Kennedy Memorial Park. Constructed by Chamber of Commerce President James Pavone during a two-year period and based upon the original one from 1831, which ran on the Camden and Amboy Railroad, it served as the inspiration for Matthias W. Baldwin to build locomotives in this country, one of which, of course, was the Long Island Rail Road’s first locomotive, “the Ariel,” whose image graces the town’s welcome signs and banners.

Unveiled on May 17, 2008, the 350th anniversary of the founding of the central Long Island town, the “Valentine’s Dream” reproduction became Hicksville’s own icon.

3. Oyster Bay Railroad Museum:

Forever associated with Oyster Bay is President Theodore Roosevelt, who frequently traveled by rail and used the station as his threshold to other parts of the nation, since his Sagamore Hill home was located only a short distance from it. But the equally nearby, appropriately named Oyster Bay Railroad Museum was not created for that reason. Instead, it began in 1990, when the volunteer Locomotive #35 Restoration Committee, under the jurisdiction of the Nassau County Parks Commission, cleaned and painted the deteriorating steam engine displayed in Mitchel Park.

Subsequently incorporated as the Friends of Locomotive #35, the group sought funding for a full restoration and a location to showcase it, resulting in the 2006-established not-for-profit organization that planted its roots in Oyster Bay and acquired additional artifacts, railroad equipment, and rolling stock.

“The mission of the Oyster Bay Railroad Museum is to heighten public awareness, understanding, and appreciation of the railroad’s role in our heritage,” it self states, “and to increase public understanding of rail technology and its impact on Long Island life. (It) will collect, preserve, and interpret the railroad heritage of Long Island for future generations.”

Presently divided into an indoor visitor center and outdoor rolling stock display complex, it features photographs, artifacts, small railroad implements, a large-scale Hudson locomotive and tender, with a 4-6-4 wheel configuration, and a model train layout in the former, located at 102 Audrey Avenue. But much more is to be seen in the latter, a short drive away.

Here, locomotive #35, cornerstone of and catalyst to the museum, and historically significant because of its participation in the 1955 “End of Steam” ceremony in Hicksville, remains a sectioned, unassembled work-in-progress, and is under renovation at the Steam Operations Corporation in Birmingham, Alabama. Built in 1928 in the Pennsylvania Railroad’s Juniata, Pennsylvania, shops for operation by its then-subsidiary Long Island Railroad, the engine, with a 4-6-0 wheel configuration, gave faithful, high daily, multiple-stop service for 27 years before passing the torch to diesel technology. It was the last steam locomotive to operate on Long Island.

There are several other fully restored and assembled engines and cars here, however.

The first of these is actually a pair of 25-ton switchers. Constructed in 1958 by General Electric, these two 150-hp mini-locomotives were used to “switch” and move passenger and freight engines throughout the railroad’s Morris Park servicing and repair facility in Richmond Hill, Queens.

According to the museum, the affectionately called “dinkies” were “four-wheel, cabin-driven, 25-ton diesel locomotives that toiled away in the back shops of the Long Island Railroad from 1958 through the early-2000s.”

Not retired until 2006, engine #398 was purchased as far back as 1958 and #397 was acquired almost three decades later, in 1987, from the Naporana Iron and Metal Company.

Another engine-this time of diesel technology-is also on display-at least in spirit, if not in full physical form.

Built by the American Locomotive Company (Alco) in 1947 and designated FA-1 (for “Freight A” unit), it was operated by the New Haven Railroad, which numbered it 0402, until it returned it in 1963 after an accident. Separating the cab from the engine, Alco sold the former portion to the Long Island Railroad for display at the 1964-1965 World’s Fair, held in Flushing Meadows, whereafter it served as an interactive exhibit for children at the Tanglewood Day Damp in Malverne. The Oyster Bay Railroad Museum acquired it in 1999. The plaque commemorating its restoration is dated May 8, 2010.

Although the Long Island Railroad was never inceptionally envisioned as a commuter carrier connecting its namesake population with the metropolises of New York and Brooklyn and, to a lesser degree, to its own towns, it ultimately evolved into one, achieving its true purpose. Toward that end, steam- and, later, diesel locomotive-pulled cars were integral to the morning and evening traffic flows from and to the island through the East River tunnels. One of them is on display.

Constructed in 1923 by the American Car and Foundry Company and initially appendaged to steam engines, the P54 coach, a lightweight structure that replaced the all-wood and later hybrid steel frame and wood body ones which preceded it, is an expression of construction development.

Numbered 7433, it was the first all-steel passenger car. It was one of almost a thousand built for the Pennsylvania and Long Island railroads, and featured direction-changeable, “walk over” seats, and, in the case of the museum’s example, overhead fans mounted on their original ventilators.

Because the coach’s reduced weight subjected riders to a bouncing effect, it was often dubbed a “Ping Pong” car. Draped in several liveries and retrofitted with more modern lighting, flooring, seats, and luggage racks, #7433 provided a half-century of service and was not retired until 1974. It is one of the last of its type to remain.

Other museum exhibits include two divergent-era and -purpose cabooses, which, before the 1950s, traveled from end to end through Long Island’s still-abundant, potato- and cauliflower-sprouting farmland as the end themselves to elongated freight trains.

Built in February of 1927 by the American Car and Foundry Company at a $17,880 cost, caboose #12 consisted of mixed material construction, its frame, underbody, and trucks made of steel, but its upper body employing wood, and stretched 29.4 feet in length and weighed in at 35,430 pounds.

“The end of the train had many names: crummy, palace, shack, or caboose,” according to the museum. “It was home for the crew and an office, too. Bobbing along behind a string of freight cars, like an exclamation point at the end of a sentence, the caboose spoke loud and clear, saying, ‘I am the end. The train is complete.'”

As befitting all homes on wheels, it was outfitted with sleeping bunks, storage closets, a sink, a coal stove, and a toilet, and was occupied by a conductor, who was responsible for a train’s safe movement and upon whose directive the engineer relied, and a brakeman, who ensured that the hose extending from the locomotive to the caboose itself maintained the required level of air pressure.

Long Island produce often provided “complementary,” track-side “shopping” for crews until some farmers routinely bundled freshly picked crops and made them accessible to them.

Serving all branches of the Long Island Railroad, caboose #12 was not retired until 1961, whereafter it served as the sleeping quarters of Shore Line Trolley Museum restorers in East Haven, Connecticut, and was finally acquired by the Oyster Bay Railroad Museum in June of 2002. It own restoration occurred between 2008 and 2009.

Its other caboose, #50, was constructed by the International Railway Car Company in 1958. Designated a Class N-22 unit, it was one of the first all-steel ones to replace the preceding wooden ones. Although train visibility was either afforded by tall cupola or extended side bay window design features, this one offered neither, but nevertheless provided faithful utilitarian service until its 1993 retirement.

A later, 2011 museum addition is the quarter-length electric simulator, which appears identical to the actual car, and was employed to train and certify engineers on M1 and M3 equipment.

A State of New York contract, in conjunction with the Long Island Railroad’s new owner, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), was signed for 770 M1 electrified passenger coaches (numbers 9001 to 9770). Branded “Metropolitans” themselves and built between 1968 and 1973, they replaced the mixture of outdated equipment remnants from the Pennsylvania Railroad regime, except the 1950s-era, diesel-hauled Pullman Standard ones, which themselves were numbered 2700 to 2900.

The workhorse of the electrified fleet, the M1 cars were not retired until the early-21st century, when they were replaced by the advanced M7s.

Contrasting the old with the new, the museum’s turntable, of continuous girder design, was the second to have been used at the Oyster Bay Station and, along with the wye and the loop, served as one of three methods of reorienting a locomotive for its return trip.

“The turntable at the Oyster Bay Railroad Museum is actually the second at this location,” according to the museum. “The LIRR reached Oyster Bay in 1889, having been extended from Locust Valley. That turntable had been at that location since 1869 and, after 20 years, it was moved with expansion of the service to Oyster Bay.”

It was not the only early-railroad remnants once here, however.

“A four-stall engine house was built in 1889 and was located southeast of the turntable,” it continued. “In 1904, the old turntable was removed and a new 70-foot-long one was installed north of the engine house. It was originally powered by a pneumatic motor… In 1932, it was electrified and operated under that power source until taken out of service sometime in the 1970s.”

Beyond the fence is the Oyster Bay yard, cradling bi-level commuter cars, and beyond them is the railroad station depot, symbol of both the past and the future.

Designed by architect Bradford Lee Gilbert in the Tudor revival style, it was completed in the spring of 1889 to cater to the track extension from Locust Valley to Oyster Bay, but subsequently expanded in anticipation of increased travel spurred by Theodore Roosevelt’s 1901 election as US president. A rail enthusiast himself, he frequently covered the short distance from his Sagamore Hill home to the station and commenced his journey to Washington, D.C., among other destinations.

Subjected to modifications throughout its history, it lost its canopies during the 1940s, some of its doors and windows by brick-plugging during the 1960s, and was finally closed in 1999, after a 110-year utilization, when it was replaced by a new platform to the west to conform to the latest bi-level passenger cars.

Owned, along with the plaza, by the Town of Oyster Bay, it was subleased and is currently managed by the Oyster Bay Railroad Museum, and is both an Oyster Bay Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Its plaque reads, “Oyster Bay Railroad Station. Home train station of Theodore Roosevelt, President t of the United States, 1901-1909. July 2005 placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Plaque sponsored by Theodore Roosevelt Association and Oyster Bay Historical Society.”

Now under renovation, it will eventually replace the museum’s Audrey Avenue facility and house both exhibits and a visitor center, and will be linked, via a short walking path, through Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park to the outdoor rolling stock and turntable display yard.

4. Wantagh Railroad Station Museum:

Originally encompassing Wantagh, Seaford, and the southern portion of Levittown, the area, settled by Captain John Searman, Robert Jackson, and their families in 1644, was one of the earliest to have been claimed by the English in eastern Nassau County. Initially known as Jerusalem, it was one of many biblically named towns, along with Jericho and Bethpage.

A quiet village until the Searman, Jackson, and Birdsall families serving George Washington’s army occupied Jerusalem itself during the Revolutionary War, it harnessed the event as a post-conflict catalyst to growth in 1783.

Facilitated by the arrival of the railroad more than a century later, in 1867, its southern portion attracted considerable development and was renamed Ridgewood in order to distinguish it from its original roots in the north. But that distinction was further cemented only 24 years later when it adopted the present Wantagh designation, since confusion with the identically named Queens town was frequent. Chosen to honor Wyandance, the grand sachem of the Montauk Indians, it retains its name to the present day.

Integral to its development was the Wantagh Railroad Station. Constructed in 1865 at an $800 cost and located on Railroad Avenue, the originally-designated Ridgewood Station featured an enclosed ticket office, in which Emma Whitmore served as its first female employee, a telegraph office, a passenger waiting room, a baggage room, and open east and west ends. Heated by a potbelly stove in its center, it sports one very similar to its original today.

The platform consisted of wooden planks.

Because it was slated for demolition in 1966 when the street-level tracks were elevated to reduce vehicular traffic congestion, it was acquired by the prior-year established Wantagh Preservation Society and relocated to the present Wantagh Avenue site.

Restored to its 1904 appearance, it was opened as a public museum on May 16, 1982 and offers a look into turn-of-the-century life through vintage photographs and display cases that feature memorabilia from the area’s past.

Trains still await passengers outside. At least one car does. Identified by and the very symbol which brings the Wantagh Station to railroad life, is the red-liveried, track-supported passenger coach, “Jamaica.”

Manufactured by the American Car and Foundry Corporation in 1912 for the Long Island Railroad’s Long Island Parlor Car Company subsidiary, the 80-ton coach, measuring 80 feet long by 14 feet high, originally accommodated 26 passengers, but was subjected to a multiple-application history Redesignated “The Montauk” for Long Island Railroad business use in 1925, for example, it was subsequently rebuilt only five years later as an observation car, incorporating staterooms, a galley, a dining room, butler’s quarters, and open decks.

As an expansion of then-advanced technology, it featured its own power generator, was heated by coal stoves and pipe-circulating, baseboard-hidden hot water, and cooled by a fan that blew air over two 300-pound ice blocks, ensuring early air conditioning during its weekend travel suspensions in Montauk.

Eight years after its 1941 return to parent company Pennsylvania Railroad for modernization, it was repurchased for the sum of $26,434 and operated until 1957 as the “Jamaica,” once again reclassified as a passenger coach in 1962 and serving Long Island Railroad express train routes.

Retired six years later and donated to the Wantagh Preservation Society, it spent another four years in storage at Grumman’s Bethpage plant, before being moved to its present location on October 25, 1972. It was rededicated in 1996.

Today, it sits on original, hand-hewn ties and 80-pound rails, and features its original, hand-applied pin stripping in its interior.

Only a few feet away is another hark to Wantagh’s past: its post office. Once serving the rural town, which was then mostly populated by farmers, the tiny, ten- by twelve-foot wooden structure across from the railroad depot was built in 1907 and served as the area’s initial post office, located on the corner of Wantagh and Railroad avenues. Operated by a single person, who sorted the mail into slots, it witnessed the rise of postage from a former two to a current 49 cents for a two-ounce letter. Gertrude Ballem was the last person to work in it.

Together, the railroad station, the passenger coach, and the post office, maintained by the Wantagh Preservation Society, offer glimpses into early 20th-century Wantagh life.

The society itself, chartered by the New York State Board of Regents as a nonprofit educational corporation, was founded in 1965 for the purpose of saving the station’s Victorian architecture when plans for the elevated track crossing called for its removal, and Nassau County subsequently provided the present site at Wantagh and Emeric avenues for it.

In August of 1983, the station and the railroad car were placed on the State and National Register of Historic Places.

Build Your Own Gymnastics Balance Beam

There are several methods to make a gymnastics balance beam for home use. They can run the gamut from the most basic wooden beam to one covered with carpet. Or you can make a more elaborate balance beam padded and wrapped in synthetic suede. However you decide, this project isn’t too difficult and can save you money. Most supplies you need can be found at a local home improvement store.

First a little background. All competitive gymnasts are required to perform on the balance beam apparatus. Beams used in international gymnastics competitions must conform to the strict guidelines and specifications set forth by the International Gymnastics Federation Apparatus Norms. Originally, the balance beam surface was polished wood. Since the 1980s, beams have been covered in synthetic suede. Today’s competition beams are also sprung to accommodate the stress of high-difficulty tumbling and dance skills. This is why gymnasts who are competing can be very particular about the apparatus they use at the gym vs the apparatus you might make at home. Therefore, it is always a good idea to consider the level of the gymnast when deciding to start this project

The regulation length for a competition balance beam is 16 ft 5 inches. Many homeowners can not accommodate an apparatus of this size in the home, therefore decide to make a shorter one. Many home-made balance beams range from 8 to 12 feet in length, however, all are a standard 4 inches in width. The height of the beam will depend on where it is used. We do not recommend using balance beams outdoors as it can be difficult to get a stable surface to prevent wobbling. Your apparatus should always be used on a flat surface.

For beginners age 3-6 a basic wooden beam will provide a great introduction to the sport. As the gymnast gets older this same apparatus can be wrapped in carpet to provide a bit of padding or you can choose to wrap it in synthetic suede to give it the realistic look and feel of a standard balance beam.


(6) 1 x 6 lumber 8 ft. long (or any desired length)

(2) 2 x 4 lumber 20″ long for the legs

Wood Glue (such as Elmer’s Carpenters wood Glue)

3M Spray Adhesive

3″ wood screws

Wood Stain

Industrial Carpet

Suede Topper for carpet beam (option for carpet beam)

4 inch adhesive loop strip (option for padding)

Synthetic Suede Fabric (cover option)

Iron leg brace option

C Clamps


Step 1

Glue the six 8-foot pieces of 1-by-6 inch pine lumber together so that their sides are fully contacting one another. This will create a block of wood that is 8 feet long with a side of about 4.5 inches.

Glue liberally between the boards and use clamps to make sure that the glue fastens itself to the wood. Let dry overnight. Using a Belt Sander go over entire beam and sand to smooth finish. If staining your beam you can use finer grade sandpaper with an Orbital Sander to create a smooth finish. If covering the beam with carpet or Suede this step may be omitted.

Step 2

For a stained wooden beam. After sanding to smooth finish, apply stain to your beam.

To make a carpet covered beam you will use heavy-duty staples and wrap the beam with the carpet. Start by stapling carpet to bottom side of the balance beam and tightly wrap carpet around beam and staple underside of beam only. You may also use spray adhesive to further secure the carpet to the beam.

For a synthetic suede covered beam you will want to pad the beam first using a neoprene strip. It can be difficult to find 4 inch wide neoprene which is used on professional beams therefore many home-made beams use yoga mats to pad the beam. You do not want the beam to be too soft so minimal padding is needed. Do not staple padding. Use glue only as staples will cause dimples. You can also use 4 inch wide adhesive peel and stick loop to create padding as well. Continue attaching the suede to the beam by applying spray adhesive to the top and sides of the balance beam. Working from the bottom of the beam, staple the Suede along the bottom. This is a 2 person project as one needs to tightly pull the Suede around the beam evenly while it is being secured with the adhesive. Make sure your balance beam is completely dry before use.

Step 3

For a basic beam you will screw the (2) 20 inch 2 x 4 wood braces to each end. Place each brace at a 90 degree angle to the beam 12 inches from each end.

Alternatively, you can purchase iron manufactured balance beam braces you simply screw into the bottom of your beam. These braces come in a variety of heights and can even make your beam adjustable. It is possible to convert your basic beam to metal braces later on. One advantage to metal braces is they are tall enough to allow a mat to slide under the balance beam while the gymnast is using it.


Use home-made balance beams at your own discretion. As your beam is not a professionally made piece of equipment it is only as strong as your craftsmanship. Use with supervision as gymnastics is a sport with inherent risk of possible injury.

Cleaning Your Wax Pot And Tools

Unfortunately some of the most important elements of any treatment can be the most boring. Cleaning is one of them, but it is essential to any professional treatment. This article aims to provide a summary of how best to keep your wax pot, tools and treatment area clean ready for action. The article is split into sections, each dealing with a specific item.

A good practice to get into is to use a Hand Sanitizer Gel / Spray at the start of each treatment in front of your client. This helps demonstrate you commitment to hygiene without having to shout about it. Your actions speak louder than your words.

Wax Heaters

Throughout the day you need to be cleaning and wiping any wax spillages or drips from your heater. At all times when cleaning your heater make sure you use a Wax Equipment Cleaner product. If you use Surgical Spirit or Acetone you will find that this will dry out the plastic and make it brittle, leading to cracks and damage to the heater.

I have a small clearly labelled spray bottle that I pour some equipment cleaner into, and then at the end of a treatment I spray some onto a wax strip and wipe over my heater. This does the job quickly and easily, and done regularly it doesn’t become a big chore. Whenever using any cleaning products you are always advised to wear suitable gloves to protect your skin.

If you pour your wax into a refillable inner container bucket you may wish to change the wax you use some times. And to do this you will need to thoroughly clean the bucket to remove all traces of the previous wax. It is also good practice to do this once every so often even if you don’t change the waxes, just to ensure the bucket and product inside is clean and free from any contaminant.

The way I would normally do this is fairly simple; firstly heat up the bucket – maybe a little warmer than you would normally to make the wax very thin. Then carefully, using suitable protection for your hands (you don’t want to burn yourself), remove the bucket and pour any of the wax in the bottom into a suitable container for disposal – don’t pour it down the drain!

Now leave the bucket in a safe and secure place to completely cool down. Once it has gone cold, pour some equipment cleaner into the bucket, about 0.5 – 1cm depth. Leave this for a few minutes and then swill it around to dissolve as much wax as possible. You may find using a spatula helps to dislodge stubborn bits. Again dispose of into a suitable container and then repeat the process several times until all wax has been removed.

Once all wax has been removed thoroughly wash the bucket in warm water. Then fill it with your tool disinfectant solution, and ensure you leave it for the prescribed time as a minimum. Then again thoroughly rinse out and allow to completely dry before using again.

Tweezers And Other Small Tools

These need to be sanitised between each and every client. The easiest way to do this is to use a suitable tools disinfectant product such as Barbicide, or my personal preference Mundo Power Plus Instrument and Tool Disinfectant. You must pay careful attention to the manufacturer’s instructions, how long do the tools need to sit in the solution, it can be ten or more minutes, and how often must the solution be changed.

Mundo manufacturer a fantastic little tray that you can use to soak your tools in to ensure they are fully cleansed and ready for use.

Treatment Couch / Table & Surfaces

Oils and products can easily seep through towels onto your treatment table. You should always wipe this down with a suitable disinfectant cleanser each time you change the towels. You can even get disposable wipes that you can use to make this job even quicker and easier. Be sure to check that the cleaning product is suitable for use with your tables covering material. Some can dry out vinyl and other coverings eventually making them brittle leading to cracks and tears that can be costly to repair.

You also need to ensure you wipe down your surfaces, such as your trolley or any worktop you may be using with a suitable disinfectant.


These must be clean and fresh for every client. Towels must be washed at a minimum of 60 degrees Celsius. Personally I prefer to use a fabric softener with my towels, some people say you shouldn’t because it can affect the absorbency of them which is fair enough, but my towels are for lying on or under.

A Short History Of Architectural Drawings

For hundreds of years architectural drawings were drawn up and reproduced by hand with ink on paper. These scale drawings were drawn according to standard conventions and used as building plans, working sketches, and as records. During the twentieth century technical advances changed the way draftsmen performed their job. The introduction of digital technology has caused a switch to computer aided drafting, or CAD.

The origins of the detailed plans of structures common to modern times was in the Renaissance, when artists made detailed sketches of classical buildings and began planning buildings that they imagined. In those days, the renderings did not include measurements and the conventions for detailed plans had not yet been set. Builders were expected to follow the illustration and work out the details.

As building became more complex, the art of drafting the plans advanced so that everything was spelled out in detail. Working up the plans including all the levels of detail became the process for spelling out engineering and construction problems before beginning the actual building. Creating detailed plans helps to avoid construction delays, to make cost estimates and to help the builder decide to commit to a project.

Eventually, the conventions used in modern architecture were adopted by the architects who prepared the plans. Certain views became standard, such as floor plans, which are horizontal views of the floor of a building usually at a height of three feet, showing how all the objects are arranged. This includes the walls, locations of windows and doors, fittings, stairs, and sometimes furniture in solid lines.

Another view is an elevation, which might be the depiction of an exterior or interior wall of a building. A cross section, similar to a floor plan, is a vertical plane section which cuts through a building. All these are drawn as orthogonal views, which means they are depicted with opposite sides parallel, in other words, the sides do not converge as in a perspective view. These are combined to create comprehensive plans for the building, used at stages to solve engineering problems or construction guides.

Copies of plans at first needed to be laboriously redrawn by hand, which was done on special paper such as vellum that could not shrink or stretch. When the blueprint process was developed, making accurate copies was simplified. Another advance was the switch to tracing paper, which allowed for much easier copies to be made of building plans.

Better tools such as adjustable squares and technical pens cut down on the time and labor needed to produce renderings. Technical drafting aides like the parallel motion drafting table and transfer lettering also helped to reduce the labor in producing drawings.

By far the biggest advance for creating architectural drawings came with the application of computer technology to this discipline. CAD software programs have taken over the production of building plans and have increased both the capabilities and speed of completion for planning structures. The choices for rendering details and materials and solving engineering challenges have been simplified. Digital plotters have made reproducing accurate prints an easy matter

A Guide to Managing Fallen Arches

If you have recently visited a podiatrist or chiropractor who has diagnosed you with fallen arches, you may be interested in learning about healthy lifestyle changes. The best way to prevent the pain from fallen arches or flat feet is to understand how balance and harmony between bones and muscles can be improved. When the body suffers from diminished arch support this causes stress and pressure to be placed in other parts of the foot, ankle, and leg which cannot support the weight. This causes friction between bones, tendons, and ligaments which impairs the overall balance of the whole body. There are different steps one can take to prevent chronic conditions from forming due to the presence of fallen arches.

The best way to prevent the common problems associated with fallen arches is through balancing your lower extremities and vertebral canal. When you offer your body extra support you are able to move pain free. Inflammation is a biological process which is stimulated when bones and muscles interfere with each other and tissue damage occurs. This is one reason why those who suffer from reduced arch support are prone to ankle, leg, hip and back pain. Tissues are more easily damaged, the area becomes inflamed, and inflammation means pain. Fallen arches and flat feet may be worsened with age and the onset of arthritis.

The Best Therapeutic Care for Your Fallen Arches

Collapsed foot arches can be corrected through several therapeutic means such as orthotic insoles and even acupuncture therapy, as well as customizing your shoes. The key is to balance the bones, muscles and tendons so that the joints do not suffer from an abnormal amount of weight being placed on them. This is one of the primary reasons for the inflammation of joints in the lower extremities. When inflammation and swelling occurs near a joint such as the ankle or the knee, it can damage surrounding structures and can potentially lead to infection.

In order to make healthy lifestyle changes to accompany healing of the foot arches and to avoid complications with your fallen arches, you may need to make adjustments to your daily activities. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, you may need rest and avoid strenuous activities from time to time, especially if you have a very fast paced and physical lifestyle. This will also help to avoid straining or tearing muscles that are involved in foot motion. Preventing excessive weight and pressure to be placed on parts of the foot such as the heel or ankle can reduce likelihood of inflammation and foot pain.

Improving foot biomechanics to absorb shock and pressure on joints is absolutely essential to relieving inflammation and swelling of joints caused by problematic arches. Fallen arches can lead to other foot problems such as inflammation of tendons and the stiffness of the ankle which inhibits normal walking capabilities. Physical therapy, acupuncture and even chiropractic care may be recommended if treating your condition independently does not prove to be effective. These healing arts offer the body the ability to grow and enhance strength so that imbalances do not occur through the skeletal or muscular systems. They can be a real help to people with fallen arches.

Construction Management Jobs for Felons – How To Get a High Paying Construction Job

Job opportunities for felons are often few and far between. To increase your chances of getting the best jobs for felons, you should choose an industry that is unrelated to your felony and where jobs are in high demand. It is also helpful to choose a profession, such as construction management jobs for felons, where you can be self-employed.

Construction administration jobs for felons are also known as project management or construction project management. Managers in this field are trained to oversee the planning, design and actual building of construction projects.

It is a very promising field of study right now because the employment opportunities for these managers is expected to exceed the number of qualified workers from now through 2014, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. This high demand and shortage of trained construction managers means that there are many job opportunities for felons available in construction management.

What kinds of jobs for felons are available in construction management?

Job opportunities for felons include construction estimating, construction safety, construction project management and building code compliance. The construction manager’s duties include keeping an eye on the big picture and making sure that the construction project is completed on time, does not go over the budget, meets quality standards and conforms to building codes. If the construction project is quite large, there will be many construction managers working on different tasks.

To be a good construction administrator, you have to like working with people. You will have to work not just with the owner-client but also with architects, construction workers, subcontractors, quantity surveyors, health inspectors, safety inspectors and other such people. Construction management may be a good choice for you if you are a good communicator who loves leadership roles. This is not the right career for shy people.

Also, since problems are bound to crop up with both large and small-scale construction projects, you need to be able to keep your cool while under pressure. Decisiveness and self-confidence are the two most important qualities that a construction developer should have.

Construction Management Jobs for Felons

Construction management is suitable for ex-felons because it is a job that is in high demand due to the shortage of qualified and experienced managers. This is also the type of job where people care more about experience and results than your felony.

Additionally, managers can be self-employed which is a good idea for ex-felons who are finding it hard to get employment. Most constructing managers work on a contract basis since construction projects are contract-based. However, it is also possible to get a salaried job within a construction company if you prefer a more stable type of job.

Since this is a managerial job, the pay is higher than average so this is a good career choice for those who are looking for high-paying job opportunities for felons.

Jobs for Felons: How to Get a Job in Construction Management

Construction education comes in two basic forms: one-year associate degrees and four-year baccalaureate degrees. Nowadays, many colleges also offer online courses as well as on-campus courses.

Generally, managers will either start at entry-level or mid-level jobs after graduation. Another career path that is popular for ex-felons is to work in construction and then take night or online classes to get a management degree in construction. This helps them get a promotion to a management or supervisory position.

It is also possible to specialize in certain construction projects which may improve your employability if these specialties are in demand. For example, some construction companies specialize in the restoration of historic homes and buildings. Experience or expertise in a specialized type of construction is quite valuable and makes getting the best jobs for felons easier.

Construction management jobs are projected to grow rapidly in the next few years so it is a good career choice for people looking for job opportunities for felons. A degree in construction management will greatly help you to land a job in construction project management. These managerial jobs for felons pay well but they are suitable only for those who are willing to put up with the stress of leadership roles.

The Six "Cs" of Team Building

Teambuilding is both an art and a science. As such, no “one size fits all.” There are, however, some fundamental principles of teambuilding which, when followed, will produce impressive results. Here are six I think you’ll find helpful.

Establish a Clear Vision

In order for any team to get where it wants to go or achieve a desired objective, someone has to establish a vision. And, by the way, a general direction will do no one any good. In order for a vision to have any power whatsoever, it must be clear and specific. I recommend using the same acronym for a vision as you would for an objective: S.M.A.R.T. Make the vision for you and your team Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bound. Remember, if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it.

Get Commitment

As a manager or leader, you’ll need to make sure your team is committed to achieving the vision or accomplishing a desired objective. There’s a difference between contributing to a team mission and being committed to making the vision a reality. The classic difference between the two is looking at a plate of bacon and eggs and remembering the chicken contributed to the meal but the pig committed. Big difference.

Competency is Critical

Build a team based on competency. Having good chemistry is important but having people on your team who have appropriate skills, talents or abilities is critical to making the vision a reality. Surrounding yourself with your buddies may make for some good times but will probably not produce desired results.

Establish a Constitution

A written constitution, describing what you’ll achieve and why, creates the foundation from which the team will operate. Just as the U.S. Constitution forms the bedrock of our country’s beliefs and founding principles, so too will a constitution for your team. It doesn’t have to be complicated but it should draw the lines on the field so everyone on the team understands what behaviors are, and are not, acceptable.

Collaborate and Communicate

The basic definition I use for collaboration is: “Working together to achieve a common objective.” It’s not enough, however, to just establish a culture of collaboration. You’ll want to be specific in terms of how the team will collaborate and communicate. Meetings? How often? Email? What are the parameters? Conference calls? Face time? Skype? Draw the lines on the field so the team will know what vehicle to use for specific types of communication and collaboration.

Establish a Culture of Creativity

One of the benefits of using a team to solve problems and achieve desired outcomes is to take advantage of divergent and innovative thinking. Building a team in which everyone thinks the same way and is more focused on maintaining the status quo makes no sense. In a previous article, I recommended, “Don’t Fix, Innovate.” The idea behind the title is that simply “fixing” the problem seldom leads to innovation. When we “fix” we just get everything back to the status quo. When we innovate, we look for new or different ways of doing things.

There you have it: fundamental principles for gathering a group of energized and competent people together to bring a vision to reality and accomplish an important project. Clarify the vision, get commitment from every team member, choose competent, qualified individuals, establish a team constitution, collaborate and communicate, and strive for innovation and creativity. These time-tested teambuilding principles will help you create an unstoppable team.

Oil Painting Techniques – Tips Help You Make Your Oil Painting Better

Oil painting techniques are important. They are necessary for anyone who wishes to make their oil painting a much more interesting piece to look at. Therefore, there is a need to look into the various techniques that can really help to make your oil painting much more interesting and beautiful.

These paintings are done with oil paints rather than water color and charcoal. It can be a difficult medium especially for those who are more used to using charcoal or watercolor for their paintings. There are different techniques that you would wish to take note of during oil painting.


Glazing is a technique you can use wherein the goal is to have the overall look of the painting a kind of luminous and smooth one. This can actually be done by placing in different layers of colors one at a time so as to create a different hue entirely.

You can do glazing by putting in a first layer into the canvas. Do this by using one big stroke to place a certain color into the canvas. Next, you will need to leave the canvas for a few minutes so as to let it dry. After that, you can put in the next color. You do this up until you get to have an absolutely different color.


Imasto is done by putting in color into the canvas by making heavy brush strokes and using heavy amounts of paint. In this technique, you goal would be to make these strokes visible in the canvas even after it has already been discharged up.

Toning Down The Canvas

It is important to tone down your canvas especially when it actually is too bright. Therefore, you will need a toning substance to do so. You can use the general toner that most painters use – the paint thinner. After you do so, it is important that you wipe off the excess thinner before starting off with the actual painting process.


Oil painting techniques are necessary indeed for oil painters to know. These techniques will help them be able to make their paintings much more beautiful and they can also help so as to make the paintings more interesting to look at. After all, it is the goal of every painter to be able to make an artwork that will specifically portray, not only his skill and talent but also, his emotions and thoughts.

Long Jump History – Ancient To Modern Olympics

Long jump history arches back thousands of years to the ancient Olympic Games in Greece. In those days it was a part of the pentathlon event, and this makes it one of the oldest track and field events and the oldest jumping event in athletics.

The original Olympics were a competition and training ground for warriors. The event was created and included in the Olympics because it was deemed important for warriors to be agile and able to avoid obstacles such as leaping across ditches or streams.

At first the athletes were required to carry a weight in each hand that was between 1 and 4.5 kilos while running. These were called halteres and they were used to gain momentum with when you were at the point of making the leap. The pit that was originally used was not filled with sand as it is today, but was merely a pit of tilled earth.

It is thought due to witness reports of the Olympics in Greece that the longjump was accompanied by music, which was used to give the athlete some rhythm into the jump while running with their weights. It was thought that the representations of long jump at Ancient Greece were in fact a triple jump, but it has been shown that the event was what we know as long jump.

When the modern Olympics were started in 1896, the winner of the first long jump gold medal was Ellery Clark who jumped 6.35 meters. Another milestone in the history of the event was the world record set in 1935 by Jesse Owens who jumped 8.13 meters. This record would stay in place for 25 years until it was broken in 1960. The current longjump world record is 8.95 meters in the men’s event and 7.52 meters in the women’s. The women’s record has been in place for more than 20 years.

Long jump history goes back thousands of years and today it is still a popular track and field event, which is popular for athletes of all ages.

Implied Licenses and Ownership of Intellectual Property Rights in the United Kingdom

In Robin Ray v Classic FM, the English High Court held that a contractor providing services owns the intellectual property in the materials created for the client. The decision is a useful guide to contractors as it is one of the leading cases in determining the whether a commissioner of intellectual property may use intellectual property for purposes not expressly contemplated by a written agreement.


Mr Ray was a highly respected expert in classical music in England, reputed to have an encyclopaedic knowledge of classical music. He was engaged by Classic FM in the United Kingdom in 1991 to compile the radio station’s repertoire, compile playlists, categorising tracks for play lists, and rate their popularity under each of the categories. The contract did not deal with intellectual property rights. The consultancy agreement was originally for 11 months, however the work of Mr Ray proved beneficial for Classic FM, and his services were extended until 1997. Some 50,000 tracks were eventually categorised. The results of the work were incorporated into a database that was used to select music on a rotational basis, and prevent overplaying.

The project was success. After internal use for about 5 years, Classic FM proposed to licence the database to overseas companies. Mr Ray objected and commenced proceedings to prevent Classic FM licensing the use outside the UK without his permission, on the basis that he was the author of documents that were incorporated into the database.

The Decision of the High Court

Mr Justice Lightman in the High Court ruled that in the case of a consultancy, the author retained the copyright in the absence of an express or implied term to the contrary effect. Where services by a consultant are performed for an express purpose, a court will readily imply a term into a contract for services that a client is entitled to use it for that purpose. In this case, Classic FM always intended to utilise the Mr Ray’s work in the UK. It was not until 1996 that Classic FM intended to exploit Mr Ray’s work overseas. The court was not prepared to imply a licence into the contract that Classic FM would be entitled to exploit his work overseas. Classic FM was prevented from exploiting their database abroad without the consent of Mr Ray, which would require payment of license fees.

When implying licences in this way, a court will only go so far as is necessary in the circumstances to give effect to the intention of the parties. If a grant of a licence is required, the ambit of the licence will be the minimum required to give effect to the intention of the parties at the time of the contract. An implied term that copyright would be assigned to a client will be exceptionally rare, as most often an exclusive licence will have the same effect in law.

The judge held that the contractor retains the copyright in default of some express or implied term to the contrary effect. The contract may expressly state which party is entitled to the copyright, and the mere fact that the contractor has been commissioned – performed by a contractor – is insufficient to grant rights in the copyright to the client. In the absence of express rights, the client is left to establish an entitlement under the express or implied term of the contract.


The decision means that contractors retain the copyright in the absence of an implied or express term. An implied licence must be reasonable and equitable; necessary to give business efficacy to the contract, capable of clear expression and not contrary to any express term of the contract, and so obvious that it goes without saying. Ownership of intellectual property rights and licenses to use the rights should not be left to chance; it is preferable to unwanted implied licenses which allow a client to use a work and and rather provide the stated purposes for whci use may be made at the outset of the engagement. Thus it is important to document the purposes of the engagement and the intended use for the copyright work created during the course of the engagement.

Canvas Painting Tips – How to Prime a Canvas

Beginner artists must learn how to prime a new canvas before even a drop of paint is applied. This process neutralizes the material’s natural tan hue so that it does not undesirably alter the overall coloring of the final painting. Priming also serves to create an even look to the final painting by making the surface smooth and non-porous. Here are simple instructions and tips for learning how to prime a canvas.

The Materials and Tools Needed For Priming a Canvas

1. Gesso – is a thick white liquid canvas primer that can be found at art supply stores. While there are other primers that are clear or color tinted, the white variety of Gesso, as described in this article, is the most common.

2. Paint Stirrer – used to thoroughly mix water or some other thinning agent with Gesso.

3. Plastic Container – this needs to be large enough to allow room to add a thinning agent if desired.

4. Gesso Application Brush – this brush has nylon bristles that can be easily washed with soap and water when finished.

5. Thinning agent and water are used to make the Gesso spread more easily and produce a smoother surface than would be possible using it straight out of the bottle.

6. Fine Sandpaper and a soft cloth – this is to be used to sand a dry, hardened layer of primer on the canvas before applying the next layer. The dampened soft cloth is used to remove the sanding dust before applying another layer of primer.

Instructions For Priming a Canvas

Tip: It is important to note that the Gesso formula commonly used today behaves in a similar way to fast drying water soluble acrylic paint. When Gesso dries it is no longer water soluble. This means that you need to keep your brush damp with water to prevent the primer from sticking to the brush as it dries. Also do not dump excess primer down the sink drain because when it dries in the trap it can produce a serious clog. Paint fast and clean your brush immediately after and you should not have much trouble.

Dilute the Gesso – For a relatively rough texture apply only one coat of undiluted Gesso right out of the bottle. For a smoother finish apply two thin coats of slightly diluted primer to the canvas.

Water is usually used to thin the primer. The ideal ratio of Gesso to water mix should be indicated on the bottle label. Too much water can cause the primer to crack on the canvas when dry. It is possible to use a 3-way mixture of water, Gesso and a special medium that prevents cracking. Ask at a local art store for recommendations.

Tip: To prevent contamination, never dilute the Gesso in its original bottle or pour unused primer back in the bottle. For the same reason do not dip the paint brush directly into the Gesso factory container. Instead pour only what you will need for one canvas into a separate plastic mixing container. Throw away what you do not use instead of returning it to the bottle.

Brush Pattern: The first coat should be painted with left to right parallel brush strokes. The second coat should be brushed from top to bottom.

Sand after the first coat: sand the canvas with very fine sandpaper after the first coat of Gesso has dried for an hour or so. This is then followed by wiping off the fine sanding dust with a slightly damp soft cloth before applying the next coat.

Drying Time: Depending on the humidity levels in the studio, let the first coat dry at least an hour or two. The second or final coat should be allowed to dry for 24 hours before beginning the painting. Always let the canvas dry while laying flat to prevent the wet Gesso from running.

Preparing a canvas to last for many years requires special priming techniques like adding a dilute formaldehyde solution to the back of the canvas to prevent bacterial decay. It is interesting to note that some of the old Masters would actually let a primed canvas stabilize for 6 months to a year before adding paint. However, these advanced techniques for learning to prime a new canvas are beyond the scope of this article.

What Kinds of Portable Electric Heaters Are Out There? A Halogen Heater is a Great Choice!

While many heaters are portable in this day and age, few offer cost and energy savings. There are many options out on the market today for Portable Electric Heaters that work well in different situations, and today we are going to look into a few of them, including the newest one of the bunch, a halogen heater.

First of all, the heater that most people are very familiar with, is the conventional ceramic convection heater. These heaters are by far the most commonly used in America. Ceramic convection heaters excel in heating of very small rooms, because they heat the air in the room. This has a negative effect on the efficiency of heating a large room however, because the volume of air is greater. While ceramic heaters are cheap, they are also extreme firehazards. Over half of this winter’s accidental fires in homes will be caused by ceramic heaters.

Another option is a relatively new option in either infrared, quartz, or halogen heater. The terms infrared, quartz, and halogen generally refer to the same concept, and can be basically used interchangeably. The only difference between the three is the gas used in the bulbs of the heater. While these heaters are not effective in heating rooms that are empty, they excel in heating areas that have people in them. This is because the rays that are created when electricity travels through the quartz heater bulb directly interact with your skin to provide warmth. This is why a halogen heater, or a infrared, whichever you prefer, is an excellent instant heat option.